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Exploration & Production

GENERAL SPECIFICATION
PIPING VALVES VESSELS
GS EP PVV 107

Piping Stress Analysis

04

10/07

New version Integrated GS EP PVV 109

03

10/05

Addition of "EP" root to GS identification

02

10/04

General review

01

12/03

Change of Group name and logo

00

03/01

First issue

Rev.

Date

Notes

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 10/2007

GS EP PVV 107

Rev: 04

Contents

1. Scope ....................................................................................................................... 4
2. Reference documents............................................................................................. 4
3. Design basis ............................................................................................................ 6
3.1

General ..............................................................................................................................6

3.2

Design Data .......................................................................................................................7

3.3

Method of Analysis ............................................................................................................7

4. Critical Line List ...................................................................................................... 8


4.1

Critical Line List for Basic Engineering ..............................................................................8

4.2

Critical Line List for Detailed Engineering..........................................................................8

5. Piping Stress Analysis.......................................................................................... 10


5.1

List of calculation reports .................................................................................................10

5.2

Screening or hand calculations........................................................................................10

5.3

Computerized analysis ....................................................................................................10

5.4

Units.................................................................................................................................11

6. Design Conditions................................................................................................. 11
6.1

Design Pressure ..............................................................................................................11

6.2

Calculation Temperature .................................................................................................11

6.3

Thermal Effects................................................................................................................12

6.4

Snow loads - Ice ..............................................................................................................13

6.5

Dynamic Effects...............................................................................................................13

6.6

Weight Effects..................................................................................................................15

6.7

Effects of Supports and Structural Deflections ................................................................15

6.8

Hydrostatic test conditions...............................................................................................17

7. Caesar model......................................................................................................... 17
7.1

Boundary conditions ........................................................................................................17

7.2

Piping supports ................................................................................................................17

7.3

Thermal displacements....................................................................................................18

7.4

Imposed displacements ...................................................................................................18

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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General Specification
GS EP PVV 107

Date: 10/2007
Rev: 04

7.5

Friction effects .................................................................................................................18

7.6

Stress Intensification Factor (SIF) for oblique connections .............................................18

7.7

Bourdon effects................................................................................................................19

8. Load Cases ............................................................................................................ 19


8.1

Elementary load cases ....................................................................................................19

8.2

Combination load cases ..................................................................................................20

9. Acceptance Criteria............................................................................................... 20
9.1

Allowable stress...............................................................................................................20

9.2

Piping deformation...........................................................................................................21

9.3

Allowable loads on equipments .......................................................................................22

9.4

Support reaction ..............................................................................................................22

10. Flange leakage check ........................................................................................... 23


10.1

Check using tabulated values..........................................................................................23

10.2

Check using the equivalent pressure method (Peq)........................................................23

10.3

Enhanced equivalent pressure method ...........................................................................25

10.4

Flange verification according to ASME VIII Division 1.....................................................26

10.5

Case of the specific flanges.............................................................................................26

11. Other verifications................................................................................................. 26


11.1

Vibration analysis.............................................................................................................26

11.2

Vortex shedding (wind) ....................................................................................................26

11.3

Fatigue assessment for pipes..........................................................................................26

11.4

Blast loads .......................................................................................................................27

11.5

Glass Reinforced Plastics pipes (GRP) ...........................................................................27

12. Calculation Notes .................................................................................................. 28


12.1

General ............................................................................................................................28

12.2

Calculation Note for basic engineering ............................................................................28

12.3

Calculation note for detailed engineering ........................................................................29

12.4

Engineering supervision plan...........................................................................................30

Appendix 1

Stress analysis level requirements ....................................................................31

Appendix 2

Allowable loads on flanges ................................................................................33

Appendix 3

Beta Coefficients () ..........................................................................................35

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 10/2007

GS EP PVV 107

Rev: 04

1. Scope
This document sets the rules for the piping stress analysis of the process and utilities piping
systems of onshore and offshore petroleum installations.
Its scope is essentially the same as that of ASME Code B31.3. The following are specifically
excluded: onshore and offshore pipelines, furnaces and boilers piping, building heating and
ventilation piping, etc.
This document does not include the structural attachment between piping supports and the
main structure.

2. Reference documents
The reference documents listed below form an integral part of this General Specification. Unless
otherwise stipulated, the applicable version of these documents, including relevant appendices
and supplements, is the latest revision published at the EFFECTIVE DATE of the CONTRACT.
Process and utilities piping shall comply with the requirements of ASME Code B31.3.
This document clarifies or complements some requirements of ASME Code B31.3 when
deemed necessary considering COMPANY experience.
Piping systems covered by this specification shall be designed and analysed in accordance with
this Code and with the documents listed hereafter.
Any divergence between any of the Reference Documents, or between this specification and
any Reference Document, shall be reported to the COMPANY for decision. In such a case, and
unless otherwise agreed or decided by the COMPANY, it is understood that the more stringent
requirement shall apply.
Exceptions to, or deviations from this specification are not permitted unless previously accepted
in writing by the COMPANY. For this purpose, requests for substitutions or changes of any kind
shall be completed with all pertinent information required for the COMPANY assessment.
Standards
Reference

Title

ASME B16.5

Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings (NPS through NPS 24)

ASME B16.47

Large Diameter Steel Flanges NPS 26 through NPS 60

Professional Documents
Reference

Title

CONCAWE Report
n 87/59

The prediction of noise radiated from pipe systems - an


engineering procedure for plant design

EJMA

Standards of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association

NEMA SM 23

Steam Turbines for Mechanical Drive Service

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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General Specification

Date: 10/2007

GS EP PVV 107

Rev: 04

Reference

Title

WRC 107

Welding Research Council Bulletin 107 - Local Stresses in


Spherical and Cylindrical Shells due to External Loadings

WRC 297

Welding Research Council Bulletin 297 - Local Stresses in


Cylindrical Shells due to External Loadings on Nozzles Supplement to WRC Bulletin 107

Regulations
If the country of installation has its own regulation, it must be applied wherever more stringent
than the Basic Code.
Reference

Title

Not applicable

Codes
Reference

Title

API 520 Part 2

Sizing Selection and installation of Pressure relieving devices in


refineries

API 610

Centrifugal Pumps for General Refinery Service

API 617

Centrifugal Compressors for General Refinery Service

API 661

Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service

API 662

Plate Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service

API RP 2A-WSD

Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing


Fixed Offshore Platforms - Working Stress Design

ASME B31.1

Power Piping

ASME B31.3

Process Piping

ASME III Div. 1


Subsection NB

Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components


Class 1 Components

ASME VIII Div. 1

Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels

BS 7159

Design and Construction of Glass-Reinforced Plastics (GRP)


Piping Systems for Individual Plants or Sites

UKOOA

Specifications and Recommended practice for the Use of Glass


Fibre Reinforced Plastic Piping Offshore

PD 5500

Specification for Unfired Fusion Welded Pressure Vessels

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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General Specification

Date: 10/2007

GS EP PVV 107

Rev: 04

Other documents
Reference
DNV RP C203

Title
Fatigue Design of Offshore Steel Structures

Total General Specifications


Reference

Title

GS EP PVV 111

Piping Design Specification

GS EP PVV 112

Piping Material Classes

GS EP PVV 119

Metallic Piping Support Design

GS EP PVV 149

Spring Hangers and Supports

GS EP PVV 178

Design and Erection of Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) Piping


System

GS EP PVV 211

Design and fabrication of pressure vessels according to ASME VIII

GS EP PVV 212

Design and fabrication of pressure vessels according to PD 5500

3. Design basis
3.1 General
Piping systems shall have sufficient flexibility to prevent thermal expansion or contraction from
causing:

Failure of piping or supports from overstress or fatigue

Leakage at joints

Detrimental stresses or distortion in piping and valves or in connected equipment.

