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Journal 4: Instructional Planning

A good plan is like a road map: it shows the final destination and usually the
best way to get there.
H. Stanley Judd (Khalid, 2014)
From my perspective and experience, I believe that planning is key of
success in any field especially in teaching sector because it helps to have a clear
instructional planning and the strategies to accomplish outcome or objective of
the lesson.
According to Kyriacou (2007, p.21-22), planning is important because it enable
teachers to think clearly and sufficiently for her learning environment and
instruction. It also reduce the amount of thinking during the lessons and
preparation for instruction differentiation.
Harmer (1998, p.121) emphasize that planning is important to organize teachers
thoughts, it works as remainders, flexibility and it is for the students to know
that teacher care for them. Kyriacou also (2007. P.21) also states that the real
purpose of planning is to think affectively, manage the time and it helps to
organize teacher thoughts.
This quote describe that planning leads to reach the outcome in sufficient
way. Therefore, in this journal, I will describe every factor that affect teacher
instructional planning to reach the outcomes through instructional objectives,
effective teacher characteristic, experiential learning with learning styles,
types of assessment, methods and tips or strategies that will help to achieve
the main purpose of the lesson.
Instructional objectives
Instructional objectives or behavioral objective defined as statement of
skills or concepts that students are expected to know at the end of some period
of instruction (slavin, 2012, p. 398). In view, instructional objectives leads to
measure the objective. For instance, in GEMS Westminster School in every
lesson students write the WALT of the lesson and I try to evaluate them to
check if they meet the outcome of the lesson and sometime students write the

WALT by themselves `after engaging part which helps to create fun


environment and students felt ownership of their WALT. In figure 1 Mager
(1997, p.20)

identify bad words which need to be avoid and good words to use to

write clear, specific and meaningful objectives.


Words Open to Many Interpretations

Words Open to Fewer Interpretations

(Bad Words)

(Good Words)

To know

To write

To understand

To recite

To appreciate

To identify

To fully appreciate

To sort

To grasp the significance

To solve

To enjoy

To construct
Figure 1 (Mager, 1997, p.20))

Naturally, words open to fewer interpretations is like a trigger for teacher


to know how far students achieve the outcome. This also will help teacher to ask
themselves some questions like Why is careful planning a critical step in learning
and assessing learning? What kinds of ongoing assessment can I build into my
lesson that will help me determine whether my students are meeting the
objectives I established?
Furthermore, outcomes is like evidence of students accomplishing the
objectives like using formative or summative assessments. For example, in one of
my observation lesson which was about matter and to achieve my objective I
give students homework to cut the pictures and categorize it term of solid,
liquid and gas. Some students find it difficult to categorize beach ball so I
reteach it in zero period but most of the students achieve the objective. If
teacher asked themselves these questions will help to match the evaluation with
the objective.
To summarize the instruction objective teachers need to care about it to
achieve their objectives. In figure 2, it represent key features of affective
instruction (O'Bannon, 2002).

Figure 2 (O'Bannon, 2002)

Effective teacher characteristic


If your objectives never match students outcome in regular basis or you
dont know how to evaluate your students understanding you need to alter into
affective teacher. Wong & Wong (2005, 87) points out some characteristic of
effective teacher as following. First, students are involve and working with the
task given in high level. Second, students can identify the expectations from
assignments and it is based on the objectives. Third, teacher dont waste the
time and start the lesson immediately. Fourth, students already know about the
assignment and what it graded for. Finally, teacher enhance positive, relaxed
and pleasant classroom climate. From my perspective, that will help teacher to
meet their objectives more easily and create a positive instructional planning.
Experiential learning with learning styles
Active learning, inquiry based learning or experiential learning is a way that
teacher can use for meeting her objective in fun way which lead to students
centered or learner-centered lesson.
Experiential learning defined as "the process whereby knowledge is created
through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the
combination of grasping and transforming experience"(Kolb 1984, p. 41). In the

classroom we need experiential learning because it contains five stages which


lead to achieve the main purpose of the lesson. Consequently, in every science
lesson I use experiential learning because it soften or break down the main
objective into 5 mini objectives which makes the lesson more approachable for
students and it became students-centered lessen.
Experiential learning is similar to inquiry-based learning which contains five
stages that helps students investigate about their own learning which called the
BSCS 5Es Instructional Model which includes engaging, exploring, explaining,
elaborating and evaluating (Bybee, 2006).
Firstly, engagement introduces new concept by using short activities to
stimulate students curiosity and to know their knowledge so far.
Secondly, exploration includes further activities, questions and possibilities
students may find by lab activities or other activities and they use their
knowledge to produce new ideas.
Thirdly, in Explaining stage students demonstrate their understanding
related to their engaging and exploring stages; in addition, teachers may present
the topic or the concept directly to let students think more deeply about the
topic.
Fourthly, elaborating defined as the teacher challenges the students by
giving them extra activities to expand their understanding and have deep
information about it.
Finally, evaluating is how teacher evaluate students progress during 4 stages
above and assessing their understanding and abilities.
In the same way, experiential learning contains four stages that similar to
5Es such as concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract
conceptualization and active experience which is connected to the multiple
intelligence that displayed in figure 3.

