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Name ♥ Mathiarasi Bernabas ♥

Class ♥ 4 Amanah♥

♥ Manufactured Substances in Industry ♥

Content Page
(A) Sulphuric acid
 Manufacture of sulphuric acid 1–3
 Properties of sulphuric acid 4
 The uses of sulphuric acid 5–7
 Sulphur dioxide and environmental pollution 8–9
(B) Ammonia and its salt
 Manufacture of ammonia 10 – 11
 Properties of ammonia 12
 The uses and preparation of ammonia 13
(C) Alloys
 Arrangement of atoms in metals 14
 What are alloys? 15
 Composition,properties and uses of alloys 16
(D) Synthetic polymers
 What are polymers? 17
 Properties of polymers 18
 Monomer in synthetic polymer 19
 Example and uses of synthetic polymers 20
(E) Glass and ceramics
Glass-Component and properties of glass 21
 Example and uses of glass 22
Ceramics-Component and properties of ceramics 23
 Example and uses of ceramics 24
(F) Composite materials
 What are composite materials 25
 Example and their uses 26
Conclusion of topic 27
Acknowledgement 28
References 29

(A) Sulphuric acid
Manufacture of sulphuric acid

 Contact process produces more than 90% of the world sulphuric acid.

 Raw materials used for the manufacture of sulphuric acid :-

(i) sulphur
(ii) air
(iii) water.

 Contact process consists of 3 stages:

~ Production of sulphur dioxide

~ Conversion of sulphur dioxide is sulphur trioxide.
~ Production of sulphuric acid

Stage I: Production of sulphur dioxide

(a)Sulphur is burnt in air to produce sulphur dioxide.

S(s) + O2(g)  SO2(g)

(b)Burning of metal sulphides such as zinc sulphide and lead sulphide also produces sulphur
2ZnS(s) + 3O2(g)  2SO2(g) + 2ZnO(s)
2PbS(s) + 3O2(g)  2SO2(g) + 2PbO(s)

(c)The sulphur dioxide is then mixed with excess air.The mixture is dried and purified to remove
impurities such as arsenic compounds.

(d)Arsenic compounds found in sulphur will poison the catalyst in the converter, making the
catalyst ineffective.

Stage II: Conversion of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide

(a)The mixture of sulphur dioxide and excess oxygen is passed through a converter.The sulphur
dioxide is oxidised to sulphur trioxide.

2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)

(b)Optimum conditions used are as follows.

(i) Temperature : 450°C
(ii) Pressure : 1 atmosphere
(iii) Catalyst : Vanadium(V) oxide,V2O5

(c)About 97% conversion occurs under these optimum conditions.

Stage III : Production of sulphuric acid

(a) The sulphur trioxide is first dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid to form a product
called oleum, H2S2O7
SO3(g) + H2SO4(aq)  H2S2O7(l)

(b) Sulphur trioxide is not dissolved in water to form sulphuric acid.This is because reaction
between sulphur trioxide and water is very vigorous and produces a large amount of
heat.The reaction causes the production of a large cloud of sulphuric acid mist.The mist is
corrosive, pollutes the air and is difficult to condense.

(c) The oleum is then diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid of about
H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l)  2H2SO4(aq)

Flow chart of Contact process.


burns in air
Sulphur dioxide, SO2

O2V2O5,450°C, 1 atm
Sulphur trioxide, SO3

concentrated H2SO4

Sulphuric acid, H2SO4

Figure 1 : The manufacture of sulphuric acid through the Contact process


Sulphur dioxide,SO2
Sulphuric acid, H2SO4 Oleum, H2S2O7
The manufacture of sulphuric acid, H2SO4 in the Contact Process

Formula: Molar
Oily H2SO4 mass
liquid 98 g mol-1

Highly point
corrosive 10oC

Non- Properties point
volatile of
acid sulphuric


1.83g cm-3
Soluble in

Uses of sulphuric acid

Sulphuric acid is used as:

to manufacture fertilisers

to manufacture paint pigment

to manufacture detergents

to manufacture synthetic fibre

to clean metals

to manufacture plastics

as an electrolyte in car batteries

to manufacture other chemicals

There are many fertilizers that can be made of sulphuric acid. Some of them are:
a) Calcium hydrogen phosphate (superphosphate)
2 H2SO4(aq) + Ca3(PO4) 2 (s) → Ca(H2 PO4) 2 (aq)+ 2CaSO4 (s)

