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a SSFIGY STs, Band sUWD Cuub.x HO. 43 1955 (Saude SraWiSli LILL) Foye I (|, open uhe year 1955, whether one voted for the "lew Deal", attended the Lentury of vrogrese exposition, or Secured employment under the N.ieAs, Will long bo remembered by this generation, dhe discovery by the United :vetes kavy, during 1933, of a nken continent in the Pacific ocean, lends new credence .o Church= ward's lost continent of uu. Simblarly, archacological reseateh by the Moga Foint iuseum in 1053, at Spanieh li111, may remove from the realn of doubt and contro- veray certain historic @iscoveries across the line in New York State. whoee menbers of Ahheathens iuseum steff who for the past querter of 8 century have kept the faith that the vell of mystery which has so long hidien the enigns of ‘panto 1111 might some day be lifted, have et 1fast been revarded. Yhe discoveries are elmost unique in the ennale of fmorioan Archaeology. 40 our knowledge, there are but two other sites /in the country vhere efi igy stone animals similar to that found vith a pakisaded Indian village at loga Polat, nave been reported. ‘rou Hancoke, warylamd, have come unconfirsed reports of such discoveries, an@ it would scem that there can ®@ longer be doubts to the authenticity of certain stone effigies unearthed by dr. Harrison rollette at Levanna, \.¥, there 1s mounting evidence thet theee effigy platforms or altars and their little ceremonial firespite had a part in the mystie rites and religion of the ancient ied won, hy they have not been previously reported can only be surmised. Since those eo far recovered are onl, a few inches beneath the sod, At ds evident thet they were oftsinally laid out on the eurface of tho ground, or in very shallow depressions. sdany of them have undoubted) ERRIGY Tia, BRADPUWD COUNTY NO. 45 1053 Page 2 becn obliterated by cultivation, sresion, and careloss research. unere sre yet cortais slgonguin villave sites in the vicinity of Toga Point whure broken "five .toses" ere abundant on the surface after spring plowing. They now have significance as possibly representing the scattered remains of other efvtgy platforms. ‘whe problem of the origin of the effigy near fpy@ich Hill was mado more interecRting by the discovery that Lt was juet outside the walls of @ rectangular palisaded enclosure approximately ninety feet wide, snd so far shown to have been over two hundred feet long, It ex- tends north end south along the banks of a V shaped terrace, tho south wall of the enclosure being nuarly eleven buadred and fifty feet south of Spanish Hill proper. At the base of the terrace embankment on the cast cide flows the littlo stream Dry Brook. on the west side, the lerrace rises twelve fect above tho atuviar flats along the che- Mung river. ihe e:figy 1s hardly 40 feet from the southern point of the Nerrace, and thore would have been barely noon for one to walk _ paclerurh: Tee wre i, vf he eeeeen 1k wal ti. cath val, ewe eT Just east 0° une Ape barcra rere he inetd aeeeth cnet cont pedi hs?) refuse pits. ec SEReRtRod or ae grit—tempered sherds; chips of flint, churt, rhyolite, argillite, and jaspor, ihure was elso specks and small pieccs of bone, some calcined, me large rerusé-pit, at the south east corner of the palisade had been filled end abandoned some time previous to the erection of the pale ede. she post-holes divided it almost in twp, the post having been sunk into the yellow clay below the bottom of the pit. In the black pit fi11- y a pitted i henner stone, a number of grit-tompered sherds, fine-stones , a nipped flint_psrforator, and two perfest wide base triangular points. these points had the appearance of groat age, tho curface being almoet chatty ing of decomposed vegetabls matter were ceveral sinker stone Kes IGS Sis, BRADSUKD COUNTY NO, 43 1933 rage 5 and easily surat hed. A number o: tne litvle expanding base per- forators were fpund through out the site area in test holes and while trenching for palicade post holes. Uther artifacts included a fine greon granite celt, pestlos, pitted and bevelled hanmer- stovhes, metates, notched ani triangular arrow pointe, and a grooved emoothing-stonc. A few test holes dug within the enclosure dieclosed the post- holes of a lodge site and @ fireplace or hearth, in the aches of which lay a fine argillite errow point, come circular dark areas may prove to be refuse pits, or burials similar to those found on the llerril) loc, site Su, in 1951.