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# Abigail Bohler

## Graphing Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometry
Graphing Trigonometric Functions was the fourth unit of the semester. Students had
worked with sine, cosine, tangent, cosecant, secant, and cotangent and are familiar with
these functions. In the previous chapter, they had worked with converting degrees to
radians, so they are also acquainted with the unit circle. First they learned how to graph
cosine and sine functions and learned about period, amplitude, reflections, phase shifts,
and vertical shifts. Then taking it a step further, they learned how to apply that
knowledge and graph secant and cosecant functions. Finally, they learned about tangent
and cotangent functions. The final project had them apply this knowledge to a real life
example by creating a function for the temperature patterns of a city in the United
States. This created a nice conclusion to the chapter.
Graphing, range and domain, and working with fractions had been areas my
trigonometric classes had been struggling with. After teaching three days in, I realized
that my students were not responding to how graphing in this chapter was taught
previously. I thought of a new method for graphing and brought it to my students. It
broke graphing trigonometric functions down into a step-by-step method that clicked
with them. I also taught them some tricks for working with fractions, for those who
struggle. Finally, I created investigations for my students to complete. Each
investigation had one or two things I wanted students to identify. However, it had extra
questions that provided the chance for those who are gifted in math to delve deeper into
the material and make connections. During investigations, I was able to formally assess
where each of my students were.
My students are seniors, and behavior is not much of a concern. I create engaging
lessons that provide students with a focus or task every step of the way. Typically this
keeps students focused during class. However when students are chatty, I simply
redirect them back to their work or ask them a question. If that does not work, I will
move the student to another desk to remove the temptation to talk to their friend.
During this unit, I included elements from other disciplines. When teaching amplitude
and period, I brought in physics. Students watched a video describing a sound wave and
how pitch and loudness is determined by period and amplitude. Then they class had a
short discussion on how the math they were learning applied. At the end of the

semester, I included metrology and my students became weathermen and women. They
took real data and made an equation predicting temperatures for each month. They
were then able to compare their predicted temperatures with the actual temperatures of
that month. Following this, they used their artistic talent and created a poster displaying
their conclusions.
Common Core Standards:
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.A.1
Understand radian measure of an angle as the length of the arc on the unit circle
subtended by the angle.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.5
Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified
amplitude, frequency, and midline.*
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.7
(+) Use inverse functions to solve trigonometric equations that arise in modeling
contexts; evaluate the solutions using technology, and interpret them in terms of
the context.*
Objectives:
Students can recognize the graphs to the sine and cosine functions.
Students can determine the amplitude of these functions.
Students can determine period of those functions.
Students can graph sine and cosine functions.
Students can recognize when a function is a reflection.
Students can determine the phase shifts of the sine and cosine functions.
Students can determine vertical shifts of sine and cosine functions.
Students can graph cosecant and secant functions.
Students can graph tangent and cotangent functions.
Students can find the vertical shift, reflection, amplitude, period, and phase shift
for a temperatures cosine function given the high and low temperature.
Daily Schedule:
Day 1: 4.1A Introduction to Sine and Cosine
Students can recognize the graphs to the sine and cosine functions.
Day 2: 4.1A (Part Two) Introduction to Sine and Cosine cont.
Students can recognize the graphs to the sine and cosine functions.

## Students can determine the amplitude of these functions.

Day 3: 4.1B Amplitude and Period
Students can graph the sine and cosine functions.

## Students can determine the amplitude of these functions.

Students can determine period of those functions.

## Day 4: 4.1C Reflections

Students can graph the sine and cosine functions.

## Students can recognize when a function is a reflection.

Day 5: 4.2A Phase Shifts
Students can graph the sine and cosine functions.

Students can determine the phase shifts of the sine and cosine functions.
Day 6: 4.2B Vertical Shifts
Students can graph the sine and cosine functions.

## Students can determine vertical shifts of sine and cosine functions.

Day 7: 4.2B (Part Two) Vertical Shifts cont.
Students can graph the sine and cosine functions.

## Students can determine vertical shifts of sine and cosine functions.

Day 8: 4.1 & 4.2 Review
Day 9: 4.1 & 4.2 Quiz
Day 10: 4.3A Cosecant and Secant
Students can graph cosecant and secant functions.
Day 11: 4.3B Tangent and Cotangent
Students can graph tangent and cotangent functions.
Day 12: Chapter 4 Review
Day 13: Chapter 4 Test
Day 14: Chapter 4 Project: Graphing Temperature Patterns
Students can find the vertical shift, reflection, amplitude, period, and

phase shift for a temperatures cosine function given the high and low
temperature.
Day 15: Chapter 4 Project: Graphing Temperature Patterns cont.
Day 16: Chapter 4 Project: Graphing Temperature Patterns cont.
Pre-Assessment and Post-Assessment Data
Including the outlier, the average pretest score was 13.62% with an average posttest score of
86.90%. Without the outlier, the average pretest score was 13.24% with an average posttest
score of 88.20%. Below is a chart displaying each students pretest and posttest data.

