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You are on page 1of 18

Student Teaching Unit Plan

**Graphing Trigonometric Functions
**

Trigonometry

12th Grade

Graphing Trigonometric Functions was the fourth unit of the semester. Students had

worked with sine, cosine, tangent, cosecant, secant, and cotangent and are familiar with

these functions. In the previous chapter, they had worked with converting degrees to

radians, so they are also acquainted with the unit circle. First they learned how to graph

cosine and sine functions and learned about period, amplitude, reflections, phase shifts,

and vertical shifts. Then taking it a step further, they learned how to apply that

knowledge and graph secant and cosecant functions. Finally, they learned about tangent

and cotangent functions. The final project had them apply this knowledge to a real life

example by creating a function for the temperature patterns of a city in the United

States. This created a nice conclusion to the chapter.

Graphing, range and domain, and working with fractions had been areas my

trigonometric classes had been struggling with. After teaching three days in, I realized

that my students were not responding to how graphing in this chapter was taught

previously. I thought of a new method for graphing and brought it to my students. It

broke graphing trigonometric functions down into a step-by-step method that clicked

with them. I also taught them some tricks for working with fractions, for those who

struggle. Finally, I created investigations for my students to complete. Each

investigation had one or two things I wanted students to identify. However, it had extra

questions that provided the chance for those who are gifted in math to delve deeper into

the material and make connections. During investigations, I was able to formally assess

where each of my students were.

My students are seniors, and behavior is not much of a concern. I create engaging

lessons that provide students with a focus or task every step of the way. Typically this

keeps students focused during class. However when students are chatty, I simply

redirect them back to their work or ask them a question. If that does not work, I will

move the student to another desk to remove the temptation to talk to their friend.

During this unit, I included elements from other disciplines. When teaching amplitude

and period, I brought in physics. Students watched a video describing a sound wave and

how pitch and loudness is determined by period and amplitude. Then they class had a

short discussion on how the math they were learning applied. At the end of the

**semester, I included metrology and my students became weathermen and women. They
**

took real data and made an equation predicting temperatures for each month. They

were then able to compare their predicted temperatures with the actual temperatures of

that month. Following this, they used their artistic talent and created a poster displaying

their conclusions.

Common Core Standards:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.A.1

Understand radian measure of an angle as the length of the arc on the unit circle

subtended by the angle.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.5

Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified

amplitude, frequency, and midline.*

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.7

(+) Use inverse functions to solve trigonometric equations that arise in modeling

contexts; evaluate the solutions using technology, and interpret them in terms of

the context.*

Objectives:

● Students can recognize the graphs to the sine and cosine functions.

● Students can determine the amplitude of these functions.

● Students can determine period of those functions.

● Students can graph sine and cosine functions.

● Students can recognize when a function is a reflection.

● Students can determine the phase shifts of the sine and cosine functions.

● Students can determine vertical shifts of sine and cosine functions.

● Students can graph cosecant and secant functions.

● Students can graph tangent and cotangent functions.

● Students can find the vertical shift, reflection, amplitude, period, and phase shift

for a temperature’s cosine function given the high and low temperature.

Daily Schedule:

● Day 1: 4.1A Introduction to Sine and Cosine

○ Students can recognize the graphs to the sine and cosine functions.

● Day 2: 4.1A (Part Two) Introduction to Sine and Cosine cont.

○ Students can recognize the graphs to the sine and cosine functions.

**○ Students can determine the amplitude of these functions.
**

● Day 3: 4.1B Amplitude and Period

○ Students can graph the sine and cosine functions.

**○ Students can determine the amplitude of these functions.
**

○ Students can determine period of those functions.

● Day 4: 4.1C Reflections

○ Students can graph the sine and cosine functions.

**○ Students can recognize when a function is a reflection.
**

● Day 5: 4.2A Phase Shifts

○ Students can graph the sine and cosine functions.

