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Medha Business School

Medha Business School


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Medha Business School

This is to certify that the project work done on “DERIVATIVE MARKET” Submitted to MEDHA BUSINESS SCHOOL, Bangalore by NAIK

CHAITRA MANJUNATH in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of PGPM is a bonafide work carried out by

him/her under my supervision and guidance. This work has not been submitted anywhere else for any other degree/diploma. The original work was carried out during August 1st, 2009 to October 15, 2009 in WAY2WEALTH,

K.G.Road, Bangalore. Date:

M/s Anupama
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Chairman Director & Principal MedhaBusinessSchool, Bangalore . Seal/Stamp of the Organization: Name of the guide: S.Rampraveen Address:


#6, 2 RMV Stage New BEL Road, Bangalore- 560 094

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to MEDHA BUSINESS SCHOOL, Bangalore for the inclusion of this project as part of the PGPM curriculum, which gives us immense corporate exposure and knowledge. I would like to thank WAY2WEALTH and my Internal Guide Mr. S. Rampraveen for the suggestions and guidance given to me for completion of my project.

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I would like to thank Prof. Anupama, Chairman, Director and Principal, Medha Business School for her valuable guidance and support. I would like to thank Faculty Mr. Avinash Gaikwad, Medha Business School for his valuable suggestions and guidance. I would also like to thank all the college staff for providing every help related to the final completion of the report. NAIK CHAITRA MANJUNATH (Signature of Student)

This is to declare that the Project entitled DERIVATIVE MARKET” has been undertaken for the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Master of Business Administration at the MEDHA BUSINESS SCHOOL, Bangalore – 560094 (Batch: 2008-2010) by me.


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I confirm that this Project truly represents my work undertaken by me and is not a replication of work done previously by any other person. I also confirm that the contents of the report and the views contained therein have been discussed and deliberated with the Faculty & Guide. Signature of Student Name of the Student Registration No. Place : : NAIK CHAITRAMANJUNATH : MMPG081014 : Bangalore


To The Registrar, Medha Business School, Bangalore - 560094

Medha Business School

This is to certify that Mr./Ms. _________________________________ of PGPM (Industry Integrated) course of Medha Business School, Bangalore, has undergone management training at our Organization from 1st August 2009 to 15th September 2009 and has completed a project on (name of the project) under the guidance of (name and designation of internal guide). His/Her performance during the training period was ____________.

Authorized Signatory


Sl.No. 1 Executive Summary


Page No.


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2 3 4 5 6

Introduction Objectives of the Study Methodology Derivative Market Company Profile

7 8 9

Suggestions & Findings Conclusion Bibliography


This project also shows a detail study on derivates, How its functions, How it plays a major role in the financial market of India. How it was introduced in Indian market .What


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a major role its plays on the economy of the country. How the derivate market has grown in India. Derivatives have become very important in the field finance. They are very important financial instruments for risk management as they allow risks to be separated and traded. Derivatives are used to shift risk and act as a form of insurance. This shift of risk means that each party involved in the contract should be able to identify all the risks involved before the contract is agreed. It is also important to remember that derivatives are derived from an underlying asset. This means that risks in trading derivatives may change depending on what happens to the underlying asset. The above made analysis gives an idea to identify the risk and returns involved in this financial instrument. It shows the importance of analysis of risk and returns before an investor get into the contract. Each sector gives returns but at the same time involves some amount of risk. If the investor does not do the analysis before getting into contract he/she may lose the returns. Presently, most major institutional borrowers and investors use derivatives.. Derivatives are responsible for not only increasing the range of financial products available but also fostering more precise ways of understanding, quantifying and managing financial risk .



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Word Financial market has witnessed tremendous change in the field of Derivative market especially in option, future and swaps. The study is carried out pertaining to derivative volume in India(is around 1trillion)In this context the study of present scenario of derivative market is very contextual and significant as well. The study concentrates only on BSE & NSE.

Derivatives are very similar to insurance. Insurance protects against specific risks, such as fire, floods, theft and so on. Derivatives on the other hand, take care of market risks volatility in interest rates, currency rates, commodity prices, and share prices..

In this era of globalisation, the world is a riskier place and exposure to risk is growing. Risk cannot be avoided or ignored. Man, however is risk averse. The risk averse characteristic of human beings has brought about growth in derivatives. Derivatives help the risk averse individuals by offering a mechanism for hedging risk

Derivative products, several centuries ago, emerged as hedging devices against fluctuations in commodity prices.


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To study trends in Derivative Investments in India To study the perception of investors towards Derivatives trading To study the awareness about Derivatives among investors. To know the changes in the decision of consumers related with polices To identify the training programs given in the organization To measure risk and return in stock futures To annualize monthly returns of stock future


Analysis and interpretation of data is based on both the primary data and secondary data. Both primary data and secondary data are explained below:

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Primary Data:
The primary sources are first hand information collected from the employees of the company and the customers of the company. Primary data can be collected in following ways: • • • • Observation Group Discussion Collecting information from employee’s Collecting information from customers

Secondary Data:

Websites, Monthly review reports, Stock exchange journals, Articles ,reviews, Internal sources