Piping systems shall be designed in accordance with the requirements of the ASME B31.3
Code and the present specification. They shall take into account all the different conditions
expected during their lifetime: operating conditions, environmental conditions, occasional and
accidental conditions.
All piping shall be adequately supported (anchors, guides, limit stop, etc.) to prevent excessive
stresses from the different expected conditions.
Pipe stress analysis shall be carried out at pressure and temperature conditions as stated in the
Critical Line List.
The purpose of this General Specification is to:

Categorise piping systems into Critical stress levels

Define criteria and coefficients so that loading conditions may be applied

State allowable stress levels to ensure safe plant operations.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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Exploration & Production


General Specification
GS EP PVV 107

Date: 10/2007
Rev: 04

3.2 Design Data


The main design data of each line shall be taken from the following documents:

Line list: Operating and design pressures, operating and design temperatures, type and
thickness of insulation (if any), type of hot tracing (if any), test conditions (pressure, fluid,
etc.)

Piping material classes: Material, diameter, wall thickness, type of fittings, flanges and
valves

Project Specification: Site data e.g. the minimum/maximum ambient temperature, the
maximum solar temperature, the wind data such as wind speed for each grade level, the
earthquake data, etc.

3.3 Method of Analysis


The piping layout shall be analysed by the individual consideration of each line affected by
restraints (temperature, imposed displacements, etc.) to determine the reactions produced at
anchors and terminal points and the stresses in the piping. The methods of analysis are
classified into three Stress Analysis Levels.
The levels of requirements and the corresponding methods of analysis are defined as follows:
3.3.1 Level 1: Visual inspection (or by analogy)
It is an approximate, visual inspection method. It shall be restricted to lines that are similar to
other calculated lines, or lines having a clear and adequate flexibility.
If not, these lines shall be classified as level 2 or 3.
No actual values of forces and moments acting on supports are requested for a level 1 analysis.
3.3.2 Level 2: Simplified analysis
This method includes the use of charts, nomographs and simplified formulae which may only be
accepted if they are used in the range of configuration for which their accuracy is acceptable.
In case of doubt, the line shall be classified as level 3.
The result of a level 2 analysis may be shown only on the calculation isometric, or in a simplified
report including isometric and a computer calculations output restrain summary.
3.3.3 Level 3: Comprehensive analysis
It is a comprehensive method by computer calculations exclusively that shall meet the
requirements of the piping code.
A complete calculation report shall be issued (refer to the 12).
The accuracy level selection shall be indicated in a document called "Critical Line List". This
document shall include all the lines to be reviewed by the stress analyst and shall be submitted
to the COMPANY for approval.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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General Specification
GS EP PVV 107

Date: 10/2007
Rev: 04

3.3.4 Exemptions
A stress calculation needs not to be performed on the piping systems that meet one of the
following requirements according to ASME B31.3, paragraph 319.4.1:

Piping systems which are duplicated, or are revised without significant changes of
successfully operating operations

Piping systems which can be readily judged adequate by comparison with previously
analyzed systems.

4. Critical Line List


All lines of accuracy levels 2 and 3 shall be reported in the Critical Line List. These lines must
be classified in accordance with the criteria shown on Appendix 1 (General Chart and Specific
Cases).
This requirement applies also to lines included in packages. To facilitate tie-ins and assign
responsibilities, vendors will be responsible for the pipework design within their package and an
anchor support must be provided at the limit of all packages.

4.1 Critical Line List for Basic Engineering


At the Basic Engineering stage, a special care shall be taken to design the piping routing in a
proper way to allow a good flexibility and to avoid any major changes during the detailed
engineering when the piping stress analysis is finalised.
Lines of level 3 to be calculated at Basic Engineering shall be identified in Critical Line List.
This Critical Line List shall be updated during the Detailed Engineering in accordance with the
possible modifications or Project up-dating.
Unless otherwise required by the project, diameter 18 and above lines which are submitted to
differential displacements (platforms or pipe racks differential displacements due to earthquake
or to special operating cases) shall be checked as per level 3 lines.
Piping stress analysis level 3 shall also include:

Lines submitted to wellhead displacement

Lines with oblique connections

Lines with expansion bellows

Carbon Steel and Low Temperature Carbon Steel lines used at a temperature lower than
the minimum shown on the Piping Class
GRP lines larger than a diameter to be defined for each project.

4.2 Critical Line List for Detailed Engineering


At the Detailed Engineering stage, the flexibility of all the piping systems shall be checked in the
different conditions expected during their lifetime. The piping systems shall be able to withstand
applied loads without permanent deformations at any time of the fabrication (i.e. load-out,
transportation, lifting, partial hydrostatic test, etc.).

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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General Specification

Date: 10/2007

GS EP PVV 107

Rev: 04

Lines of levels 2 and 3 to be calculated at Detailed Engineering shall be identified in the Critical
Line List. This Critical Line List shall be regularly updated in accordance with the possible
modifications.
In addition to the Appendix 1 (General Chart and Specific Cases), the following criteria shall be
considered in order to finalize the checking level:

Lines having substantial concentrated loads such as valves, fittings, unsupported vertical
risers and branches

3 and larger closed pressure relief system piping, where design temperature exceeds
93C (200F) or is less than -73C (-100F)

Lines having local reduction in strength due to installation of special fittings (i.e. oblique
connections)

Piping 3 and larger connected to:


- Rotating equipment such as pumps, blowers and compressors
- Air cooler
- Plate and frame heat exchanger
- Gas turbine.

Blowdown and flare header or vent piping, but not atmospheric vent piping

Piping with pressure surge, slug and two phases flow

Normally dry firewater piping and normally water-filled firewater ring main piping

Piping subject to short term variations such as steam-out or purge piping

Pig receiver and launcher lines up to and including off-shore riser support

Relief valve or rupture disc piping reaction forces

Expansion bellows

Lines affected by deck deflection, platform settlement, wellhead movement or any other
significant displacement

Lines subject to vacuum conditions

Cryogenic lines:
- It is considered as cryogenic service all applications below -46C

Lines which may create large forces or moments on structure or skid base
Unbalanced piping configuration, such as a long run of pipe with a short branch
connected to anchor

Piping subjected to severe cyclic temperature conditions

GRP lines larger than a diameter to be defined for each project

Lines with special design requirements

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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General Specification
GS EP PVV 107

Date: 10/2007
Rev: 04

In addition, the effect on piping of other conditions such as temperature gradients that
could cause thermal bowing or where piping is connected to equipment with significant
thermal growth

Lines design to B31.3 chapter IX

All piping with t > OD/6 or P/SE > 0.385

4 and larger with t > 10% OD

Lines with OD/t > 120

Where:

OD is the piping Outside Diameter

t is the piping thickness

P is the Design Pressure

SE is the Allowable Stress as per defined in the ASME B31.3 code for the thickness
calculation.

5. Piping Stress Analysis


5.1 List of calculation reports
A list of the calculations reports shall be issued and regularly updated. The lines which are
subject to approximate or comprehensive analysis methods (levels 2 and 3) shall be registered
on this list which shall include the following information:

Line number, including revision and date

Calculation number

Type of analysis

Revision and date of issue.

