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MANAGERIAL
ACCOUNTING

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MANAGERIAL
ACCOUNTING
Creating Value in a
Dynamic Business Environment
Seventh Edition

Ronald W. Hilton
Cornell University

Boston Burr Ridge, IL Dubuque, IA Madison, WI New York San Francisco St. Louis
Bangkok Bogot Caracas Kuala Lumpur Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City
Milan Montreal New Delhi Santiago Seoul Singapore Sydney Taipei Toronto

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MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING: CREATING VALUE IN A DYNAMIC BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT


Published by McGraw-Hill/Irwin, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221
Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY, 10020. Copyright 2008 by The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed
in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written
consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or
other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.
Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers
outside the United States.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 WCK/WCK 0 9 8 7 6
ISBN-13: 978-0-07-302285-7
ISBN-10: 0-07-302285-3
Editorial director: Stewart Mattson
Managing developmental editor: Gail Korosa
Executive marketing manager: Krista Bettino
Senior media producer: Elizabeth Mavetz
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Lead production supervisor: Rose Hepburn
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Cover design: George Kokkonas
Typeface: 11/12 Times Roman
Compositor: Techbooks
Printer: Quebecor World Versailles Inc.
Material from the Uniform CPA Examination, Questions and Unofficial Answers, Copyright 1978, 1979, 1980,
1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991 by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants,
Inc. is adapted with permission.
Material from the Certificate in Management Accounting Examinations, Copyright 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980,
1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1987, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000 by the Institute
of Management Accountants is adapted with permission.
Logos from Caterpillar, Inc., Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., and Southwest Airlines Co. appear in this text with permission
from those companies.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Hilton, Ronald W.
Managerial accounting : creating value in a dynamic business environment / Ronald W.
Hilton.7th ed.
p. cm.
Includes index.
ISBN-13: 978-0-07-302285-7 (alk. paper)
ISBN-10: 0-07-302285-3 (alk. paper)
1. Managerial accounting. I. Title.
HF5657.4.H55 2008
658.1511dc22
2006018043

www.mhhe.com

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To my wife, Meg, and our sons, Brad and Tim.

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Preface
A MARKET LEADER FOR SIX EDITIONS,
HILTON CONTINUES THAT TRADITION
OF MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING
INNOVATION AND EXCELLENCE.

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Preface

ABOUT THE AUTHOR


Ronald W. Hilton

Professor Hilton tours a microchip


production facility located outside
Taipei, Taiwan. In recent years,
Professor Hilton has consulted with
practicing managerial accountants
throughout the world.

is a Professor of Accounting
at Cornell University. With bachelors and masters degrees
in accounting from The Pennsylvania State University, he
received his Ph.D. from The Ohio State University.
A Cornell faculty member since 1977, Professor Hilton
also has taught accounting at Ohio State and the University
of Florida, where he held the position of Walter J. Matherly
Professor of Accounting. Prior to pursuing his doctoral
studies, Hilton worked for Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and
Company and served as an officer in the United States Air
Force.
Professor Hilton is a member of the Institute of
Management Accountants and has been active in the
American Accounting Association. He has served as
associate editor of The Accounting Review and as a
member of its editorial board. Hilton also has served on the
editorial board of the Journal of Management Accounting
Research. He has been a member of the
resident faculties of both the Doctoral
Consortium and the New Faculty Consortium
sponsored by the American Accounting
Association.
With wide-ranging research interests, Hilton
has published articles in many journals,
including the Journal of Accounting
Research, The Accounting Review,
Management Science, Decision Sciences,
The Journal of Economic Behavior and
Organization, Contemporary Accounting
Research, and the Journal of Mathematical
Psychology. He also has published a
monograph in the AAA Studies in Accounting Research
series, and he is a co-author of Cost Management:
Strategies for Business Decisions, Budgeting: Profit
Planning and Control, and Cost Accounting: Concepts and
Managerial Applications. Professor Hiltons current research
interests focus on contemporary cost management systems
and international issues in managerial accounting. In recent
years, he has toured manufacturing facilities and consulted
with practicing managerial accountants in North America,
Europe, Asia, and Australia.

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Preface
BRINGING REAL-WORLD FOCUS TO
Managerial Accounting.
The world of business is changing dramatically.
As a result, the role of managerial accounting
is very different than it was even a decade
ago. Today, managerial accountants serve as
internal business consultants, working side-byside in cross-functional teams with managers
from all areas of the organization. For a
thorough understanding of managerial
accounting, students should not only be able to
produce accounting information, but also
understand how managers are likely to use
and react to the information.
The goal of Managerial Accounting is to
acquaint students of business with the
fundamental tools of management accounting
and to promote their understanding of the
dramatic ways in which the field is changing.
The emphasis throughout the text is on using
accounting information to help manage an
organization.

Major strength is how it relates managerial accounting to the


general management function and reveals the managerial
accountant as an important member of the management
team.
Linda C. Bowen,
University of North Carolina Chapel Hill

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Preface
YOUR MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING CLASS
Focus Companies.
Focus Companies provide a powerful strategy for
fostering learning, and Hiltons integration of focus
companies throughout the text is unmatched by any
other managerial accounting book. Each chapter
introduces important managerial accounting topics
within the context of a realistic company. Students
see the immediate impact of managerial accounting
decisions on companies and gain exposure to
different types of organizations.

Balanced.
Hiltons Managerial Accounting offers the most
balanced coverage of manufacturing and service
companies. He recognizes that students will be
working in a great variety of business environments
and will benefit from exposure to diverse types of
companies. Hilton uses a wide variety of examples
from retail, service, manufacturing, and nonprofit
organizations.

Contemporary.
Hilton continues to be the leader in presenting the
most contemporary coverage of managerial
accounting topics. The traditional tools of managerial
accounting such as product costing and budgeting
have been updated with current approaches. New
topics such as environmental cost management and
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act have been added.

The company story acts as a hook to get


students interested in the chapter material.
Michele Matherly,
University of North Carolina at Charlotte

In today's world, it is important to teach the


student from a standpoint of a variety of
different business organizations. Hilton does a
great job of diversifying his material among
various types of business organizations.
Marilyn Ciolino,
Delgado Community College

Perhaps what sets Hilton apart from the


competition is its recognition that the
world consists of more than
manufacturing firms, and that managerial
accounting plays a significant role in
service and not-for-profit organizations.
Lanny Solomon,
University of Missouri Kansas City

Flexible.
Managerial Accounting is written in a modular format
allowing topics to be covered in the order you want.
For example, Chapter 17 covers absorption, variable
and throughput costing. Many instructors like to cover
this topic early in the course. So, Chapter 17 is
written so that it can be assigned right after Chapter
3. A table showing the text's flexibility is in the
Instructor's Resource Manual.

The book goes beyond covering the basics and


organizes and integrates contemporary topics nicely.
Harrison McCraw,
State University of West Georgia

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Preface
How Does Managerial Accounting: Creating

Value in a Dynamic Business Environment


Bring the Real World into Your Classroom?
FOCUS COMPANIES
Students need to see the relevance of
managerial accounting information in order
to actively engage in learning the material.
Ron Hilton found that by using Focus
Companies to illustrate concepts, students
immediately saw the significance of the
material and became excited about the

INSERT tearsheet from


front endsheet
(to come)

content. Hiltons integration of Focus


Companies throughout the text is
unmatched by any other managerial
accounting textbook. Each chapter
introduces important managerial topics
within the context of a realistic company.
Whenever the Focus Company is
presented in the chapter, its logo is shown
so the student sees its application to the
text topic.

CONTRAST COMPANIES
New to this edition, a Contrast Company is
now introduced in each chapter. In most
cases these highlight an industry different
from that of the Focus Company. This
feature allows even greater emphasis on
service-industry firms and other nonmanufacturing environments. The Focus
Companies and Contrast Companies are
listed on the front endpapers.

THIS CHAPTERS FOCUS COMPANY


is The Walt Disney Company. This entertainment services company is a giant in the industry with theme
parks, feature film studios, animation studios, television broadcasting, hotels and resorts, and retail stores.
Using the Walt Disney Company as an illustration, we
will introduce the field of managerial accounting. We
will explore how managerial accountants work in partnership with managers to add value to the organization. The major themes of managerial accounting also
are introduced, and we will return to them throughout
the book.

Each chapter is built around a focus


company, in which the chapters key points
are illustrated. This chapters focus is on
The Walt Disney Company. The focus
companies in subsequent chapters are
not real companies, but they are realistic
scenarios built on actual company
practices. Whenever the focus company
is discussed in the chapter, the company
logo appears in the margin.

