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VOCABULARY

This is all the vocab I could find for science. If I missed any, please
add them. Please put the definition beside the word in red. Hope this
helps and that none of us fail☺
Observation anything you can perceive through your senses
Inference interpretation or explanation of what caused the event that is observed
or predicted
Prediction expected future event or observation
Scientific hypothesis prediction based on previous knowledge that is testable
General properties properties that objects have in common
Special properties properties that are different about objects
Intrinsic properties property that you cannot change without creating new matter
(density, melting point, freezing point, chemical reactivity)
Extrinsic properties property that you can change (size, shape, texture)
Theory beliefs or speculations
Hypothesis prediction based on previous knowledge
Law rule
Operational definition tells how to identify chemically
Mass amount of matter present (takes up space)

Weight force exerted by matter because of the presence of a gravitational field
(effect of gravity on mass)
Volume amount of space matter takes up
Density amount of matter in a given volume (mass/volume) (intrinsic property)
Mean average
Median middle number
Mode most common number
Matter anything with mass and volume
Physical changes change in appearance
Chemical changes change to new matter
Atom smallest whole particle made up of unique matter
Element pure matter that cannot be broken down into simpler matter by ordinary
chemical means
Mixture can be separated easily and keep the properties of the individual
substances that comprise them
Compound pure matter that can be broken down into simpler matter by ordinary
chemical means
Molecule particle made up of two or more different atoms chemically combined
(covalently combined)

Pure made up of only one kind of matter
Impure mixture composed of two or more kinds of matter
Solution made up of solute and solvent and the MOST homogenous mixture
Colloid homogeneous mixture in which the particles of the solute are too large to
be considered to be a true solution
Suspension homogeneous mixture that will have its particles separate and settle
out
Law of Conservation of Mass mass is neither created (gained) nor destroyed (lost)
Coefficient tells the number of symbols or formulas present that immediately
follows it
Subscript tells the number of atoms represented by the symbol that immediately
precedes it
Reactants substances being combined or rearranged to form new kinds of matter
(left-hand side of equation)
Products new kinds of matter formed (right-hand side of the equation)
Chemical symbol consists of one or two letters + represents an element and the
atoms that make the element up
Chemical formula tells the number and kinds of atoms present + represents a
compound and the molecules that make the compound up

System group of things that influence each other
Subsystem group of things within a system that DIRECTLY influence each other
Polyatomic groups (atom team/radical group) covalently bonded atoms that have a
charge and travel together
Concentration mass of atoms/molecules per mL
Molarity number of atoms/molecules per mL
Proton subatomic particle found in the nucleus of the atom that is positively
charged with a mass of 1 amu (function - kind of atom present)
Neutron neutrally charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of the atom with
a mass of 1 amu (function - helps hold the nucleus together and is responsible for
radioactivity)
Electron negatively charged subatomic particle that surrounds the nucleus
(electron clouds/rings) with no mass (function - involved in how the atom reacts
with other atoms)
Ion when there is an unequal number of protons and electrons
Isotope atom of the same element with a different number of neutrons (different
mass)
Atomic number refers to the number of protons in an atom

Mass number/atomic mass number sum of protons and neutrons in an atom (decimal
numeral because it is an AVERAGE of the isotopes)

Metal
Nonmetal
Electron dot
Electron configuration
Acid proton donor; gives off H+ ion
Base proton acceptor/receiver; accepts H+ ion
Salt- Combination of a metal and nonmetal ion
Beta decay Turning a neutron into a proton
Alpha decay loss of two protons and neutrons (helium nucleus)
Strong force It is trying to keep the protons from repelling against each other
(Failure is alpha decay)
Weak force It is trying to keep the neutron a neutron (Failure is beta decay)
Electromagnetic force
Gamma decay
Fission When an atom separates into two atoms
Fusion When two atoms combine to make one atom
Transmutation The changing of the nature of the nucleus of the atom

Sulfate group
Carbonate group
Nitrate group
Hydroxide group
Phosphate group
Ammonium group
Model devices that simulate the behavior of a real event or phenomenon (doesn't
have to look like the event it is imitating, only act like it)
Electron clouds
Ionic bond
Metallic bond
Covalent bond
Cation
Anion
Nonpolar covalent
Polar covalentSolid definite shape and volume and slow moving atoms
Liquid definite shape but no definite volume and faster moving atoms

