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ED 607, Final Project

School Supervision & Professional Development

K. Betler

 
 

I.  Philosophy  of  Supervision  &  Professional  Development  
 
 

Through  my  experience  as  a  public  school  educator  over  the  past  three  years,  I  have  found  that  

one  of  the  key  components  to  any  aspect  of  supervision,  evaluation,  and  professional  development  is  
trust  –  trust  amongst  both  administrators  and  teachers.  It  is  a  professional  trust  centered  on  the  
understanding  that  everything  teachers  are  asked  to  do  and/or  learn  is  not  only  in  their  best  interest  but  
also  in  the  best  interest  of  their  students.  Effective  school  leaders  know  that  developing  and  fostering  
trust  amongst  their  staff  must  be  the  foundation  for  any  professional  learning.  Teachers  need  to  feel  
confident  that  their  administrators  are  focused  on  providing  them  with  support  so  that  they  may  in  turn  
support  their  students  to  the  best  of  their  ability.  Teachers  also  need  to  feel  confident  that  their  
administrators  are  providing  them  with  high  quality  professional  development  experiences  that  are  
relative  to  the  school’s  overall  mission,  vision,  and  goals.  School  leaders  need  to  make  building  the  culture  
of  their  school  a  top  priority  in  all  instructional  decisions.    
 

Developing  trust  amongst  teachers  and  supervisors  can  be  a  daunting  task  and  often  is  difficult  to  

pinpoint  strategies  that  help  to  foster  that  trust.  According  to  the  Northwest  Regional  Educational  
Laboratory  (2003),  there  are  five  key  components  to  trust:    
1)  Benevolence  –  having  confidence  that  another  party  has  your  best  interests  at  heart    
2)  Reliability  –  refers  to  the  extent  to  which  you  can  count  on  another  party  to  come  through  for  you  
3)  Competence  –  belief  in  another  party’s  ability  to  perform  the  tasks  required    by  his  or  her  position  
4)  Honesty  –  a  person’s  integrity,  character,  and  authenticity  
5)  Openness  –  how  freely  another  party  shares  information  with  others  
 

These  five  characteristics  of  trust  should  not  apply  only  to  administrators  but  also  to  teachers.  An  

administrator  will  be  more  willing  to  seek  out  high  quality  professional  development  if  they  feel  their  
staff  will  be  reliable  with  the  information  and  will  seek  to  implement  new  instructional  strategies  with  
fidelity,  being  open  to  trying  new  practices  in  their  classroom.  If  an  administrator  is  consistently  faced  

ED 607, Final Project

School Supervision & Professional Development

K. Betler

 
with  backlash  and  resistance  toward  professional  development  opportunities,  they  will  be  less  likely  to  
go  out  of  their  way  to  ensure  those  learning  experiences  are  of  high  quality  and  serve  both  teachers  and  
students.  “Unfortunately,  too  many  professional  learning  activities  are  disconnected  from  teachers’  actual  
practice  and  school  improvement  goals  and  are  not  designed  with  attention  to  the  needs  of  adult  
learners”  (Archibald,  2011,  p.  2).  According  to  a  meta-­‐analysis  on  effective  professional  development,  
high  quality  professional  development  exhibits  the  following  five  characteristics:  
1)  Alignment  with  school  goals,  state  and  district  standards  and  assessments,  and  other  professional  
learning  activities  including  formative  teacher  evaluation  
2)  Focus  on  core  content  and  modeling  of  teaching  strategies  for  the  content  
3)  Inclusion  of  opportunities  for  active  learning  of  new  teaching  strategies  
4)  Provision  of  opportunities  for  collaboration  among  teachers  
5)  Inclusion  of  embedded  follow-­‐up  and  continuous  feedback  (Archibald,  2011,  p.  3).  
 

Therefore,  a  key  component  to  professional  development  is  connection  to  each  individual  

teacher’s  classroom  as  well  as  connection  to  the  overall  school  mission  and  goals.  It  is  the  responsibility  
of  school  leaders  to  provide  teachers  with  a  focus  vision  of  improvement.  The  teaching  profession  is  one  
that  can  never  be  perfected  and  takes  continual  work  to  improve.  When  school  leaders  provide  a  
narrowed,  specific  vision  and  set  of  goals  for  the  school  and  teachers,  teachers  are  able  to  focus  their  
improvement  on  one  strategy  at  a  time.  Developing  their  teaching  practices  step  by  step  without  trying  to  
perfect  everything  at  once.  Each  professional  development  experience  should  include  an  opportunity  or  
teachers  to  provide  feedback  to  administrators  in  regards  to  their  learning.  Administrators,  in  turn,  must  
listen  to  that  feedback  to  help  shape  and  design  the  following  professional  development.  In  addition,  
maximizing  time  for  teacher  collaboration  must  be  a  priority  for  school  leaders.  Allowing  teachers  to  
collaborate  helps  individual  teachers  to  improve  their  practice  by  learning  from  one  another,  helps  to  
create  a  shared  sense  of  direction  for  teams  of  teachers,  and  helps  to  create  accountability  amongst  

