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Lamination Continuous

AK Steel Middletown Works

A lamination is a defect that originates at the continuous
A lamination is caused when non-metallic inclusions become
entrapped in the molten steel and remain there during
When the slab is subsequently rolled into a thin sheet, these
inclusions are close to the surface and covered by only a thin
layer of steel which can open to the surface.
The entrapped inclusions can be either oxides formed during
the casting process or mold powder used on the surface of
the molten steel.

Practices are in place to reduce the formation of these oxides
and to reduce turbulence so that they do not get carried into
the bulk of the molten steel.
Many variables are monitored at the caster to reduce the
formation and entrapment of these oxides:

Mold level
Tundish Temperature
Tundish Level
Gas Pressure

Caster Layout

MW Lamination Loss Rate

Continuous Improvement Actions

Trialing Step Tundish design (ECD 03/31/15)
Step design improves heat distribution though out the tundish

Trialing GR185 X mold powder as possible replacement for

current mold powder (ECD 03/31/15)
Initial trials showed reduced lamination losses

Trialing Vesuvius reoxidation reduction spray lining in the

tundish (ECD 03/31/15)
Lower oxidation levels will lead to less oxide inclusions