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You are on page 1of 15

SP Log

type of log and is still

common. It measures

the D.C. voltage

difference between

surface and borehole

electrodes

The millivoltages are

generated by

differences in salinity

between the formation

waters and the mud

filtrate i.e.

differences between

Rw and Rmf

Cant be used with oil

based mud.

SP Log Used to:

Detect porous &

permeable beds

Calculate Rw (used

in Archie Eq.)

Estimate shale %

Factors that affect SP

response:

Higher Rt: reduces

More shale: reduces

Higher porosity/permeability:

increases if Rw <> Rmf

Some Definitions:

SSP Static SP: Maximum SP

response under ideal

conditions (thick, permeable,

porous layer) with assumed

Rmf/Rw

Shale Base Line: Minimum SP

response produced by thick

impermeable, nonporous shale

Hydrocarbon Suppression

reduced SP response because

petroleum has no salinity.

Calculation of Rw

WARNING:

Calculation of important parameters from well log data is messy

because none of the equations are derived from basic

physical/chemical equations. All the equations are determined

experimentally, are approximations and involve many steps.

Calculation of Rw

Steps to calculate Rw are shown in Table 2.1 of text. Resistivities

are temperature dependent.

The first step is to find the formation temperature at the depth Rw

is required. This is just a linear interpolation between surface

and bottom hole temperature. The petroleum industry usually

uses oF, not Celsius.

Surface Temp (Ts), Formation Depth (FD), Bottom Hole Temp

(BHT), and Total Depth (TD) are usually given on well header.

T f Ts

FD BHT Ts

TD

Calculation of Rw

The 2nd step is to convert Rm & Rmf measured at the surface to

Rmf at Tf, the formation temp. This is NOT a linear interpolation

(see Fig 1.11 in text)

The equation below is an approximation to the graphical solution

in Fig 1.11. The constant 6.77 is 0F. For Celsius it is 21.5

0

R

f

m

R m T0 6.770

6.770

f

mf

R mf T0 6.770

6.770

Calculation of Rw

The 3nd step is to convert find the ideal potential (SSP),

correcting for bed thickness, using the Fig. 2.3

Bed thickness is determined from the SP log by measuring the

distance between inflection points of the SP curve (8 ft)

To use Fig. 2.3, Must use Ri, from the SN (short reading

resistivity) log next to the SP log in Fig 2.2 (33 Ohm-M).

Calculate Ri/Rm (make sure you use the temperature corrected

Rm), use Fig 2.3 to get the SP correction factor, then read off

SSP from nomogram (71)

Calculation of Rw

Calculation of Rw

The 4th step is to find the ideal formation water resistivity, Rwe,

using the following equation (remember Rmf is at formation

temperature):

SSP 61 0.133BHT

Rwe Rmf 10

Calculation of Rw

The final step is to find the actual water resistivity, Rw, using the

following equation:

Rw

2

log BHT 19.9

Rwe 0.13110

0.0426

0.5Rwe 10

Calculation of Sw

Once Rw is calculated for the reservoir, use the Archie equation to

calculate Sw.

F Rw

S w

R

t

Assignment

Create a spreadsheet using the data in Fig. 2.2 and the formulas

in Table 2.1 to calculate Rw, formation water resistivity, in the

stratigraphic unit centered at 7446 in Fig 2.2. Email the results

by next class period.

You will need to use the graph in Fig 2.3 to estimate SSP.

Some corrections to formulas in Table 2.1:

SP in third equation should be SSP

BHT in 3rd & 4th equations should be Tf, formation

temperature.

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