Abigail Bohler
Trigonometry
Chapter 4.1 (Intro to sine and cosine graphs)
Standards:
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.A.1
Understand radian measure of an angle as the length of the arc on the unit circle
subtended by the angle.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.5
Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified
amplitude, frequency, and midline.*
Objectives:
Students can recognize the graphs to the sine and cosine functions.
Lesson Plan:
Go over Chapter 3 Test. (10min)
Pretest (15min)
Converting Degrees into Radians (10min)
GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE
Students convert a table of degrees in the interval [-360, 360]. Students are asked to
find two different degrees. Together they fill in the chart on the board.
Graphing sine (10min)
GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE
Students fill in the table of x and y coordinates for y=sinx. Students are assigned one
half of the chart to solve for. Together as a class they complete the chart on the board.
Following the table, teacher guides students through the graph of sine by plotting the
points they found.
CLOSURE
Questions about sine (5min)
Students answer four questions concerning range and intercepts about the sine graph.
Summative Assessment: Quiz, Test

Abigail Bohler
Trigonometry
Chapter 4.1A Part Two (Intro to sine and cosine)
Standards:
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.5

## Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified

amplitude, frequency, and midline.*
Objectives:
Students can graph sine and cosine functions.
Students can determine the amplitude of these functions.
Lesson Plan:
WARM-UP (15min)
Students practice graphing a parabola on their calculator and using its settings to
determine intercepts. These provides practice with graphing and changing the window.
Graphing Cosine (5min)
GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE
Students fill in the chart and graph cosine using their x,y coordinates.
Questions about Cosine (5min)
INDEPENDENT PRACTICE
Looking at the graph, students answer questions concerning range and intercepts of
cosine.
Vocabulary (5min)
DIRECT INSTRUCTION
Teacher provides students with the definitions of period function, period, and
amplitude.
Properties of Sine and Cosine (10min)
GUIDED PRACTICE
Using their new vocabulary and answers from the questions about the graph, students
identify the period, intercepts, domain, range, and maximum and minimum values of y.
Amplitude and Period Investigation (15min)
GROUP WORK

## With a partner, students work through an investigation concerning amplitude and

period. This will cause them to think about the topics of tomorrows lesson.
Homework: Finishing the Investigation for Tomorrows class
Summative: quiz, test

Abigail Bohler
Trigonometry
Chapter 4.1B (Amplitude and Period)
Standards:
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.5

## Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified

amplitude, frequency, and midline.*
Objectives:
Students can graph sine and cosine functions.
Students can determine amplitude and period of those functions.
Lesson Plan:
WARM-UP (5min)
Students watch a short clip on sound, concerning amplitude and period. Then have a
short discussion on how what we are learning relates.
Amplitude and Period Investigation (10min)
Go over yesterdays investigation. Discuss what things they noticed changed and didnt
change between graphs.
Amplitude (15min)
DIRECT INSTRUCTION/GUIDED PRACTICE
Teacher explains how to find amplitude. Then teacher guides students through an
example with determining amplitude and graphing a sine function.
Period (15min)
DIRECT INSTRUCTION/GUIDED PRACTICE
Teacher explains how to find period. Then teacher guides students through an example
with determining period and graphing a cosine function.
CLOSURE (5 min)
Students graph y=3sin(.5x) and hand in to teacher as an exit slip.
Homework: 4.1B WS
Summative Assessment: Quiz, Test

Abigail Bohler
Trigonometry
Chapter 4.1C (Reflections)
Standards:
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.5

## Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified

amplitude, frequency, and midline.*
Objectives:
Students can graph sine and cosine waves.
Students can recognize when a function is a reflection.
Lesson Plan:
WARM-UP (5min)
Students turn in old homework packets and are told they are going to learn a new
method for graphing today. This stirs intrigue for todays lesson.
Reflection Investigation (15min)
Students work on an investigation to recognize what occurs when a function is negative.
This serves as an introduction to todays lesson.
Graphing Trigonometric Functions NEW Method (10min)
Teacher introduces a new method for graphing trigonometric functions that uses period
and a 5x2 table to determine the points for the graph. This is the method that will be
used for the remainder of the chapter.
Graphing Sine and Cosine Practice (20min)
GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE
Using the new method, teacher guides students through an example. Then students
work independently on an example.
Closure (5min)
Teacher asks students to write on a piece of paper whether or not the new method works
better for them and share on a scale of 1 to 5, how comfortable they are with graphing
now. These are turned in as an exit slip.
Homework: 4.1C Worksheet
Summative: Quiz, Test