# whose disturbed areas within the enclosure were not investigated, uor will they be opened until the plan of the village has been worked out by removal of the top eoil, when the lodge sites can bo located and mapped, Along the Dry brook side of whe terrace, refuse and lodge swoep- ings were dumped and thrown over the bank for a long period of time, Indeed, for a considerable distance the ombankment has been built up in that manner, Ihe dark stratified £111 1n some places is more than five feet deep. Just under the sod and close against the southeast corner of the enclosure, was found the fragments of » large Algonquian Jars ihe sherds do not show Lroquots influence. Along the west wall of the enclosure, for a distance of fifteen feet, we were puschhd at first by finding no post holes, yellow silt avpearing Just under the twelve inch humus layer. Later, however, the post holes were located under this undisturbed tvo inch layer of yellow loess. these post holes were partially filled at the top with charcoal. this condition was found at no other point along the palisade, and possibly tells uc of an enony attack, during which a * see “Pennsylvania archaeologist" September 1952 Wo, 2 Vol. 3 seROGY 21s, BkaDrOND COUNLY NO, 43 19.35 vege 4 portion of sho wali was burnod.s although as yet we have only scratched the curface at this site, curtain deductions are greatly pormissable, Of the two great Linguistic stocks, the Algonquian and the Irogatts, Which in the dim past occupied \ew York Penneylvanta borderland, we may safely eliminate the latter, at least tn connection with the ceremonial effigy. Yhe palisade may be L[roquoian,-1t may be the site of Carantouan of 1615. It seems to agree in location end outibne with Champlain's account and map, If 1t ie Carantouan, the Andaste village wes superimposed upon an older culture. Of the Algonquin occupation of the region we have no written records. It is necescary to diligently search the records in stone end clay, asking inYormation of tha mystical people who yet lie buried along our river banks, that ie being done. ‘rou hundreds of camp, village and burial sites has come infor= mation indicating that the Algonquin occupation of New York and Northern Fomneylvania wes by several succedding waves of migration, covering a lomg period of time, The old€ occupation was of a people primitive in the extreme, using the crudest of stone implements and satisfied to eat their meet raw or roasted. trom this beginning there was evidently a gradual advance in the cocial ana industriel order until at the time of their conquest by the Iroquois, they had reached the zenith of their eul- ture. It de evident: £29 the artifacts found on both the Levanna and Spanish 1111 effiigy sites that they were not occupied by archaic #lhet the burned poste were not replaced 1s evidence that the villege may have been abandoned, and it te poceiblo the curvivors erected ths more easily defended work on the top of adjacent Spanish iil, EFFIGY SIT‘. SRACFORD CO NIY WO. 43. 1083 yao 5 Leong Iroquois onquest, shom Algonquif pott-ry cam» uncer the influsace w5. Meith r do they oelong to the period following the of Iroquois design. Tt is suggested that they do repressnt the culture of the p r- tod just previous to the couiny of the Iroquuis. ‘he to the @istent flint quarries had not yot been cut. Heme? the proponder ance of pututs, al des on. chips o! materials turcign to the local- ity. Their primcival contacts and po -iply their route of wigretaun was ‘rom the south, a$ ovisenced by tueir common use of argillite, Jasper and steatite, Tne cffigivs thenselves and vertain artifacts fromthe Lovenne site suggest round builder influence, Palteaded