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FORMAL REPORT

EXPERIMENT IN BASIC CHEMISTRY I

I. TITLE : CHEMICAL REACTION ORDER


II. PURPOSE :
Determine the level of reaction in the reaction between sodium
thiocykate ( Na2S2O3 ) in hydrochloric acid ( HCl)

III. BASIC THEORY :


The order of reaction , in chemical , with respect to a certain reactant, is defined as
the power to which its concentration term in t kinetics he rate equation is raised. Speed shows the
speed of chemical reactions decreaase the concentration of reactans per unit time or velocity
increased concentration of the product per unit time.
Example :
A B
Speed :

∆(A) = ∆(B)
=

∆t = ∆t
The minus (-) sign indicates that the concentration decreases when the time
increases. The realtionship between changes in concentration with time change can be
decribed as follows:

∆t

∆(B)

solubility

Time (t)

The average speed at time interval is follows:

∆t = - =-
Because the reaction rate is always proportional to the concentration of reactants,
the law matematically raection rates for the following chemical reaction:
aA + bB cC + dD

V= k [A]x[B]y

Where :
V = the rate of reaction
K = decree of the reaction rate
[A] and [B] = concentration A and B
x and y = the level of response to A and B

Reaction rate constant defined as the rate of raction when the concentration of each
species in the only depends on the reaction order. Basic reacction is any reaction that provides
the necessary products to elucidate the mechanism of a reaction. While the number of molecules
taken part in a basic stage is moleculitas.
Order from a reaction which describes the mathematical form of experimental
results can be shown if the reaction mechanism is known. Throughout the reaction order can be
defined as the sum of the exponents of each reactant. Thus, the reaction order is the price of
exponents for a component in the reaction rate.

Law defernsial speed and integral


The relationship between speed and consentration between the concentration and time
can be expresed by the following equation :
For example, for the general reaction :

aA + bB cC + dD

Can be expressed
– = =

Differential rate law so that the raection :


= = k [A]X[B]Y

Differential rate law shows how reaction rates depend on the concentration of
reactants. To show how concentration depending on the time can be expressed by the integral
equation.
a. Reaction degree
Based on the results of the experiment is the N2O5 decomposition reaction of the
reaction rate as follows :

N2O5 (g) 2NO3 (g) + O2 (g)

It can be stated

– = k [N2O5]
If concentration of N2O5 is expressed by A, then :

– = k [A]

– = K dt

– =k

– In A ] = kt ]

– = kt or
= o – kt

Thus, when graphed againts time in A will obtain a straight line with slope = -K and
intercept.

Slope = tan α = - k

time (t)

a. The reaction rate of two


For example, simple reaction :
2A B
The reaction rate of two, so that:

– = k [A]2

If the prince of K repleaced K, then :


– = k dt

=k

=k

- = kt or = + kt

So that when graphed Z opponent with T will get a straight line with slope = -K,
intercept = 1/Ao

Slope = tan α = - k

Time (t)

a. The reaction rate is zero


For example the reaction A B reaction rate is zero.
– = k [A]
– =k

– =k ↔- -

– = kt or A = Ao - kt

When graphed (A) opponent with t will get a sttraight line with slope = -K and
intercept = (Ao)

Ao
Slope = - k

Time ( t )
v. EQUIPMENT

1. TOOL

N NAME PICRURE AMOUN


O T
1 Beaker
Glass 2

2. 2
Measurem
ent Glass

3.
Stopwatch 1

4.
Pippete
2

2. MATERIALS

N NAME AMOUNT
O
1. Aquades 33 ml

2. Solution Na2S2O3 0,15 M 75 ml

3. Solution HCl 3 M 29 ml

V. PROCEDURE

1. Enter Na2S2O3 25 ml of solution into 100 ml of beaker glass.


2. Take 4 ml HCl 3M solution and add to the glass beaker containing the solution to step
no. 1. While running the stopwatch, then stop the stopwatch at the time of turbidity.
Record the time required in table 1.

3. Repeat the above experiment using solution and aqudes as listed in table 1 and table
2.

4. Make graph showing relation between :

a. against [ Na2S2O3 ]

b. against [Na2S2O3 ]2

c. against [ HCl ]

d. against [ HCl ]2

1. Determine the level of reaction to a solution of Na2S2O3 and reaction rates HCl
solution.
VI. OBSERVATION DATA

1. Table 1

Product rection of chemistry rate to Na2S2O3


No Amount of Amount of Councentrac Amount of Time to
. Na2S2O3 (ml) H2O (ml) y Na2S2O3 HCl (ml) reactions
(s)
1. 12,5 - 0.15 4 26,2
2. 10 2,5 0,15 4 20,8
3. 7,5 5 0,15 4 44,6
4. 5 7,5 0,15 4 72,1
5. 2,5 10 0,15 4 229,9

2. Table 2

Product reaction chemistry rate to HCl


No Amount of Amount of HCl Amount of Councentra Time to
. Na2S2O3 (ml) (ml) H2O (ml) cy HCl (ml) reactions
(s)
1. 12,5 5 - 3 30,6
2. 12,5 3 2 3 27,4
3. 12,5 1 4 3 42,3
VII. ANALYSIS DATA
A.Quantitative Analysis