sulphuric acid + tricalcium phosphate → calcium hydrogen phosphate

b) Ammonium sulphate

(aq) +2NH3(aq) → (NH4) 2 SO4(aq)

sulphuric acid + aqueous ammonia → ammonium sulphate

c) Potassium sulphate
(aq) +2KOH (aq) → K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)

sulphuric acid + potassium hydroxide solution→ Potassium sulphate
1) To manufacture paint pigments
The white pigment in paint is usually barium sulphate, BaSO4. The neutralization of
sulphuric acid and barium hydroxide produces barium sulphate.
(aq) + Ba(OH)2 (aq) → BaSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)

sulphuric acid + barium hydroxide solution→ Barium sulphate + water

2) To manufacture detergents
Sulphuric acid reacts with by-products of oil refining to form sulphonic acid.
Neutralising the sulphonic acid with an alkali produces detergents.

3) To manufacture synthetic fibres

Synthetic fibres are polymers ( long chain molecules). Rayon is an example of a synthetic
fibre that is produced by the reaction of sulphuric acid eith cellulose threads soaked in
alkaline solution.

4) Cleaning metals
Before electroplating,sulphuric acid is used for cleaning metals to remove the surface

5) Other chemicals
Sulphuric acid is used as other chemicals like pharmaceuticals,insectides, tartaric acid
and explosive.

6) The uses of sulphuric acid in school laboratories are:

a. As a strong acid
b. As a drying or dehydrating agent
c. As an oxidizing agent
d. As a sulphonating agent
e. As a catalyst

Manufacture of car batteries Manufacture of detergents Manufacture of fertilisers

Manufacture of paints Manufacture of plastic items Manufacture of pesticides



Paint pigment




Figure 2 : Uses of sulphuric acid

Sulphur dioxide and environmental pollution

1) Sulphur dioxide is released through:-

(a) Burning of sulphur during Contact process

(b) Extraction of some metals from their sulphides ores
(c) Burning of coals or fuels with high sulphur content

2) Acid rain occurs when there is sulphurous acid,sulphuric acid and nitric acid in the rain.
These strong acids will cause the pH of rain to fall between 2.4 and 5.0

3) Sulphur dioxide accounts for most of the acid rain problems.

(a) When sulphur dioxide dissolves in rainwater,sulphurous acid is formed
SO2(g) + H2O (l)  H2SO3(aq)
(b) Sulphur dioxide can react with oxygen and water to form sulphuric acid
2SO2(g) + O2(g) + 2H2O(l)  2H2SO4(aq)
Ways to control and reduce the effects of acid rain:

 Use low-sulphur fuels

 Add calcium oxide(lime), CaO; calcium hydroxide,Ca(OH)2 and powdered llimestone
CaCO3 into the acidic lake or river to neutralize the acids present

CaO(s) + 2H (aq)  Ca (aq) +H2O(l)

Ca(OH)2(s) + 2H (aq)  Ca (aq) + 2H2O(l)
CaCO3(s) + 2H (aq)  Ca (aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

Environmental problems cause by acid rain

corrodes buildings,monuments and statues

calcium carbonate in the marble reacts with H2SO4
from the rain to form calcium sulphate.
CaCO3(s) + H2SO4(aq)  CaSO4(s) + CO2(g) +

corrodes metallic structure

The iron from the steel bridges reacts with sulphuric
acid to form iron(II) sulphate.
Fe(s) + H2SO4(aq)  FeSO4(aq) + H2(g)

increase the acidity of water

Acid rain disturbs the ecosystem
Fish and other aquatic organisms which cannot live in
acidic water may die.

increase the acidity of the soil

plants cannot grow well in acidic soil
reaction of sulphuric acid with aluminium compounds
in the soil forms aluminium sulphate which can
damage the roots of trees.

leaches minerals and nutrients in the soil.

acid react with minerals in the soil to form double
dissolved salts carried by the rainwater to river.
plants lack of essential nutrients for growth.

(B) Ammonia and its salts
Manufacture of ammonia in industry

 Ammonia is manufactured in industries through Haber process.

 Raw materials for the Haber process are


 Nitrogen gas is obtained from the fractional distillation of liquid air.

 Hydrogen gas is obtained by:

(i)Reaction between methane from natural gas and steam
CH4(g) + 2H2O(l)  4H2(g) + CO2(g)
(ii)The reaction between heated coke and steam
C(s) + H2O(l)  H2(g) + CO(g)

The manufacture of ammonia,NH3 through the Haber Process.

