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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 9 )

MINIMIZE RISK OF FIRE


Objective
Fire is one of the greatest maritime perils at sea.

A few good practices can reduce risk of fire.

Fire safety objectives onboard a ship are:


Prevent the occurrence of fire and explosion.
Reduce the risk to life caused by fire.
Reduce the risk of damage to ship, cargo or environment caused by fire.
Contain, control and suppress fire and explosion in the compartment of origin.
Provide adequate and readily accessible means of escape for passengers and
crews.

Procedures
Cleanliness and good housekeeping.

Avoid accumulation of oil, especially in engine room.

Settling tanks and other oil tanks must not overflow.

Any oil leak must be treated immediately.

Discarded cotton waste and cleaning rags should be put into metal containers
which are emptied regularly.

All the equipments used in hazardous areas must be approved type.

Smoking regulations to be followed.

All fire fighting equipments should be well maintained and ready for
immediate use.

Especial precaution to be taken when doing hot work or any operation which
renders a risk of fire.

Electric circuits should not be overloaded.

Unauthorized electrical equipments should not be used onboard.

All electrical wirings and fittings should be of approved type and well
maintained.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 9 )

Clothing should not be left for drying near any hot electrical equipment.

Especial measures in port

Risk of fire is greater especially when ship in port.

Extra precaution to be observed when hot works are being carried and
flammable materials being loaded or discharged.

Before any hot work, inflammable materials must be removed from adjacent
spaces.

During hot work, fire fighting appliances should be kept ready for immediate
use.

Smoking regulations to be strictly observed.

Unauthorized visitors should not be allowed.

Warnings and notices to be posted for not smoking, especially in special


types of ships.

Fire in port
Fire in port may occur during cargo, bunkering or any other operation.

Fire in port to be dealt in separate way than at sea.

Immediate action:
Raise the alarm.

Announce by PA.

Inform port authorities.

Inform the Master.

Muster all crew at emergency station.


Muster as per emergency team
Carry out head count
Check if any casualty
Cease cargo or bunker operations.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 9 )

Cast off barges alongside.

Non essential persons to be sent ashore.

One man standby at the gangway with cargo plan, fire wallet, international shore
connection to act as a guide for shore fire party.

Fire party briefed.

Proceed to scene off fire and investigate.


Investigation to wear firemen’s outfit.
They are to be supported by two men with fire hose, used to produce protective curtain.

Shut down all ventilation.

Start emergency fire p/p.

Continue boundary cooling of adjacent spaces.

Try to fight the fire by conventional means.

After fire brigade comes:


Hand over fire wallet.
Co-ordinate closely and assist as required.
Constant check on stability at all times.
Close and batten down hatches.
Isolate all electrical circuits related to the affected area.

Consider loss of stability while using water as an extinguishing medium.

Consider the possibility by using foam or by flooding the hold with carbon-di-oxide.

Follow up actions:
Report details to owner, charterer, P&I club.

Send an accident report to MPA.

Prepare a master’s report that includes:


When fire started.
Extent of fire.
Damage due to fire.
Any personnel injury.
Attempts made to extinguish fire.
Time taken to extinguish fire.

Fire in galley (At sea)


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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 9 )

Immediate actions:
Sound fire alarm

Announce by PA

Inform E/R

Reduce speed

Muster in the emergency station


Muster as per emergency team
Carry out head count
Check if any casualty
Establish communication between emergency teams and bridge.

Command team will:


Check vessel’s position
Check weather condition, wind direction, force
Suit vessel’s course appropriate for minimum wind effect if traffic condition permits.
Alter course
Reduce speed
Record all the events and steps taken
Send urgency or distress message depending on the extent of fire.
In-charge of emergency team to ensure
Any casualty
Prepare fire fighting team for fighting fire
Investigate location and nature of fire, inform to bridge.
Rig fire hoses for boundary cooling
Close all ventilators, flaps, blowers, fire doors
Cut off electrical supply to galley
Back up team will:
Ensure fire men’s outfit, BA sets & spare bottles are readily available.
Support team will:
Prepare life boats for lowering
Take care of casualty
C/E will ensure:
Emergency fire pump started.
Emergency generator started.
Fire pump pressure is maintained.
I’ll decide the best way to fight fire based on all available information and instruct C/O to fight
fire accordingly:
If there is small fire, use portable CO2, dry powder extinguisher, fire blanket as fire in the
galley normally oil or electric fire.
In case of big fire:
Send two men donning firemen’s outfit to fight the fire with fire/dry powder hose.
They are to be supported by two men, with fire hoses used to produce protective curtain.
Back up team to continue boundary cooling.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 9 )

Check adjacent compartments if there is sign of spreading fire.


Consider loss of stability while using water to fight fire.

Refer to damage stability booklet for loss of stability.

Continuously monitor temperature of affected area and its surroundings.