Walt D isney
Company

IN CONTRAST
to the entertainment services setting of
The Walt Disney Company, we will turn
our attention to Gap, Inc. This major
clothing retailer has over 3,000 stores
around the world, which sell Gap,
Banana Republic, Old Navy, and Forth &
Towne apparel. We will explore Gaps
value chain, which is the set of linked,
value-creating activities, ranging from
securing basic raw materials and energy
to the ultimate delivery of products and
services. As a retailer, Gap focuses on
apparel design, marketing, and sales. All
manufacturing of its clothing lines is
contracted out to garment manufacturers
throughout the world.
Each chapter also includes a contrast company. In most cases, the contrast company will present a key chapter topic
in an industry that is different from that of the focus company. In this chapter, the focus company (Walt Disney) is an
entertainment services company, whereas the contrast company (The Gap) is a fashion retailer.

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Preface
REAL-WORLD FOCUS
The Ethical Climate of Business and the Role of the Accountant
Who among us is not shocked and dismayed by the seemingly endless stream of corporate scandals that we have experienced over the past few years. The headlines keep
on comingAOL, Bristol-Myers Squib, Conseco, Enron, Global Crossing, KPMG,
Rite Aid, Tyco, Worldcom, Xeroxand the list goes on. Many of the cases involve
mismanagement, some are characterized by alleged ethical lapses, and in some
instances there is alleged criminal behavior. Who is to blame? According to most observers, there is plenty of blame to go around: greedy corporate executives, managers
who make overreaching business deals, lack of oversight by various companies
boards of directors (particularly the boards audit committees), shoddy work by external auditors, lack of sufficient probing by Wall Street analysts and the financial press,
and some accountants who have been all too willing to push the envelope on aggressive accounting to (or beyond) the edge. Billions of dollars have been lost in employee
pension funds, several states investment portfolios, and the private investment accounts of the public. It will no doubt take many years to sort out the mess. Companies
have gone bankrupt; fortunes have been lost; careers have been ruined; and more of the
same is yet to come. Some of those involved will likely end up in jail. Several financial executives have filed guilty pleas on felony charges. Some are serving time in

LO9
Understand the ethical
responsibilities of a
managerial accountant.

Topic 12

Managerial Accounting:
A Business Partnership with Management
We are looked upon as
business advisors, more
than just accountants,
and that has a lot to do
with the additional
analysis and the
forward-looking goals
we are setting. (1a)1
Caterpillar

The role of managerial accounting is very different now than it was even a decade ago.
In the past, managerial accountants operated in a strictly staff capacity, usually physically separated from the managers for whom they provided reports and information.
Nowadays, managerial accountants serve as internal business consultants, working
side-by-side in cross-functional teams with managers from all areas of the organization. Rather than isolate managerial accountants in a separate accounting department,
companies now tend to locate them in the operating departments where they are working with other managers to make decisions and resolve operational problems.
Managerial accountants take on leadership roles on their teams and are sought out for
the valuable information they provide. The role of the accountant in leading-edge companies has been transformed from number cruncher and financial historian to being
business partner and trusted advisor.2
An organizations management team, on which managerial accountants play an integral role, seeks to create value for the organization by managing resources, activities,
and people to achieve the organizations goals effectively.

As most students taking a basic principles of


managerial accounting course are not accounting
majors, they don't always understand why they need
to know this information. I believe you could use
them to show why finance people, marketing people,
management people, etc., need to know this
information.
Lois Mahoney,
Eastern Michigan University

Management
Accounting
Practice
Dell Computer

The Hilton text provides a variety of thoughtprovoking, real-world examples to focus students
on managerial accounting as an essential part of
the management process. Featured organizations
include FedEx, Ford, Bank of America,
Amazon.com, the Gap, and many others. These
companies are highlighted in blue in the text.

In Their Own Words


Quotes from both practicing managers and
managerial accountants are included in the
margins throughout the text. These actual quotes
show how the field of management accounting is
changing, emphasize how the concepts are
actually used, and demonstrate that management
accountants are key players in most companies
management teams.

Management Accounting Practice

MASS CUSTOMIZATION
There is no better way to make, sell, and deliver PCs than the way Dell Computer does it, and nobody executes that model better than Dell. The companys machines are made to order and delivered directly to customers, who get the exact machines they want cheaper than they can get them
from Dells competition. Dell has some 24 facilities in and around Austin and employs more than
18,000 local workers. Dell is improving its earnings and gaining market share even in tough economic times.2 Nevertheless, Michael Dell, the companys restless founder, is constantly looking for
ways to improve the companys operations. In one year alone, Dell cut $1 billion out of its costshalf
from manufacturingand Dell executives vowed to cut another $1 billion.
Visit the Topfer Manufacturing Center in Austin, and its hard to conceive how Dell could be
any more efficient. Workers already scuttle about in the 200,000-square-foot plant like ants on a
hot plate. Gathered in cramped six-person cells, they assemble computers from batches of parts
that arrive via a computer-directed conveyor system overhead. If a worker encounters a problem,

The managerial accounting practices of wellknown, real-world organizations are highlighted in


these boxes. They stimulate student interest and
provide a springboard for classroom discussion.

Focus on Ethics

Focus on Ethics
WAS WORLDCOMS CONTROLLER JUST
FOLLOWING ORDERS?
Through a series of mergers and acquisitions, WorldCom, Inc.
grew to become the nations second-largest long-distance
telecommunications company. WorldComs core communication
services included network data transmission over public and private networks. Trouble arose for WorldCom because of the immense overcapacity in the telecommunications industry due to
overly optimistic growth projections during the Internet boom.
The combination of overcapacity, decreased demand, and high
fixed costs still poses a serious problem for many of the major
players in the industry.
In June 2002, the company disclosed that it had overstated
earnings for 2001 and the first quarter of 2002 to the tune of

Real-World Examples

the capitalization allowed the company to spread the recognition


of its expenses into the future, which increased net income in the
current period. The expenses in question related to line costs
the fees that WorldCom pays outside providers for access to their
communications networks. In addition, the company announced
in July 2002 that it had also manipulated reserve accounts,
which affected another $3.8 billion in earnings in 1999 and
2000.
The problems at WorldCom were discovered during an internal audit and brought to the attention of the companys new
auditors, KPMG. Arthur Andersen served as WorldComs auditors
during the period covered by the alleged accounting scandal.
Arthur Andersen maintained that the details of the accounting
fraud were kept from them by senior WorldCom management.

This feature is included in most chapters. Focus


on Ethics poses an ethical dilemma, then asks
tough questions that underscore the importance of
ethical management. Some of these are based on
real-world incidents while others are fictional but
based on well-established anecdotal evidence.

XI

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Preface
A FOCUS ON EXCEPTIONAL
END-OF-CHAPTER MATERIAL
Managerial Accounting is known for its comprehensive and reliable end-of-chapter material.
Each chapter includes an extensive selection of assignment material including Review Questions,
Exercises, Problems, and Cases.

Review Problems on Cost Classifications

Review Problems present both a problem and a


complete solution allowing students to review the
entire problem-solving process.

Problem 1
Several costs incurred by Myrtle Beach Golf Equipment, Inc. are listed below. For each cost, indicate
which of the following classifications best describe the cost. More than one classification may apply to
the same cost item. For example, a cost may be both a variable cost and a product cost.
Cost Classifications
a. Variable
b.

Fixed

c.

Period

d.

Product

e.

Administrative

f.

Selling

g.

Manufacturing

Research and development

Key Terms
For each terms definition refer to the indicated page, or turn to the glossary at the end of the text.

Key Terms are bolded in the text and repeated at


the end of the chapter with page references. The
book also includes a complete Glossary of Key
Terms. Key Terms are also available as online
flash cards at the book's Web site.

11.

13.
14.

15.

the chapter. They exhibit a wide range of difficulty


and the Instructor's Manual provides guidance for
the instructor on the difficulty level and time
required for each problem. Numerous adapted
CMA and CPA problems are included.

empowerment, 7
financial accounting, 10
internal auditor, 13
just-in-time (JIT)
production system, 22
line positions, 13
managerial accounting, 4
non-value-added costs, 24

staff positions, 13
strategic cost
management, 26
theory of constraints, 26
total quality management
(TQM), 23
treasurer, 13
value chain, 24

Review Questions

12.

Review Questions, Exercises, Problems, and


Cases are comprehensive in covering the points in

chief financial officer


(CFO), 13
continuous improvement, 23
controller (or
comptroller), 13
cost accounting system, 11
cost driver, 25
cost management
system, 24

activity accounting, 24
activity-based costing
(ABC), 24
activity-based management
(ABM), 24
attention-directing
function, 7
balanced scorecard, 9
Certified Management
Accountant (CMA), 28

According to some estimates, the volume of electronic


commerce transactions exceeds $3 trillion. Business-tobusiness transactions account for almost half of this
amount. What changes do you believe are in store for
managerial accounting as a result of the explosion in
e-commerce?
List two plausible goals for each of these organizations:
Amazon.com, American Red Cross, General Motors,
Wal-Mart, the City of Seattle, and Hertz.
List and define the four basic management activities.
Give examples of each of the four primary management
activities in the context of a national fast-food chain
such as Barger King.
Give examples of how each of the objectives of managerial accounting activity would be important in an airline

Problems
Problem 342
Schedule of Cost of Goods
Manufactured and Sold;
Income Statement
(LO 6)

110.