**○ Students can determine the phase shifts of the sine and cosine functions.
**

● Day 6: 4.2B Vertical Shifts

○ Students can graph the sine and cosine functions.

**○ Students can determine vertical shifts of sine and cosine functions.
**

● Day 7: 4.2B (Part Two) Vertical Shifts cont.

○ Students can graph the sine and cosine functions.

**○ Students can determine vertical shifts of sine and cosine functions.
**

● Day 8: 4.1 & 4.2 Review

● Day 9: 4.1 & 4.2 Quiz

● Day 10: 4.3A Cosecant and Secant

○ Students can graph cosecant and secant functions.

● Day 11: 4.3B Tangent and Cotangent

○ Students can graph tangent and cotangent functions.

● Day 12: Chapter 4 Review

● Day 13: Chapter 4 Test

● Day 14: Chapter 4 Project: Graphing Temperature Patterns

○ Students can find the vertical shift, reflection, amplitude, period, and

**phase shift for a temperature’s cosine function given the high and low
**

temperature.

● Day 15: Chapter 4 Project: Graphing Temperature Patterns cont.

● Day 16: Chapter 4 Project: Graphing Temperature Patterns cont.

Pre-Assessment and Post-Assessment Data

Including the outlier, the average pretest score was 13.62% with an average posttest score of

86.90%. Without the outlier, the average pretest score was 13.24% with an average posttest

score of 88.20%. Below is a chart displaying each student’s pretest and posttest data.

Abigail Bohler

Trigonometry

Chapter 4.1 (Intro to sine and cosine graphs)

Standards:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.A.1

Understand radian measure of an angle as the length of the arc on the unit circle

subtended by the angle.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.5

Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified

amplitude, frequency, and midline.*

Objectives:

● Students can recognize the graphs to the sine and cosine functions.

Lesson Plan:

Go over Chapter 3 Test. (10min)

Pretest (15min)

Converting Degrees into Radians (10min)

GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

Students convert a table of degrees in the interval [-360, 360]. Students are asked to

find two different degrees. Together they fill in the chart on the board.

Graphing sine (10min)

GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

Students fill in the table of x and y coordinates for y=sinx. Students are assigned one

half of the chart to solve for. Together as a class they complete the chart on the board.

Following the table, teacher guides students through the graph of sine by plotting the

points they found.

CLOSURE

Questions about sine (5min)

Students answer four questions concerning range and intercepts about the sine graph.

Summative Assessment: Quiz, Test

Abigail Bohler

Trigonometry

Chapter 4.1A Part Two (Intro to sine and cosine)

Standards:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.5

**Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified
**

amplitude, frequency, and midline.*

Objectives:

● Students can graph sine and cosine functions.

● Students can determine the amplitude of these functions.

Lesson Plan:

WARM-UP (15min)

Students practice graphing a parabola on their calculator and using its settings to

determine intercepts. These provides practice with graphing and changing the window.

Graphing Cosine (5min)

GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

Students fill in the chart and graph cosine using their x,y coordinates.

Questions about Cosine (5min)

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

Looking at the graph, students answer questions concerning range and intercepts of

cosine.

Vocabulary (5min)

DIRECT INSTRUCTION

Teacher provides students with the definitions of period function, period, and

amplitude.

Properties of Sine and Cosine (10min)

GUIDED PRACTICE

Using their new vocabulary and answers from the questions about the graph, students

identify the period, intercepts, domain, range, and maximum and minimum values of y.

Amplitude and Period Investigation (15min)

GROUP WORK

**With a partner, students work through an investigation concerning amplitude and
**

period. This will cause them to think about the topics of tomorrow’s lesson.

Homework: Finishing the Investigation for Tomorrow’s class

Summative: quiz, test

Abigail Bohler

Trigonometry

Chapter 4.1B (Amplitude and Period)

Standards:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.5

**Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified
**

amplitude, frequency, and midline.*

Objectives:

● Students can graph sine and cosine functions.