 Nitrogen and hydrogen are mixed according to the ratio 1 mole N2 : 3 moles H2.

 The mixture is compressed to 200 atm and heated to a temperature of about 450°C

 The mixture is then passed through layers of heated iron catalyst in a reactor.Ammonia is
N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)
The reaction is reversible and the production of ammonia gives out heat.The high pressure
and iron catalyst speed up the rate of reaction.

 The ammonia gas produced is liquefied ans separated to get a better yield.

 The unreacted nitrogen and hydrogen are recycled and passed back into the reactor together
with the new source of nitrogen and hydrogen.About 98% of nitrogen and hydrogen are
converted into ammonia.

Ammonium fertilisers

 Plants need nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium to grow.

 Nitrogen-make proteins in stalks and leaves

 Nitrogen is absorbed by plants in the form of soluble nitrate ions, NO3-

 Ammonium fertilisers contain ammonium ions.In the soil, the ammonium ions are converted
to nitrate ions by bacteria

 Examples of ammonium fertilisers:

(a) Ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3

(b) Ammonium sulphate, (NH4)2SO4
(c) Ammonium phosphate, (NH4)2HPO4
(d) Urea,CO(NH2)2

 Fertilisers that contain a high percentage of nitrogen are more effective.

 Ammonium fertilisers can be prepared by reactions between ammonia solution and acids.

Properties of ammonia

colourless gas

alkaline gas pungent smell

properties of

very soluble in less dense than

water air

 Chemical reaction of ammonia:
(a) Reacting as a base
Ammonia ionises partially in water and therefore is a weak base.

NH3(g) + H2O(l) NH4 (aq) + OH (aq)

Ammonia undergoes neutralisation with acids to form ammonium salts.

Ammonia + acid  ammonium salt

(b) Reacting with aqueous metal ions

Ammonia solution can precipitate some metal hydroxides from their aqueous salt
solutions.The metal ions combine with the hydroxide ions from aqueous ammonia to
produce insoluble metal hydroxides : Mn (aq) + nOH (aq)  M(OH)n(s)

Uses of ammonia

 To make fertilisers
- provide plants the nitrogen they need to grow
- these fertilisers are ammonium salts obtained from the neutralization of ammonia with
different acids. Examples:
(a) Ammonium phosphate
- reaction of ammonia with phosphoric acid produces ammonium phosphates
NH3(aq) + H3PO(aq)  NH4H2PO4(aq)
2 NH3(aq) + H3PO(aq)  (NH4)2HPO4(aq)
- good fertilisers because they provide two important nutrients,phosphorus and

(b) Ammonium nitrate

- ammonia is neutralised by nitric acid,ammonium nitrate is formed
NH3(aq) + HNO3(aq)  NH4NO3(aq)

(c) Ammonium sulphate

- ammonia is neutralised by sulphuric acid
2NH3(aq) + H2SO4(aq)  (NH4)2SO4(aq)

(d) Urea
- At a temperature of 200°C and a high pressure of 200 atm, ammonia reacts with
carbon dioxide to produce urea.
2NH3(g) + CO2(g)  CO(NH2)2(s) + H2O(l)
- used as a raw material for the manufacture of nitric acid in the Ostwad process.
- Liquid ammonia used as cooling agent
- used as an alkali to prevent the coagulation of latex
- Ammonia salts is used as smelling salts to revive people who have fainted

Preparation of ammonia
The chief commercial method of producing ammonia is by the Haber-Bosch process, which
involves the direct reaction of elemental hydrogen and elemental nitrogen.N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3
This reaction requires the use of a catalyst, high pressure (100–1,000 atmospheres), and elevated
temperature (400–550 °C [750–1020 °F]). Actually, the equilibrium between the elements and
ammonia favours the formation of ammonia at low temperature, but high temperature is required
to achieve a satisfactory rate of ammonia formation. Several different catalysts can be utilized.
Normally the catalyst is iron containing iron oxide. However, both magnesium oxide on
aluminum oxide that has been activated by alkali metal oxides and ruthenium on carbon have
been employed as catalysts. In the laboratory, ammonia is best synthesized by the hydrolysis of a
metal nitride.Mg3N2 + 6H2O → 2NH3 + 3Mg(OH)2

(C) Alloys
Arrangement of atoms in metals

Pure metals

High density

High melting
& boiling
properties of
pure metals

conductors of
heat and

 Pure metal is made up of one type of atoms,thus all atoms are of the same size.
In solid state ,the atoms in a pure metal are orderly arranged
and closely packed together.Thus,pure metals have high

 Although the forces of attraction between the metal atoms are strong,they are not
rigid.Therefore when a force is applied,the layers of atoms can slide over one another.Thus
metals are ductile or can be stretched.