Algonquin villages in New York are rare but not un- known, That tae #ffigtos wave cerencmiel signif. ce is self ovident. A small hearth or altar is near th» heaus of thos at the Levanna site, while there is @ swall pit containing asn anc charcoal sith im th curve of the gre:t horn of t h Spanish #412 figure. There wes likewise a thin stratum of «sh on the stones at the centur of the figure, Om th heao sos found’ the turee end a half inch long end of a brokam argillite inife. It t9 poothy of uote thet while a fo" of tu stones w re crack from heat after being places to form the figure, tie uwajority were heat reudened and vroum elseyhore, probably in the hesrths at the Lodge sites. The figure mey represent an elk, a buffulo, or the wytical horned quis ~uis, BEFICY S173, SRADF IRD COUNTY NO.<3 1933 Pago 6 Tae letter was a great corned aniual which, cording to the ie , Andaste roa. @ about un-or the carth, constantly s ing a way of “YF escape, but doowed to die us soon us it reached tne suniight. ‘thus & did the susquehannick und other Indians account fur the remains of the prehistoric mama th, th» tusk. and testh of which have been found since earliest tiues alugg the Chemung river. * The Troquo’s claized thst the Sig Guis-uis and the Big Ak, attic ed their tows south of Leke Onturio ond wre slain, in very emeient times. This probably referred to onemy tribes to vhom they save such names, ratuer than animals. | Ganatochorat was the Woravian form for the nave of a Cayuga v llage at te foot of Sos ish Hill in historie tines. Kanodohaur- augbu-, 2 nase found on the sap of Fort Suliivan by Hubley in 1779, 1s :vid-ntly the ¥ohawy or Oneida nawe for the same village. “Hura aceoréing to G nerul Clark is pert of the name of . mythics] horned anim, ** David isberger tells us thet one of tue Delavare koravian con- verts (Algonquin) who accowpanied hia to the Del«w re towns on the Ohio, in 1767 cr 1766 by vey of the Cheung, ecrenontousl, apologised to a bear he had killed for food, sud asked perdon for the :illing. j Wes this inherited from an earlier coresony porforned at effigies of tho cnimals wen the succeusful hunters returasd to their villages with their Kil? No less intriguing than the effigy find, wes the discovery late in the soasen, by Mr. HL. Gore, Field Agent of the wusoum, of a 2 ree vroken slgonauia Jer and a bearth six fect below undisturbed sand * Late in Deeeaber 1953, the Jaw bone of 2 maaizoth ws found in Hlmira- + “Clark Mpnuscripts age 114 L.W. Murray 982 . 7 BFFIGY SITZ BRADFORD COUNTY NO. 45 i 1933 ‘ Pige? and loess, tvo miles further dom the river. Thore is another site necr Fiteh's bridge st “lairs, and snother on the Houghton Plot at Corning whore sherds and hearth: navo been found by the writer un- dor siwilar conditions. Algonquifi banda have lived along the Che- sung much lonyer then “ have suspoctad, else the valley floor nas be m raised upproaimately six feet by flood silt in fairly recent times. 4m oighth of @ mile north of the jalisai d site an open arsin- ditch running from the west sido of uponish i111 te the river has beon eut through n area wh re sany "relics have bem picked up in tho past. A cursory exauination elon; the ditch during the fuil of 188% reveaied eiehteen to twenty ine ‘Ss of dark top sof] containing proven end calcined bone fregwents, crusbling shords sma fire crac: od stone. One spt in .articular indicated = stone lined .it of some kind. fo investigation sas attempted however, until early in kay 1964, won Ur. B. . Gore discovered ty> ,artially expo ed burisla, evicent- ly open'd by fi sermon im scarch of bait. jiowever, fragments of a lorge Iroquéis jar, port of tie 1A inch dlawet-r bowl epee show Ang Suscuehonnoc} characteristics, and a peeutiful lerf—chay ele knife inches long w ro recovered. All of the above ovid-nce points conclusively to the fuet that Sp nish Hill and its environs is yet a fertile field for the spade and pen of some future archaeologist, varloas reports te the contrary not- with tand ing. 2llsworth C. Cowles Tiogs Point euseum Atuens, Penn. jg S000 oe} \7 \Soeour, ene 0 ody