Abigail Bohler
Trigonometry
Chapter 4.2A (Phase Shifts)
Standards:
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.5

## Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified

amplitude, frequency, and midline.*
Objectives:
Students can graph sine and cosine functions.
Students can determine the phase shifts of the sine and cosine functions.
Lesson Plan:
WARM-UP (5min)
Students create a 5x2 table for one period of a sine function. This is review from the
method learned in the previous lesson.
Phase Shifts Investigation (15min)
GROUP WORK/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE
Students work on an investigation to determine which part of a trigonometric function
affects phase shift.
Phase Shifts (10min)
DIRECT INSTRUCTION/GUIDED PRACTICE
Teacher provides students with the definition of phase shift and guides students through
identifying phase shifts of a function.
Graphing Phase Shifts Practice (20min)
GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE
Teacher guides students through an example of graphing using phase shift. Then
students work on an example independently.
Closure (5min)
How do cosx=y and cos(x+2pi)=y compare? Have class think independently, share
thoughts with a partner, and then discuss as a class.
Homework: 4.2A Worksheet (#1 & 2)
Summative: Quiz, Test

Abigail Bohler
Trigonometry
Chapter 4.2B (Vertical Shifts)
Standards:
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.5

## Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified

amplitude, frequency, and midline.*
Objectives:
Students can graph sine and cosine functions
Students can determine vertical shifts of sine and cosine functions
Lesson Plan:
WARM-UP (10min)
Students are given characteristics of a function and have to create an equation that
satisfies the characteristics.
Graphing a Unique Phase Shift (10min)
GUIDED PRACTICE
Teacher guides students through an example of a function that needs to be rewritten
before graphing.
Vertical Shifts Investigation (15min)
GROUP WORK/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE
Students work through an investigation to see what part of an equation affects the
vertical shift.
Vertical Shift (10min)
DIRECT INSTRUCTION/GUIDED PRACTICE
Teacher provides students with the definition of vertical shifts and guides them through
example in identifying vertical shift of a function.
Homework: 4.2A Worksheet (#3 & 4)
Summative: Quiz, Test

Abigail Bohler
Trigonometry
Chapter 4.2B Part Two (Vertical Shifts and Wrap Up)
Standards:
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.5

## Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified

amplitude, frequency, and midline.*
Objectives:
Students can graph sine and cosine functions
Students can determine vertical shifts of sine and cosine functions
Lesson Plan:
WARM-UP (10min)
Students are given characteristics of a cosine function and create the equation for it.
Graphing Vertical Shifts (20min)
GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE
Teacher guides students through graphing an equation with a vertical shift. Then
students complete an example independently.
Identifying Characteristics of Sine and Cosine Functions (10min)
GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE
Teacher guides students through identifying characteristics of a sine or cosine function.
Then students complete an example independently.
Graphing Sine and Cosine Functions Practice (20min)
GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE
Teacher sets up how to begin graphing a function and students complete it. Then
students complete an example independently.
Homework: 4.2B (Vertical Shifts) Worksheet
Summative: Quiz, Test

Abigail Bohler
Trigonometry
Chapter 4.1 / 4.2 Review
Lesson Plan:
Students are placed into groups of four or five and each is given a worksheet for the
review activity. Each sheet is divided into Round 1, Round 2, Round 3, and Round 4.
In Round 1, each student creates an equation from the given guidelines of the teacher
(ex. a cosine function with a period of 2pi and an amplitude of 3). After Round 1,
students pass their sheet to the right in their group.
In Round 2, each student identifies the period, amplitude, vertical shift, phase shift, and
whether or not the equation is a reflection. After Round 2, students pass their sheet to
the right in their group.
In Round 3, each student completes the one period table for the equation. After Round
3, students pass their sheet to the right in their group.
In Round 4, each student completes the graph for two periods of the function. After
Round 4, students pass their sheet to the right in their group.
Each student checks the work for their original sheet.
This process is repeated for the remainder of the class time (groups will complete four
rounds 2 to 4 times).

Abigail Bohler
Trigonometry
Chapter 4.3A (Cosecant and Secant)
Standards:
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.5

## Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified

amplitude, frequency, and midline.*
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.7

## (+) Use inverse functions to solve trigonometric equations that arise in

modeling contexts; evaluate the solutions using technology, and interpret them
in terms of the context.*
Objectives:
Students can graph cosecant and secant graphs.
Lesson Plan:
10minutes to go over quiz
WARM-UP (5min)
Students are given cosine or sine ratios and must determine the corresponding secant
and cosecant ratios. Then students must decide whether 1/0=0 or not.
Cosecant and Secant Table (10min)
GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE
Teacher demonstrates how to solve for cosecant and secant. Then each table partner
completes either the row for secant or cosecant.
How to Graph Cosecant and Secant (10min)
DIRECT INSTRUCTION/GUIDED PRACTICE
Teacher provides students with the steps for graphing cosecant and secant, building off
of their prior knowledge of graphing trigonometric functions.
Graphing Secant and Cosecant (20min)
GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

