66K views

Uploaded by etecham

- Direct Shear Test (Complete Report)
- Shear Strength of Soil
- Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice, 3rd Edition - Karl Terzaghi, Ralph B. Peck, Gholamreza Mesri - 1996
- ~Unconsolidated Undrained Test~~
- Constant & Falling Head Permeability Test
- direct shear test
- Canadian Foundation Engineering Manual 4th
- Slope Stability Analysis Manual Calculations
- Falling Head Permeability Test lab report
- meyerhof Method - Pile Capacity.xls
- ULS and SLS
- Direct Shear Test
- Unconfined Compression Test
- FULL REPORT consolidation.docx
- Elastic Modulus of Soil
- Triaxial Test
- Triaxial Test Report
- Laboratory Report Vane Shear Test
- Broms Method
- 315992439-Consolidation-Test-Of-Soil-Complete-Report.pdf

You are on page 1of 23

Shear Strength

Lecture No. 11

Drained and Undrained Conditions

• Drained condition occurs when there is no change

in pore water pressure due to external loading.

• In a drained condition, the pore water can drain out

of the soil easily, causing volumetric strains in the

soil.

• Undrained condition occurs when the pore water

is unable to drain out of the soil.

• In an undrained condition, the rate of loading is

much quicker than the rate at which the pore water

is able to drain out of the soil.

• As a result, most of the external loading is taken by

the pore water, resulting in an increase in the pore

water pressure.

• The tendency of soil to change volume is suppressed

during undrained loading.

2

Drained and Undrained Conditions (Continued..)

condition in a soil depends on:

– The soil type (e.g. fine-grained or coarse-grained)

– Geological formation (fissures, sand layers in clays, etc.)

– Rate of loading

• For a rate of loading associated with a normal

construction activity, saturated coarse-grained

soils (e.g. sands and gravels) experience drained

conditions and saturated fine-grained soils (e.g.

silts and clays) experience undrained conditions.

• If the rate of loading is fast enough (e.g. during an

earthquake), even coarse-grained soils can

experience undrained loading, often resulting in

liquefaction.

3

Drained and Undrained Conditions (Continued..)

exhibit an increase in pore water pressure during undrained

loading, resulting in a decrease in effective stress.

• A soil with a tendency to expand or dilate during drained

loading will exhibit a decrease in pore water pressure during

undrained loading, resulting in an increase in effective stress.

4

Undrained Shear Strength

• The shear strength of a fine-grained soil under

undrained condition is called the undrained

shear strength and is denoted by su.

• su is the radius of the Mohr’s Circle of Total Stress:

Effective Stress Circle

(σ1 )f − (σ 3 )f (σ1′ )f − (σ ′3 )f τ φ’cs

su = =

2 2 su

(σ 3 )f (σ 1 )f

• The undrained shear

strength depends only σ, σ’

on the initial void

ratio or the initial

(σ ′3 )f (σ 1′ )f

u

water content of the Total Stress Circle

soil. [Note that the horizontal tangent to the

two circles is NOT a failure envelope.] 5

Undrained Shear Strength (Continued..)

Higher effective

• Unlike the critical confining stresses

state angle of τ φ’cs

friction, the su2

undrained shear su1

strength is not a

fundamental soil

parameter. σ

• Its value depends on

the values of the

Lower effective φ’cs

effective confining

confining stresses

stresses.

• An increase in effective confining stresses causes

a decrease in void ratio and an increase in

undrained shear strength as shown in the figure

above. 6

Undrained Shear Strength (Continued..)

• The Atterberg limits

IL

(Liquid Limit and Plastic

Limit) define the range of 1.0

undrained shear strengths

for a fine-grained plastic

soil.

• At its Liquid Limit (i.e.

Liquidity Index IL = 1), a 0

clay has su approximately 1.5 150 log(su)

kPa kPa

equal to 1.5 kPa.