Layers of atoms slide over one another

Figure 3 : Metals are ductile

 The arrangement of atoms in pure metals are not perfect.There are some empty spaces in
between the atoms.When a metal is knocked or pressed,groups of atoms may slide and then
settle into new position.So,metals are malleable.


Figure 4 : Metals are malleable

 Pure metals are weak and soft due to their ductility and malleability

What are alloys?

 An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which the
major component is a metal.

 Pure metals are normally soft and easily oxidised.This is the reason why monuments or
statues are made of bronze(an alloy) and not copper(a pure metal).

 Alloy are stronger,harder,resistant to corrosion,have a better finish and lustrous.

Why make alloys?

The aim of making alloy is:
(a) to increase the strength and hardness of a pure metal
(b) to increase the resistance to corrosion of a pure metal
(c) to improve the appearance of a pure metal

Figure 5 : Making alloy

Composition, properties and uses of alloys

Alloy Composition Properties Uses

Bronze 90% copper, Hard,strong,does not corrode Medals,statues,monuments,art
10% tin easily,shiny surface objects
Brass 70% copper Harder than copper Musical instruments,
30% zinc kitchenware, door knobs,bullet
cases,electric parts,ornaments
Cupro-nickel 75% copper Beautifulsurface,shiny, Coins
25% nickel hard,does not corrode easily
Steel 99% iron Hard,strong Buildings,bridges,body of cars,
1% carbon railway tracks
Stainless steel 74% iron, Shiny,strong,does not rust Cutlery,surgical
8% carbon instruments,sinks,
18%chronium pipes
Duralumin 93%aluminium Light,strong Body of aircraft and bullet trains
3% copper
Pewter 96% tin Shiny, strong,does not Art objects,souvenirs
3% copper corrode
1% antimony
9-carat gold 37.5% gold Shiny, strong,does not Jewellery
11% silver corrode
51.5 % copper

(D) Synthetic Polymer
What are polymers?

 Polymers are large long-chain molecules formed by joining together many identical repeating
sub-units called monomers.

 Polymerisation is a process by which the monomers are joined together into chain-like
molecule called polymer.

Formation of polymer

 Polymers can be divided into 2 types.


Natural Polymers Synthetic Polymers

Exist in living things in nature They are man-made in laboratory through
Ex:Protein,cellulose,wool,silk, chemical processes.
starch,natural rubber & DNA Ex: Plastics, nylon

Natural Polymers
Rubber Isoprene
Cellulose Glucose
Starch Glucose
Protein Amino acid
Fat Fatty acid and glycerol

Nucleic acid Nucleotides
Examples of natural polymers and their monomers

i) Natural polymers and their uses


Rubber Tyres, eraser, condom, electric insulation, elastic bands
and belts.
Cellulose Paper, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and explosives
Starch To stiffen cloth (as in laundering), used in cooking to
thicken foods, manufactured of adhesives, paper, textiles
and as a mold in the manufacture of sweets.
Protein Essential in the diet of animals for the growth and repair
of tissue,
Fat Maintaining healthy skin and hair, insulating body organs
against shock, promoting healthy cell function and serve
as energy stores for the body

Synthetic Polymer

 Synthetic polymers are prepared through 2 types of polymerisation processes:

(a)Addition polymerisation
(b)Condensation polymerisation

 Addition polymerisation
- involves monomers with double bonds between the carbon atoms.
- During addition polymerisation, the double bonds between pairs of carbon atoms break
and the carbon atoms pf adjacent ethene molecules join together to form a molecule of
poly or polythene.