Teacher walks through an example of graphing a cosecant function. Then students work
independently on the last example.
Closure (5min)
Students are shown a cosecant graph and secant graph, along with their reciprocal
function. Teacher asks to think about which graph is a cosecant graph and to provide a
rationale. Then students discuss with a partner. Then the answer and rationale are
discussed as a class.
Homework: 4.3A Worksheet (#1 & 4)
Summative: Test

Abigail Bohler
Trigonometry
Chapter 4.3A (Tangent and Cotangent)
Standards:
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.5

## Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified

amplitude, frequency, and midline.*
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.7

## (+) Use inverse functions to solve trigonometric equations that arise in

modeling contexts; evaluate the solutions using technology, and interpret them
in terms of the context.*
Objectives:
Students can graph tangent and cotangent functions.
Lesson Plan:
WARM-UP (5min)
Students identify what sine, cosine, tangent, and cotangent are for a 3-4-5 right triangle.
Then they find what cos/sin= and sin/cos=. This reminds them that sin/cos=tan and
cos/sin=cot.
Tangent and Cotangent Table (10min)
GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE
Students fill in the table for tangent and cotangent, when given the sine and cosine. One
half of the room does tangent, and one does cotangent. Then they fill in the table on the
board.
How to Graph Tangent and Cotangent (10min)
DIRECT INSTRUCTION/GUIDED PRACTICE
Teacher guides students through the process of graphing tangent and cotangent, by
building on how they learned to graph previously. Then teacher guides students through
graphing a basic tangent.
Graphing Tangent and Cotangent Practice (20min)

## GUIDED PRACTICE/INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

Students practice graphing tangent and cotangent functions.
Closure (3min)
Teacher asks students what they think is the most important takeaway from the lesson
and writes student answers on the board. Then teacher reveals the most important thing
is that tangent and cotangent period is pi.
Homework: 4.3 Worksheet (#1 & 2)
Summative: Test

Abigail Bohler
Trigonometry
Chapter 4 Exam Review
Lesson Plan:
Tables are moved to create groups of four. Each group is labeled with a A, B, C, or D.
Students are assigned to groups of four (each group will have varied ability levels: high,
low, and between). And each group begins at one of the stations (A, B, C, or D). Students
are given worksheets to record their answers and have 10 minutes at each station(A, B,
C, D).
Station A: Which Wave?
Students are provided with 8 graphs and 8 trigonometric equations. Students match the
graph to its respective equation. This prepares them for the matching portion of their
test.
Station B: Create the Equation
Students are given four decks of cards. One deck is for period and provides them with
the period for their function. One deck is for amplitude and gives them the amplitude of
their equation. One deck is for vertical shift and the last deck tells them the phase shift
of their equation. Each student draws a card from each of the four decks and creates the
appropriate equation for their given cards. They do this four times for a sine, cosine,
secant, and cosecant function. This prepares them for the writing equations portion of
the test.
Station C: Identify the Characteristics
Students are given a set of trigonometric equations and several questions to answer.
Questions ask students to identify which equations have a period of 2pi, pi, a phase shift
to the right, a vertical shift, etc. This prepares them for the identifying characteristics of
an equation portion of the test.
Station D: Pass and Graph
Students are given a pile of four cards, each with an equation on it. They write the
equation on their sheet and identify its characteristics. Then they pass their function to
the next person in their group. They create the appropriate table for the function passed
to them. The function is passed again and they draw the graph for the function. This
prepares them for the graphing portion of the test.

Abigail Bohler
Trigonometry
Chapter 4 Project: Graphing Temperature Patterns
Standards:
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSF.TF.B.5
Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified
amplitude, frequency, and midline.*
Objectives:
Students can find the vertical shift, reflection, amplitude, period, and phase shift
for a temperatures cosine function given the high and low temperature.
Lesson Plan:
Day One (Introduction to Project/Part 1):
Students are given the average monthly high temperatures and average monthly low
temperatures for Grand Rapids in 2013. For Part 1, they determine the trigonometric
equation for either the highs or lows for Grand Rapids.
Day Two (Part 2 Work):
Students choose a city and record its temperatures. Then they find the trigonometric
function for their data. They write up a step-by-step sheet showing their work and graph
the function on the computer. They then predict two months using their equation for
2014 and find the actual temperatures.
Day Three (Part 2 Poster):
Students put their poster together including the equation, graph, table of temperatures,
predicted and actual temperatures, and a short paragraph about what they learned from
the project and what they predict for December 2014.