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Rottenberg, J., Karger, D., Labrecque, J., Markovitz, A., Pastorek, W., Schwartz, M.

, &
Vary, A. B. (2009). John Hughes remembered. Entertainment Weekly,
(1061/1062), 26-31.
This is a popular source.
This article is all about John Hughes. Throughout the article many of his friends and coworker reflects on the type of person he was, his many screen writes and how he
became an icon in „80s adolescence.
According to friends John was a total music-head, and it showed, he was always trying
to find the best songs to pair with his films. Though he could get into the mindset of a
teenager his friends say that John seemed older and wiser than most people his age.
He did not drink, and he never did drugs. He was straitlaced and old- fashioned. He
grew up with three sisters, and this is believed to be the reason the was able to write
with a strong female voice. Not many male writers can get into touch with their feminine
side. When he grew up John married his high school sweetheart Nancy Ludwig in the
1970‟s, and had two sons, John III and James.
In the film industry John was an advocate for teenagers as a complete human being. He
wrote about how it felt to be a teenager. His first big screen write was National
Lampoon‟s Vacation in 1983. From there he continued to take Hollywood by storm with
movies such as Sixteen Candles, The Breakfast Club, and Ferris Buellers day off.
Starting the careers of a group of actors who would soon be known as the Brat Pack.
After a career of being a screenwriter he decided that he wanted to become a director
as well. He was tired of seeing his scripts ruined by other directors. He wanted to start
of small. He wanted to write something that took place in one room, in one day, with a
group of teenagers. This idea soon developed into The Breakfast Club. However, this is
not the first movie Hughes ends up directing. While holding auditions for The Breakfast
Club Hughes met his muse, Molly Ringwald. After meeting he went home and in one
weekend he wrote a screen write just for her. The film is known as Sixteen Candles and
it is the first movie Hughes directed. He then returned to filming The Breakfast Club,
also starring Molly Ringwald. In the end Hughes only directed eight movies. But that
was not the end of his career, he continued on to be a writer and producer. Eventually
leaving Hollywood altogether to live with his family in Illinois.
This is a credible source. The journalist did not base his report on just one persons
opinion of John Hughes. He interviewed many different people and reported all views of
John Hughes personality. He only presents accounts of people who knew John Hughes

he does not right about his own opinions. Lastly, it was published by Entertainment
weekly a notable magazine.
In the beginning of my speech I give a brief background on who John Hughes is, sense
he was the mastermind behind The Breakfast Club. THis is where I am planning on
using the information from this article.

Wozniak, L. (2009). The breakfast club. Financeasia, 88.
This is a popular source.

Though this article is short it starts off by introducing us to the actors and actresses of
the Brat Pack that starred in this movie: Molly Ringwald, Ally Sheedy, Judd Nelson,
Emilio Estevez and Anthony Michael Hall.
They mention the soundtrack, and point out that Bart Simpson was not the first person
to say the phrase: Eat my shorts it was actual coined by Judd Nelson‟s character John
Bender in The Breakfast Club.
They mention how stereotypes are limiting and that this movie removes those
stereotypes and shows the person underneath. But more importantly how The Breakfast
Club taught teenagers a lesson that they can still use today in their adult life.
I am not sure if this is a credible source. It is from Financeasia which is a magazine I
have never heard of before. The article consists of questions answered by the writer.
Even though the writer does seem to be informed on the topic I am not sure where they
are getting their information.
If I were to use this in my article, I believe I would use it to present some fun facts about
the film. The article list a few facts that I was not aware of until i read it. So I could use it
in the sense of bringing new information to my audience.

Willoughby, B. (2012). Speak up at school: How to respond to everyday prejudice, bias
and stereotypes. A guide for teachers. ERIC, 26-28.
This is an academic resource.
This article is all about speaking up against bullying and stereotypes. Even though it is
geared towards teachers. The information given can be used by anyone when they face
a situation that is similar.