● Students can determine amplitude and period of those functions.

Lesson Plan:

WARM-UP (5min)

Students watch a short clip on sound, concerning amplitude and period. Then have a

short discussion on how what we are learning relates.

Amplitude and Period Investigation (10min)

Go over yesterday’s investigation. Discuss what things they noticed changed and didn’t

change between graphs.

Amplitude (15min)

DIRECT INSTRUCTION/GUIDED PRACTICE

Teacher explains how to find amplitude. Then teacher guides students through an

example with determining amplitude and graphing a sine function.

Period (15min)

DIRECT INSTRUCTION/GUIDED PRACTICE

Teacher explains how to find period. Then teacher guides students through an example

with determining period and graphing a cosine function.

CLOSURE (5 min)

Students graph y=3sin(.5x) and hand in to teacher as an exit slip.

Homework: 4.1B WS

Summative Assessment: Quiz, Test

Abigail Bohler

Trigonometry

Chapter 4.1C (Reflections)

Standards:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.5

**Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified
**

amplitude, frequency, and midline.*

Objectives:

● Students can graph sine and cosine waves.

● Students can recognize when a function is a reflection.

Lesson Plan:

WARM-UP (5min)

Students turn in old homework packets and are told they are going to learn a new

method for graphing today. This stirs intrigue for today’s lesson.

Reflection Investigation (15min)

Students work on an investigation to recognize what occurs when a function is negative.

This serves as an introduction to today’s lesson.

Graphing Trigonometric Functions NEW Method (10min)

Teacher introduces a new method for graphing trigonometric functions that uses period

and a 5x2 table to determine the points for the graph. This is the method that will be

used for the remainder of the chapter.

Graphing Sine and Cosine Practice (20min)

GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

Using the new method, teacher guides students through an example. Then students

work independently on an example.

Closure (5min)

Teacher asks students to write on a piece of paper whether or not the new method works

better for them and share on a scale of 1 to 5, how comfortable they are with graphing

now. These are turned in as an exit slip.

Homework: 4.1C Worksheet

Summative: Quiz, Test

Abigail Bohler

Trigonometry

Chapter 4.2A (Phase Shifts)

Standards:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.5

**Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified
**

amplitude, frequency, and midline.*

Objectives:

● Students can graph sine and cosine functions.

● Students can determine the phase shifts of the sine and cosine functions.

Lesson Plan:

WARM-UP (5min)

Students create a 5x2 table for one period of a sine function. This is review from the

method learned in the previous lesson.

Phase Shifts Investigation (15min)

GROUP WORK/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

Students work on an investigation to determine which part of a trigonometric function

affects phase shift.

Phase Shifts (10min)

DIRECT INSTRUCTION/GUIDED PRACTICE

Teacher provides students with the definition of phase shift and guides students through

identifying phase shifts of a function.

Graphing Phase Shifts Practice (20min)

GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

Teacher guides students through an example of graphing using phase shift. Then

students work on an example independently.

Closure (5min)

How do cosx=y and cos(x+2pi)=y compare? Have class think independently, share

thoughts with a partner, and then discuss as a class.

Homework: 4.2A Worksheet (#1 & 2)

Summative: Quiz, Test

Abigail Bohler

Trigonometry

Chapter 4.2B (Vertical Shifts)

Standards:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.5

**Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified
**

amplitude, frequency, and midline.*

Objectives:

● Students can graph sine and cosine functions

● Students can determine vertical shifts of sine and cosine functions

Lesson Plan:

WARM-UP (10min)

Students are given characteristics of a function and have to create an equation that

satisfies the characteristics.

Graphing a Unique Phase Shift (10min)

GUIDED PRACTICE

Teacher guides students through an example of a function that needs to be rewritten

before graphing.

Vertical Shifts Investigation (15min)

GROUP WORK/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

Students work through an investigation to see what part of an equation affects the

vertical shift.

