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Well Log Interpretation

SP Log

Earth & Environmental Science

University of Texas at Arlington

Spontaneous Potential Log

The SP log is the oldest


type of log and is still
common. It measures
the D.C. voltage
difference between
surface and borehole
electrodes

Spontaneous Potential Log


The millivoltages are
generated by
differences in salinity
between the formation
waters and the mud
filtrate i.e.
differences between
Rw and Rmf
Cant be used with oil
based mud.

Spontaneous Potential Log


SP Log Used to:
Detect porous &
permeable beds
Calculate Rw (used
in Archie Eq.)
Estimate shale %

Spontaneous Potential Log


Factors that affect SP
response:

Thicker beds: increases


Higher Rt: reduces
More shale: reduces
Higher porosity/permeability:
increases if Rw <> Rmf

Spontaneous Potential Log


Some Definitions:
SSP Static SP: Maximum SP
response under ideal
conditions (thick, permeable,
porous layer) with assumed
Rmf/Rw
Shale Base Line: Minimum SP
response produced by thick
impermeable, nonporous shale
Hydrocarbon Suppression
reduced SP response because
petroleum has no salinity.

Spontaneous Potential Log:


Calculation of Rw

WARNING:
Calculation of important parameters from well log data is messy
because none of the equations are derived from basic
physical/chemical equations. All the equations are determined
experimentally, are approximations and involve many steps.

Spontaneous Potential Log:


Calculation of Rw
Steps to calculate Rw are shown in Table 2.1 of text. Resistivities
are temperature dependent.
The first step is to find the formation temperature at the depth Rw
is required. This is just a linear interpolation between surface
and bottom hole temperature. The petroleum industry usually
uses oF, not Celsius.
Surface Temp (Ts), Formation Depth (FD), Bottom Hole Temp
(BHT), and Total Depth (TD) are usually given on well header.

T f Ts

FD BHT Ts

TD

Spontaneous Potential Log:


Calculation of Rw
The 2nd step is to convert Rm & Rmf measured at the surface to
Rmf at Tf, the formation temp. This is NOT a linear interpolation
(see Fig 1.11 in text)
The equation below is an approximation to the graphical solution
in Fig 1.11. The constant 6.77 is 0F. For Celsius it is 21.5
0

R
f
m

R m T0 6.770

6.770

f
mf

R mf T0 6.770

6.770

Spontaneous Potential Log:


Calculation of Rw
The 3nd step is to convert find the ideal potential (SSP),
correcting for bed thickness, using the Fig. 2.3
Bed thickness is determined from the SP log by measuring the
distance between inflection points of the SP curve (8 ft)
To use Fig. 2.3, Must use Ri, from the SN (short reading
resistivity) log next to the SP log in Fig 2.2 (33 Ohm-M).
Calculate Ri/Rm (make sure you use the temperature corrected
Rm), use Fig 2.3 to get the SP correction factor, then read off
SSP from nomogram (71)

Spontaneous Potential Log:


Calculation of Rw

Spontaneous Potential Log:


Calculation of Rw
The 4th step is to find the ideal formation water resistivity, Rwe,
using the following equation (remember Rmf is at formation
temperature):

SSP 61 0.133BHT

Rwe Rmf 10

Spontaneous Potential Log:


Calculation of Rw
The final step is to find the actual water resistivity, Rw, using the
following equation:

Rw

2
log BHT 19.9

Rwe 0.13110

0.0426

log BHT 50.8

0.5Rwe 10

Spontaneous Potential Log:


Calculation of Sw
Once Rw is calculated for the reservoir, use the Archie equation to
calculate Sw.

F Rw

S w
R
t

Spontaneous Potential Log:


Assignment
Create a spreadsheet using the data in Fig. 2.2 and the formulas
in Table 2.1 to calculate Rw, formation water resistivity, in the
stratigraphic unit centered at 7446 in Fig 2.2. Email the results
by next class period.
You will need to use the graph in Fig 2.3 to estimate SSP.
Some corrections to formulas in Table 2.1:
SP in third equation should be SSP
BHT in 3rd & 4th equations should be Tf, formation
temperature.