To create a school environment that is both welcoming and safe for students to come
to, you have to be willing to speak up against bias in a simple, straightforward manner.
Start by telling yourself that you are going to be the person to speak up.
Before you speak up you must consider the consequences, however this should not
keep you from saying something. You must be yourself. Be confident and firm. If you
chose to handle a situation with humor you must be aware that this is not always a good
way to defuse the tension in a situation. You must remain calm and thoughtful. You
should not act as if you are shocked.
It so often occurs that when asked to explain their joke or support the stereotype people
find themselves at a loss for words. They might say they are joking but they might not
understated that their words have a deeper meaning, and that someone could be hurt
by them. So even if they claim they are joking do not brush it off. The article states that
if you put yourself out there and speak up against these stereotypes you can make a
difference.
This is a credible source. The author gives many different examples on how to deal with
situations that have to do with bullying. This tells me that they are knowledgeable about
the topic. The author also gives different accounts of experts and teachers who have
dealt with these types of situations before. Presenting all of these different viewpoints
makes the writing more credible.
I could use this article to emphasize what type of stereotypes there are in schools and
how people do not always deal with it. I would use it in the second paragraph when I
talk about the different stereotypes of the film.

Nolan, C. (Director). (2010). The breakfast club reunites [Television episode]. In R.
Roberts (Producer), Good Morning America. New York City, CA: Times Square
Studios.
This is a popular source.
In this interview with Robin Roberts on Good Morning America four out of the five cast
members of The Breakfast Club reunite 25 years later to talk about the movie that
spoke to a generation of teenagers. Molly Ringwald, Ally Sheedy, Judd Nelson and
Michael Hall come back together again.

Robin Roberts opens the interview by saying in 1985 they were The Breakfast Club.
The unlikely group of high school students, forced to spend their Saturday morning
together in detention.
During the interview the cast reveals some of the behind the scenes details that made
the movie what it is today. Molly Ringwald starts off by revealing that in the big dance
scene she was originally the only character that was supposed to dance. However, she
did not consider herself to be a good dancer and this led to her being embarrassed. So
John Hughes changed the scene and made everyone dance, and although the scene is
composed of all the characters doing random dance moves, they did have a
choreographer. When later discussed they all agreed that Ally Sheedy had the best
dance moves.
Molly Ringwald is then asked, by a viewer, what her favorite line from the movie was.
She stated that Ally spoke her favorite line When you grow up, your heart dies. When
asked if the cast members believe there is truth behind these words Ally Sheedy
confessed that she believed it back then, but now she believes it dies in different ways,
and the rest of the cast mates agree.
The interview concludes with Robin Roberts asking the cast what their favorite movie
food is? Judd Nelson is a fan of Twizzlers, while Ally Sheedy and Michael Hall favor
popcorn with butter, and Molly Ringwald states that she just drinks water.
This is a credible source. It is a n interview that was conducted by Robin Roberts one of
the most well known journalist in America. It was also apart of a Good Morning
America episode. This talk show is very popular and you can trust that the information
you are getting is credible. The interview is done with the actors and actresses of the
movie so you know that the information is true.
I could use this article in my speech, to give my audience first hand accounts on what
was going on while filming. This could be presented as an entertainment factor of the
speech. It could also be present as background knowledge on what the actors and
actresses are like behind the camera.

(2014, March 23). We didn't forget about you; Three decades have gone by since The
Breakfast Club hit the big screen, and it still resonates today. The Toronto Star, p. E1
This is a popular source.
The article talks about how Hughes, the writer and director who died in 2009 of a heart
attack at age 59, created a film that can still resonates thirty years later both in
entertainment and social aspects.
The movie is about a group of teens pushing the boundaries of the high school
hierarchy while trying to figure out who they are. It then gives a brief summary of the
actors, and shines a light on the fact that their are only two adults (besides the parents)
in the whole entire film. John Kapelos who played Carl the school's janitor and the late
Paul Gleason who played the tormentor and principle who acts as a babysitter for the
five students. The students are played by Molly Ringwald, Ally Sheedy, Judd Nelson,
Michael Hall, and Emilio Estevez.

The article then continues on in an interview style with questions answered by John
Kapelos. When reminiscing about the movie Kapelos remembers that when he first saw
the movie he thought that it was greater than Sixteen Candles, and this is when he
realized that he was in a movie that was going to last.
Kapelos said that working on a Hughes film was an occupational Hazard. He said that
Hughes was known for taking multiple takes and that he encouraged improvisation.
The article then reveals that there was a delete scene in which Carl, played by Kapelos,
predicted the future lives of each of the students in detention.