Vertical Shift (10min)

DIRECT INSTRUCTION/GUIDED PRACTICE

Teacher provides students with the definition of vertical shifts and guides them through

example in identifying vertical shift of a function.

Homework: 4.2A Worksheet (#3 & 4)

Summative: Quiz, Test

Abigail Bohler

Trigonometry

Chapter 4.2B Part Two (Vertical Shifts and Wrap Up)

Standards:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.5

**Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified
**

amplitude, frequency, and midline.*

Objectives:

● Students can graph sine and cosine functions

● Students can determine vertical shifts of sine and cosine functions

Lesson Plan:

WARM-UP (10min)

Students are given characteristics of a cosine function and create the equation for it.

Graphing Vertical Shifts (20min)

GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

Teacher guides students through graphing an equation with a vertical shift. Then

students complete an example independently.

Identifying Characteristics of Sine and Cosine Functions (10min)

GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

Teacher guides students through identifying characteristics of a sine or cosine function.

Then students complete an example independently.

Graphing Sine and Cosine Functions Practice (20min)

GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

Teacher sets up how to begin graphing a function and students complete it. Then

students complete an example independently.

Homework: 4.2B (Vertical Shifts) Worksheet

Summative: Quiz, Test

Abigail Bohler

Trigonometry

Chapter 4.1 / 4.2 Review

Lesson Plan:

Students are placed into groups of four or five and each is given a worksheet for the

review activity. Each sheet is divided into Round 1, Round 2, Round 3, and Round 4.

In Round 1, each student creates an equation from the given guidelines of the teacher

(ex. a cosine function with a period of 2pi and an amplitude of 3). After Round 1,

students pass their sheet to the right in their group.

In Round 2, each student identifies the period, amplitude, vertical shift, phase shift, and

whether or not the equation is a reflection. After Round 2, students pass their sheet to

the right in their group.

In Round 3, each student completes the one period table for the equation. After Round

3, students pass their sheet to the right in their group.

In Round 4, each student completes the graph for two periods of the function. After

Round 4, students pass their sheet to the right in their group.

Each student checks the work for their original sheet.

This process is repeated for the remainder of the class time (groups will complete four

rounds 2 to 4 times).

Abigail Bohler

Trigonometry

Chapter 4.3A (Cosecant and Secant)

Standards:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.5

**Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified
**

amplitude, frequency, and midline.*

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.7

**(+) Use inverse functions to solve trigonometric equations that arise in
**

modeling contexts; evaluate the solutions using technology, and interpret them

in terms of the context.*

Objectives:

● Students can graph cosecant and secant graphs.

Lesson Plan:

10minutes to go over quiz

WARM-UP (5min)

Students are given cosine or sine ratios and must determine the corresponding secant

and cosecant ratios. Then students must decide whether 1/0=0 or not.

Cosecant and Secant Table (10min)

GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

Teacher demonstrates how to solve for cosecant and secant. Then each table partner

completes either the row for secant or cosecant.

How to Graph Cosecant and Secant (10min)

DIRECT INSTRUCTION/GUIDED PRACTICE

Teacher provides students with the steps for graphing cosecant and secant, building off

of their prior knowledge of graphing trigonometric functions.

Graphing Secant and Cosecant (20min)

GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

**Teacher walks through an example of graphing a cosecant function. Then students work
**

independently on the last example.

Closure (5min)

Students are shown a cosecant graph and secant graph, along with their reciprocal

function. Teacher asks to think about which graph is a cosecant graph and to provide a

rationale. Then students discuss with a partner. Then the answer and rationale are

discussed as a class.

Homework: 4.3A Worksheet (#1 & 4)

Summative: Test

Abigail Bohler

Trigonometry

Chapter 4.3A (Tangent and Cotangent)

Standards:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.5

**Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified
**

amplitude, frequency, and midline.*

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.7

**(+) Use inverse functions to solve trigonometric equations that arise in
**

modeling contexts; evaluate the solutions using technology, and interpret them

in terms of the context.*

Objectives:

● Students can graph tangent and cotangent functions.