ED 607, Final Project

School Supervision & Professional Development

K. Betler

 
teachers.  Teacher  collaboration  also  helps  to  extend  the  supervision  of  administrators  to  teacher  leaders.  
Administrators  can  delegate  accountability  strategies  to  lead  teachers,  which  is  often  less  threatening  for  
staff  evaluations.  Supervision  and  evaluation  should  be  a  combined  effort  of  self  evaluation,  peer  
evaluation,  and  formal  evaluations  conducted  by  administrators.  
 

An  effective  administrator  must  be  an  effective  manager,  leader,  and  supervisor  in  order  to  

maximize  teacher  effectiveness  and  ultimately  student  achievement.  While  each  administrator  is  unique  
and  requires  varying  strategies,  all  administrators  will  find  success  with  supervision  if  they  ensure  the  
following:  trust  amongst  administrators  and  teachers,  high  quality  professional  development  experiences  
based  upon  teacher  feedback  and  student  needs,  established  goals  and  means  of  measuring  
improvement,  and  time  for  structured  teacher  collaboration.  
 

II.  Supervisory  Structure  (Adapted  from  Minot  Public  Schools  –  Minot,  ND  2005)  
 
 
The  foundation  of  any  school  supervisory  structure  lies  in  the  school’s  beliefs,  values,  and  overall  
shared  vision.    

A.  District  Beliefs  (Canton  Local  Schools)  
All  aspects  of  teacher  evaluation  and  supervision  are  founded  on  the  following  beliefs:  
•  The  purpose  of  schools  is  to  open  minds,  expand  thinking,  and  instill  a  love  of  learning  that  allows  each  
child  to  prepare  for  the  future.
 
•  Every  day  we  foster  a  culture  of  pride  in  our  schools,  created  by  positive  relationships  and  meaningful  
work.
 
•  We  are  committed  to  preparing  our  students  to  be  flexible,  collaborative,  creative,  life-­‐long  learners.
 
•  All  our  students  have  the  potential  to  learn  more  than  they  are  currently  learning,  and  it  is  the  
responsibility  of  all  they  encounter  in  our  schools  to  support  their  learning.  
 
•  The  focus  of  all  school  activity  is  the  design  of  high-­‐quality,  engaging  work  that  students  find  interesting  
and  relevant  and  that  challenges  them  to  reach  their  highest  potential.
•  Schools  that  are  focused  on  engagement  are  the  responsibility  of  the  entire  community;  we  take  pride  in  
the  relationships  among  our  community  and  our  schools,  characterized  by  collaborative  partnership,  
open  and  honest  dialog,  mutual  respect,  and  trust.  
 
 
 

ED 607, Final Project

School Supervision & Professional Development

K. Betler

 

 
 
B.  Staff  Vision  (Minot  Public  Schools)  
 
All  staff  members:  
•  demonstrate  professionalism,  competence,  confidence,  and  integrity.  
 •  set  goals  as  a  means  of  achieving  learning  objectives.    
•  demonstrate  values  of  trustworthiness,  respect,  responsibility,  fairness,  caring,  and  citizenship.  
 •  modify  instruction  and  curriculum  to  create  effective  learning  environments.    
•  create  a  culture  that  supports  innovation,  creativity,  and  change.    
•  participate  in  staff  development  opportunities  consistent  with  the  district’s  mission,  beliefs,  values,  and  
vision.    
•  use  mentoring  experiences  that  provide  professional  orientation  for  new  teachers  and  principals.    
•  exhibit  a  willingness  to  implement  new  ideas,  concepts,  or  strategies  to  create  a  more  effective  learning  
environment.  
 
C.  Teacher  Evaluation  Process  (OTES)  
 
Teachers  will  be  evaluated  according  to  the  Ohio  Teacher  Evaluation  System,  which  includes  the  
following:  
o Professional  Growth  Plan  (aligned  with  District  Goals)  
o Two  30-­‐minute  observations  
o Walkthroughs  (Individual  school  discretion)  
o Student  academic  growth  (as  demonstrated  through  Student  Learning  Objectives)  
Each  teacher  will  be  evaluated  according  to  the  Ohio  Revised  Code  and  an  evaluation  framework  that  is  
aligned  with  the  Standards  for  the  Teaching  Profession  adopted  under  state  law.  
 