• At its Plastic Limit (i.e. IL = 0), a clay has su

approximately equal to 150 kPa.

• Therefore, approximate estimate of su can be

obtained by knowing the water content of the soil.

7

TSA and ESA

• TSA stands for Total Stress Analysis.

• A TSA uses undrained shear strength (su) for

the analysis of soil strength and soil stability

problems.

• TSA derives its name from the fact that su value

for a fine-grained soil can be obtained using total

stresses (see description and figure on page 5).

• ESA stands for Effective Stress Analysis.

• An ESA uses critical state angle of friction (φ’cs)

for the analysis of soil strength and soil stability

problems.

8

Undrained or Drained?

• When designing a

geotechnical

structure, both

undrained and

drained conditions

must be considered

to determine which

one is more critical.

• For an excavated

slope, the long-

term or drained

condition is more

critical because the • On the other hand, for an

drained strength of embankment, the short-term or

soil is lower than its undrained condition is more critical

undrained strength. because the undrained strength of soil

is lower than its drained strength.

9

Direct Shear Test

• It involves shearing a

soil sample along a

horizontal slip plane.

• Vertical force is applied

through a metal platen

resting on top of the

soil sample.

• Horizontal force is

applied using a motor

for displacement

control or by weights

through a pulley for

load control.

10

Direct Shear Test (Continued..)

displacement control because it facilitates

measurement of both the peak and the critical

shear stresses.

• When load control is used, it is not possible to

obtain data beyond the peak shear stress.

• In a displacement control test, the load is

measured using a load cell or a proving ring.

• The horizontal and vertical displacements of the

top half of the shear box are recorded using dial

gauges to obtain shear and volumetric strains.

• Due to poor drainage control, a direct shear test is

not used for obtaining undrained shear strength.

11

Unconfined Compression Test

• This test subjects the soil to

an axial compressive load

between two platens as Dial Proving

shown in the picture. Gauge Ring

• There is no confinement of

the sample in the radial

direction.

Soil

• The load is recorded using a Sample

proving ring or a load cell

and the axial deformation of

the soil sample is recorded

using a dial gauge.

• Loading is applied manually Lever

by turning a lever.

12

Unconfined Compression Test (Continued..)

σ1 τ φ’cs

su

σ3 σ1 σ

σ3 = 0 σ3 = 0 Effective Stress Circle

(not determined in UC test)

the soil sample is sheared at a fast rate to ensure

undrained condition.

• Undrained shear strength of the soil sample is

given by:

su = 12 σ 1

13

Conventional Triaxial Test

• A conventional triaxial test is

widely used for obtaining

Proving Ring

shear strength parameters

for a variety of soil types.

• A typical triaxial apparatus is

shown in the picture. Triaxial Cell

• The essential components

are:

– A Reaction Loading Frame

– A Triaxial Cell for the application

of confining pressure

– A load measurement device

(e.g. a proving ring) Loading Frame

– Deformation measurement

devices 14

Conventional Triaxial Test (Continued..)

• The name Triaxial is

a misnomer since only

two, not three,

stresses can be

controlled – axial

stress and radial

stress.

• It involves subjecting

a cylindrical soil

sample to controlled

increases in axial

stresses or axial

displacements and

radial stresses.

15

Conventional Triaxial Test (Continued..)

membrane and radial stresses are applied by

pressurizing water in the triaxial cell.

• The axial stresses are applied by loading a plunger.

• If axial stress (σ1) is greater than radial stress

(σ3), the sample is compressed vertically and the

test is called a Triaxial Compression Test.

• If axial stress (σ1) is less than radial stress (σ3),

the sample is compressed radially and the test is

called a Triaxial Extension Test.

• The flow of water in and out of the soil sample can

be controlled accurately and therefore, it is

possible to do both undrained and drained tests.

16

Conventional Triaxial Test (Continued..)

pressure in the soil sample due to an increase in

axial or radial stresses.

• Therefore, it is possible to calculate the effective

stresses in the soil sample.