5.2 Screening or hand calculations


All level 1 and level 2 lines shall be checked by piping and/or supporting engineers. Screening
or hand calculations shall be used to verify that enough inherent flexibility exists in the piping
system to prevent excessive thrusts, stresses and distortion.
Differential displacements shall be considered.
All piping stress calculation notes of level 2 lines shall be submitted to COMPANY for review.

5.3 Computerized analysis


Comprehensive computer analysis shall be performed for critical lines level 3 (or assimilated
level 3).
The calculation program used shall be CAESAR II, 4.50 or 5.0 version, developed by COADE
Inc. (Houston - Texas USA).
The lines shall be calculated, including branch lines up to the first anchor or acceptable
boundary condition when branch diameter half header diameter.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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General Specification

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GS EP PVV 107

Rev: 04

When small size lines (branch) connected to main lines (header) are to be calculated separately
(when branch diameter < half header diameter) the linear and angular movements of the
junction point shall be calculated or estimated for proper analysis of the branch line.
Axis for piping stress analysis shall be the same as for the structure calculation, normally:
Onshore site or offshore platform

FPSO unit

X = North direction

X = Horizontal axis parallel to the FPSO


longitudinal axis (forward)

Y = Transversal axis (toward West)

Y = Horizontal axis perpendicular to X


(toward portside)

Z = Vertical Axis (upward)

Z=

Vertical Axis (upward)

All piping stress calculation notes of level 3 (or assimilated) shall be submitted to COMPANY
specialist for acceptance once the CONTRACTOR has approved them.
Input data for all Piping Stress Calculation Notes (in electronic files) will be transmitted to
COMPANY for check.
The computer outputs shall be submitted to the COMPANY for review.

5.4 Units
Unless otherwise specified by the Project requirements, the unit system shall be the metric
system.

6. Design Conditions
The following paragraphs detail the design conditions, the Caesar model, the load cases and
the acceptance criteria to be considered.

6.1 Design Pressure


The design pressure of each component in the piping system shall be equal to the most severe
design conditions expected, indicated in the Critical Line List.
In particular cases, the design pressure specified in the Critical Line List may be replaced by the
maximum operating pressure upon COMPANY approval.

6.2 Calculation Temperature


The basic temperature for the flexibility analysis shall be the Design temperature; the
temperature for the occasional conditions such as start-up, cool-down, shutdown, regeneration,
depressurisation and other special conditions shall also be considered. This temperature shall
be taken from the process and utilities list and shall be specified on the Critical Line List.
The following rules shall be taken into account:
6.2.1 Nozzles and supports
The maximum operating temperature shall be considered for nozzle loads on rotating
equipment and air coolers. This temperature is taken from the process and utilities lines list.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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General Specification

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GS EP PVV 107

Rev: 04

The thermal displacement of the equipment nozzles shall be calculated using the relevant line
temperature. The temperature homogeneity shall be met between piping and equipment.
The operating temperature may be applied for the calculation of the loads on the supports.
6.2.2 Solar heating temperature
The solar heating temperature shall be used for the design of the exposed un-insulated lines
when the operating temperature is lower than the solar heating temperature. The value of the
solar heating temperature to be considered shall be specified in the Project environmental
conditions (i.e. 60C for exposed pipes in Africa).
6.2.3 Dry out and steam out
Dry out and steam out temperatures (if any) shall be taken from the process and utilities list. In
case of steam traced lines, the operating temperature of the traced line or 70% of the steam
temperature, whichever is greater, shall be considered.
For jacketed lines, the operating temperature of the heated line or the steam temperature,
whichever is greater, shall be considered.
6.2.4 Dead branch
For the lines which do not have flow, such as piping connected to the spare pumps, by-pass,
etc., the following value shall be considered:

Insulated line: 50% of the operating temperature in the dead branch

Non-insulated line: plant temperature in the dead branch

Steam traced line: 70% of the operating temperature of the steam line in the dead branch

Warm-up by-pass of the spare pumps: 70% of the operating temperature of the line.

6.2.5 Plant temperature


The plant temperature is defined by considering the Project environmental conditions:

For cold piping stress, the installation temperature is the maximum air temperature

For hot piping stress, the installation temperature is the minimum air temperature.

6.2.6 Line with a dual operating temperature


For lines subject to dual operating temperature (both above and below the installation
temperature), the thermal effects shall be checked by considering the full thermal range:

From the installation temperature to the hot temperature and

From the cold temperature to the installation temperature.

6.3 Thermal Effects


The following thermal effects, combined with loads and forces from other cases, shall be taken
into account for the design of piping:

Thermal loads due to restraints or anchors

Loads due to temperature gradients (bowing effect)

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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General Specification
GS EP PVV 107

Date: 10/2007
Rev: 04

Loads due to difference in expansion characteristics.

ASME B31.3 code requires to check the Displacement Stress Range including the stresses
induced by both the thermal effects (range) and the support displacements.

6.4 Snow loads - Ice


The analysis for snow or ice loads depends of the climatic conditions specified in the Project
environment conditions.
For un-insulated cold lines where ice formation is anticipated, the additional sustained load due
to ice shall be considered for relevant stress evaluation and piping support design.
Note: heat traced lines shall be considered too (in case of a possible failure of the heating
system).

6.5 Dynamic Effects


6.5.1 Surge effects
The loads generated by overpressure in the lines due to water hammer effect shall be taken into
account where applicable. They shall be based on Process data (transient rate). Data obtained
from a process simulation model which can predict valve Cv as a function of time shall be used
as input to the CEASAR model. The method and the model used for the surge effects study
shall be submitted to the COMPANY acceptance before calculation.
An equivalent static stress analysis shall be performed where the force due to the pressure
surge is applied at appropriate locations (changes of direction). The forces shall be modelled
acting on straight part of pipe (at the inlet node of the elbows for example).
Piping supports and their attachment to the main structure shall be designed to withstand these
loads.
A force spectrum dynamic analysis shall be performed when high surge pressure fluctuations
and high stress level (or high loads on supports) are obtained from the static stress analysis.
The lines submitted to the surge effects shall be identified on the Critical Line List.
6.5.2 Slug effects
The slug force shall be applied at change of direction (in the middle of the elbows for example)
for the calculation of the stresses and pipe support loads.
Piping supports and structure shall be designed to withstand these loads.
The lines submitted to the slug effects shall be identified on the Critical Line List.
Calculations of slug loads on 90 bends shall be based on the following simplified calculation
which assumes equal inlet and outlet velocities and no change in pressure
FR = .a.V2.DLF
Where:
FR is the resultant force as slug strikes elbow
is the density of the fluid
a is the internal surface of the pipe

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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General Specification
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Date: 10/2007
Rev: 04

V is the slug velocity


DLF is the Dynamic Load Factor (DLF = 2).
6.5.3 Wind
The effect of wind loading shall be taken into account in the design of an exposed piping
system. Wind will be taken in X or Y axis whichever is the more stringent according to the
prevailing wind direction.
Maximum wind speed shall be taken from the Project environment conditions. The wind shape
factor shall be 0.8 unless otherwise specified by the Project specifications.
Generally wind loads are derived from API RP2A WSD rules.
6.5.4 Earthquake
6.5.4.1 Accelerations
Piping shall be designed for earthquake-induced forces.
Generally the accelerations correspond to the seismic site conditions. Accelerations to be
considered shall be defined by the structure studies (platforms and racks).
Envelop values can be used on a first step however they shall comply with the structure final
calculations.
The structural deflections induced by the earthquake shall also be considered.
6.5.4.2 Deflections
Structural deflections and equipment displacements due to earthquake accelerations shall be
introduced in case of significant relative displacement.
Estimated values can be considered at the stage of the Basic Design in accordance with the
Project environment conditions.
However at final stage, the estimated values of the structures displacements shall be compared
with the results of the global calculation performed by the Structure discipline. If the final values
are higher than the preliminary one, piping stress analysis shall be rerun. Otherwise the
estimated values can be kept.
Differential displacements due to earthquake shall be considered.
6.5.5 Discharge reactions - Safety valves
Forces and moments due to Pressure Safety Valve discharge shall be taken from the
Instrumentation PSV data.
If such data are not available estimation can be made according to:

ASME B31.1 Appendix II using a Dynamic Load Factor (DLF) of 2.0.