 
D.  District  Educational  Goal-­‐Setting  
District:  Each  year,  it  will  be  the  responsibility  of  the  district  to  provide  district  goals  associated  with  
teacher  professional  development  and  student  achievement.    
 
School:  Consequently,  it  will  be  the  responsibility  of  each  building  administrator  to  generate  at  least  two  
building  goals  connected  to  the  provided  district  goals.  Examples  of  building  goals  are  provided  below:  
o Increase  student  performance  on  Ohio  Achievement  test  by  3%  from  previous  school  year  
o Increase  teacher  collaboration  through  bi-­‐weekly  meetings  by  department,  grade  level,  etc.  
o Increase  specific  subgroup  performance  on  Ohio  Graduation  Test  by  at  least  2%  
o Increase  the  use  of  formative  assessment  in  daily  instruction  
 
Teacher:  Each  individual  teacher,  alongside  administrators/supervisors,  will  develop  a  minimum  of  two  
goals  that  will  contribute  to  the  overall  school  goals  listed  above.  All  teachers  will  complete  the  goal-­‐

ED 607, Final Project

School Supervision & Professional Development

K. Betler

 
setting  process  regardless  of  OTES  outcomes.  The  final  goals  should  be  an  outgrowth  of  a  cooperative  
activity  between  the  teacher  and  supervisor  and  should  be  mutually  agreed  upon.  These  goals  should  be  
connected  to  each  teacher’s  Professional  Growth  Plan  completed  for  the  OTES.  
 
It  is  recommended  that  the  goals  be  established  in  accordance  with  their  potential  impact  on  
student  learning.  Goals  should  be  individual  and  specific.  The  following  priorities  should  be  used  as  
guidelines  in  determining  the  appropriateness  of  goals.  
1.  Teaching  Goals  -­‐  Goals  built  around  teaching  behaviors  that  are  directly  related  to  student  outcomes.    
2.  Learner  Goals  -­‐  Goals  that  relate  directly  to  implementing  a  specific  learning  activity  or  improving  a  
particular  student  deficit.  
3.  Program  Goals  -­‐  Goals  that  relate  to  curriculum  areas,  course  outlines,  class  activities,  materials  
selection,  etc.  
4.  Organizational  and  Administrative  Goals  -­‐  Goals  that  deal  with  specific  administrative  criteria.  Only  
in  the  case  of  continuing  problems  in  this  area  would  the  goal  setting  procedure  be  used  to  help  improve  
this  situation.  
5.  District  Goals  -­‐  Goals  that  deal  with  specific  administrative  criteria.  Only  in  the  case  of  continuing  
problems  in  this  area  would  the  goal  setting  procedure  be  used  to  help  improve  this  situation.  

Teacher’s  Professional  Goal  Form  (Minot  Public  Schools)  
Goal Setting
Below is a list of educational goals that have been developed in accordance with the goal setting procedures of
the school district’s supervisory process.
Teacher Name _____________________________________________
School___________________________________________ Subject/Grade ___________________________
Date ______________________
Goal #1:
Goal #2:
Goal #3:
Goal #4:
Please Note: Professional goals should be specific, measurable, attainable, results centered and time-bound.
Begin a goal statement with measurable words such as define, implement, identify, develop, design, apply and
select.
A discussion of these mutually agreed upon goals has occurred between the teacher and principal.
Teacher’s Signature___________________________________________________ Date ______________
Principal’s Signature___________________________________________________ Date ______________

ED 607, Final Project

School Supervision & Professional Development

K. Betler

 

Evaluation  Protocols  
 
Option  1:  OTES  Teacher  Performance  Evaluation  Rubric  
 
Option  2:  Teacher  Evaluation  Document  (Minot  Public  Schools)  
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

ED 607, Final Project

School Supervision & Professional Development

K. Betler

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Using  Minot  Public  Schools  Evaluation  Document,  this  teacher  would  be  recommended  for  continued  
employment  as  well  as  fall  under  the  “Skilled”  rating  for  the  Ohio  Teacher  Evaluation  System.  
 

 
 

 

ED 607, Final Project

School Supervision & Professional Development

K. Betler

 

 
Interview  Questions:  Evaluation  with  Principal  of  Canton  South  High  School,  Jeff  Moore  

 