• Depending on the drainage conditions, a triaxial

compression test can be of two types:

– Consolidated Drained (CD) Test

– Consolidated Undrained (CU) Test

• Both the CD and the CU tests subject the soil

sample to initial consolidation to bring the

effective stresses within the soil sample close to

the field value.

17

Consolidated Drained (CD) Test

• The purpose of a CD test is to obtain drained shear

strength parameter (φ’cs) for the analysis of long-

term or drained loading of a soil mass.

• The effective Young’s modulus E’ and shear

modulus G can also be obtained from a CD test.

• Since the soil is drained for the entire duration of

the test, there is no change in the pore pressure

value.

• Therefore, according to the Effective Stress

Principle, the change in total stress is equal to

change in effective stress.

• Hence, the analysis of CD test results is done on

the basis of effective stresses.

18

Consolidated Drained Test (Continued..)

σ’1 = σ’3 + ∆σ’1 τ φ’cs

σ’

σ’3 σ’3

σ’3 σ’1

σ’1

• Usually, three or more soil samples are tested at different values

of effective confining stress σ’3.

• Mohr’s circle of stress can be drawn for each of these tests – the

larger the value of σ’3, the larger the diameter of the circle.

• The common tangent to all the circles passing through

origin is the Coulomb’s failure line and its inclination with

respect to σ’-axis is the critical state angle of friction φ’cs for soil

19

CD Triaxial Test – An Example

• The results of three CD triaxial tests on a soil at

failure are given in the table below. Estimate the

φ’cs value for the soil.

Test σ’3 σ’1 at failure

No. (kPa) (kPa)

1 100 305

2 150 442

3 200 593

20

Consolidated Undrained Test

• Both undrained (su) and drained (φ’cs)

parameters can be obtained from a consolidated

undrained (CU) test.

• A CU test is conducted in a similar manner as a CD

test except that at the end of initial consolidation,

the axial load or displacement is increased under

undrained condition and the excess pore water

pressure is measured.

• Plotting of Mohr’s circle of stress can be done using

total stresses if only su values are required.

• If φ’cs value for the soil is required in addition to su

values, the Mohr’s circle of stress must be plotted

using effective stresses.

21

Consolidated Undrained Test (Continued..)

σ’1 = σ1 - ∆u φ’cs Total Stress

τ Circles

su3

su2

su1

σ, σ’

σ’3 σ’3 = σ3 - ∆u

σ’3 σ’1

σ’1

Effective Stress Circles ∆u [Test 3]

can only be plotted if pore water pressure is

measured during a test.

• The excess pore water pressure is the horizontal

offset between Mohr’s circles of effective stress

and total stress.

22

CU Triaxial Test – An Example

• A CU triaxial test was conducted on a saturated

soil by isotropically consolidating the soil sample

using a cell pressure of 150 kPa and then

incrementally applying load on the plunger while

keeping the cell pressure constant. Failure was

observed when the stress exerted by the plunger

was 160 kPa and the pore water pressure

recorded was 54 kPa. Determine (a) su and (b)

φ’cs of the soil by plotting Mohr’s circles for total

and effective stresses.

[This example will be solved in the class.]