API 520 Part ll section 2.4.1 using a Dynamic Load Factor (DLF) of 2.0

This hypothesis shall be confirmed then by the PSV data sheet.


In case of several PSV connected on the same upstream header, the DLF shall be applied on
one valve at a time, in order to avoid the over design of the structure.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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General Specification
GS EP PVV 107

Date: 10/2007
Rev: 04

Acoustical induced vibrations shall be checked according to the CONCAWE report n 87/59 or
to another relevant rule to submit to COMPANY.
6.5.6 Inertial accelerations
6.5.6.1 Accelerations during the transport
The accelerations corresponding to the transport shall be considered (towing, transport of
modules, etc.).
As far as possible, the piping supports shall be designed in order to avoid additional seafastening during the tow-out.
The cooling water lines and the fire water lines are to be calculated full of water during the
transport. The other lines shall be empty.
6.5.6.2 Accelerations during operation (Offshore conditions)
These accelerations correspond to the swell or hull motion on site. The accelerations values
shall be defined by the Naval or Structure discipline and shall comply with the structure final
calculations.
Envelop values can be used on a first step however they shall be conservative. For the lines
connected on sensitive equipment (i.e. compressors) more accurate local accelerations can be
used. In that case, they shall be clearly indicated in the calculation report.

6.6 Weight Effects


The following weight effects, combined with loads and forces from other causes, shall be taken
into account in the design of piping.
6.6.1 Live loads
These loads include the weight of the medium transported or the medium used for test. Snow
and ice loads due to both environmental and operating conditions shall be considered.
6.6.2 Dead loads
These loads consist of the weight of piping components, insulation, and other superimposed
permanent loads supported by the piping like valves, flanges, etc.

6.7 Effects of Supports and Structural Deflections


The effect of movements of piping supports, anchors, structure and connected equipment shall
be taken into account in the design of the piping. These movements may result from the
flexibility of equipment, supports, or anchors; and from settlement, tidal movements, or wind
sway.
All imposed deflections applicable to the loading conditions shall be considered:
6.7.1 Deflections due to inertial accelerations
Structural deflections and equipment displacements due to accelerations shall be introduced in
case of significant relative displacement.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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General Specification
GS EP PVV 107

Date: 10/2007
Rev: 04

6.7.1.1 Basic Design


Estimated values of horizontal and vertical deflections to be used for preliminary calculations
shall be defined in early stage with the Structural Analysis Group. These values shall be
compatible with the current displacements imposed to the piping system.
An integrated model considering both the structure and the piping may be necessary for the
estimation of these values.
In case of a pipe installed through several structures, the worst case to be considered is first
structure moving, second structure without displacement, third structure moving, and so
on
For the design of the piping attached on the hull (risers, etc.), the deflection of the topside floor
shall be introduced in the calculation.
6.7.1.2 Detailed Design
The same procedure may be used for the Detailed Design, but at final stage, the estimated
values of the structure displacements shall be compared with the results of the global
calculation performed by the Structural Analysis Group. If the final values are higher than the
preliminary one, piping stress analysis shall be rerun. Otherwise the estimated values can be
kept.
6.7.2 Deflections due to hogging and sagging (Floating Units)
Differential displacements between the deck and the topsides modules structures (or between
two modules) due to the swell, the hull motion, and the differential tank filling shall be taken into
account for the maximum displacement stress range check.
In the case of a Floating Unit, the longitudinal differential displacements (X axis) due to the
hogging and sagging shall be considered. The transverse differential displacements (Y axis)
due to the hull hogging and sagging are usually not significant, but should be considered if
piping is rigidly supported transversely from the hull.
Consideration shall also be given to the construction methodology: construction on-shore
followed by load-out to a floating condition can result in larger deflections of the hull than would
occur in tow or in service.
CONTRACTOR shall propose a method for the combination of the different displacements (in
phase or out of phase).
6.7.2.1 Envelope values for Basic Design
The following values can be used at the Basic Design stage:

Sagging deflection at the middle of the hull/platform = -400 mm on a flexural length of


200 m

Hogging deflection at the middle of the hull/platform = +400 mm on a flexural length of


200 m

Longitudinal strain of the hull deck should assume 1 mm/m.

Other values can be considered if justified but they shall be submitted to the COMPANY for
acceptance.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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Rev: 04

6.7.2.2 Detailed Design


The values used for the Basic Design are normally conservative and shall be updated for the
Detailed Design.
For base-anchored elevated equipment, rotations shall be taken into account.
Final values of displacements shall be evaluated from the global model calculation (deck +
structure + pipe) by Structure discipline and compared with preliminary one. If the final values
are higher than the preliminary ones, used at the basic engineering stage, piping stress analysis
shall be rerun. Otherwise the preliminary values can be kept.
The cases to be analysed shall consider tow, 1-year and 100-year operating cases (on site).
Accident conditions, including accidental inclination of the hull of a floating structure shall be
considered.
6.7.3 Differential displacements
Inter and intra platform (deck or module) relative movements are required for the design of the
concerned piping.
The differential displacements for seismic effect, swell (or hull) effect and operating effect shall
be considered between platforms (decks or modules) and between each structure (or module)
within the same area (air coolers structure, pipe racks, etc.).
CONTRACTOR shall provide a method explaining the differential displacements considered
with the justification of their value. These hypotheses shall be defined in the Piping Stress
Design Basis.

6.8 Hydrostatic test conditions


For the hydrostatic test, the test pressure shall be taken as follow:

For rating 600# and below: 1.5 time the Piping Class Maximum Pressure

For rating 900# and above: 1.5 time the Maximum Design Pressure.

It will be specified on the calculation note that spring supports and expansion joints are
locked-out on the field to prevent any excessive deflection and over-stressing of the system.

7. Caesar model
7.1 Boundary conditions
A level 2 line or a level 1 line connected to a level 3 line shall be included in input data of the
level 3 line calculation note with partial routing at the appreciation of Pipe Stress Engineer for
boundaries conditions only. These partially calculated lines shall not be included in the Critical
Line List.

7.2 Piping supports


Except the case of the spring supports, piping supports shall be included in the piping stress
analysis by considering them as rigid elements into CAESAR model.
Characteristics of the spring supports shall be specified in the relevant calculation note
(movements, operating & calibration loads, spring rate, hydrotest loads & travel stop).

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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Any other specific piping support shall be submitted to COMPANY for acceptance.