Kapelos was then asked why he believes The Breakfast Club still works today. Kapelos
responded that he believes that everyone can relate to having problems with their
parents at that age, and he believe that people can relate to the characters in the sense
that we are all trying to work something out. That the hope of the movie is that the
students attitudes toward each other will change on Monday. The whole movie is about
these students being able to state this is who I am.
Even though I have never heard of the Toranto Star newspaper before, I believe this
information to be credible. The writer seems to be well informed on the topic and
presents his facts without bias. It is also credible because it contains a brief interview
with one of the actors themselves. So you know that he was actually there to
experience everything, and the author is not just making stories up.
I could use this in my speech to talk about how the film is still relatable today. I could
also present the answers given by the actor to futher back up my original statement
about how this movie is going to be one that is going to last throughout many more
generations.

Mello, Z. R., Mallett, R. K., Andretta, J. R., & Worrell, F. C. (2012). Stereotype threat
and school belonging in adolescents from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds.
Journal Of At-Risk Issues, 17(1), 9-14.
This is an academic resource.
This is an article that researched how stereotypes impact the sense of belonging of
students from a different racial and ethnic background. In the introduction the authors
state that when a group of people are made aware that they are labeled with a negative
social stereotype, it is observed that there is a decline in academic performance.
Adolescence is the heightened period of time in a persons life when trying to find a
sense identity. Studies have consistently shown that a sense of school belonging has a
positive impact on one's academic performance. However, if a negative stereotype is
presented there is a negative impact on one academic outcome. The authors believe
that anxiety, a decrease in memory, and stress are all factors in this decline. They also
state that encountering these stereotypes will take away from cognitive resources.
In one study of high school freshman African Americans showed lower test scores than
European Americans in the same conditions. This result is believed to be correlated
with a sense of school belonging. School belonging is shown to predict achievement,
motivation, and likelihood of dropping out along with the previously stated academic
performances.
To back up these ideas the authors decided to do a study. They wanted to answer three
questions: does stereotype threat manifest in adolescence? What is the relationship
between stereotype threat and school belonging? And thirdly does a subtle

manipulation manifest stereotype threat? They gathered 301 adolescents to participate.
The age range was from 12-19 and they came from different ethnic groups including:
African American, Asian American, European American, Latino, American Indian, MultiEthnic, and other. The participants were asked 20 questions to be answered on a 4
point scale. 1 being strongly disagree and 4 being strongly agree. It also consisted of
two subscales: ethnic identity and other group organization. One of the subscale
questions was to what extent do you experience a sense of exclusion or sense of
belonging at your school? this was asked on a 7 point scale. 1 being a strong sense of
exclusion and 7 being a strong sense of belonging. The average answer for that
question was 5.32.
The conclusion from this experiment is that adolescents from a racial/ethnic minority
background showed lower school belonging scores than their classmates. These results
help research on stereotype threat in three ways. They suggest that adolescents are a
meaningful age group for research on stereotype threat. Second, that stereotype threat
can have an effect on school belonging, an additional variable with a consistent positive
relationship to academic outcomes. Thirdly, they show that even a subtle manipulation
of identity salience in a nonthreatening context can activate a form of a stereotype
threat.
This is a credible source. The authors conducted an experiment to see if stereotypes
have a negative impact on academic scores. They walk you through their method and
experiment so that the reader knows that the experiment is both ethical, and was not
tampered with. The evidence seems accurate, and the outcome correlates with the
hypothesis.
I could use this in my speech when I talk about stereotypes. I can point out the fact that
stereotypes do not just affect a person social, but also academically. I would mention in
in my third paragraph because that is where it would fit best. This would give a deeper
meaning to stereotypes.