How could your college or university use the concepts in


the balanced scorecard? List two possible performance
measures that would be relevant to a college or university, for each of the balanced scorecards four areas.

111.

What does the following statement by a managerial accountant at Caterpillar imply about where in the organization the managerial accountants are located? [We] are
a partner with all of the other functions in the business
here. (Reference 1a at end of text.)

112.

What is meant by the following statement? Managerial


accounting often serves an attention-directing role.

113.

What is the chief difference between manufacturing and


service industry firms?

114.

Define the following terms: just-in-time, computerintegrated manufacturing cost management system

All applicable Problems are available with McGraw-Hills Homework Manager TM.

The following data refer to Twisto Pretzel Company for the year 20x1.
Work-in-process inventory, 12/31/x0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selling and administrative salaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insurance on factory and equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Work-in-process inventory, 12/31/x1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Finished-goods inventory, 12/31/x0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cash balance, 12/31/x1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indirect material used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depreciation on factory equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Raw-material inventory, 12/31/x0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Property taxes on factory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Finished-goods inventory, 12/31/x1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Purchases of raw material in 20x1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities for factory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities for sales and administrative offices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other selling and administrative expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indirect-labor cost incurred . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depreciation on factory building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depreciation on cars used by sales personnel

$ 8,100
13,800
3,600
8,300
14,000
6,000
4,900
2,100
10,100
2,400
15,400
39,000
6,000
2,500
4,000
29,000
3,800
1 200

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Preface
Each chapter includes problems and cases exploring key business areas.
Logos next to the problems identify these topics.

Ethical Issues

Group Work

Internet
Research

International Issues

Business
Communication

Excel
Template

EXCEL
Spreadsheet applications are essential to contemporary accounting practice. Students must recognize the power of spreadsheets and know how accounting data are presented in them. We discuss Excel applications where appropriate in the text.

Exercise 334
Overapplied or Underapplied
Overhead
(LO 4, 5)

The following information pertains to Trenton Glass Works for the year just ended.
Budgeted direct-labor cost: 75,000 hours at $16 per hour
Actual direct-labor cost: 80,000 hours at $17.50 per hour
Budgeted manufacturing overhead: $997,500
Actual selling and administrative expenses: 435,000
Actual manufacturing overhead:
Depreciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Several exercises and problems in each chapter


include an optional requirement for students to
Build a Spreadsheet to develop the solution.

$231,000

Property taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indirect labor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21,000
82,000

Supervisory salaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rental of space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indirect material (see data below) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indirect material:
Beginning inventory, January 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Purchases during the year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ending inventory, December 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

200,000
59,000
30,000
300,000
79,000
48,000
94,000
63,000

Required:

1.
2.
3.
4.

Exercise 335
Predetermined Overhead

Problem 541
Activity-Based Costing
(LO 1, 2, 4, 5, 7)

Compute the firms predetermined overhead rate, which is based on direct-labor hours.
Calculate the overapplied or underapplied overhead for the year.
Prepare a journal entry to close out the Manufacturing Overhead account into Cost of Goods Sold.
Build a spreadsheet: Construct an Excel spreadsheet to solve requirements (1) and (2) above. Show
how the solution will change if the following data change: budgeted manufacturing overhead was
$990,000, property taxes were $25,000, and purchases of indirect material amounted to $97,000.

The following data pertain to the Oneida Restaurant Supply Company for the year just ended.

World Gourmet Coffee Company (WGCC) is a distributor and processor of different blends of coffee.
The company buys toffee beans from around the world and roasts, blends, and packages them for resale.
WGCC currently has 15 different coffees that it offers to gourmet shops in one-pound bags. The major
cost is raw materials; however, there is a substantial amount of manufacturing overhead in the predominantly automated roasting and packing process. The company uses relatively little direct labor.
Some of the coffees are very popular and sell in large volumes, while a few of the newer blends
have very low volumes. WGCC prices its coffee at full product cost, including allocated overhead, plus
a markup of 30 percent. If prices for certain coffees are significantly higher than market, adjustments are
made. The company competes primarily on the quality of its products, but customers are price-conscious
as well.
Data for the 20x1 budget include manufacturing overhead of $3,000,000, which has been allocated
on the basis of each products direct-labor cost. The budgeted direct-labor cost for 20x1 totals $600,000.
Based on the sales budget and raw-material budget, purchases and use of raw materials (mostly coffee
beans) will total $6,000,000.
The expected prime costs for one-pound bags of two of the companys products are as follows:
Direct material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Direct labor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Kona

Malaysian

$3.20
.30

$4.20
.30

Many problems can be solved using the Excel


spreadsheet templates contained on the text's
Web site. An Excel logo appears in the margin
next to these problems for easy identification

WGCCs controller believes the traditional product-costing system may be providing misleading
cost information. She has developed an analysis of the 20x1 budgeted manufacturing-overhead costs
shown in the following chart.

Good description of managerial accounting tools.


Easy to read and understand. Strength is in the endof-chapter problems - good variety and lots of them.
Priscilla Wisner,
Thunderbird, The Garvin School of International Management

Excellent in comparison to the competition. It is


thorough and has a good quality and quantity of
material for students to test themselves.
Laura Rickett,
Kent State University

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Preface
WHAT'S NEW IN THE SEVENTH EDITION?
Contrast Companies
New to the seventh edition is a contrast company
in each chapter. As in previous editions, each
chapter is built around a realistic Focus Company
in which the chapter's key points are illustrated.
In this edition, however, a Contrast Company is
also introduced, which in most cases will feature
an industry different from that of the focus
company. This new feature allows even greater
emphasis on service-industry firms and other
non-manufacturing environments. The focus
companies and contrast companies are listed in
the front endpapers.

Greater Emphasis on the Service Industry


In addition to introducing the contrast companies
described above, a greater effort has been made
to point out the relevance of managerial
accounting concepts and tools in service-industry
settings. Many examples are given throughout the
text of real-world service-industry firms using
managerial accounting information.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act


Three sections of Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) are
germane to management accounting, because
they address aspects of internal controls over
financial reporting. Section 101 establishes the
Public Company Accounting Oversight Board
(PCAOB), which has established requirements for
assessing internal controls. The sections that
have caused the most significant challenges for
companies, and hence created the most
controversy, are sections 302 and 404. The
implications of these three SOX sections are
covered in the 7th Edition.

Streamlining
To streamline this edition, Chapters 5 and 6 have
been heavily revised and reorganized. Significant
changes to both the content and pedagogy in
these chapters, which cover activity-based
costing and activity-based management, make
these challenging topics more accessible to
students.

Updated Topic Tackler


This popular tutorial offers a virtual
helping hand in understanding the
most challenging topics in the
managerial accounting course.
Through a step-by-step sequence of video clips,
PowerPoint slides, interactive practice exercises,
and self-tests, Topic Tackler offers help on two
key topics for each chapter. These topics are
indicated by a logo in the text. New in this edition
are audio-narrated electronic slides.

Focus on Ethics
Several of the Focus on Ethics pieces have been
revised to make this feature even more useful as
a vehicle for exploring ethical issues in the
classroom. The Focus on Ethics piece in Chapter
1 has been revised to reflect the new Statement
of Ethical Professional Practice adopted by the
Institute of Management Accountants in 2005.
The Focus on Ethics piece in Chapter 5
addresses difficult ethical issues that can arise in
the aftermath of an ABC project. The Chapter 6
ethics piece addresses the use of customer
profitability analysis as the basis for providing
differential treatment for different classes of
customers.

End-of-Chapter Material
The end-of-chapter material has once again been
very heavily revised. Several new problems have
been added, and virtually all of the exercises,
problems, and cases contain data different from
that in the sixth edition.

Build a Spreadsheet
This new feature adds a spreadsheet requirement
to several exercises and problems in each
chapter. Students are asked to build an Excel
spreadsheet that will solve the exercise and then
manipulate the solution by changing some of the
key data in the exercise.

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Preface
Heavily revised coverage of key topical areas, brand new pedagogy for the most
challenging topics, and new assignment material make the seventh edition more
useful than ever to students and faculty alike.