7.3 Thermal displacements


The thermal displacements shall be included in the piping stress analysis by considering the
equipments as rigid elements into CAESAR model.

7.4 Imposed displacements


The effects of movements of piping supports, anchors, and connected equipment shall be taken
into account in the design of the piping for the displacement stress range check (including
thermal and displacements effects).
The movements may result from:

The flexibility and/or the thermal expansion of equipment, supports or anchors

The topsides structure movements due to accelerations

The wind sway

The piping displacements at the connection point of the calculated line on another line

The hull motions

The dynamic loads impacts

Etc.

7.5 Friction effects


Except for special calculation cases, friction factor shall not be taken into account in the final
computer runs, but a separate check shall be performed in order to determine the impact of the
friction effect on the stresses and on the equipment nozzles.
In those cases, the following friction factors shall be applied:
Surfaces

Friction factor

Steel to steel

0.3

Steel on polyethylene shim

0.2

Stainless steel to PTFE

0.1

PTFE to PTFE

Shall not be used

The modelling of the supports shall be done without gap except if it is necessary for particular
condition. In that case the modelling of the support with gap shall be submitted to the
COMPANY for acceptance.
In seismic case, friction and gaps shall not be considered.

7.6 Stress Intensification Factor (SIF) for oblique connections


In case of oriented tees, Stress Intensification Factor (SIF) are higher due to the angle of
connection between branch and header.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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Rev: 04

7.6.1 Forged connection


For forged connection, this SIF shall be calculated as per equation below (header and branch
element):
h = 4.4 (T / r2)
iO = 0.9 / [h2/3 (sin )3/2]
iI = (3 iO / 4) + 0.25
7.6.2 Un-reinforced Fabricated Tee
For un-reinforced fabricated tee, this SIF shall be calculated as per equation below (Pipe to
Pipe for header and branch element):
h = T / r2
iO = 0.9 / [h2/3 (sin )3/2]
iI

= (3 iO / 4) + 0.25

Where:
h is for Flexibility Characteristic
iO is for Stress Intensification Factor Out-of-Plane
iI is for Stress Intensification Factor In-Plane
T is for Thickness of pipe header
r2 is for Radius of pipe header
Sin is for Sinus of small Angle between header and branch.

7.7 Bourdon effects


The Bourdon Effect causes straight pipe to elongate, and bends to Open Up axially along a
line connecting the curvature end points.
Option #1 (translation only) of Special Execution Parameters of CAESAR II shall be used. This
option includes only translational effects on the straight pipes.
The Bourdon effect shall be considered for all critical lines calculated.

8. Load Cases
In view of their combinations such as to represent loading conditions, the loads shall be classed
according to the following principles.

8.1 Elementary load cases


The elementary load cases shall be defined as a set of indivisible loads of the same type acting
concomitantly on the piping system, such as but not limited to:

Design Pressure

Hydrostatic Test Pressure

Weight

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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Thermal in design condition

Thermal in service condition

Pipe accelerations due to the earthquake

Pipe accelerations due to the transport

Pipe accelerations during the operations

Thermal displacements

Structure displacements

Wind

Forces due to the Dynamic loads

Weight empty for structure

Etc.

Date: 10/2007
Rev: 04

Both calculation note and computer model file shall fully document and trace in detail the origin
of each load input in the model. As such, individual loads pertaining to each piece of itemised
equipment shall be related to the equipment reference number.

8.2 Combination load cases


The loads defined in the previous paragraph shall be combined to develop the appropriate
loading conditions such as to produce the most severe effects on the piping system. The
combinations of the elementary load cases shall comply with the ASME B31.3. Other
combinations may be necessary for other verifications.
All the load cases applicable to the project shall be considered.
The following combination load cases are given as example; the different combination load
cases shall be defined exhaustively at the beginning of the project in the Piping Stress Design
Basis.

Combination load cases for ASME B31.3

Combination cases for structure and equipments

Combination cases for support loads only

Combination cases for flanges

Etc.

Note that the type of combination (Square Root Square Sum, Absolute, or Algebraic) shall be
the most appropriate for each combined load case.

9. Acceptance Criteria
9.1 Allowable stress
Basic allowable stresses for piping materials shall be taken from the ASME B31.3:

Sc: basic allowable stress at maximum (cold) temperature

Sh: basic allowable stress at maximum (hot) temperature

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Rev: 04

The allowable stress value for each calculated stress shall be taken as the following:
9.1.1 Sum of longitudinal stresses (primary stress): SL

Sustained loads case


SL Sh (where thickness of pipe is the nominal thickness minus mechanical tolerance and
corrosion allowance)

Occasional loads cases


SL 1.33 Sh

9.1.2 Displacement stress range (secondary stress): SE


SE f(1.25 Sc + 0.25 Sh)
Where:

SL is the sum of longitudinal stresses caused by internal pressure, self load and other
imposed loads

SE is the displacement stress range caused by thermal expansion and contraction and
anchor movements

f is the stress range reduction factor for cyclic conditions for total number of full
temperature cycles over expected life (as per defined in the ASME B31.3 302.3.5).

9.1.3 Hydrostatic Test


SL 0.9 Sy (Yield Strength at ambient temperature)

9.2 Piping deformation


9.2.1 Sustained loads
The vertical deformation of piping shall have no counter-slope under the sustained loads in
Design Conditions. Supports must be arranged so that the vertical deflection under its own
weight is limited to a range from 5 mm to 10 mm.
9.2.2 Occasional loads
Unless otherwise specified, the piping deformation shall be limited to 20 mm in the horizontal
and the vertical direction under the occasional loads (seismic acceleration, wind effect, wave
effect, etc.) including the piping weight effect.
9.2.3 Piping natural frequency
The first dynamic mode shall be checked for each calculation note.
Piping layout and supporting shall be developed in order to ensure that the lowest natural
frequency of the network is at least half or twice the structure natural frequency of the deck and
not less than 4 Hz. These criteria shall be satisfied for all networks. If these criteria are not
respected, results shall be submitted to COMPANY for approval.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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Rev: 04

9.3 Allowable loads on equipments


The allowable forces and moments on equipment nozzles shall be checked and comply with the
allowable value given by the project specification.
If such data are not available, the forces and moments induced by piping on the nozzles of
equipment shall not exceed the values stated defined here after.
When the calculated loads exceed these values, they shall be submitted to the equipment
supplier for acceptance.
9.3.1 Centrifugal compressors
The piping loads shall be combined as per API 617 Appendix 4E for the suction and the
discharge nozzles and for the combined resultants of the forces and the moments.
Generally the allowable forces and moments on compressor nozzles are limited to 5 NEMA.
9.3.2 API 610 pumps
For centrifugal pumps, the piping loads shall be checked as per API 610 latest edition for the
suction and the discharge nozzles and for the combined resultants of the forces and the
moments.
9.3.3 Pressure vessels
On pressure vessels (columns, vessels, shell and tube heat exchangers, scrubbers, etc.) the
allowable loads on equipments nozzles are defined in the Appendix 1 of the General
Specifications GS EP PVV 211 and GS EP PVV 212.
All of the defined loads act at the equipment shell/nozzle interface.
9.3.4 Air coolers
The allowable forces and moments acting on air coolers nozzles shall meet the criteria of
API 661 Table 4.
9.3.5 Plate heat exchangers
The allowable forces and moments acting on plate heat exchangers nozzles shall meet the
criteria of API 662 Table 2 Severe service nozzle loading.
9.3.6 Packaged units
The allowable loads at package units tie-in points shall be the same as the ones defined for the
pressure vessels (refer to 9.3.3).

