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A Handbook for the Mechanical Designer

A Handbook for the Mechanical Designer

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Published by: nile_aster on Jan 11, 2010
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Alternating Current

: electric current that alternates or reverses
at a defined frequency, typically 60 cycles per second (Hertz) in
the U.S. and 50 Hz in Canada and other nations.

Breakdown Torque

: the maximum torque a motor will develop
with rated voltage and frequency applied without an abrupt drop
in speed.

Efficiency

: a rating of how much input power an electric motor
converts to actual work at the rotating shaft expressed in per-
cent.

% efficiency = (power out / power in) x 100

Horsepower

: a rate of doing work expressed in foot-pounds per

minute.

HP = (RPM x torque) / 5252 lb-ft.

Locked Rotor Torque

: the minimum torque that a motor will
develop at rest for all angular positions of the rotor with rated volt-
age and frequency applied.

Rated Load Torque

: the torque necessary to produce rated

horsepower at rated-load speed.

Single Phase AC

: typical household type electric power
consisting of a single alternating current at 110-115 volts.

Slip

: the difference between synchronous speed and actual
motor speed. Usually expressed in percent slip.

Synchronous speed

: the speed of the rotating magnetic field in

an electric motor.

Synchronous Speed = (60 x 2f) / p

Where: f = frequency of the power supply
p = number of poles in the motor

Three Phase AC

: typical industrial electric power consisting of 3
alternating currents of equal frequency differing in phase of 120
degrees from each other. Available in voltages ranging from 200
to 575 volts for typical industrial applications.

Torque

: a measure of rotational force defined in foot-pounds or

Newton-meters.

Torque = (HP x 5252 lb-ft.) / RPM

Motor and Drive Basics

17

Types of Alternating Current Motors

Single Phase AC Motors

This type of motor is used in fan applications requiring less
than one horsepower. There are four types of motors suitable for
driving fans as shown in the chart below. All are single speed
motors that can be made to operate at two or more speeds with
internal or external modifications.

Single Phase AC Motors (60hz)

Three-phase AC Motors

The most common motor for fan applications is the three-
phase squirrel cage induction motor. The squirrel-cage motor is
a constant speed motor of simple construction that produces rel-
atively high starting torque. The operation of a three-phase
motor is simple: the three phase current produces a rotating
magnetic field in the stator. This rotating magnetic field causes a
magnetic field to be set up in the rotor. The attraction and repul-
sion of these two magnetic fields causes the rotor to turn.
Squirrel cage induction motors are wound for the following

speeds:

Motor Type

HP
RangeEfficiency

Slip

Poles/
RPM

Use

Shaded Pole1/6 to
1/4 hp

low
(30%)

high
(14%)

4/1550
6/1050

small direct drive
fans (low start
torque)

Perm-split
Cap.

Up to
1/3 hp

medium
(50%)

medium
(10%)

4/1625
6/1075

small direct drive
fans (low start
torque)

Split-phase

Up to
1/2 hp

medium-
high (65%)

low
(4%)

2/3450
4/1725
6/1140
8/850

small belt drive
fans (good start
torque)

Capacitor-
start

1/2 to
34 hp

medium-
high (65%)

low
(4%)

2/3450
4/1725
6/1140
8/850

small belt drive
fans (good start
torque)

Number of
Poles

60 Hz
Synchronous Speed

50 Hz
Synchronous Speed

2

3600

3000

4

1800

1500

6

1200

1000

8

900

750

Motor and Drive Basics

18

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