Lesson Plan:

WARM-UP (5min)

Students identify what sine, cosine, tangent, and cotangent are for a 3-4-5 right triangle.

Then they find what cos/sin= and sin/cos=. This reminds them that sin/cos=tan and

cos/sin=cot.

Tangent and Cotangent Table (10min)

GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

Students fill in the table for tangent and cotangent, when given the sine and cosine. One

half of the room does tangent, and one does cotangent. Then they fill in the table on the

board.

How to Graph Tangent and Cotangent (10min)

DIRECT INSTRUCTION/GUIDED PRACTICE

Teacher guides students through the process of graphing tangent and cotangent, by

building on how they learned to graph previously. Then teacher guides students through

graphing a basic tangent.

Graphing Tangent and Cotangent Practice (20min)

**GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE
**

Students practice graphing tangent and cotangent functions.

Closure (3min)

Teacher asks students what they think is the most important takeaway from the lesson

and writes student answers on the board. Then teacher reveals the most important thing

is that tangent and cotangent period is pi.

Homework: 4.3 Worksheet (#1 & 2)

Summative: Test

Abigail Bohler

Trigonometry

Chapter 4 Exam Review

Lesson Plan:

Tables are moved to create groups of four. Each group is labeled with a A, B, C, or D.

Students are assigned to groups of four (each group will have varied ability levels: high,

low, and between). And each group begins at one of the stations (A, B, C, or D). Students

are given worksheets to record their answers and have 10 minutes at each station(A, B,

C, D).

Station A: Which Wave?

Students are provided with 8 graphs and 8 trigonometric equations. Students match the

graph to its respective equation. This prepares them for the matching portion of their

test.

Station B: Create the Equation

Students are given four decks of cards. One deck is for period and provides them with

the period for their function. One deck is for amplitude and gives them the amplitude of

their equation. One deck is for vertical shift and the last deck tells them the phase shift

of their equation. Each student draws a card from each of the four decks and creates the

appropriate equation for their given cards. They do this four times for a sine, cosine,

secant, and cosecant function. This prepares them for the writing equations portion of

the test.

Station C: Identify the Characteristics

Students are given a set of trigonometric equations and several questions to answer.

Questions ask students to identify which equations have a period of 2pi, pi, a phase shift

to the right, a vertical shift, etc. This prepares them for the identifying characteristics of

an equation portion of the test.

Station D: Pass and Graph

Students are given a pile of four cards, each with an equation on it. They write the

equation on their sheet and identify its characteristics. Then they pass their function to

the next person in their group. They create the appropriate table for the function passed

to them. The function is passed again and they draw the graph for the function. This

prepares them for the graphing portion of the test.

Abigail Bohler

Trigonometry

Chapter 4 Project: Graphing Temperature Patterns

Standards:

● CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.5

Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified

amplitude, frequency, and midline.*

Objectives:

● Students can find the vertical shift, reflection, amplitude, period, and phase shift

for a temperature’s cosine function given the high and low temperature.

Lesson Plan:

Day One (Introduction to Project/Part 1):

Students are given the average monthly high temperatures and average monthly low

temperatures for Grand Rapids in 2013. For Part 1, they determine the trigonometric

equation for either the highs or lows for Grand Rapids.

Day Two (Part 2 Work):

Students choose a city and record its temperatures. Then they find the trigonometric

function for their data. They write up a step-by-step sheet showing their work and graph

the function on the computer. They then predict two months using their equation for

2014 and find the actual temperatures.

Day Three (Part 2 Poster):

Students put their poster together including the equation, graph, table of temperatures,

predicted and actual temperatures, and a short paragraph about what they learned from

the project and what they predict for December 2014.

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