9.4 Support reaction


The stress analysis reports shall locate and indicate the type of supports on the lines. The
reactions in each restraint direction shall be specified in these reports. The maximum loads
resulting from the Piping Stress Analysis shall be considered (imposed loads and
displacements). The following points shall be checked:

There shall not be any excessive forces and moments in the supports

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Piping shall not disengage from its supports (comparison of the piping displacements with
the supports length).

Any unusual loads or unusual support dimensions shall be specified and checked by the
Structure discipline (impact on the structure if any).
The design of the supports and their attachment to the main structure are not included in the
scope of the piping stress analysis. Such studies shall be detailed in another separate
document.

10. Flange leakage check


The risk of flange leakage shall be evaluated according the methods defined here after, from
the simplest to the most complicated. These methods are applicable for steel welding neck type
flange assemblies under the simultaneous effect of the internal pressure, the axial load and the
external bending moments.
All flange assemblies of the piping system submitted to stress analysis - in-line flanges as well
as connected flanges on equipments - shall be checked. The verification of the most loaded
flange, for each flange diameter, shall be included in the calculation report.

10.1 Check using tabulated values


This first check consists in comparing the calculated flange loads (in operating conditions) to the
allowable loads defined in Appendix 2.
If the calculated loads exceed the allowable criteria, then the second method shall be applied.

10.2 Check using the equivalent pressure method (Peq)


This method is a simplified checking method, which consists of defining the Equivalent
Pressure due to external loads as per ASME III Div. 1.
Axial force and external bending moments shall be converted into an equivalent pressure Peq.
This equivalent pressure shall then be added to the internal maximum operating pressure and
compared to the maximum allowable pressure on the flange.
10.2.1 Scope
This method is applicable for all flanges connection (both on equipments and on piping system)
satisfying the following conditions:

Type: Carbon steel and stainless steel Welding Neck flanges with metallic pipe and
vessels, rotating machines, valves, etc.
Codes: ASME B16.5 and B16.47.

This method is not applicable to the following type connections: Hub connectors, Proprietary
design, Flanges on Wellhead (code API 6AF), etc.
For flanges out of hypothesis above, a full check by specific code shall be performed.
10.2.2 Calculation method by equivalent pressure (Peq)
Peq (in bar) =

509296 x Mf
3

127 x FA
G2

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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Where:
Mf = Resultant Bending Moment in daN.m in Operating Conditions
FA = Axial Force in daN in Operating Conditions (ignore when compressive)
G

= Effective Gasket Diameter in mm.

10.2.3 Check of complete pressure in the flange


Peq + P < PASME
Where:
PASME = Working Pressure at Design Temperature (B16.5, B16.47) in bar
P

= Operating Pressure in bar

Peq

= Equivalent Pressure in bar.

10.2.4 Loads to be applied on flanges


The load cases to be considered for the calculation of the external loads on the flanges shall be
the following:
10.2.4.1 Permanent static load cases
Weight: including fluid and metal density at operating temperature and pressure
Pressure: maximum operating pressure
Thermal: maximum operating temperature.
These cases shall be algebraically combined.
10.2.4.2 Occasional dynamic load cases
Acceleration:

Loads without sign

Restraint movements due to dynamic loads:

Loads without sign

Structure displacement under effect of pitch and roll


(based on 100 year wave):

Loads without sign

Hogging and sagging:

Loads with sign

Wind:

Loads without sign

Relief valve opening, slug:

Loads with sign

Surge:

Loads without sign

External loads shall be calculated as follow:

External loads = Permanent static loads + [Loads with sign]

External loads = Permanent static loads + [Loads without sign]

External Loads = Permanent static loads + [Loads with sign] [Loads without sign]

These loads shall be combined to develop the appropriate loading conditions such as to check
the flange connections (most severe effects).

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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If the equation is not satisfied, that is to say if Peq + P > PASME, then the isometric shall be
optimized:

Change the location of the piping flanges

Add or modify the supports in the vicinity of the flanges

Modify the piping routing (where possible).

After these modifications, if the equation remains unsatisfied (Peq + P > PASME), then the
enhanced equivalent pressure method can be applied.

10.3 Enhanced equivalent pressure method


10.3.1 Scope
This method is applicable for all flanges connection (both on equipments and on piping system)
satisfying the following conditions:

Type: Carbon steel and stainless steel Welding Neck flanges with metallic pipe and
vessels, rotating machines, valves, etc.

Codes: ASME B16.5 and B16.47

Important: this method is valid for temperature 120C

Duplex and Inconel Welding Neck flanges can be treated in the same way than Carbon
steel.

This method is not applicable to the following type connections: Hub connectors, Proprietary
design, Flanges on Wellhead (code API 6AF), etc.
For flanges out of hypothesis above, a full check by specific code shall be performed.
10.3.2 Check of complete pressure in the flange:
This method is a simplified checking method that is based on the equivalent pressure as
defined in the previous paragraph using a coefficient. This coefficient takes into account the
margin existing between a standard flange and a calculated one.
The enhanced method equation becomes:
(Peq + P) / < PASME
Where:
PASME = Working Pressure at Design Temperature (B16.5, B16.47) in bar
P

= Operating Pressure in bar

Peq

= Equivalent Pressure in bar

= Coefficient defined in Appendix 3

coefficient is applicable only in the diameter and rating ranges defined in the Appendix 3.
If this enhanced method does not lead to satisfactory results, the flange shall be calculated in
accordance with the ASME Code Section VIII Division 1.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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10.4 Flange verification according to ASME VIII Division 1


When the previous methods do not give a satisfactory result, a complete calculation of the
flange shall be performed in accordance with the ASME Code Section VIII Division 1. The
external loads acting on the flange shall be considered.
At last, if the results are still not satisfactory and if there is no other possibility to change the pipe
routing and/or its supports, the rating of the flange shall be changed (increase of one rating
only).

10.5 Case of the specific flanges


The above described methods are not applicable to specific flange assemblies such as hub
connectors, proprietary design, etc.
In that case the allowable loads, or the methods to define the allowable loads, shall be provided
by the flanges supplier and submitted to the COMPANY for acceptance.

11. Other verifications


11.1 Vibration analysis
Piping shall be designed, arranged and supported so as to eliminate excessive and harmful
effects of vibration which may arise from such sources as impact, pressure pulsation, turbulent
flow vortices or resonance with a vibrating equipment.
At the beginning of the project, Mechanical (or Rotating Equipment) discipline shall check if a
vibration analysis is required and the piping system to be considered.
Generally a Vibrating Equipment List is issued and a vibration study shall be performed on the
connected piping. For each selected equipment, a modal analysis study shall be performed on
the first 20 meters of the line(s) connected to this equipment. The analysis shall be done up to
the fourth or fifth vibration mode of the line. The results shall be compared to the excitation
frequency of the equipment.

11.2 Vortex shedding (wind)


Local verification of piping shall be done against vortex shedding due to the wind.
By principle vortex induced vibrations (V.I.V.) shall be avoided. In case of V.I.V., fatigue damage
shall be evaluated taking into account sensitivity of the damping factors and the full range of the
environmental loads up to 100 years return period.
This study concern mainly the small piping (small diameter) that are exposed to the wind (flare,
top of the packages).