Maintain fire watch when fire is extinguished.

Cancel distress/urgency message.

Follow up actions:
Report details to owner, charterer, P&I club.

Send an accident report to MPA.

Prepare a master’s report that includes:


When fire started.
Extent of fire.
Damage due to fire.
Any personnel injury.
Attempts made to extinguish fire.
Time taken to extinguish fire.
Weather condition.

PRINCIPLES OF FIRE PROTECTION


ONBOARD
As per regulation-2, SOLAS CH-II, part-2 (MSA-CH-179, safety convention,
subsidiary legislation), in order to achieve fire safety objectives, the following
functional eight principles are embodied in the regulations:

Division of the ship into main vertical and horizontal zones by thermal and
structural boundaries.
Separation of accommodation spaces from the remainder of the ship by
thermal and structural boundaries.
Restricted use of combustible materials.
Detection of any fire in the zone of origin.
Containment and extinction of any fire in the space of origin.
Protection of means of escape and access for fire fighting.
Ready availability of fire extinguishing appliances.
Minimization of possibility of ignition of flammable cargo vapor.
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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 9 )

Fire in cargo hold at sea

Immediate actions:
Sound fire alarm

Announce by PA

Inform E/R

Reduce speed

Activate ship's contingency plan for fire.

Muster in the emergency station


Muster as per emergency team
Carry out head count
Check if any casualty
Establish communication between emergency teams and bridge.

Command team will:


Check vessel’s position
Check weather condition, wind direction, force
Suit vessel’s course appropriate for minimum wind effect if traffic condition permits.
Alter course
Reduce speed
Record all the events and steps taken
Send urgency or distress message depending on the extent of fire.
In-charge of emergency team to ensure
Any casualty.
Prepare fire fighting team for fighting fire.
Investigate location and nature of fire, inform to bridge.
Rig fire hoses for boundary cooling.
Seal off the hold, close all ventilators, flaps, blowers, fire doors.
Cut off electrical supply to the hold.
Back up team will:
Ensure fire men’s outfit, BA sets & spare bottles are readily available.
Support team will:
Prepare life boats for lowering.
Take care of casualty.
C/E will ensure:
Emergency fire pump started.
Emergency generator started.
Fire pump pressure maintained.
I’ll decide the best way to fight fire based on all available information and instruct C/O to fight
fire accordingly:

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 9 )

If there is small fire, use portable fire extinguishers depending on the type of fire.
In case of big fire:
Send two men donning firemen’s outfit to fight the fire with fire/dry powder hose.
They are to be supported by two men, with fire hoses used to produce protective curtain.
Back up team to continue boundary cooling.
Check adjacent compartments if there is sign of spreading fire.
If fire is uncontrollable and deep seated:
Flood the hold with CO2 as per ship's fire plan.
If hold contains nitrates, sulfates or explosives, flood hold with water.
Never open hatch. Entry of air may cause flash back.
Consider loss of stability while using water to fight fire.

Refer to damage stability booklet for loss of stability.

Continuously monitor temperature of affected area and its surroundings.

Maintain fire watch when fire is extinguished.

Cancel distress/urgency message.

Follow up actions:
Report details to owner, charterer, P&I club.

Send an accident report to MPA.

Prepare a note of protest to save owner's interest, stating the facts only.

Prepare a master’s report that includes:


When fire started.
Extent of fire.
Details of damage to cargo due to fire.
Any personnel injury.
Attempts made to extinguish fire.
Time taken to extinguish fire.
Weather condition.

POSSIBLE SOURCES OF FIRE


Electrical sources.
Smoking.
Funnel sparks.
Dirty vent trunk in galley.
Oily cotton rags.
Cargo of spontaneous combustible nature.
Welding and hot works.
Leaking of oil on hot surface in engine room.

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Class 1 & 2 Oral Answers ( Part 9 )

Electronic equipment.
Naked lights.
Accumulation of static charge.
Timber cargo.
Hot bulkheads.
Steam pipes.
Paint batteries.
Flammable atmosphere due to dust, cargo vapors.

Types of fire
Agreement reached about classes of fire in 1970 between European
countries.
Fire is classified mainly in four categories, namely A, B, C & D.

Class-A
Fire involving solid materials.
Normally of organic nature.
Examples: wood, paper, textiles, fabrics, plastics.
Most effective extinguishing medium is water.

Class-B
Fire involving liquids or liquefiable solids.
Extinguishing agents include water spray, foam, vaporizing liquids, carbon di
oxide, dry powder.

Class-C
Fire involving gases or liquefied gases.
Normally in the form of jet or spray.
Most effective extinguishing medium is dry powder.

Class-D
Fire involving metals.
Carbon di oxide and dry powder are normally suitable.

Class-E
Fire involving live electrical equipments sometimes termed as class-E.
Extinguishing medium: carbon di oxide.