Gas neither definite shape nor definite volume and its atom move at the greatest
speed
Classification
Chemistry
Nature is consistent
Ruling out not knowing what something is but knowing what it is not
Indicators chemicals that test for the presence of other substances by the
presence of a color change
Kilo 1000 times greater than unit (k)
Hecto 100 times greater than unit (h)
Deka 10 times greater than unit (dk)
Deci 10 times less than unit (d) (.1)
Centi 100 times less than unit (c) (.01)
Milli 1000 times less than unit (m) (.001)
Meter 1 ten millionth of the distance from pole to equator
Liter .1 of a meter cubed or a decimeter cubed or 10 centimeters cubed
Cubic centimeter filled with water = gram = milliliter
Gram mass of 1 cubic centimeter of water at 4 degrees celsius
Scientific method

Qualitative observation An observation that you can obtain from your five senses
Quantitative observation An observation that has to do with numbers
Control unchanged part of the experiment used for comparison
Variable
Independent/manipulated variable the condition you change
Dependent/responding variable the condition which changes because of changing
the manipulated variable
Mole has 6.02 x 1023 atoms/molecules in a liter
Direct evidence
Indirect evidence
Homogeneous mixture one that appears to be the same throughout (solution,
colloid, or suspension)
Heterogeneous mixture doesn't appear the same throughout (can see individual
parts of the mixture)
Solvent the material doing the dissolving
Solute the material being dissolved
Alloy
Chemically combined
Physically combined

Melting changing of a solid to a liquid and requires heat (energy) being added to
the solid
Freezing changing of a liquid to a solid and requires heat (energy) being removed
from the liquid
Boiling rapid changing of a liquid to a gas
Condensing changing of a gas to a liquid by removing heat (energy)
Sublimation changing of a solid to a gas or a gas to a solid
Exothermic
Endothermic
Evaporation slow changing of a liquid to a gas (surface)
Amorphous substance A substance that has the properties of more than one state
of matter
Plasma
Vaporization changing a liquid to a gas by adding heat (energy) (2 types - Boiling
and Evaporation)
Line of best fit
Direct relationship
Indirect relationship
Inverse square

Unlimited growth
Limited growth
Crystalline shapes
Single replacement reaction
Double replacement reaction
Graph pictorial representation of data collected in an experimental activity
Ratio
Hydrogen atom one Electron and one proton
Hydronium ion proton from hydrogen atom combines with water
Hydroxide ion formed when substances are added to water or liberated when
compounds dissociate in water
Hydrogen ion one proton
pH
pH scale
Neutralized reaction
Amphoteric can be acid or base
Strength The strength to form an ion
Dissociates
Electrolytes

PHTH tests for Hydroxide base (phenolphthalein)
Acid rain
Acidic rain
Carbonic acid
Antacid
Carbonate
Bicarbonate
Litmus paper acid (red) and base (blue)
Phenol red yellow with acid + indirectly tests for carbon dioxide
Lime water carbon dioxide turns cloudy
Data any information that you observe
Emperical data data that you perceive with your senses (odor, color)
Numerical data data that contains measured amounts of something
Dissolving solute particles are broken apart and spread uniformly throughout the
solvent
Operational definition of copper Copper + nitric acid →brown gas + blue-green
solution
Operational definition for iodine Iodine + heat →purple gas
Experimental outline formal presentation of a laboratory or experimental activity

Interpolation used to find values from a line graph that lie between known data
points
Extrapolation the same pattern of a line graph pst is continued past the last known
data points
Limiting reagent chemical that runs out first (anything else?)
Avogadro’s Number 6.02 x 1023
Dalton dot, solid, no parts, neutral
Thomson electrons, protons, teacher
Rutherford not solid, Thompson’s student, right
Bohr electron rings
Mendeleev periodic table based on chemical properties + atomic mass
Mosley periodic table based on atomic numbers (more accurate)
Seaborg
Period number of electron shells in the atom
Valence number Roman numeral at top of column that tells the number of valence
electrons
Valence electrons electrons in outermost shell

Related Interests