Figure 3(Forsythe, n.d.)

Tell me and I forget, teach me and I may remember, involve me and I learn.
Benjamin Franklin (Franklin , n.d.).
This quote summarize what is active learning which children learn best when
they experience the information which I believe will fastest way to achieve the
outcomes in positive way.
Types of assessment
All of the above leads to types of assessments that teacher can use it to
evaluate their understanding or meeting the objectives. Summative and
formative assessment are types of assessment.
Summative assessment is defined as summary or final project of students
whole understanding of the topic and it is like the final grade or evaluating
students progress at the end of the unit, chapter or whole semester without
retaught the misconceptions. (Just Science, n.d.). For instance, quiz, final
assessment and exams.

However, Formative assessment refers to a wide variety of methods that


teachers use to conduct in-process evaluations of student comprehension,
learning needs, and academic progress during a lesson, unit, or course. Formative
assessments help teachers identify concepts that students are struggling to
understand, skills they are having difficulty acquiring, or learning standards they
have not yet achieved so that adjustments can be made to lessons, instructional
techniques, and academic support. (Great Schools, 2014). For example, projects,
homework, presentations and mini-quizzes.
There are many learning perspectives that teacher can apply through her
own instruction designs using constructivist theory to create a lesson with
specific outcomes and this will guide students to meet the WALT.
Constructivism theory is about students construct their own understanding
actively by their knowledge, concepts, skills and attitude toward learning
(Pritchard, 2009, p.17-18).

Some theories contribute on this theory. According to

Piagets constructivist learning theory, children dont receive information; they


work or investigate and think about it. That also what happen in inquiry learning?
Students discover information dont receive it. Related to Vygotsky social
cultural constructive theory, interaction with other people helps to monitor and
guide cognitive development (Kostelnick, Soderman & Whiren, 2011, p.311). In general,
constructivism theory helps to implement in instructional design or plans for
teacher and will help to plan a lesson that contains students interpretation of
the new information through their own constructions as same as meeting the
objectives.
Strategies that will help to achieve the main purpose of the lesson
Teacher can use many strategies to be like evidence of students achieving
the outcome like focusing in on inquiry, cooperative learning, jigsaw, placemat,
and station work.
One tool that enhance students learning process and students feel ownership
of their work is KWL chart that provides many benefits for students and cease
students from getting off the track. It can be described as a trigger of prior

knowledge of the students which helps the teacher to carry on the flow of the
lesson related to their prior knowledge (Teacher Newsletters, n.d.). When students
write what they learnt teacher can evaluate students if they meet the WALT or
not.
In addition, in my lessons I emphasized group work as a way to let students
scaffold each other to achieve the objective. It also helps to increase the
amount of speaking in English and promote negotiation between members of the
groups (Harmer, 2001, p.117).
Furthermore, self-assessment is another tool for implementing students
empowerment and is assessment to evaluate students understanding of the
topic. It defined as assessments that students reflect and give themselves
feedbacks in a reflective way and identify their own weaknesses to overcome it
(National Council, 2007, p.14).

Furthermore, there are benefits for students to use this type of assessment
as following. Firstly, students can identify their own mistakes and try to resolve
it by themselves. Secondly, it help students to be more independent. Thirdly,
self-assessment is like a means to enhance student empowerment and skills
learned through self-assessment are life skills, applicable to a range of
situations (Smith, 1997, p. 7). Fourthly, it give students ownership of their own
learning and provide them with a means for evaluating their growth and setting
goals for the future (Wells, 1998, p. 32). Finally, it provided students with a
greater sense of ownership of their work, a more enthusiastic approach to
learning, and the increased use of higher-order thinking (Campbell, DeWall, Roth, and
Stevens, 1998, p.1).

To conclude, teacher can use any strategies that will suit her class to plan
the lesson in a way that will evaluate students understanding. In appendix I have
add reflective questions of this journal.

Reference List:
Bybee, R. W. ,Taylor J. A., Gardner, A., Scotter, P. V., Powell, J. C., Westbrook,
A., & Landes, N. (2006). The BSCS 5E Instructional Model: Origins and
Effectiveness. Colorado Springs: Office of Science Education.
Campbell, D., DeWall, L., Roth, T., & Stevens, S. (1998). Improving student depth
of understanding through the use of alternative assessment,Dissertation.
Forsythe, G. (n.d.). Kolb's Experiential Learning CYCLE, Learning Styles &
examples. In Flickr. Retrieved from
https://www.flickr.com/photos/gforsythe/9443035785/
Great School Partnership. (2014). Formative Assessment. In The Glossary of
Education Reform. Retrieved from http://edglossary.org/formativeassessment/
Harmer, J. (1998). How to teach English: An introduction to the practice of
English language teaching. Harlow, Eng.: Longman.
Harmer, J., (2001). The Practice of English Language Teaching (3rd ed.).
Cambridge: Longman.
Just Science Now! (n.d.). Assessment-inquiry connection.
http://www.justsciencenow.com/assessment/index.htm
Khalid, H. R. (2014). Famous Quotes about Planning (114 Quotations). In Famous

