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1-Describe oral cavity in terms of its parts and it lining mucosa.

The vestibule of the mouth: is a narrow space between the inner


surface of the lips and cheeks and the outer aspects of the gums
and teeth.
The mouth cavity: is the site of ingestion, fragmentation and
moistening and digestionof food.
The oral mucosa:

a)
Non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium:
covers the soft palate, inner aspect of the lip, cheeks and floor of
the mouth.On gums, dorsal surface of the tongue, and hard palate
it is keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

b)
Lamina propria: formed of dense collagenous tissue
containing minor salivary glands, blood and lymphatic capillaries
and sensory nerves. It has papillae .

2-Name the predominant tissue in the lip and


Differentiate between outer and inner surface of
lip.
Orbicularis oris skeletal muscle arranged circumoral mixed
with dense fibroelastic CT.
Outer surface

Inner surface

is covered by hairy skin with is covered by oral mucosa.


hair follicles, sebaceous and Epithelium:Non-keratinized
sweat glands.
stratified squamous epithelium
The submucosa contains tubuloacinar labial glands, which are
predominantly mucous with
occasional serous acini.

3-Describe Vermilion.
is free edge of the lip.
It is a transition zone between the epidermis of the skin
and the epithelium of the oral mucosa.
It is a hairless very thin skin with deep papillae.
Its epidermis is transparent so that it shows the red color
of the blood capillaries present in the dermis, giving the lip
its characteristic red color.
highly sensitive due to its rich sensory innervation.
No sebaceous, no sweat glands
it requires continuous moistening by saliva to prevent
cracking.

4-Mention the type , site and functions of the


following glands.
Labial glands.
Buccal glands.
Labial glands: mucoserous,branched tubulo
acinar in lamina propria of oral mucosa of lip.
Buccl glands: mucoserous,branched tubulo acinar
in lamina propria of oral mucosa of cheeks.
Both secrete saliva.

5-What is the predominant tissue in the tongue mention its


adaptations for functions.
interlacing bundles of striated muscles arranged vertically,
horizontally and longitudinally and intersecting at right angles.
Adaptations:
1. Arrangement of the muscle fibres ensures a higher degree of
mobility essential for mastication, phonation and swallowing.
2. Papillae on upper surface.surface area
3. Taste buds..taste
4. Glands (Lingual,Von Ebner,mucous and mixed glands).saliva
5. Upper surface is firmly attached to underlying CT..protection
6. Partially keratinized papillae protection.

6-Differentiate between Dorsal and ventral


surfaces of tongue.
Dorsal

Ventral

rough

Smooth

Firmly adherent

Loosely adherent

Papilla on anterior 2/3

Absent

Lingual tonsil on posterior1/3

Absent

Partially Keratinized stratified


squamous.Keratin is over
filiform papillae.

Non keratinized.

Papillated lamina propria.

not papillated

7-Describe glands in the tongue in terms of type,site and


functions.
1.
The lingual glands: they are mixed
seromucous glands. Their ducts are three or four
ducts opening on the ventral side of the tip of
the tongue.
2.
von Ebners glands: they are pure serous
glands. Their ducts open in the sulcus (valley)
between the circumvallate papillae.
3.
Small mucous and mixed glands: found in
the dorsum of the tongue.
Functions:All are salivary glands

8-Describe the glands that open on the


dorsum of the tongue.
1. von Ebners glands: they are pure
serous glands. Their ducts open in the
sulcus (valley) between the circumvallate
papillae.
2. Small mucous and mixed glands:
found in the dorsum of the tongue.

9-Describe the glands that open on the ventral


side of the tongue.
The lingual glands:
they are mixed seromucous glands.
Present in the ventral portion of muscles.
Their ducts are three or four ducts opening on
the ventral side of the tip of the tongue.

10-Name the four types of lingual papillae and


compare them in terms of shape, site,covering
epithelium and relative abundance.

Filiform papillae

Fungiform papillae

Circumvallate
papillae

Foliate papillae

Conical,
slightly curved

mushrooms (they have


a narrow stalk and a
smooth-surfaced,
dilated upper part).

Each is surrounded by a They consist of two or


circular furrow or sulcus more parallel ridges and
(valley).
furrows

anterior two-thirds of
the dorsum of the
tongue.

irregularly scattered
among the filiform
papillae.

distributed in the Vshaped region in front


of the sulcus terminalis.

dorso-lateral surface of
the tongue.

