Introduction to Basic OS Concepts

Introduction
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What is an Operating System? Mainframe Systems Desktop Systems Multiprocessor Systems Distributed Systems Clustered System Real -Time Systems Handheld Systems Computing Environments

What is an Operating System?
 

A program that acts as an intermediary between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. Operating system goals:

Execute user programs and make solving user problems easier. Make the computer system convenient to use.

Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner.

What is OS?

Computer systems typically contain: Hardware and Software Hardware - electronic, mechanical, optical devices Software – programs Without support software, the computer is of little use..

What is OS?

An interface between Hardware and User Programs An abstraction of the hardware for all the (user) processes

Hide the complexity of the underlying hardware and give the user a better view of the computer

=> A MUST!

Computer System Components
1. Hardware – provides basic computing resources (CPU, memory, I/O devices). 2. Operating system – controls and coordinates the use of the hardware among the various application programs for the various users. 3. Applications programs – define the ways in which the system resources are used to solve the computing problems of the users (compilers, database systems, video games, business programs). 4. Users (people, machines, other computers).

Abstract View of System Components

The OS
utilities systems software Operating system applications software

hardware components

device

device

CPU

...

device

memory

Operating System Definitions

Resource allocator – manages and allocates resources. Control program – controls the execution of user programs and operations of I/O devices . Kernel – the one program running at all times (all else being application programs).

The Goals of an OS

Let users run programs:

Correctness

Memory boundaries, priorities, steady state

Convenience

User should not handle the tiny details (encapsulate/abstract), provide synchronization primitives, system calls, file system, tools

The Goals of an OS

Let users run programs:

Efficiency

Resource Utilization, resource Sharing, Multitasking

Fairness (in resource allocation)
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Among: users, tasks, resources The tradeoff between efficiency and fairness

An OS is a Resource Allocator
“Mama says: It’s good to share!”

Multiple users (?) get all computing resources “simultaneously”:
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Cpu time Memory (ram, swap, working set, virtual,..) File system (storage space) I/O devices (display, printers, mouse,..) Clock

The OS should give every user the illusion that she is getting all resources to herself (not sharing!)

What an OS does for a living..
loop forever { run the process for a while. stop process and save its state. load state of another process. }

Virtual Continuity

A process can get “switched in” or “switched out”. OS should give the illusion for the process as if it exists in the CPU continuously => Context Switching

Context switching

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When an event occurs, the operating system saves the state of the active process and restores the state of the new process. This mechanism is called a Context Switch. What must get saved? Everything that the next process could or will damage. For example:
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Program counter (PC) Program status word (PSW) CPU registers (general purpose, floating-point) File access pointer(s) Memory (perhaps?)

Scheduling and Context switch

A process can give up the cpu:
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A. by performing I/O (e.g. getchar()) B. by entering a waiting state (e.g. semaphore) C. by entering a suspended state (e.g. sleep())

Give up the CPU == switch out the current process + switch in another process

Preemptive Scheduling

There are OS’s where a process is forced to give up the cpu (e.g. when stayed for too long). Such systems are implementing a “preemptive scheduling” policy.

Examples include Windows NT, Unix, - BUT NOT - Windows prior to Win95 ! or Macintosh! Xinu?
Should a real-time system implement preemptive scheduling?

Using Priorities
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Most OS’s provide the priority mechanism Priorities are associated with processes Priority are used to help the OS to reach fairness

Can you think of processes (e.g. in Windows) for which you will give especially high/low priority ??

Process
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A process is a program in execution. The components of a process are:
 

the program to be executed, the data on which the program will execute, the resources required by the program— such as memory and file(s)—and the status of the execution.

‫‪Process Interleaving‬‬
‫תהליכים עוקבים‬ ‫תהליכים מקבילים‬

‫‪A‬‬

‫‪C‬‬

‫‪D‬‬ ‫‪B‬‬

‫ציר‬ ‫הזמן‬

Mainframe Systems
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Reduce setup time by batching similar jobs Automatic job sequencing – automatically transfers control from one job to another. First rudimentary operating system. Resident monitor
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initial control in monitor control transfers to job when job completes control transfers pack to monitor

Memory Layout for a Simple Batch System

Multiprogrammed Batch Systems
Several jobs are kept in main memory at the same time, and the CPU is multiplexed among them.

OS Features Needed for Multiprogramming
 

I/O routine supplied by the system. Memory management – the system must allocate the memory to several jobs. CPU scheduling – the system must choose among several jobs ready to run. Allocation of devices.

Time-Sharing Systems– Interactive Computing

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The CPU is multiplexed among several jobs that are kept in memory and on disk (the CPU is allocated to a job only if the job is in memory). A job swapped in and out of memory to the disk. On-line communication between the user and the system is provided; when the operating system finishes the execution of one command, it seeks the next “control statement” from the user’s keyboard. On-line system must be available for users to access data and code.

Desktop Systems
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Personal computers – computer system dedicated to a single user. I/O devices – keyboards, mice, display screens, small printers. User convenience and responsiveness. Can adopt technology developed for larger operating system’ often individuals have sole use of computer and do not need advanced CPU utilization of protection features. May run several different types of operating systems (Windows, MacOS, UNIX, Linux)

Parallel Systems
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Multiprocessor systems with more than on CPU in close communication. Tightly coupled system – processors share memory and a clock; communication usually takes place through the shared memory. Advantages of parallel system:  Increased throughput  Economical  Increased reliability  graceful degradation  fail-soft systems

Parallel Systems (Cont.)

Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP)  Each processor runs and identical copy of the operating system.  Many processes can run at once without performance deterioration.  Most modern operating systems support SMP Asymmetric multiprocessing  Each processor is assigned a specific task; master processor schedules and allocated work to slave processors.  More common in extremely large systems

Symmetric Multiprocessing Architecture

Distributed Systems
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Distribute the computation among several physical processors. Loosely coupled system – each processor has its own local memory; processors communicate with one another through various communications lines, such as high-speed buses or telephone lines. Advantages of distributed systems.  Resources Sharing  Computation speed up – load sharing  Reliability  Communications

Distributed Systems (cont)

Requires networking infrastructure. Local area networks (LAN) or Wide area networks (WAN) May be either client-server or peer-to-peer systems.

General Structure of Client-Server

Clustered Systems

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Clustering allows two or more systems to share storage. Provides high reliability. Asymmetric clustering: one server runs the application while other servers standby. Symmetric clustering: all N hosts are running the application.

Real-Time Systems

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Often used as a control device in a dedicated application such as controlling scientific experiments, medical imaging systems, industrial control systems, and some display systems. Well-defined fixed-time constraints. Real-Time systems may be either hard or soft real-time.

Real-Time Systems (Cont.)

Hard real-time:  Secondary storage limited or absent, data stored in short term memory, or read-only memory (ROM)  Conflicts with time-sharing systems, not supported by general-purpose operating systems. Soft real-time  Limited utility in industrial control of robotics  Useful in applications (multimedia, virtual reality) requiring advanced operating-system features.

Handheld Systems
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Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) Cellular telephones Issues:
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Limited memory Slow processors Small display screens.

Migration of Operating-System Concepts and Features

Computing Environments
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Traditional computing Web-Based Computing Embedded Computing

The PC-XINU OS
Let’s fillin’ the bits..

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