Quotes. Retrieved from http://www.famousquotes.com/topic.php?page=0&total=114&tid=903


Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning
and development. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Kostelnik, M. J., Soderman, A. K., and Whiren, A. P.(2011). Developmentally
Appropriate Curriculum: Best Practices in Early Childhood Education (5th ed.).
New Jersey: Pearson.
Kyriacou, C. (2007). Essential Teaching Skills (3th ed.). Cheltenham: Nelson
Thornes.
Mager, R. F. (1975). Preparing Instructional Objectives. Belmont, CA: Fearon.

National Council for Curriculum and Assessment. (2007). Assessment in the


Primary School curriculum: Guideline for Schools. In NCCA. Retrieved from
http://www.ncca.ie/uploadedfiles/publications/assess%20%20guide.pdf
O'Bannon, B. (2002). Planning for Instruction: Instructional Objectives. In

Educational Technology collaborative. Retrieved from


http://edtech2.tennessee.edu/projects/bobannon/objectives.html
Pritchard, A. (2009). Ways of learning: Learning theories and learning styles in
the classroom (2nd ed.). London ; New York: Routledge.
Slavin, R. E. (2012). Educational psychology: Theory and practice (10th ed.,
Pearson international ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson.
Smith, C. (1997). Student self-assessment at St. Bernadettes primary school.
Primary Educator, 3(4), 7.
Teachers Newsletters. (n.d.). Using "KWL" in the Classroom. In Teacher Vision.
Retrieved from https://www.teachervision.com/graphic-organizers/skillbuilder/48615.html
Wells, R. (1998). The students role in the assessment process. Teaching Music,
6(2), 32-33.
Wong, H. K., & Wong, R. T. (2005). The first days of school: How to be an
effective teacher ([Version 3].). Mountainview, CA: Harry K. Wong Publications,
Inc.

Appendix: Questions of the journal


1- Why do you think meeting the objective is important for learner and
what will happen if they dont meet the objective?
Eg.: Noura said if students dont meet the objective that will lead to
conflict and confusing which lead to misbehavior in the classroom.
Kyriacou (2007, p.84) state that students tend to misbehave because of
prolonged mental effort and inability to do the work.
2- How does active learning connect to instructional planning?
Eg.: Noura said both requires evaluative stage that helps teacher to
know if students understand the lesson which means they achieve the
objective. Both of then need planning and I agree with your starting
quote A good plan is like a road map: it shows the final destination and
usually the best way to get there H. Stanley Judd (Khalid, 2014).
3- There are two scenario bellow, choose the best scenario and give the
reasons for choosing it.
Scenario 1:
T: I want you now to write down three properties of liquid, gas and
matter that we learnt today.
Ss: can we add more.
T: yes if you can.
Ss: okey miss.
Scenario 2:
T: you have a worksheet read it and completed.
Ss: Miss we dont understand what it need from us:
T: I told you to read it and it similar to what you learnt.
Ss: but it is not our objective.
T: you still have to do it.
Eg.: Noura said definetly scenario 1 because her task was related to the
objecteve and meeting it. I think she planned her lesson will which lead to

avoid conflicts during assessment. According to Kyriacou (2007, p.21-22),


planning is important because it enable teachers to think clearly and
sufficiently for her learning environment and instruction
4- Which assessment you will use it more to see if your students meet the
objective formative or summative? And Why?
Eg.: Noura said formative assessment because I can reteach the
misconception and evaluate them their understanding in the same time.
Sasser (n.d.) wrote a paragraph that summarized the advantages of
formative assessment which I agree with him. He said Formative
assessments are not graded, which takes the anxiety away from students.
It also detaches the thinking that they must get everything right.
Instead, they serve as a practice for students to get assistance along
the way before the final tests. Teachers usually check for understanding
in the event that students are struggling during the lesson. Teachers
address these issues early on instead of waiting until the end of the unit
to assess. Teachers have to do less re-teaching at the end because many
of the problems with mastery are addressed before final tests..

References:
Khalid, H. R. (2014). Famous Quotes about Planning (114 Quotations). In Famous

Quotes. Retrieved from http://www.famousquotes.com/topic.php?page=0&total=114&tid=903


Kyriacou, C. (2007). Essential Teaching Skills (3th ed.). Cheltenham: Nelson
Thornes.
Sasser, N. (n.d.). What Are the Advantages & Disadvantages of Formative
Assessment?. In Every Day Life Global Post. Retrieved from
http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/advantages-disadvantages-formativeassessment-28407.html