 Condensation polymerisation
- involves the joining up of monomers with the formation of other smaller and simple


 Plastics are the largest group of synthethic polymers with the following properties:
(a)Can be easily moulded

(b)Low density
(d)Inert to chemicals
(e)Insulator of heat and electricity
(f)Can be coloured

Name of polymer Equation for Properties Uses

Polyethylene H H H H Durable,light,impermeable, Shopping bags,
(polythene)   Inert to chemicals,easily Plastic cups and
n C=C C–C melted,insulator plates,toys
 
H H H H n
Ethene Polythene
Polypropylene H CH3 H CH3 Durable,light,impermeable, Bottles,furniture,
(polypropene)   Inert to chemicals,easily battery casing,
n C=C C–C melted,insulator,can be pipes,toys
  moulded and coloured
Propene Polypropene
Teflon F F F F Durable,non-stick, Coating for non-
  Chemically inert,strong, stick pans,
n C=C C–C impermeable electrical
  insulators
F F F F n
Tetrafluo- Teflon

Synthetic fibre

 Synthetic fibre are long-chain polymers which are not easily stretched and have high

 Polynamides and polyester are two groups of synthetic polymers used as fibres for making

 Example of polynamide polymers is nylon.

 Example of polyester polymers is terylene.

 Nylon and terylene are produced through condensation polymerisation.


Polythene a) Make buckets
b) Make plastic bags
c) Make raincoats
d) Make films
e) Make rubbish bins
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) a) Make water pipes
b) Make electric cables
c) Make mats
d) Make vinyl records
e) Make clothes hangers
Polypropene a) Make ropes
b) Make bottles
c) Make chairs
d) Make drink cans
e) Make carpets
Perspex a) Make car windows
b) Make plane windows
c) Make spectacle lenses (optical instruments)
Nylon a) Make ropes
b) Make curtains
c) Make stockings
d) Make clothes
Polystyrene a) Make packing boxes
b) Make buttons

c) Make noticeboards
Terylene a) Make textile items such as clothes and cloths

 Disposal of synthetic polymers has caused environmental pollution problems:

(a) Synthetic polymers are not easily biodegradable,thus their waste will block or clog up the
drainage system,thereby causing flash flood.

(b) Waste plastics pollute the lake and river,making the water not suitable for aquatic
organisms to live in

 Ways to solve the problems caused by the use of synthetic polymers:

(a) Reuse
(b) Recycle
(c) Use biodegradable synthetic polymer
(d) Dispose of unwanted synthetic polymers in a proper manner.

(E) Glass and ceramics


 The major component of glass is silica or silicon dioxide,SiO2 which can be found in sand.

 Glass can made by heating a mixture of silicon dioxide and metal carbonates to a temperature
above 1500°C.

Figure 6 : Structure of silicon dioxide


Chemically Hard but

inert brittle

properties of

Electrical Impermeable
insulator to liquid

Heat insulator

Type of glass Composition Properties Uses

Fused glass  Silicon dioxide  High melting  Laboratory
point glassware
 High temperature  Arc tubes in
and chemical lamps
durability  Lenses
 Resistant to  Telescope mirrors
thermal shock  Optical fibres
 transparent to
ultraviolet and
infrared light
Soda-lime glass  silicon dioxide  Low melting  Containers such
 Sodium oxide point as bottles,jars.

 Calcium oxide  High thermal  Flat glass
expansion  Windowpanes
coefficient  Mirrors
 Does not  Light bulbs
withstand heat  Industrial and art
 Cracks easily with objects.
sudden change in
 Good chemical
 Easy to mould
and shape
 Transparent to
visible light
Borosilicate glass  Silicon dioxide  Transparent to  Cookware
 Boron oxide visible light  Laboratory
 Sodium oxide  resistant to glassware
 Calcium oxide chemicals  Automobile
 Lower thermal headlights
expansion  glass pipelines
coefficient  Electrical tubes
 Resistant to
thermal shock
 Can withstand
wide range of
Lead crystal glass  Silicon dioxide  Soft,easy to melt  Tableware
 Lead(II) oxide  Transparent to  Art objects
 Sodium oxide visible light  Crystals
 High density  Prisms
 High reactive  Lenses


 Ceramics are made from clay such as kaolin.Kaolin is rich in kaolinite(hydrated


 Examples of ceramics are bricks,tile,mugs and clay pots.

