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INTRODUCTION:

In the preceding Book Carlyle has been talking of the twelfth century i.e. the Past. In this
Book he talks of the Present and its most outstanding fact, namely the Modern Worker or
the rise of Labour.

CHAPTER # 1: PHENOMENA

THEME: True religion is gone; true Christianity is dead and universal heroism lies in
grave. The social order is impossible without religion because justice and honesty of an
individual do not arise from socio-economic order but from religion.

CHAPTER # 2: GOSPEL OF MAMMONISM

THEME: Modern society is held together by only one bond – cash payment.

CHAPTER # 3: GOSPEL OF DILETTANTISM

THEME: The gospel of Dilettantism is more hopeless than that of Mammonism.


Insincere, lazy and canting aristocrats have no earnestness about them at all.

CHAPTER # 4: HAPPY

THEME: Men are wrong in claiming to be happy, that is not their destiny; they can only
claim the blessedness of work.

CHAPTER # 5: THE ENGLISH

THEME: Of all the nations, the English are the stupidest in speech, the wisest in action.
In their unconsciousness lies their strength.

CHAPTER # 6: TWO CENTURIES

THEME: The one voice of GOD heard in the two atheistic centuries is the practical
labour and it must become a seeing rational giant.

CHAPTER # 7: OVER-PRODUCTION

THEME: The over-production is the result of over-work by the labourers. Wealth is


accumulated in few hands. The whole benefit goes to the parasitic Landowners who do
not produce anything.

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CHAPTER # 8: UNWORKING ARISTOCRACY

THEME: The Unworking aristocracy, parasitic and pampered race, must find its duties
and do them; otherwise it will have to be abolished.

CHAPTER # 9: WORKING ARISTOCRACY

THEME: The working Aristocrats of England is in a bad position now, mainly because
it is given to Mammon worship. It must take its stand upon honest work.

CHAPTER # 10: PLUGSON OF UNDERSHOT

THEME: Commercialism or love of money makes a man insensible to his moral


responsibilities. He cares only for legal responsibilities.

CHAPTER # 11: LABOUR

THEME: There is a perennial nobleness and even sacredness in work. The old Gospels
of “know thyself” are exploded, now the latest Gospel is “know thy work and do it”.
Man’s true blessedness is in work.

CHAPTER # 12: REWARD

THEME: Work is worship. The worker’s true wages can be paid only in Heaven. Money
wages can not compensate work.

CHAPTER # 13: DEMOCRACY

THEME: Democracy is really something equivalent to Atheism, for it despairs of


finding Heroes. It is only liberty to die by starvation.

CHAPTER # 14: SIR JABESH WINDBAG

THEME: A true governor is the one who gives priority to the service of public rather
than to get fame.

CHAPTER # 15: MORRISON AGAIN

THEME: England has become atheistic and irreligious. Religion is no Morrison’s Pill to
be gulped down. Rituals and liturgies do not make religion. Religion in its true sense is a
belief in unseen powers.