SIGNIFICANT CONTENT CHANGES


Chapter 1: Coverage of IMA's new Statement of Ethical
Professional Practice. New coverage of the balanced
scorecard using United Parcel Service as an illustration.
Expanded coverage of the value chain. Introduction of
Contrast Company: The Gap, an apparel retailer. (In
contrast to the Focus Company: The Walt Disney Company, an entertainment services company.)
Chapter 2: Introduction of Contrast Company: Midas,
an automotive service company. (In contrast to the Focus Company: Comet Computer Company, a manufacturer.)
Chapter 3: Introduction of Contrast Company: Midtown
Advertising Agency, an advertising services company.
(In contrast to the Focus Company: Adirondack Outfitters, a manufacturer of canoes and small boats.)
Chapter 5: Heavy revision and reorganization of material covering activity-based costing. Brand new pedagogy,
making this challenging topic more accessible to students. New Focus Company: Patio Grill Company, a
manufacturer of gas barbeque grills. Introduction of
Contrast Company: Delaware Medical Center, a health
care provider.
Chapter 6: Reorganization and revision of activitybased management coverage. New Focus Company:
Patio Grill Company, a manufacturer. Introduction of
Contrast Company: Federal Express, a worldwide express delivery service.
Chapter 7: Introduction of Contrast Company: Cosmos
Communications Technology, a manufacturer of communications satellites. (In contrast to the Focus Company:
Tasty Donuts, a restaurant chain.)
Chapter 8: Introduction of Contrast Company: AccuTime, a manufacturer of digital clocks. (In contrast to the
Focus Company: Seattle Contemporary Theater, a nonprofit theater organization.)
Chapter 9: Movement of the chapter's appendix covering inventory management to a stand-alone appendix at
the end of the textbook. Introduction of Contrast Company: Philadelphia Fitness Cooperative, a fitness club.

(In contrast to the Focus Company: CozyCamp.com, a


manufacturer of camping equipment, with online sales)
Chapter 10: Revision and expansion of coverage of the
balanced scorecard. Introduction of Contrast Company:
Forest Home National Bank, a financial services company. (In contrast to the Focus Company:
DCDesserts.com, a producer of fresh fancy desserts with
emphasis on e-commerce.)
Chapter 11: Introduction of Contrast Company: Upstate
Auto Rentals, a car-rental service company. (In contrast
to the Focus Company: DCDesserts.com, a producer of
fresh fancy desserts with emphasis on e-commerce.)
Chapter 12: Introduction of Contrast Company: Handico, a manufacturer of cordless phones. (In contrast to
the Focus Company: Aloha Hotels and Resorts, a hotel
and resort chain.
Chapter 13: Introduction of Contrast Company: Suncoast's Food Processing Division, which operates bakeries and dairy and meat processing plants for the
grocery retailer. (In contrast to the Focus Company:
Suncoast Food Centers, a grocery retailer.)
Chapter 14: Introduction of Contrast Company: International Chocolate Company, a chocolate producer. (In
contrast to the Focus Company: Worldwide Airways, an
airline.)
Chapter 15: Introduction of Contrast Company: Marine
Services, a marina service and construction company.
(In contrast to the Focus Company: Sydney Sailing Supplies, a sailboat manufacturer.)
Chapter 16: Introduction of Contrast Company: High
Country Department Stores, a retailer. (In contrast to the
Focus Organization: City of Mountainview, a city government.)
Chapter 18: Introduction of Contrast Company: International Chocolate Company, a chocolate producer. (In
contrast to the Focus Company: Riverside Clinic, a
health care provider.)

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Preface
HOW CAN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORT
STUDENT SUCCESS?
Our technology resources help students and instructors focus on learning success. By using the Internet and
multimedia resources, students get book-specific help at their convenience. Compare our technology to that
of any other book and were confident youll agree that Managerial Accounting has the best in the market.
Teaching aids make in-class presentations easy and stimulating. These aids give you more power than ever
to teach your class the way you want.

MCGRAW-HILLS
HOMEWORK MANAGER
McGraw-Hill's Homework Manager is a Web-based
homework management system that gives you unparalleled power and flexibility in creating homework assignments, tests, and quizzes. Homework Manager
duplicates problem structures directly from the end-ofchapter material in your McGraw-Hill textbook, using algorithms to provide limitless variations of textbook
problems. Use Homework Manager to supply online selfgraded practice tests for students, or create assignments
and tests with unique versions of every problem: Homework Manager can grade assignments automatically, provide instant feedback to students, and store all results in
your private gradebook. Detailed results let you see at a
glance how each student does and easily track the
progress of every student in your course.

MCGRAW-HILLS
HOMEWORK MANAGER
PLUS
McGraw-Hill's Homework Manager Plus combines the
power of Homework Manager with the latest interactive
learning technology to create a comprehensive, fully integrated online study package.
Students using Homework Manager Plus can access not
only Homework Manager itself, but the Interactive Online Textbook as well. Far more than a textbook on a
screen, this resource is completely integrated into Homework Manager, allowing students working on assignments
to click a hotlink and instantly review the appropriate material in the textbook.
By including Homework Manager Plus with your textbook
adoption, you're giving your students a vital edge as they
progress through the course and ensuring that the help they
need is never more than a mouse click away.

INTERACTIVE ONLINE
VERSION OF THE TEXTBOOK
In addition to the textbook, students can rely on this online
version of the text for a convenient way to study. While
other publishers offer a simple PDF, this interactive Webbased textbook contains hotlinks to key definitions and is
integrated with Homework Manager to give students quick
access to relevant content as they work through problems,
exercises, and practice quizzes.

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Preface

TOPIC TACKLER
This software is a complete
tutorial focusing on areas in
the course that give students
the most trouble. It provides
help on two key topics for
each chapter by use of

I think this tool is a great way for students to get


additional help in some of the challenging areas of
Managerial Accounting. It allows them to see the
topic explained again, see additional examples, and
try extra exercises to help them further their skills and
knowledge.
Laura Rickett,
Kent State University

Video Clips
PowerPoint Slide Shows
Interactive Exercises
Self-Grading Quizzes
A logo in the text marks the topic covered in Topic
Tackler.

ZINIO DIGITAL EDITION


A leader in digital media, Zinio offers students using Managerial Accounting
7/e the full benefit of its powerful, flexible digital reading system. Using the
Zinio reader, you can search your digital textbook, highlight important passages, or jot down electronic notes. Navigating a textbook has never been
easier. You can even print pages to study from off line. To order your Zinio
Digital Edition of Managerial Accounting 7/e visit www.textbooks.zinio.com.

iPOD CONTENT
Harness the power of one of the most popular technology tools students use
todaythe Apple iPod. Our innovative approach allows students to download
audio and video presentations as well as quizzes for each chapter in the text,
right into their iPod and take learning materials with them wherever they go. It
makes review and study time as easy as putting on headphones. Visit the
Managerial Accounting Online Learning Center (www.mhhe.com/hilton7e) to
learn more details on available iPod contentand enhance your learning experience today.

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Preface
HOW CAN TECHNOLOGY SUPPORT
INSTRUCTOR SUCCESS?
ONLINE COURSE MANAGEMENT
(WebCT, eCollege, and TopClass)

We offer Managerial Accounting content for


complete online courses. You can customize the
Online Learning Center content and author your
own course materials. No matter which online
course solution you choose, you can count on
the highest level of support. Our specialists offer
free training and answer any question you have
through the life of your adoption.

PAGEOUT
McGraw-Hills Course Management System,
PageOut, is the easiest way to create a Web site
for your accounting course. Theres no need for
HTML coding, graphic design, or a thick how-to
book. Just fill in a series of boxes and click on one
of our professional designs. In no time your course
is online with a Web site that contains your
syllabus. If you need help, our team of product
specialists is ready to take your course materials
and build a custom Web site to your specifications.

CPS CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE SYSTEM


This is a revolutionary system that brings ultimate
interactivity to the classroom. CPS is a wireless response
system that gives you immediate feedback from every
student in the class. CPS units include easy-to-use
software for creating and delivering questions and
assessments to your class. With CPS you can ask
subjective and objective questions. Then every student
simply responds with their individual, wireless response
pad, providing instant results. CPS is the perfect tool for
engaging students while gathering important assessment
data. In response to user feedback from instructors and
students, software features have been added. These
features include a PowerPoint plug-in, an improved datasorting capability, a comprehensive grade book
complement, web-based access to all McGraw-Hill CPS
content, and other powerful classroom learning functions.

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Preface

ONLINE LEARNING CENTER (OLC)


www.mhhe.com/hilton7e

FOR STUDENTS
More and more students are studying online. That's why we offer an Online
Learning Center (OLC) that follows Managerial Accounting chapter by chapter.
It doesn't require any building or maintenance and is ready to go the moment you
type in the URL. The OLC includes:

Chapter Objectives
Glossary
Topic Tackler Tutorial
PowerPoint Slides
Narrated Slides
Check Figures
Excel Spreadsheets

Spreadsheet Guide & Tips


Company Web Sites
Accounting Information
Supplementary Chapters
Sample Study Guide Chapter
Text Updates
Videos

FOR INSTRUCTORS
The book's password-protected Instructor's site OLC contains essential course
materials. You can pull all of this material into your PageOut course syllabus or
use it as part of another online course management system such as Blackboard,
WebCT or eCollege. You get all the resources available to students, plus...