23

- Direct Shear Test (Complete Report)Uploaded byBshfirnaudz
- Shear Strength of SoilUploaded byetecham
- Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice, 3rd Edition - Karl Terzaghi, Ralph B. Peck, Gholamreza Mesri - 1996Uploaded byJesus Antonio Hernandez Castro
- ~Unconsolidated Undrained Test~~Uploaded byHuzz Ellieyza
- Constant & Falling Head Permeability TestUploaded byEngr. Ikhwan Z.
- direct shear testUploaded byshahrolhazrien
- Canadian Foundation Engineering Manual 4thUploaded byyusefmejia
- Slope Stability Analysis Manual CalculationsUploaded bymohdpat05
- Falling Head Permeability Test lab reportUploaded byshahrolhazrien
- meyerhof Method - Pile Capacity.xlsUploaded byTee Bun Pin
- ULS and SLSUploaded bylolorek
- Direct Shear TestUploaded byObaid Khalid
- Unconfined Compression TestUploaded byTeo Peng Keat
- FULL REPORT consolidation.docxUploaded byFatin Nabihah
- Elastic Modulus of SoilUploaded byHanumantha Rao B
- Triaxial TestUploaded byghaddad69
- Triaxial Test ReportUploaded byKeMa Woo Hoo
- Laboratory Report Vane Shear TestUploaded by'Sayed Asadullah
- Broms MethodUploaded byvzaia86
- 315992439-Consolidation-Test-Of-Soil-Complete-Report.pdfUploaded byAmeera Alexandra
- Foundation Analysis and Design 5th Edition Joseph E. BowlesUploaded byAizaz Shaikh
- Soil Mechanics by Lambe and WhitmanUploaded bycivilengineer86
- TRIAXIAL TEST: CONSOLIDATED UNDRAINEDUploaded byNguyễn Hòa
- Tomlinson Foundation Design and ConstructionUploaded byfrankjams
- Reinforced Concrete Design to Eurocode 2Uploaded byMustafa Hyali
- 300-Solved-ProblemsUploaded byVenketaramani Tiruchirapalli
- Pile Foundation DesignUploaded bycuongnguyen
- Soil Mechanics by GopalranjanUploaded bynnsdell
- Soil behavior and critical state soil mechanics by Wood.pdfUploaded bymmc
- Chapter 10 Slope StabilityUploaded byhare krishna

- Counter ExamplesUploaded byTeferi
- Steps to Complete Aca Participating In The Federally-facilitated Marketplaces Registration Process for Agents and BrokersUploaded byScott Tucker
- Modeling, Control and Automatic Code Generation for a Two-Wheeled Self-Balancing Vehicle Using Modelica.pdfUploaded byMimidbe Bibi
- term research project draftUploaded byapi-240686952
- Greenhouse Effect the Working Principle and ApplicationUploaded byiamnottom
- MK0018 International MarketingUploaded bysmu mba solved assignments
- Technical Specifications Wilbur PM2.5Uploaded byOscar
- WR Retrievable Bridge Plug - Operating InstructionsUploaded byEvolution Oil Tools
- e Litmus ProbabilityUploaded bysanjay singh
- Stock market prediction using Neural Networks and sentiment analysis of News Articles.Uploaded byIJAR Journal
- illinois dmv exam study bookUploaded bylostpurple2061
- Pennyrile-Rural-Electric-Coop-Commercial-Tariff-BookUploaded byGenability
- Russian Military Industrial ComplexUploaded byAbiy Kassu
- ITIL Cobit MappingUploaded byapi-3836896
- 070515 - Nike PhilosophyUploaded byShahin Shadfar
- Turnitin-Training_JMU.pptUploaded byKhalidTaherAl-Hussaini
- Lcdf4 Chap 02 p1Uploaded byAustin Niño Bocao
- Northumbria universityUploaded byRunaway Shuji
- Chapter 11 rUploaded byRahul Anand
- To Prepare a Smoke BombUploaded byRItesh Kumar
- Bd Doc Concrete ReinforcemenUploaded byAnthony YU
- 100gClayBarUploaded byjeanada phillips
- Walmart Discrimination CaseUploaded bypemnad
- Golden Moon: Twilight Fan FictionUploaded byjubbers
- T101 Drilling Machine BrochureUploaded byRicardo Ortega
- Person to Person(s) Communication.pptx1Uploaded byharjinder pal singh
- Corporate Social Responsbility, CSRUploaded byrahulsinghal06
- NDT for Gas TurbinesUploaded bysami
- Performance Appraisal MethodsUploaded byAsha Rai
- Iso14644 PDFUploaded byDenny Simeon