Crovitz, D. (2005). “Who you think you are”: The breakfast club in the writing classroom.
TETYC, 424-432.
This is an academic source.
This article is all about how The Breakfast Club can be used as a base for students to
reflect on their own schooling and use effective ways to write about it. The professor
that wrote this article says that he uses this classic film to help his students to become
more reflective about their own educational identities. In the film the students try to
rediscover who they are while claiming their space and making personal connections
and he asks that his students do the same.
He assigns them a two part essay to illustrate this. The first part he asks the students to
think of influences they have had that have helped to shape their educational identities,
and how they now feel about their education and schooling. They are asked to reflect on
what their early years in school have taught them, not just educational but social as
well. He talks about hidden curriculum which is the implicit lessons about relationships,
social status, power distribution and control. The students are then asked how these
experiences have shaped who they are as a present and future learner, and how their
curriculum has been constructed for them by forces beyond their control. The essay
deals with power, voice, and identity.
The author then goes on to give a summary about the movie. Starting with the the five
students and how as soon as they walk into the library the social hierarchy is already
being shown. Claire and Andrew, the popular kids sit in front, not noticing as Brian, the
brain tries to take a seat behind them, but then gives it up to Bender, the criminal.
Allison sits in the back away from the others completely unnoticed by all. The professor
ends the summary by saying at the end of the movie the five students are able to see
one another as individuals rather than their stereotypes.
As the authors students watch the movie play out they form these perspectives: past
personal association, critical observation, and current experience as a student. They
reflect on their typical school life, relationship dynamics, and social class.

The author then talks about how he and his students have identified three thematic arcs
form The Breakfast Club that seem to resonate with his students growth as critical
thinkers and writers. The three thematic arcs are: first that The Breakfast Club is
movement toward reclaiming educational space. Most students feel isolated and
powerless. The authors own students could relate to the film in thinking that when they
were in high school they felt like they were in a jail. Second, that The Breakfast Club
deals with the imprisoning nature of social stereotypes, and how stereotypes shape
their school lives. Third, that the film opens up another area for reflection and analysis
as they compare their ongoing experience as a writers to the movies portrayal.
This is a credible source. The author is a professor talking about his own assignments,
and how he uses The Breakfast Club to help his students think back about their own
schooling. You know it is credible because it is the authors own lesson plan. He walks
you through the assignments and show you how his own students incorporate the
movie into their work. The professor is knowledgeable on the subject.
I could use this in my speech because it gives a brief summary of the movie. It also
gives different perspectives of the film, that I could incorporate into my speech. I could
use it to show how his students related to the film. This would help me explain why it is
still relatable today.

Kaye, D. L., & Ets-Hokin, E. (2000). The breakfast club. Academic Psychiatry, 24(2),
110-116.
This is an academic source.
In this article the authors talk about how they use the movie The Breakfast Club as a
tool for teaching about several aspects of adolescent development. They break down
the movie scene by scene and analyze the developmental themes. The discussion of
the film allows them to integrate the material between cognitive and verbal levels.
Before the class begins students are asked to read one out of two of Erikson‟ s papers.
Then the film is shown in its entirety, and is followed by a teaching session with a closer
look into specific scenes. They start with the opening scene. They describe how it is set
in 1984 in suburban Chicago, and is opened with the narrator Brian setting the basic
stage for the movie by saying this:
Dear Mr. Vernon,
We accept the fact that we had to sacrifice a whole Saturday in detention
for whatever it was that we did wrong. What we did is wrong, but we think
you‟re crazy to make us write an essay writing about who we think we are.
What do you care? You see us as you want to see us- in the simplest
terms, in the most convenient definitions. You see us as a Brain, an
athlete, a basket case, a princess, and a criminal. Correct? That‟s the way
we saw each other at 7:00 this morning. We were brainwashed.
After the analysis of each scene is done, they look at the themes raised by the film as a
whole. They did this by answering some of these questions. What‟s the matter with kids
today? What the differences are between early, middle, and late adolescence? What
are the cognitive changes in adolescents? How adolescents relates to authority? And
how do you love?
The authors use all of these approaches to teach adolescent development through the
use of the popular film The Breakfast Club.
This is a credible source. The authors are writing about their own lesson plans. They
have knowledge about the topic and use it in an effective way to teach about adolescent
development. The fact that they break the film down scene by scene means they really
understand the context and the overall theme.