11.3 Fatigue assessment for pipes


Fatigue analysis shall be performed for the lines submitted to high cyclic loads (such as cyclic
pressure variation). The piping systems shall be able to withstand such fatigue loads throughout
their design life.
These lines shall be identified by Process discipline and specified on the Critical Line List.
Fatigue analysis shall be evaluated in offshore conditions (inertial accelerations, hull and
topsides deflections, etc.) in accordance with the DNV RP C203 Fatigue Design of Offshore

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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Rev: 04

Steel Structures or other code to submit to the COMPANY. Design fatigue factors for each
condition will be approved by COMPANY.

11.4 Blast loads


The blast loads on the piping system shall be modelled as a drag force applied along the
concerned pipes, one direction checked at a time.
As the blast is an accidental event, induced stresses correspond to one cycle, and stress
intensification factors defined in the ASME B31.3 code shall not be used for this verification
(they are defined for cyclic events).
As the purpose is to check the risk of pipe failure (rupture is not acceptable but plastic
deformations are authorized), the calculation stress, including normal operating stress
(thermal + weight + pressure) and the stress induced by blast, shall be kept less than 0.8 the
Specified Minimum Tensile Strength.
Generally the verification shall be performed during the detailed studies and it is not required at
the basic engineering stage.
The piping blast design requires a specific lines list (Lines exposed to blast) to be established
in the early phase of the detailed engineering design. This list must be submitted to the
COMPANY for approval. It is independent from the Piping Stress Critical Line list and it shall
consider all exposed lines, with respect to blast, whatever their size.
The blast parameters (pressure, drag coefficient, etc.) shall be defined by the Safety discipline
during the detailed engineering.
If this information is not available at early stage, a preliminary calculation can be performed
using the following model:

Blast pressure = 0.3 bar

Pulse duration = 0.2 second

Drag coefficient = 1.2 (from API RP 2A-WSD for cylindrical shape).

Piping supports and structure shall be checked when submitted to these loads.
Hold down should be installed on the piping supports of the lines which shall resist to the blast
effect.
Where plastic strains are incurred under the design explosion event, the post-accident integrity
of the damaged piping system shall be inspected.

11.5 Glass Reinforced Plastics pipes (GRP)


Preliminary calculations for GRP pipes shall be performed according to BS 7159 and UKOOA
codes with the characteristics given by the GRP pipes Supplier.
Piping stress analysis on GRP lines shall be done in accordance with this General Specification
and performed by the GRP supplier (or at least validated by him).
A single-point responsible shall be clearly identified at the beginning of the project. His
responsibility shall cover the design, the pre-fabrication and the site erection of the GRP piping
network.

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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A pseudo-static study shall be done for the water hammer effect. It shall be qualified and
quantified from the pump characteristics applicable on the piping system.
GRP supplier shall provide guaranteed allowable stresses in pipes, fittings and joints.
A reducing ratio shall then be defined and applied to each allowable stress . It results in an
allowable stress threshold value X.
The joints having a calculated stress value cal exceeding the threshold X shall be considered
as critical joints and shall be made during the prefabrication.
All critical joints to be prefabricated shall be clearly identified on the isometrics.

12. Calculation Notes


All these requirements are applicable as much to the CONTRACTOR as to the
SUB-CONTRACTORS like package suppliers. CONTRACTOR shall issue a Piping Stress
Design Basis and shall make it applicable to all SUB-CONTRACTORS. He shall also check that
all the calculation notes issued for the project comply with the Piping Stress Design Basis and
have the same presentation (including the ones issued by the SUB-CONTRACTORS).

12.1 General
The studies shall be supported by all the documents required for the complete definition of the
piping systems: piping stress analysis, loads on nozzles and supports, flange leakage check,
vibration analysis, fatigue assessment, blast, GRP, etc. This list is not exhaustive.
The assumptions and methods used at each stage of the calculations must be collected in a
document named Piping Stress Design Basis submitted to the COMPANY for approval before
starting any calculations. The CONTRACTOR should be responsible for collecting all the
necessary information as required from others (construction, transport, structure, equipments,
etc.).
All the results of the piping stress analysis shall be presented in a calculation note for each
system (including the computer outputs) and shall be submitted to the COMPANY.
CONTRACTOR shall constantly check that the isometrics used for the piping stress analysis
comply with the ones used for the design and for the fabrication: piping routing, components, inline items, supports, etc.
Unless otherwise specified by the Project requirements, the Calculation Notes shall be issued in
English.

12.2 Calculation Note for basic engineering


At basic engineering stage, the piping stress calculation notes can be simplified reports.
However all essential information shall be included:

Cover sheet

Introduction, conclusion, recommendations

Basic design data and conditions (including the mechanical characteristic of the piping
system)
Load cases and combinations considered

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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Isometric layout of the complete piping system being analysed with supports
configuration

CAESAR II input

CAESAR restrain summary with forces, moments and displacements at supports

CAESAR maximum stresses per load case

Loads on equipment nozzles when exceed allowable criteria

Additional requirements for acceptance (e.g.: branch connection reinforcements).

12.3 Calculation note for detailed engineering


At detailed engineering stage, the piping stress calculation notes shall be a comprehensive
reports including as a minimum the information listed here after.
The method and detail of handover to Operations of documentation is outside the scope of this
document, but the COMPANY representative must discuss with the affiliate and Project, a
suitable numbering system such that when the installation becomes operational, all information
to enable future pipe modifications may be easily retrieved.
The format of the stress reports should be as follows:

Cover sheet

Introduction, summary
-

Purpose, general statement stating the objective of the report

Process description: brief description of function of pipework, design temperatures and


pressures, materials, module description, location, etc.

Basic design data (including the mechanical characteristic of the piping system)

Calculation Description: codes used, state any assumptions made in calculation


method.

Content Tables and isometrics


-

List of all lines in calculation report, criticality level, extract from line list, isometric
numbers, CAESAR calculation number

Isometric layout of the complete piping system being analysed showing all supports
and nodes necessary for the calculation

Support positions and types

Load cases, combinations and calculated member stresses

Imposed displacements

Additional requirements for acceptance (e.g.: branch connection reinforcements).

Analysis Results
-

Simple graphic of analysed line

Boundary conditions with calculation numbers for continuity if applicable

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

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List of all load cases analysed with table showing % of allowable stress for each stress
and at which node this occurs (Maximum calculated stresses)

Displacements, forces, moments and stresses at all supports, nozzles and particular
points of the piping system for all load case

Nozzle equipment loads compliance

Combination loads on pipe supports with cross reference to project pipe support
document

The worst flanges verification Flange tightness compliance, with equivalent method or
ASME VIII method

Dynamic compliance with slugs and fundamental natural frequency or subsequent


harmonics if connected to rotating equipment.

Detailed Calculations
-

Particular Calculations required to justify non compliance or vendor calculations

Other verifications (if applicable): fatigue, vibration, blast analysis

Additional requirements for acceptance (e.g.: branch connection reinforcements).

CAESAR Input file

Drawings
-

Stress sketches, isometrics, marked up P+IDs, piping components e.g. valves,


meters, etc.

CAESAR II output

Conclusion, recommendations.