“To engage in constructive conversations about the alignment of student and educator performance,
leaders cultivate a culture based on the norms of high expectations, shared responsibility, mutual respect,
and relational trust.” (Learning Forward, Professional Learning Standards)

o What strategies have been implemented in your school to accomplish the standard above?
What kinds of professional learning/collaboration are you using to build a culture of high
expectations, shared responsibility, mutual respect, and relational trust?
“Obviously we have tried to use the current eval process as a non-threatening, learning experience with
feedback coming from both teachers and evaluators. Our district has been using Professional Development to
help our staff with assessments and classroom organization. We also have an implementation of PLC time for
grade levels and departments so our staff can use each other as resources. We are trying to build trust by
encouraging our staff members to try new things in the classroom, ask for help without fear of repercussions,
and good faith with decisions.”
o What is the key to balancing evaluation and trust between teachers and administrators?
“Trust starts long before the evaluation process. If that trust has been built then the eval process is not as
scary. But you have to be honest with your staff, that does not mean you have to be mean or disrespectful. If
they cannot deal with the fact that we are looking to improve then the teacher needs to reflect.”
o In your opinion, should a school supervisory structure include lead teachers as a part of the
evaluation process? Can evaluation be delegated? Who should be evaluating building teachers?
“I will say no to the lead teachers being evaluators, however I will clarify with the statement that each district is
different on what a lead teacher means. Large districts use lead teachers in a much different role than smaller
ones do. In large districts it would be easier to implement the leads into a evaluator role, some districts use
them in a non teacher role.”
o What is your school’s improvement process for teachers that have been evaluated as
ineffective?
“We follow the state guidelines with improvement plans. One thing that I believe in is having teachers develop
their own plan. I believe it helps develop buy in. I will let them know what they need to work on, but they need
to develop the plan to correct this. “
o What does shared leadership look like in your building? district?
“I am trying to push for more of a shared leadership process within our building. We are in no way a full
fledged shared leadership process. But I do believe we are moving toward more of the shared influence. The
guiding statement I do follow is, "The more it impacts teaching and learning the more we need the shared
process."
o How do you use data to assess overall teacher performance?
“Currently we use the Student Learning Objective (SLO) data for 50% of our teacher evaluation.”

 

ED 607, Final Project

School Supervision & Professional Development

K. Betler

 
Interview  Questions:  Professional  Development,  Director  of  Career  &  Technical  Education  
 
o What  types/kinds  of  professional  learning  communities  are  utilized  in  your  district?  (grade  
level,  department,  etc.)  
 
 
 
Walker  Elementary  –  Grade  level,  RTI,  as  well  as  various  other  committees  
 
 
Faircrest  Middle  School  –  Grade  level,  department,  RTI  
 
 
Canton  South  High  School  –  Grade  level,  department,  RTI,  and  various  other  committees  
 
o Are  protocols  used  to  assess  the  productivity  of  professional  learning  communities  in  your  
district?  Is  there  an  accountability  system  in  place?    
 
 
 
 
This  is  something  we,  as  a  central  office  staff,  have  recently  decided  to  focus  on…we  feel  we  have  
 
mastered  the  PLC  but  need  work  on  how  we  are  getting  feedback  and  monitoring  results.  
 
o How  is  teacher  feedback/choice  used  to  design  professional  development  experiences?  
 
 
After  each  professional  development  session,  teachers  are  asked  to  rate  their  level  of  engagement  
 
through  a  survey  or  exit  slip.  This  is  very  important  to  us  as  a  central  office  staff  and  also  helps  to  
 
guide  building  leaders  in  their  school’s  professional  development.    
 
o How  does  the  school  leadership  determine  the  focus  of  professional  development?    
 
 
This  year,  in  particular,  we  are  focusing  on  the  Ohio  Improvement  Process.  We  have  chosen  to  
 
start  with  formative  assessment  and  vocabulary  as  the  foundation.  So  far,  these  professional  
 
development  sessions  have  been  very  successful.  
 
o What  are  some  key  characteristics  of  high  quality  professional  development?    
 
 
First,  it’s  about  listening  to  the  staff  and  how  they  prefer  to  engage  in  professional  development  –  
 
we  rarely  meet  in  large  groups  and  try  to  keep  the  work  centered  on  each  individual  teacher’s  
 
content  area  so  they  feel  what  they  are  doing  is  impacting  their  specific  classroom.  We  also  try  to  
 
make  sure  the  teachers  leave  with  something  they  feel  good  about  and  ready  to  implement  
 
practically  into  their  classrooms.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

ED 607, Final Project
 

School Supervision & Professional Development

K. Betler

References  
 
Archibald,  S.,  Coggshall,  J.,  Croft,  A.,  &  Goe,  L.  (2011).  “High  quality  professional  development  for  all  
 
teachers:  effectively  allocating  resources.”  National  Comprehensive  Center  for  Teacher  Quality.  
 
Retrieved  from  http://www.gtlcenter.org/sites/default/files/docs/HighQualityProfessional  
 
Development.pdf  
Brewster,  C.  &  Railsback,  J.  (2003).  “Building  trusting  relationships  for  school  improvement.”  Northwest  
 
Regional  Educational  Laboratory.  Retrieved  from    http://educationnorthwest.org/sites/  
 
default/files/trust.pdf  
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