Keratinized st sq.epith.

Non keratinized

Non keratinized

Non keratinized

Most numerous

Less numerous

Least numerous
6-14

They are poorly


developed in humans,
but are well developed
in rabbits, monkeys and
many other animals.

No taste buds

Few scattered

Taste buds are present


on the sides of the
papillae.

Many Taste buds are


present on the sides of
the papillae.

11-Mention two types of lingual papillae that


have special character in the connective tissue
lamina propria.
Fungiform papillae have numerous blood
vessels in CT corium.
Circumvallate papillae have Von Ebnerserous
glands.

12-Explain why Fungiform papillae are red


while filiform papillae are whitish.
Fungiform are red due to transparent
epithelium showing the colour of numerous
blood vessels in CT corium.
Filiform papillae are whitish due to keratin on
top of epithelium.

13-describe Von Ebners glands in terms of


type,site and functions.
serous salivary glands
drain their secretion into the deep groove
(valley) that encircles the periphery of
circumvallate papilla,
providing a continuous flow of fluid (saliva)
over the great number of taste buds present
along the sides of these papillae.

14-Describe taste buds in terms of Shape,site and


function
onion-shaped structures, each one containing 50-100
cells. They have wide bases and narrow apices. The
narrow apices of the taste buds converge on a small
opening in the superficial layer called taste pore.
They are present on the tongue papillae (circumvallate,
fungiform & foliate papillae), soft palate, epiglottis and
pharynx.
They contain modified and specialized epithelial cells to
receive taste stimuli (taste cells) for taste perception:
saltiness, sourness, sweetness and bitterness
(chemoreceptors).

15-Describe each cell in taste bud with reference to its function.


1.

Dark supporting or sustentacular cells:


Slender dark with central nuclei
at the periphery and interior of the taste bud.
They have long microvilli projecting into the taste pore.
Secrete a dense amorphous glycoprotein material that surrounds the microvilli in the taste
pore.
2Light gustatory or neuroepithelial taste cells.
Light elongated with central nuclei.
centrally located cells
long processes several times the diameter of the microvilli.
They contain dense-core vesicles in their basal cytoplasm that contain neurotransmitter.
The base of the taste cells is surrounded by non-myelinated nerve fibers that carry the
impulses of taste sensation.
3.
Basal cells:
at the base of the taste bud.
They act as stem cells for renewal of taste cells and supporting cells.

16-Differentiate between soft and hard palate.


Soft palate

Hard palate

anterior

Posterior

Keratinized st sq +CT lamina propria oral mucosa (non-keratinized stratified squamous


epithelium) in its anterior oral part and by
respiratory mucosa (pseudostratified columnar
ciliated epithelium with goblet cells) in its
posterior margin which is continuous with the
nasal cavity.
The mucosa is firmly bound to the
periosteum of the underlying
maxilla and palatine bones by
dense connective tissue.

The soft palate has a core of skeletal muscle,


numerous mucous glands and lymphoid nodules in
its submucosa.

17-describe the pharynx in terms of epithelial lining .


It is divided into:
a)
Oropharynx: lined with oral mucosa (nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
b)
Nasopharynx: lined with respiratory
epithelium (pseudostratified columnar ciliated
with goblet cells).
c)
Laryngopharynx: lined with oral mucosa
(non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.

18-mention 4 differences between the


histology of pharynx and the parts of
alimentary tract.
1. No muscularis mucosa.
2. Dense fibrous layer rich in elastic fibres,deep
in lamina propria resting On muscle.
3. Muscle is formed of inner longitudinal and
outer oblique
4. Muscle is a striated muscle.

19-Mention sites of mucous glands in digetive


tract.
1. Labial glands in lip(mucoserous)
2. Buccal glands in cheeck.(mucoserous)
3. Mucous glands in dorsum of tongue.
4. Mucous glands of soft palate.
5. Pharyngeal in lamina propria of pharynx.
6. Esophageal glands
7. Pyloric glands
8. Brunners glands in duodenum

20-Mention the sites of serous glands in


digestive tract.
1. Von ebners in tongue.pure serous.
2. Lingual glands seromucous
3. Occasional in labial and buccal glands.