Very hard and

compression Brittle

Properties of

Very high inert and does
melting point not corrode

Good insulator
of electricity
and heat

Property Uses Examples
Hard and strong Building materials Tiles,bricks,roofs,cement,
abrasive for grinding
Attractive,easily moulded and Decorative pieces and Vases,porcelain ware,sinks,
glazed household items bathtubs
Chemically inert and non- Kitchenware Cooking pots,plates,bowls
Very high melting point and Insulation Lining of furnace, engine
good insulator of heat parts
Electrical insulators Insulating parts in electrical Spark plugs,insulators in
appliances ovens and electrical cables
Inert and non-compressible Medical and dental apparatus Artificial teeth and bones

Hard and do
not bend

Do not strong under

corrode compression

properties of
glass and
Inert to ceramics

Good heat electrical
insulators insulators

 3 main differences between glass and ceramic:

 Glass can be heated until molten repeatedly but not ceramics
 Glass is usually transparent whereas ceramics are not
 Glass has a lower melting point than ceramics.

`(F) Composite materials
 A composite material is a structural material that is formed by combining two or more
different materials such as metals,alloys,glass,ceramics and polymers.

 Some common composite materials are:

a. Reinforced concrete
b. Superconductor
c. Fibre optic
d. Fibre glass
e. Photochromic glass

Reinforced concrete

 Reinforced concrete is formed when concrete is reinforced with steel wire netting or steel

 Essential for the construction of large structures like high-rise buildings,bridges and oil

 Has a greater strength than ordinary concrete and has higher resistance to impact.


 capable of conducting electricity without any electrical resistance when they are cooled to an
extremely low temperature.

 most of them are alloys of metal compounds or ceramics of metal oxides

 Superconductors also used in :

(a) magnetic energy-storage system
(b) magnetically levitated train
(c) generators
(d) transformers
(e) computer parts
(f) very sensitive devices for measuring magnetic fields, voltage or current.

Fibre Optic

 consists of a bundle of glass or plastic threads that are surrounded by a glass cladding.

 used to replace copper wire in long distance telephones lines,in mobile phones,video cameras
and to link computers within local area networks.

 used in instruments for examining internal parts of the body or inspecting the interior of
manufactured structural products.

Fibre glass

 produced when glass fibres are embedded in plastic resins to produce glass fibre reinforced

 has high tensile strength,can be easily coloured,moulded and shaped,inert to chemicals and is
low in density.

Photochromic glass

 changes from transparent to coloured when it is exposed to ultraviolet light, and reverts to
transparency when the light is dimmed or blocked.

 can be produced by embedding photochromic substances like fine silver chloride.

 photochromic glass helps to:

(a) protect our eyes from harmful ultraviolet rays and glare from the sun
(b) control the amount of light that passes through it automatically
(c) reduce refraction of light

Sulphuric Acid Manufactured by Haber
Manufactured by Contact process Synthetic Polymer
Manufactured by process
Temperature:450°C Temperature:450°C
Pressure: 1 atm polymerization.
Examples and uses: Pressure: 200 atm
Catalyst : V2O5 Catalyst : Fe
Uses:To make Polyethylene:Shopping bags
Polyvinyl chloride:Pipes Uses:To make fertilizers,
fertilizers,detergents, nitric acid,cooling agent,
electrolyte, and synthetic fibre polystyrene:Packaging
materials explosives
Made from sand,SiO2
Types & uses:
Fused glass:Lenses
Soda-lime glass:mirror Ceramic
Borosilicate glass:Beaker Manufactured Substances in Made from clay,
Lead crystal glass: Glass Industry kaolinite,Al2O3.2SiO2.
crystals 2H2O
Properties and uses:
Hard & strong:Tiles,
Composite materials
Alloys sinks
Made by combining two or more
Made from metal and Non-corrosive:
other elements.Examples Kitchenware
Reinforce concrete
and composition: High melting point:
Bronze:Copper & tin Furnace
Fibre optic
Brass:Copper & zinc Inert: Medical &
Steel:Iron & carbon dental apparatus
Photochromic glass
Pewter:Tin,Copper &
Stainless Steel:
Iron,carbon &

First of all,I would like to thank the God for giving me blessings to complete this
folio just in time.Even I faced a lot of difficulties when doing this project,I managed to
overcome it by the God’s blessing .

Then, thanks to my chemistry teacher Mrs.Ng Phek Lan for being such a good
guider while doing this project.She had given us appropriate information about this
project in order to make us understand more about this project.

Also a great thanks to my friends and family members who tried their best to give
their support for me, either by giving me a lot of encouragement while doing this project
or helping me to gather the data required for the project.


 Eng Nguan Hong,Lim Eng Wah,Lim Yean Ching., 2009. Focus Ace SPM Chemistry.,
Penerbitan Pelnagi Sdn. Bhd., (page 261 – 287)