12.4 Engineering supervision plan


The COMPANY shall, as a minimum, require a Hold Point or a Review Point on the following
activities (to be completed after review of the CONTRACTORs Quality Plan):
Critical Line List:

Hold Point

Piping Stress Design Basis:

Hold Point

List of Calculation Reports:

Review

First and Second Calculation Notes:


(Representative steel piping systems)

Hold Point

First and Second Calculation Notes GRP


(Representative Calculations)

Hold Point

Other Calculations Notes

Review

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 30/36

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 10/2007

GS EP PVV 107

Rev: 04
Appendix 1

Appendix 1

Stress analysis level requirements


General Chart

Design Temperature (C)


250

Level 3
200

150

Level 2
100

50

Level 1

Line size (inches)

0
1

10

-30

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

Level 2

-50

Level 3

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 31/36

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 10/2007

GS EP PVV 107

Rev: 04
Appendix 1

Specific Cases

Connection type
Rotating Machine or
sensitive equipment
Reciprocating machine
B
(pumps and compressors)
C Expansion joint
Heater-Transfert
D
Line Compressor / Turbine
A

E Cryogenic (1)
High Pressure (Piping Class
600 Lbs
HP relief lines to and from
G PSV (or bursting discexpansion joint lines)
H Non-ferrous materials
I Non-metallic materials (2)
F

J GRP (3)
K Buried Lines

Line Maximum
Pipe Size
below -46
(Inches)
3"
> 3"

-46

Design Temperature (C)


Ambient
50
80
100

above

Level 3
Level 3

All
3"
> 3"
18"
> 18"
3" < 12"
> 12"

Level 3
Level 2
Level 3
Level 2
Level 3
Level 2
Level 3

> 3"
All
All
8"
> 8"
12"
> 12"

250

Level 2
Level 2

All

Level 3

150

Level 3

Level 3
Level 2
Level 2
Level 2
Level 3

Level 3
Level 3
N.A.
N.A.
Level 2
Level 3

Notes:
(1) Above ambient temperature, the General Chart or the Specific Cases shall be applied
(2) GRP excluded
(3) Size to be confirmed for each project

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 32/36

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 10/2007

GS EP PVV 107

Rev: 04
Appendix 2

Appendix 2

Allowable loads on flanges

Allowable loads on flanges up to and including 600 lbs rating


y

x
z
y is the axis of the pipe
Nozzle Nominal
Diameter

Direct Loads
(kN)

Moment Loads
(kN.m)

(Inches)

(mm)

Fx

Fy

Fz

Mx

My

Mz

50

1.0

1.4

1.0

0.4

0.5

0.4

80

1.4

1.8

1.4

0.7

0.9

0.7

100

1.8

2.2

1.8

0.7

1.1

0.7

150

2.2

3.1

2.2

1.8

2.7

1.8

200

3.5

4.4

3.5

3.6

5.4

3.6

10

250

4.9

6.7

4.9

4.5

6.8

4.5

12

300

5.3

7.1

5.3

5.4

8.1

5.4

14

350

5.3

8.0

5.3

6.4

9.5

6.4

16

400

5.8

8.4

5.8

7.2

10.8

7.2

18

450

6.7

8.9

6.7

8.1

12.2

8.1

20

500

6.7

8.9

6.7

9.1

13.5

9.1

24

600

8.9

11.1

8.9

9.1

13.5

9.1

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 33/36

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 10/2007

GS EP PVV 107

Rev: 04
Appendix 2

Allowable loads on flanges 900 lbs and above rating


y

x
z
y is the axis of the pipe
Nozzle Nominal
Diameter

Direct Loads
(kN)

Moment Loads
(kN.m)

(Inches)

(mm)

Fx

Fy

Fz

Mx

My

Mz

50

1.0

1.4

1.0

0.4

0.5

0.4

80

1.4

1.8

1.4

0.7

0.9

0.7

100

2.7

3.3

2.7

1.1

1.7

1.1

150

3.3

4.7

3.3

2.7

4.0

2.7

200

5.3

6.7

5.3

5.4

8.1

5.4

10

250

7.4

10.1

7.4

6.8

10.2

6.8

12

300

8.0

10.7

8.0

8.1

12.2

8.1

14

350

8.0

12.0

8.0

9.6

14.3

9.6

16

400

8.7

12.7

8.7

10.8

16.2

10.8

18

450

10.1

13.4

10.1

12.2

18.3

12.2

20

500

10.1

13.4

10.1

13.7

20.2

13.7

24

600

13.4

16.7

13.4

13.7

20.2

13.7

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 34/36

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 10/2007

GS EP PVV 107

Rev: 04
Appendix 3

Appendix 3

Beta Coefficients ()

For Carbon Steel Flanges


DN
Inch

150#

300#

600#

900#

1500#

2500#

ASME/ Peq+P

ASME/ Peq+P

ASME/ Peq+P

ASME/ Peq+P

ASME/ Peq+P

ASME/ Peq+P

1.30

1.50

1.20

1.30

1.50

1.20

1.30

1.50

1.20

1.30

1.50

1.20

1.40

1.20

1.50

1.10

2.30

1.40

1.20

1.20

1.10
1.10

8
10
12

2.20

2.00

1.20

1.20

1.20

14

2.00

2.00

1.20

1.20

1.10

16

2.00

1.80

1.15

1.15

1.10

18

2.00

1.80

1.15

1.15

1.10

20

2.00

1.80

1.15

1.15

1.10

24

1.90

1.50

1.15

1.15

1.10

26

1.90

1.50

1.15

1.15

28

1.80

1.20

1.10

1.15

30

1.70

1.20

1.10

1.15

32

1.60

1.20

1.10

1.15

34

1.60

1.20

1.10

1.15

36

1.80

1.40

1.30

1.30

38

1.40

1.10

1.00

40

1.30

1.10

1.00

42

1.30

1.10

1.00

>42

Note 1

Note 1

Note 1

Note 1: A check (of complete pressure in the flange or as per ASME VIII) shall be performed,
for all combinations flanges diameter/pressure rating not included in tables above
Note 2: For heterogeneous connections, check shall be performed with Stainless Steel table

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 35/36

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 10/2007

GS EP PVV 107

Rev: 04
Appendix 3

For Stainless Steel Flanges


DN
Inch

150#

300#

600#

900#

1500#

2500#

ASME/ Peq+P

ASME/ Peq+P

ASME/ Peq+P

ASME/ Peq+P

ASME/ Peq+P

ASME/ Peq+P

1.10

1.40

1.10

1.10

1.40

1.10

1.10

1.40

1.10

1.10

1.40

1.10

1.20

1.10

1.40

1.00

1.60

1.20

1.10

1.10

1.00
1.00

8
10
12

1.60

1.40

1.10

1.10

1.10

14

1.30

1.20

1.10

1.10

1.00

16

1.30

1.20

1.10

1.00

1.00

18

1.30

1.20

1.10

1.00

1.00

20

1.30

1.20

1.10

1.00

1.00

24

1.30

1.20

1.10

1.00

1.00

26

1.30

1.20

1.10

1.00

28

1.30

1.10

1.00

1.00

30

1.30

1.10

1.00

1.00

32

1.30

1.10

1.00

1.00

34

1.30

1.10

1.00

1.00

36

1.20

1.10

1.00

1.00

38

1.20

1.00

1.00

40

1.20

1.00

1.00

42

1.20

1.00

1.00

>42

Note 1

Note 1

Note 1

Note 1: A check (of complete pressure in the flange or as per ASME VIII) shall be performed,
for all combinations flanges diameter/pressure rating not included in tables above
Note 2: For heterogeneous connections, check shall be performed with Stainless Steel table

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Page 36/36