✔ Na2S2O3 reaction rates

1. Finding Molarity Na2S2O3

V1 × M1 = V2 × M2
M2 =

Where ; V1 = Volume Na2S2O3


V2 = Volume Na2S2O3 + Volume H2O
M1 = Initial concentration of Na2S2O3 (0,15M)

a) M2 = = = 0,15M

b) M2 = = = 0,12M

c) M2 = = = 0,09M

d) M2 = = = 0,06M

e) M2 = = = 0,03M

1. Na2S2O3 reaction rates

*(HCl) = constant

=
• Data 1 and 2

= ( )x

= (1,25)x

X = 0,424

• Data 1 dan 3
=

x
=

= (1,67)x

= 1.041

• Data 1 and 4
=

= x

=
(2,5)x

X = 1,105
• Data 1 dan 5
=
x
=

= (5)x

X = 1,349

• Data 2 and 3
=

= x

= (1,33)x

X = 1,520

• Data 2 dan 4
=

X
=

= (2)x

X = 1,324

• Data 2 and 5
=

X
=

= (4)x
= 1,498

• Data 3 and 4
=

X
=

= (1,5)x

X= 1,184

• Data 3 and 5
=

x
=

= (3)x

• Data 4 and 5
=

x
=

= (2)x
➢ X = = = 1,2611

✔ HCl reaction rates


1. Finding Molarity HCl

V1 × M1 = V2 × M2
M2 =

Where ; V1 = Volume HCl


V2 = Volume HCl + Volume H2O
M1 = Initial concentration of HCl (3M)

a) M2 = = = =3

b) M2 = = = = 1,8

c) M2 = = = = 0,6

1. HCl reaction rates

*(Na2S2O3) = constant

• Data 1 and 2

=
=

y = 0,216

• Data 1 and 3
=

y = 0,201

• Data 2 and 3

y = 0,395

➢ Y = = = 0,127

✔ Order total and reaction rate equation

Total order = x + y = 1,2611 + 0,127 = 1,3881

V = k (Na2S2O3)x (HCl)y
V = k (Na2S2O3)1,2611 (HCl)0,127

✔ Plot
a) vs [Na2S2O3]

x y
0,038
0,15 1
0,034
0,12 7
0,022
0,09 4
0,013
0,06 8
0,004
0,03 3

b) vs [Na2S2O3]2

x y
0,0225 0,0381
0,0144 0,0347
0,0081 0,0224
0,0036 0,0138
0,0009 0,0043
c) vs [HCl]

x y
3 0,0326
1,8 0,0364
0,6 0,0236
d) vs [HCl]2

x y
9 0,0326
3,24 0,0364
0,36 0,0236

B. Qualitative Analysis

The purpose of this experiment is determining the reaction order in the reaction
between sodium thlocykate (Na2S2O3) in Hydrochloric acid (HCl).
The principle of work in this experiment is; first, enter Na2S2O3 to beaker glass.
Then, add the HCl to the beaker glass containing the solution to step number 1. While
running the stopwatch and stop at the time of turbidity. And repeat the above
experiment using solution and aquades as listed in table. Make some graph showing
relation between and Na2S2O3. At the last, determine the reaction order to a

solution of Na2S2O3 and reaction rates HCl solution.


And the reaction between Na2S2O3 and HCl in this experiment carried out two
kinds :
1. Experiment Na2S2O3 reacting with a different molarity of HCl the molarity same.
This experiment aims to determine the reaction order of Na2S2O3.

2. Experiment HCl reacting with a different molarity of Na2S2O3 the molarity same.
This experiment aims to determine thereaction order of HCl.
From the result of calculations experimental data, obtained the order of different
reactions in each experiment. So, the reaction order is taken the average and obtained
that the reaction order Na2S2O3 = 1,2611 and HCl reaction order = 0,127. So :
V = k (Na2S2O3)1,2611 (HCl)0,127
This is not in accordance with the theory, ie :
V = k (Na2S2O3)1 (HCl)2
This is affect by;
1. The mistake when observe the process of reaction and determine the final limit
reaction. Not only the certain standard that used to determine the find limit that
invalid.

2. The carelesly of practican in doing experiment when using the equipment such as
measuring glass and beaker glass, that the number is unread.

3. The mistake when calculating the value result of the experiment.

Chemical reactions that occur in this experiment:


Na2S2O3 (aq) + 2 HCl (aq) 2 NaCl (aq) + SO2 (g) + S(g) + H2O (l)

VIII. CONCLUSION
Speed of reaction is the reactant concetration reduced speed or velocity increased
concentration of the product per unit of time. The reaction order is the rank number of the
relationship with the concentration of the reation rate can be determined through experiments.
Graph showing the relationship between the concentration of the solution either by time or the
reverse reaction is the reaction time straight line.
From the experiment is known that the speed is almost always the same reaction is
proportional to the concentration of reactants.
Thus, for reaction:
Na2S2O3 (aq) + 2HCl (aq) → 2NaCl (aq) + SO2 (g) + S (s) + H2O (g)
Reaction speed :
V = k [Na2S2O3]x[HCl]y

Where; V = reaction speed


k = reaction rate constant at a given temperature
x = order of reaction rate Na2S2O3
y = order of reaction rate HCl
Obtained from the experiment :
– Order reaction against Na2S2O3 = x = 1,2611
– Order reaction against HCl = y = 0,127

So that the reaction rate law for the reaction of Na2S2O3 with HCl ;
V = k [Na2S2O3]1[HCl]1

Total reaction order = x + y


= 1,2611 + 0,127
= 1,3881