Instructors Solutions Manual


Instructors Resource Manual
Text Exhibits
Text Updates

Video Guide and Exercises


Excel Solutions
Supplementary Chapter Solutions
PowerPoint Slides

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Preface
SUPPLEMENTS
Hiltons instructor and student support materials are comprehensive,
providing you with superior classroom support and bringing out the
best in your students.
The technology supplements and
instructor resources are top notch, and
very appropriate for our students.
Marilyn Okleshen,
Minnesota State University Mankato

Instructor Supplements
Instructors Manual

Test Bank

(Available on the password-protected


Instructors Edition Online Learning
Center (OLC) and Instructors Resource
CD)

(Available on the Instructors

This comprehensive manual


includes chapter outlines,
summaries, and teaching
overviews. A homework grid
provides estimated time for each
assignment and its learning
objective. The manual also crossreferences all the key supplements
including the Test Bank, Managerial
Accounting Video Series, and
PowerPoint slides. Prepared by
Lanny Solomon of University of
Missouri Kansas City.

Instructor Resource
CD-ROM

Resource CD)

ISBN-10: 0073022861
This test bank in Word format
contains multiple-choice questions,
essay, and short problems. Each
test item is coded for level of
difficulty, learning objective, and
type. Type refers to whether the
problem is a recall, an application,
or an analysis problem based on
Blooms taxonomy. Prepared by
Lanny Solomon.

Algorithmic Diploma
Test Bank

ISBN-13: 9780073022864
This CD includes electronic
versions of the Instructors Manual,
Solutions Manual, Test Bank, as
well as PowerPoint slides for
instructor and students, video clips,
exhibits in the text, spreadsheet
templates with solutions, and
additional chapters on Process
Costing: The First-in, First-Out
Method, The Statement of Cash
Flows, and Financial Statement
Analysis and their Solutions
Manuals.

ISBN-10: 007326492X

Solutions Manual
(Available on the password-protected
Instructors Edition OLC and Instructor
Resource CD)

Prepared by the author, the manual


contains complete solutions to all
the texts end-of-chapter review
questions, exercises, problems,
and cases.

ISBN-13: 9780073264929
This computerized test bank
contains algorithmic problems
enabling instructors to create
similarly structured problems with
different values, allowing every
student to be assigned a unique
quiz or test.

PowerPoint Slides
(Available on the password-protected
Instructors Edition Online Learning
Center (OLC) and Instructors Resource
CD)

These slides cover key concepts


found in each chapter.

Managerial Accounting
Video Library
It has excellent student and instructor
resources.
Michael Tyler,
Barry University
Excellent illustrations, pictures,
support materials, etc.
K.R. Balachandran,
New York University

These short videos, developed by


Dallas County Community College,
provide for classroom discussion.
The focus is on the preparation,
analysis, and use of accounting
information for business decision
making.

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Preface

Student Supplements
Excel Templates
(Available on the Online Learning Center)

These spreadsheets allow students to


develop business skills by using
templates to solve selected
assignments identified by an icon in the
end-of-chapter material.

Study Guide

Check Figures

ISBN-10: 0073022926

(Available on the Online Learning Center)

ISBN-13: 9780073022925

These provide key answers for selected


problems in the text.

This guide incorporates many of the


accounting skills essential to student
success. Each chapter contains chapter
focus suggestions, read and recall
questions, self-test questions and
exercises, and ideas for study groups.
In addition to reinforcing and applying
the key concepts in the text, the study
guide coaches students on how to
study individually and in groups.
Prepared by Douglas deVidal of the
University of Texas at Austin.

McGraw-Hills Homework
Manager Plus
This integrates all of the texts
multimedia resources. With just one
access code, students can obtain state
of the art study aids including
Homework Manager and an online
version of the text.

Narrated Slides
(Available on the Online Learning Center)

These slides cover key chapter topics in


an audio-narrated presentation sure to
help learning.

PowerPoint Slides

McGraw-Hills Homework
Manager
This web-based software duplicates
problem structures directly from the
end-of-chapter material in the textbook.
It uses algorithms to provide a limitless
supply of self-graded practice.

(Available on the Online Learning Center)

These slides offer a great visual


compliment to lectures and cover key
topics for each chapter in the book.

Online Learning Center (OLC)


www.mhhe.com/hilton7e
Topic Tackler
(Available on the Online Learning
Center)

This tutorial offers a virtual


helping hand in
understanding the most
challenging topics in the managerial
accounting course. Through a step-bystep sequence of video clips,
PowerPoint slides, interactive practice
exercises, and self-tests, Topic Tackler
offers help on two key topics for each
chapter. These topics are indicated by
a logo in the text.

It has good content and great


supporting materials, especially for
students who must miss class from
time to time, and want to study on their
own.
Roy Regel,
University of Montana at Missoula

The book is very thorough, well-written


and still remains student-friendly. The
supplements are outstanding.
Ben Baker,
Davidson College

Students can rely on the OLC for help


in the course. It provides PowerPoint
slides, self-graded quizzes, videos, and
much more. See page XIX for more
details.

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Preface
Acknowledgments
I Am Grateful
I would like to express my appreciation to people who have provided assistance in the development of
this textbook. First, my gratitude goes to the thousands of managerial accounting students I have had
the privilege to teach over many years. Their enthusiasm, comments, and questions have challenged
me to clarify my thinking about many topics in managerial accounting.
Second, I express my sincere thanks to the following professors who provided extensive reviews for
the seventh edition:

REVIEWERS
Linda Brown, St. Ambrose University
Jeffrey Archambault, Marshall University
Ben Baker, Davidson College
K. R. Balachandran, New York University
Michael Blue, Bloomsburg University
Wayne Bremser, Villanova University
Richard Campbell, University of Rio
Grande
Marilyn Ciolino, Delgado Community
College
Paul Copley, James Madison University
Patricia Derrick, George Washington
University
Barbara Durham, University of Central
Florida

PAST EDITION
REVIEWERS
My grateful appreciation is extended to
those who reviewed previous editions:
Denise Guithues Amrhein, Saint Louis
University
Florence Atiase, University of Texas at
Austin
Rowland Atiase, University of Texas at
Austin
K. R. Balachandran, New York University,
Frederick Bardo, Shippensburg University
Linda Bowen, University of North Carolina
Wayne Bremser, Villanova University
Richard Brody, University of New Haven
Gyan Chandra, Miami University
Paul Copley, University of Georgia

Robert Eskew, Purdue University


Andrew Felo, Pennsylvania State
University at Great Valley
Michael Flores, Wichita State University
Sueann Hely, West Kentucky Community &
Technical College
Paul Juras, Wake Forest University
Sherrie Koechling, Lincoln University
Christy Larkin, Bacone College
Lois Mahoney, Eastern Michigan
University
Maureen Mascha, Marquette University
Michele Matherly, University of North
Carolina at Charlotte
Harrison McCraw, State University of
West Georgia
Jamshed Mistry, Worcester Polytechnic
Institute

Hamid Mohammadi, St. Xavier University


Karl Putnam, University of Texas at El Paso
Roy Regel, University of Montana at
Missoula
Laura Rickett, Kent State University
Don Samelson, Colorado State University
Angela Sandberg, Jacksonville State
University
Rebecca Sawyer, Univesity of North
Carolina at Wilmington
Pamela Schwer, St. Xavier University
Thomas Selling, Thunderbird, the Garvin
School of International Management
Michael Tyler, Barry University
Priscilla Wisner, Thunderbird, the Garvin
School of International Management
Richard Young, Ohio State University

Maureen Crane, California State University,


Fresno
Stephen Dempsey, University of Vermont
Martha Doran, San Diego State University
Allan Drebin, Northwestern University
James Emig, Villanova University
Michael Flores, Wichita State University
Kimberly Frank, University of Nevada at
Las Vegas
Alan Friedberg, Florida Atlantic University
Edward Goodhart, Shippensburg University
Paul Juras, Wake Forest University
Stacey Konesky, Kent State University
James Lasseter, Jr. University of South
Florida
Angelo Luciano, Columbia College
Ana Marques, University of Texas at Austin
Sanjay Mehrotra, Northwestern University
Cynthia Nye, Bellevue University

Marilyn Okleshen, Minnesota State


University
Mohamed Onsi, Syracuse University
Samuel Phillips, Shenandoah University
Frederick Rankin, Washington University
Lanny Solomon, University of Missouri at
Kansas City
Lynda Thoman, Purdue University
Wendy Tietz, Kent State University
Ralph Tower, Wake Forest University
Mark Turner, Stephen F. Austin State
University
Bill Wempe, Texas Christian University
James Williamson, San Diego State
University
Priscilla Wisner, Graduate School of
International Management