The fact that they broke down all of the scenes helps me get a deeper analysis of the
movie. This will help me to explain the movie better to my audience. This will also help
me develop my speech.

Koenig, A. M., & Eagly, A. H. (2014). Evidence for the social role theory of stereotype
content: Observations of groups‟ roles shape stereotypes. Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology, 107(3), 371-392. doi:10.1037/a0037215
This is an academic source.

The purpose of this article was to establish two things: the validity of social role theory
as a general theory of stereotypes and to advance thinking about stereotype change,
including correcting the misunderstanding that social role theory predicts that all
changes in group roles would change their stereotypes. Similar studies predict that
participants stereotypes of social groups will relate to those of typical occupational role
and the behaviors associated with them. Along with the occupational interest profile of
the roles.
Stereotypes come from observation, the research should test the roles that perceivers
believe to be associated with a particular group. The purpose of the study in this article
is related stereotypes of a large number of people to what their typical occupations are.
The requirements for this study are: to determine the occupational roles believes to be
typical for social groups and assess the accuracy of these beliefs, and to separately
assess stereotypes of groups and attributes of roles and relate the group stereotypes to
average attributes of the roles considered most typical of each group.
To conduct the study they gathered 313 community members. 62.5% were women with
an average age of 36.47 from different ethnic groups including European American,
Hispanic, Asian American, and other unreported groups. They also collected 257
students from Midwestern University. Out of this group 53.1% were woman with an
average age of 20 from the same ethnic groups as listed above. The participants were
asked to complete a short questionnaire, where they were instructed to name three
occupations that they believe to be frequented by members of a given group, including
illegal occupations and no occupations at all. In the end 45 groups were selected to
represent a wide variety of gender, race, ethnicity, religion, age, sexual orientation,
social status, political orientation, and education level. The results were as follows, out
of the 45 groups, 84% of them were identified as having consensual typical roles.
This is a credible source. The authors of the article conducted their own research. They
walked you through their study to show you that it was done correctly and ethically.
They also conducted the study many times before publishing their results, to make sure
they were publishing the correct information.
I could use this in my speech to explain why we have stereotypes. Its shows why we
choose to conform and follow other people. It explains our need to fit in. It can help me
make a deeper statement on how stereotypes affect our behavior, and relate it to the
film to explain why the characters acted the way they did.

Tanen, N., & Hughes, J. (Producer), & Hughes, J. (Director). (1985). The Breakfast Club
[Motion picture]. United States: Universal Studios.
This is a primary source.
The film is set and Shermer Illinois at Shermer high school on March 24, 1984, it's a
Saturday. five students meet in the library at 7 AM in the morning. Claire, the princess
Brian, the brain Andrew, the athlete Allison, the basket case and Bender, the criminal
are to sit in the library for eight hours while they write an essay reflecting on who they
think they are. Vernon is the school's principal who looks after the group there are three
simple rules: they're not to move, they are not to talk, and they're not to sleep.

They spend the rest of the day getting to know each other and breaking down the
stereotypes that define them. They talk, eat, dance, and even smoke marijuana. They
reveal their deepest emotions and tell each other the stories of how they ended up in
detention.
When the day and they all seem like their friends, but I guess we'll just have to wait and
see what happens on Monday.
On the DVD there was also commentary, with Judd Nelson and Anthony Michael Hall,
and these are some of the things I got out of it.
The library was actually set up in the gym. The character of Brian was dropped of by his
actual mom and sister. The actors say the felt like they were shooting a play with all the
rehearsal. Each character has things they're not happy about but they have to make
due. People identify with the characters. The school itself and the library was a
character. In the gym scene with Judd Nelson he has on a random shoe and was left in
the gym and when he leaves the gym he takes it off. John Hughes sat on the floor under
the camera in the circle scene so that he could be apart of it. The circle scene was
improv. People look in at themselves and they don't like what they see that's why it
applies to everyone not just teens. Bender is the catalyst to get everyone to open up
and break the rules, he steers the pot.

This is a very credible source. It is the movie.
I will use this throughout the whole speech. Because it is the basis of my whole speech.
I will use it to inform my audience about my topic.