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Preface
I once again thank those individuals whose input over the last edition has helped the book to evolve
to its present form, especially: Noah Barsky, Villanova University; Mohamed Bayou, University of
Michigan, Dearborn; Bruce Bradford, Fairfield University; Dan Daly, Boston College; Theresa
Hammond, Boston College; and Clifford Nelson, University of Connecticut.
I want to thank Beth Woods and Ilene Persoff for their thorough checking of the text and solutions
manual for accuracy and completeness.
The supplements are a great deal of work to prepare. I appreciate the efforts of those who prepared
them, since these valuable aids make teaching the course easier for everyone who uses the text.
Lanny Solomon of the University of Missouri at Kansas City prepared the Test Bank and the
Instructor's Manual. Peggy Hussey of Northern Kentucky University prepared the PowerPoint slides
and Excel spreadsheet templates. Douglas deVidal of the University of Texas at Austin wrote the
Study Guide. Linda Schain of Hofstra University prepared Topic Tackler. Leland Mansuetti authored
the online quizzes.
I acknowledge the Institute of Management Accountants for permission to use problems from Certified
Management Accountant (CMA) examinations. I also acknowledge the American Institute of Certified
Public Accountants for permission to use problems from the Uniform CPA Examinations, Questions,
and Unofficial Answers. I am indebted to Professors Roland Minch, David Solomons and Michael
Maher for allowing the use of their case materials in the text. The source for the actual company
information in Chapters 1 and 2 regarding The Walt Disney Company, Caterpillar, Wal-Mart, and
Southwest Airlines was the companies published annual reports.
Finally, I wish to express my gratitude to the fine people at McGraw-Hill/Irwin who so professionally
guided this book through the publication process.

In particular, I wish to acknowledge Steve

DeLancey, Stewart Mattson, Gail Korosa, Susanne Riedell, Elizabeth Mavetz, Rose Hepburn, Krista
Bettino, Adam Rooke, Lori Kramer, Ira Roberts and Matthew Perry.

Ronald W. Hilton

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Contents in Brief
Part I
1
2
3
4
Part II
5
6
Part III
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Fundamentals and Cost-Accumulation Systems


The Changing Role of Managerial Accounting in a Dynamic Business
Environment
Basic Cost Management Concepts and Accounting for Mass Customization
Operations
Product Costing and Cost Accumulation in a Batch Production Environment
Process Costing and Hybrid Product-Costing Systems
Cost Management Systems, Activity-Based Costing, and Activity-Based
Management
Activity-Based Costing
Activity-Based Management and Cost Management Tools
Planning, Control, and Cost Management Systems
Activity Analysis, Cost Behavior, and Cost Estimation
Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis
Profit Planning, Activity-Based Budgeting, and e-Budgeting
Standard Costing, Operational Performance Measures, and the
Balanced Scorecard
Flexible Budgeting and the Management of Overhead and Support Activity Costs
Responsibility Accounting, Quality Control, and Environmental Cost Management
Investment Centers and Transfer Pricing

Part IV
14
15
16

Using Accounting Information in Decision Making


Decision Making: Relevant Costs and Benefits
Target Costing and Cost Analysis for Pricing Decisions
Capital Expenditure Decisions

Part V
17
18

Selected Topics for Further Study


Absorption, Variable, and Throughput Costing
Allocation of Support Activity Costs and Joint Costs
Appendix I: The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, Internal Controls, and Management
Accounting
Appendix II: Compound Interest and the Concept of Present Value
Appendix III: Inventory Management
References for In Their Own Words
Glossary
Photo Credits
Index of Companies and Organizations
Index of Subjects

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Contents
Part I
Fundamentals and Cost Accumulation
Systems

1 The Changing Role of Managerial


Accounting in a Dynamic Business
Environment

Managerial Accounting: A Business Partnership with


Management

Managing Resources, Activities, and People

Decision Making

Planning

Directing Operational Activities

Controlling

How Managerial Accounting Adds Value to the


Organization

Objectives of Managerial Accounting Activity

The Balanced Scorecard

M.A.P. The Balanced Scorecard

Managerial versus Financial Accounting

Managerial Accounting in Different Types of


Organizations

Where Are Managerial Accountants Located in an


Organization?

Organization Chart

Line and Staff Positions

Cross-Functional Deployment

Physical Location

Major Themes in Managerial Accounting

Information and Incentives

Behavioral Issues

Costs and Benefits

Evolution and Adaptation in Managerial


Accounting

e-Business

Service versus Manufacturing Firms

Emergence of New Industries

Global Competition

Focus on the Customer

Cross-Functional Teams

Computer-Integrated Manufacturing

Product Life Cycles and Diversity

Time-Based Competition

M.A.P. The Internet as a Lifeline

Information and Communication Technology

Just-in-Time Inventory Management

Total Quality Management

Continuous Improvement

Cost Management Systems

Strategic Cost Management and the Value Chain

Theory of Constraints

The Ethical Climate of Business and the Role of the


Accountant

Managerial Accounting as a Career

Professional Organizations

Professional Certification

Professional Ethics

Focus on Ethics: IMA Statement of Ethical


Professional Practice

Chapter Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Exercises

Note: Entries printed in blue denote topics that emphasize


contemporary issues in managerial accounting and cost management.

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Contents

Problems

Case

3 Product Costing and Cost Accumulation in


a Batch Production Environment

2 Basic Cost Management Concepts and


Accounting for Mass Customization
Operations

What Do We Mean by a Cost?

Product Costs, Period Costs, and Expenses


Costs on Financial Statements

Income Statement

Product and Service Costing

Product Costing in Nonmanufacturing Firms


Flow of Costs in Manufacturing Firms
Types of Product-Costing Systems

Job-Order Costing Systems

Balance Sheet

Manufacturing Operations and Manufacturing


Costs

M.A.P. Mass Customization

Mass-Customization Manufacturing

Manufacturing Costs

Manufacturing Cost Flows

Production Costs in Service Industry Firms and


Nonprofit Organizations

Basic Cost Management Concepts: Different Costs for


Different Purposes

The Cost Driver Team

Variable and Fixed Costs

The Cost Management and Control Team

M.A.P. Airline Industry: Cost Structure, Cost Drivers,


and a Shifting Business Model

The Outsourcing Action Team

Costs and Benefits of Information

Costs in the Service Industry

Focus on Ethics: Was WorldComs Controller Just


Following Orders?

Chapter Summary

Review Problems on Cost Classifications

Key Terms

Review Questions

Exercises

Problems

Cases

Process-Costing Systems

Summary of Alternative Product-Costing Systems

Accumulating Costs in a Job-Order Costing


System

Job-Cost Record

Direct-Material Costs
Direct-Labor Costs

Manufacturing-Overhead Costs

M.A.P. Supply Chain Management

Summary of Event Sequence in Job-Order


Costing

Illustration of Job-Order Costing


Purchase of Material
Use of Direct Material
Use of Indirect Material
Use of Direct Labor

Use of Indirect Labor

Incurrence of Manufacturing-Overhead Costs


Application of Manufacturing Overhead
Summary of Overhead Accounting

Selling and Administrative Costs

Completion of a Production Job

Sale of Goods

Underapplied and Overapplied Overhead

Schedule of Cost of Goods Manufactured

Schedule of Cost of Goods Sold

Posting Journal Entries to the Ledger

Further Aspects of Overhead Application

Accuracy versus Timeliness of Information:


A Cost-Benefit Issue

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Choosing the Cost Driver for Overhead Application

Limitation of Direct Labor as a Cost Driver

Departmental Overhead Rates

M.A.P. Are Layoffs a Good Way to Cut Costs During


an Economic Downturn?

Two-Stage Cost Allocation

Project Costing: Job-Order Costing in Nonmanufacturing


Organizations

Changing Technology in Manufacturing Operations

Electronic Data Interchange

M.A.P. Online Purchasing

Use of Bar Codes

Focus on Ethics: Did Boeing Exploit Accounting Rules to


Conceal Cost Overruns and Production Snafus?

Chapter Summary

Key Terms

Appendix to Chapter 3: Activity-Based Costing:


An Introduction

Review Questions

Exercises

Problems

Cases

Other Cost Drivers for Overhead Application

Subsequent Production Departments

Hybrid Product-Costing Systems

Operation Costing for Batch Manufacturing


Processes

Chapter Summary

Key Terms

Appendix to Chapter 4: Process Costing in Sequential


Production Departments

Review Questions

Exercises

Problems

Cases

Part II
Cost Management Systems,
Activity-Based Costing, and Activity-Based
Management

5 Activity-Based Costing

4 Process Costing and Hybrid ProductCosting Systems

Comparison of Job-Order Costing and Process


Costing

Flow of Costs

Differences Between Job-Order and Process


Costing

Equivalent Units: A Key Concept

Equivalent Units

Illustration of Process Costing

Basic Data for Illustration

M.A.P. New York Wine Industry

Weighted-Average Method of Process Costing


Other Issues in Process Costing

Actual versus Normal Costing

Traditional, Volume-Based Product-Costing System


Trouble in Denver

Activity-Based Costing System

ABC Stage One

ABC Stage Two

Interpreting the ABC Product Costs

The Punch Line

Why Traditional, Volume-Based Systems


Distort Product Costs

M.A.P. Cost Distortion at Rockwell


International

M.A.P. Cost Distortion at DHL

Activity-Based Costing: Some Key Issues

Cost Drivers

M.A.P. Activity Cost Drivers in the Health Care


Industry

Collecting ABC Data

Activity Dictionary and Bill of Activities

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Direct versus Indirect Costs

When Is a New Product-Costing System Needed?

Activity-Based Costing in the Service Industry

Activity-Based Costing at Delaware


Medical Center

Interpreting the Primary Care Units ABC


Information

Focus on Ethics: Ethical Issues Surrounding


Activity-Based Costing

Chapter Summary

Review Problems on Cost Drivers and


Product-Cost Distortion

Key Terms

Review Questions

Exercises

Problems

Cases

Part III
Planning, Control, and Cost Management
Systems

7 Activity Analysis, Cost Behavior, and Cost


Estimation

6 Activity-Based Management and


Cost Management Tools

Activity-Based Management

Two-Dimensional ABC

Using ABM to Identify Non-Value-Added


Activities and Costs

Achieving Cost Reduction

Customer-Profitability Analysis

Illustration of Customer-Profitability Analysis


M.A.P. Customer Profitability Analysis at
Bank One Corp.

M.A.P. Customer Profitability Analysis at


Best Buy

Target Costing and Kaizen Costing

Target Costing

Kaizen Costing

Toyota: Target Costing and Kaizen Costing in


Action

Benchmarking

Reengineering

Theory of Constraints

Just-in-Time Inventory and Production Management

Activity-Based Management in the Service Industry

ABM and Cost Management at FedEx

Focus on Ethics: Customer Profitability Analysis: Ethics of


Differential Treatment for Customers

Chapter Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Exercises

Problems

Case

Cost Behavior Patterns

Variable Costs

Step-Variable Costs

Fixed Costs

Step-Fixed Costs

Semivariable Cost

Curvilinear Cost

Using Cost Behavior Patterns to Predict Costs


M.A.P. Is Direct Labor a Variable or a
Fixed Cost?

Engineered,Committed,and Discretionary Costs


Shifting Cost Structure in the Contemporary
Manufacturing Environment

Operations-Based versus Volume-Based Cost


Drivers

Cost Behavior in Other Industries

Cost Estimation

Account-Classification Method

Visual-Fit Method

High-Low Method

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Least-Squares Regression Method

Multiple Regression

Data Collection Problems

Engineering Method of Cost Estimation

Costs and Benefits of Information

Effect of Learning on Cost Behavior

Focus on Ethics: Cisco Systems,Wal-Mart, Taco Bell,


Starbucks, U-Haul, General Dynamics, and Farmers
Insurance: Is Direct Labor a Variable Cost?

Chapter Summary

Review Problems on Cost Behavior and Estimation


Key Terms

Appendix to Chapter 7: Finding the Least-Squares


Regression Estimates

Review Questions

Exercises

Problems

Cases

8 Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis

Illustration of Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis

Projected Expenses and Revenue

The Break-Even Point

Contribution-Margin Approach

Equation Approach

Graphing Cost-Volume-Profit Relationships

Interpreting the CVP Graph

Alternative Format for the CVP Graph

Profit-Volume Graph

Target Net Profit

Contribution-Margin Approach

Equation Approach

Graphical Approach

Applying CVP Analysis

Safety Margin

Changes in Fixed Expenses

Changes in the Unit Contribution Margin

Predicting Profit Given Expected Volume

Interdependent Changes in Key Variables

CVP Information in Published Annual Reports

M.A.P. Airlines Keep a Close Eye on Break-Even


Load Factors

CVP Analysis with Multiple Products

Assumptions Underlying CVP Analysis

Role of Computerized Planning Models and Electronic


Spreadsheets

CVP Relationships and the Income Statement

Traditional Income Statement

Contribution Income Statement

Comparison of Traditional and Contribution Income


Statements

Cost Structure and Operating Leverage

Operating Leverage

M.A.P. Operating Leverage Helps These Web


Companies Become Profitable

Labor-Intensive Production Processes versus Advanced


Manufacturing Systems

Cost Structure and Operating Leverage:


A Cost-Benefit Issue

M.A.P. Cost Structure and Operating


Leverage

CVP Analysis, Activity-Based Costing, and Advanced


Manufacturing Systems

A Move toward JIT and Flexible Manufacturing

ABC Provides a Richer Understanding of Cost Behavior


and CVP Relationships

Chapter Summary

Review Problems on Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis

Key Terms

Appendix to Chapter 8: Effect of Income Taxes

Review Questions

Exercises

Problems

Cases

9 Profit Planning, Activity-Based Budgeting,


and e-Budgeting

Purposes of Budgeting Systems


Types of Budgets

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The Master Budget: A Planning Tool

Sales of Services or Goods

Sales Forecasting

Operational Budgets

Budgeted Financial Statements

Nonprofit Organizations

Activity-Based Budgeting

M.A.P. Activity-Based Budgeting (ABB) at American


Express and AT&T Paradyne

Using Activity-Based Budgeting to Prepare the


Master Budget

Sales Budget

Production Budget

Direct-Material Budget

Direct-Labor Budget

Manufacturing-Overhead Budget

Activity-Based Budgeting and the Cost Hierarchy

Benefits of ABB

Selling, General, and Administrative (SG&A)


Expense Budget

Cash Receipts Budget

Cash Disbursements Budget

Cash Budget: Combining Receipts and


Disbursements

Budgeted Schedule of Cost of Goods


Manufactured and Sold

Budgeted Income Statement

Budgeted Statement of Cash Flows

Budgeted Balance Sheet

Assumptions and Predictions Underlying the Master


Budget

Financial Planning Models

Budget Administration

M.A.P. Budget Administration at Cornell


University

e-Budgeting

Firewalls and Information Security

M.A.P. Lockheed Martin

Zero-Base Budgeting

International Aspects of Budgeting

Budgeting Product Life-Cycle Costs

Behavioral Impact of Budgets

Budgetary Slack: Padding the Budget

Participative Budgeting

Focus on Ethics: Is Padding the Budget Unethical?

Chapter Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions
Exercises

Problems

Cases

10 Standard Costing, Operational


Performance Measures, and the
Balanced Scorecard

Managing Costs

Management by Exception

Setting Standards

Methods for Setting Standards

Participation in Setting Standards

Perfection versus Practical Standards:


A Behavioral Issue

Use of Standards by Service


Organizations

Cost Variance Analysis

Direct-Material Standards

Direct-Labor Standards

Standard Costs Given Actual Output

Analysis of Cost Variances

Direct-Material Variances

Direct-Labor Variances

M.A.P. Parker Hannifin Corporations Brass


Products Division

Multiple Types of Direct Material or Direct Labor

Allowing for Spoilage or Defects

Significance of Cost Variances

A Statistical Approach

Behavioral Impact of Standard Costing

Controllability of Variances

Interaction among Variances

Standard Costs and Product Costing

Advantages of Standard Costing

Changing Role of Standard-Costing Systems in Todays


Manufacturing Environment

Criticisms of Standard Costing in Todays Manufacturing


Environment

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M.A.P. Cost of Ownership

Adapting Standard-Costing Systems

Operational Performance Measures in Todays


Manufacturing Environment

Gain-Sharing Plans

The Balanced Scorecard

Lead and Lag Measures: The Key to the


Balanced Scorecard

Linking the Balanced Scorecard to


Organizational Strategy

M.A.P. Linking the Balanced Scorecard to


Organizational Strategy

Focus on Ethics: Sacrificing Quality to Cut


Standard Costs

Chapter Summary

Review Problems on Standard Costing and Operational


Performance Measures

Key Terms

Appendix to Chapter 10: Use of Standard


Costs for Product Costing

Review Questions

Exercises

Problems

Cases

11 Flexible Budgeting and the


Management of Overhead and
Support Activity Costs

Overhead Budgets

Flexible Budgets

Advantages of Flexible Budgets

The Activity Measure

Flexible Overhead Budget Illustrated

Overhead Application in a Standard-Costing


System

Choice of Activity Measure

Criteria for Choosing the Activity Measure

Changing Manufacturing Technology:


Computer-Integrated Manufacturing

Cost Drivers

Cost Management Using Overhead Cost


Variances

Variable Overhead

Fixed Overhead

Overhead Cost Performance Report

M.A.P. Cost Management Systems in


Germany

Activity-Based Flexible Budget

Flexible Budgeting in the Service Industry

Focus on Ethics: Misstated Standards Affect Accuracy


of Reports

Chapter Summary

Review Problem on Overhead Variances

Key Terms

Appendix A to Chapter 11: Standard Costs


and Product Costing

Appendix B to Chapter 11: Sales Variances

Review Questions

Exercises

Problems

Cases

12 Responsibility-Accounting, Quality
Control, and Environmental Cost
Management

Responsibility Centers

Illustration of Responsibility Accounting

Performance Reports

Budgets, Variance Analysis, and


Responsibility Accounting

Cost Allocation

Cost Allocation Bases

Allocation Bases Based on Budgets

Activity-Based Responsibility Accounting

Behavioral Effects of Responsibility


Accounting

Information versus Blame

Controllability

Motivating Desired Behavior

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Segmented Reporting

Segments versus Segment Managers

Key Features of Segmented Reporting

Customer Profitability Analysis and


Activity-Based Costing

Total Quality Management

Measuring and Reporting Quality Costs

Changing Views of Optimal Product Quality

M.A.P. Six Sigma for Quality Management


and Cost Reduction

ISO 9000 Standards

Environmental Cost Management

Classifying Environmental Costs

Managing Private Environmental Costs

Environmental Cost Strategies

Tie-In to the Responsibility-Accounting System

Focus on Ethics: Short-Sighted View of Cost Cutting

Chapter Summary

Review Problem on Responsibility Accounting

Key Terms

Review Questions

Exercises

Problems

Cases

Part IV
Using Accounting Information in
Decision Making

13 Investment Centers and Transfer


Pricing

Delegation of Decision Making

Obtaining Goal Congruence:


A Behavioral Challenge

Adaptation of Management Control Systems


Measuring Performance in Investment Centers
Return on Investment

Residual Income

Economic Value Added

M.A.P. Pay for Performance Based on EVA


Measuring Income and Invested Capital

Invested Capital

Measuring Investment-Center Income

Inflation: Historical-Cost versus


Current-Value Accounting

Other Issues in Segment Performance Evaluation

Alternatives to ROI, Residual Income, and Economic


Value Added (EVA)

Importance of Nonfinancial Information

Measuring Performance in Nonprofit


Organizations

Transfer Pricing

Goal Congruence

General Transfer-Pricing Rule

Transfers Based on the External Market Price

Negotiated Transfer Prices

Cost-Based Transfer Prices

Standard versus Actual Costs

Undermining Divisional Autonomy

An International Perspective

M.A.P. Transfer Pricing and Tax Issues

Transfer Pricing in the Service Industry

Behavioral Issues: Risk Aversion and Incentives

Goal Congruence and Internal Control Systems

Chapter Summary

Review Problems on Investment Centers


and Transfer Pricing

Key Terms

Review Questions

Exercises

Problems

Cases

14 Decision Making: Relevant Costs and


Benefits

The Managerial Accountants Role in Decision Making


Steps in the Decision-Making Process

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Quantitative versus Qualitative Analysis

xxxiii

Obtaining Information: Relevance,


Accuracy, and Timeliness

Relevant Information

Unique versus Repetitive Decisions

Importance of Identifying Relevant


Costs and Benefits

Identifying Relevant Costs and Benefits


Sunk Costs

Irrelevant Future Costs and Benefits


Opportunity Costs
Summary

Analysis of Special Decisions

Accept or Reject a Special Offer

Outsource a Product or Service

M.A.P. Outsourcing

Add or Drop a Service, Product, or


Department

M.A.P. Adding a Service

Special Decisions in Manufacturing Firms

Joint Products: Sell or Process Further

Decisions Involving Limited Resources

Theory of Constraints
Uncertainty

Activity-Based Costing and Todays Advanced


Manufacturing Environment

Conventional Outsourcing (Make-or-Buy)


Analysis

Activity-Based Costing Analysis of the


Outsourcing Decision

Other Issues in Decision Making


Incentives for Decision Makers

Short-Run versus Long-Run Decisions


Pitfalls to Avoid

Focus on Ethics: Effects of Decision to Close a Department


and Outsource

Chapter Summary

Review Problem on Relevant Costs


Key Terms

Appendix to Chapter 14: Linear


Programming

Review Questions
Exercises

Problems

Cases

15 Target Costing and Cost Analysis for


Pricing Decisions

Major Influences on Pricing Decisions

Customer Demand

Actions of Competitors

Costs

Political, Legal, and Image-Related Issues

Economic Profit-Maximizing Pricing

Total Revenue, Demand, and Marginal


Revenue Curves

Total Cost and Marginal Cost Curves

Profit-Maximizing Price and Quantity

Price Elasticity

Limitations of the Profit-Maximizing Model

Costs and Benefits of Information

Role of Accounting Product Costs in Pricing

Cost-Plus Pricing

Absorption-Cost Pricing Formulas

Variable-Cost Pricing Formulas

Determining the Markup

Cost-Plus Pricing: Summary and Evaluation

M.A.P. Price Competition and Cost


Management

Strategic Pricing of New Products

Target Costing

M.A.P. Pricing on the Internet by e-Tailers

A Strategic Profit and Cost Management


Process

Activity-Based Costing and Target Costing

Product-Cost Distortion and Pricing:


The Role of Activity-Based Costing

Value Engineering and Target Costing

Time and Material Pricing

Competitive Bidding

Effect of Antitrust Laws on Pricing

Chapter Summary

Review Problem on Cost-Plus Pricing

Key Terms

Review Questions

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Exercises

Problems

Cases

Focus on Ethics: Dysfunctional Focus on Early


Cash Flows

Chapter Summary

Key Terms

Appendix A to Chapter 16: Future Value and


Present Value Tables

Appendix B to Chapter 16: Impact of Inflation


Review Questions

Exercises

Problems

Cases

16 Capital Expenditure Decisions

Section 1: Discounted-Cash-Flow Analysis


Net-Present-Value Method

Part V
Selected Topics for Further Study

Internal-Rate-of-Return Method

Comparing the NPV and IRR Methods

Assumptions Underlying DiscountedCash-Flow Analysis

Choosing the Hurdle Rate


Depreciable Assets

Comparing Two Investment Projects


Managerial Accountants Role
Postaudit

Real Option Analysis

17 Absorption, Variable, and Throughput


Costing

Section 2: Income Taxes and Capital


Budgeting

After-Tax Cash Flows

Accelerated Depreciation

Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System


(MACRS)

Gains and Losses on Disposal

Investment in Working Capital

Extended Illustration of Income-Tax Effects


in Capital Budgeting

M.A.P. Capital Budgeting at Pharmaceutical


Firms

Ranking Investment Projects

Section 3: Alternative Methods for Making Investment


Decisions

Payback Method

Accounting-Rate-of-Return Method

Estimating Cash Flows: The Role of Activity-Based


Costing

M.A.P. Interactive TelevisionCapital


Budgeting and ABC

Justification of Investments in Advanced


Manufacturing Systems

Product Costs

Illustration of Absorption and Variable Costing

Absorption-Costing Income Statements

Variable-Costing Income Statements

Reconciling Income under Absorption


and Variable Costing

Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis

Evaluation of Absorption and Variable Costing

M.A.P. IRS: Unique Product Packaging Is an


Inventoriable Cost

Throughput Costing

Throughput-Costing Income Statements

Focus on Ethics: Incentive to Overproduce


Inventory

Chapter Summary

Key Terms

Appendix to Chapter 17: Effect of the Volume


Variance under Absorption and Variable Costing

Review Questions

Exercises

Problems

Case

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18 Allocation of Support Activity Costs and


Joint Costs

Section 1: Service Department Cost Allocation

Direct Method

Step-Down Method

Reciprocal-Services Method

Fixed versus Variable Costs

Dual Cost Allocation

M.A.P. Cost Management in the Health Care


Industry

Allocate Budgeted Costs

Todays Advanced Manufacturing Environment

The Rise of Activity-Based Costing

Section 2: Joint Product Cost Allocation

Allocating Joint Costs

M.A.P. Joint Cost Allocation in the Petroleum


Industry

Chapter Summary

Key Terms

Appendix to Chapter 18:


Reciprocal-Services Method
Review Questions

Exercises

Problems

Cases

Appendix I: The Sarbanes-Oxley Act,


Internal Controls, and Management
Accounting

Appendix II: Compound Interest and the


Concept of Present Value

Appendix III: Inventory Management

References for In Their Own Words

Glossary

Photo Credits

Index of Companies and


Organizations

Index of Subjects

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MANAGERIAL
ACCOUNTING