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Derivative products initially emerged as hedging devices against fluctuations in commodity prices, and commodity-linked derivatives remained the sole form of such products for almost three hundred years. Derivatives came into spotlight in the post-1970 period due to growing instability in the financial markets. However, since their emergence, these products have become very popular and by 1990s, they accounted for about two-thirds of total transactions in derivative products. In recent years, the market for derivatives has grown tremendously in terms of variety of instruments available, their complexity and also turnover. In the case of equity derivatives the world over, futures and options on stock indices have gained more popularity than on individual stocks, especially among institutional investors, who are major users of index-linked derivatives. Even small investors find these useful due to high correlation of the popular indexes with various portfolios and ease of use. Derivatives are one of the most complex instruments. The word derivative comes from the word ‘to derive’. It indicates that it has no independent value. A derivative is a contract whose value is derived from the value of another asset, known as the underlying asset, which could be a share, a stock market index, an interest rate, a commodity, or a currency. The emergence of the market for Derivative products, most notably forwards, futures and options can be traced back to the willingness of risk-averse economic agents to guard themselves against uncertainties arising out of fluctuations in asset prices. By their very nature, financial markets are marked by a very high degree of volatility. Through the use of Derivative products, it is possible to partially or fully transfer price

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risks by locking- in asset prices. As instruments of risk management, these generally do not influence the fluctuations in the underlying asset prices. However, by locking – in asset prices, derivative products minimize the impact of fluctuations in asset prices on the profitability and cash flow situation of risk – averse investors Derivatives offer a sound mechanism for insuring against various kinds of risks arising in the world of finance. They offer a range of mechanisms to improve redistribution of risk, which can be extended to every product existing, from coffee to cotton and live cattle to debt instruments Derivatives contracts are used to counter the price risks involved in assets and liabilities. Derivatives do not eliminate risks. They divert risks from investors who are risk averse to those who are risk neutral. The use of derivatives instruments is the part of the growing trend among financial intermediaries like banks to substitute off-balance sheet activity for traditional lines of business. The exposure to derivatives by banks have implications not only from the point of capital adequacy, but also from the point of view of establishing trading norms, business rules and settlement process. Trading in derivatives differ from that in equities as most of the derivatives are market to the market.


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Derivative is a product whose value is derived from the value of one or more basic variables, called bases (underlying asset, index, or reference rate), in a contractual manner. The underlying asset can be equity, forex, commodity or any other asset. For example, wheat farmers may wish to sell their harvest at a future date to eliminate the risk of a change in prices by that date. Such a transaction is an example of a derivative. The price of this derivative is driven by the spot price of wheat which is the "underlying".In the Indian context the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (SC(R)A) defines "derivative" to include1. A security derived from a debt instrument, share, loan whether secured or unsecured, risk instrument or contract for differences or any other form of security. 2. A contract which derives its value from the prices, or index of prices, of underlying securities. Derivatives are securities under the SC(R)A and hence the trading of derivatives is governed by the regulatory framework under the SC(R)A. Derivative

products initially emerged as hedging devices against fluctuations in commodity prices, and commodity-linked derivatives remained the sole form of such products for almost three hundred years. Financial derivatives came into spotlight in the post-1970 period due to growing instability in the financial markets. However, since their emergence, these products have become very popular and by 1990s, they accounted for about two-thirds of total transactions in derivative products. In recent years, the market for financial derivatives has grown tremendously in terms of variety of instruments available, their complexity and also turnover. In the class of equity derivatives the world over, futures and options on stock indices have gained more popularity than on individual stocks,

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especially among institutional investors, who are major users of index-linked derivatives. Even small investors find these useful due to high correlation of the popular indexes with various portfolios and ease of use.

To understand the use and functioning of the index in derivatives markets, it is necessary to understand the underlying index. A stock index represents the change in the value of a set of stocks, which constitute the index. A market index is very important for the market players as it acts as a barometer for market behavior and as an underlying in derivative instruments such as index futures.

The Sensex and Nifty
➢ In India the most popular indices have been the BSE Sensex and S&P CNX Nifty. While the BSE Sensex was the first stock market index in the country. ➢ The BSE Sensex has 30 stocks comprising the index which are selected based on market capitalization, industry representation, trading frequency etc. It represents large well-established and financially sound companies. ➢ The Sensex represents a broad spectrum of companies in a variety of industries. It represents 14 major industry groups. Then there is a BSE national index and BSE 200. However, trading in index futures has only commenced on the BSE Sensex.

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➢ Nifty was launched by the National Stock Exchange in April 1996 taking the base of Nov 3, 1995. The Nifty index consists of shares of 50 companies with each having a market capitalization of more than Rs 500 crore.

There are three broad categories of participants in the derivatives market.

Hedgers – Operators, who want to transfer a risk component of their portfolio. Speculators - Operators, who intentionally take the risk from hedgers in pursuit of

Arbitragers- Operators, who operate in the different markets simultaneously, in
pursuit of profit and eliminate miss pricing.



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Derivative contracts have several variants. The most common variants are forwards, futures, options, and swaps. We take a brief look at the various derivatives contract that have come to use.

Forwards: A forward contract is a customized contract between two entities,
where the settlement takes place on a specific date in the future at today’s preagreed price.

Futures: A future contract is an agreement between two parties to buy or sell an
asset at a certain time in the future at a certain price. Futures contracts are special types of forward contracts in the sense that the former are standardized exchangetraded contracts.

Options: they are of two types – calls and puts. Calls give the buyer the right
but not the obligation to buy a given quantity of the underlying asset, at a given price on or before a given future date. Puts give the buyer the right, but not the obligation to sell a given quantity of the underlying asset at a given price on or before a given date.

Warrants: Options generally have lives up to one year, the majority of options
traded on options exchanges having a maximum maturity of nine months. Longer – dated options are called warrants and are generally traded over- the – counter.

Leaps: The acronym LEAPS means Long-Term Equity Anticipation Securities.
These are options having a maturity up to three years.


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Baskets: they are options on portfolios of underlying assets. The underlying
asset is usually a moving average of a basket of assets. Equity index options are a form of basket options.

Swaps: These are private agreements between two parties to exchange cash
flows in the future according to a prearranged formula. They can be regarded as portfolios of forward contracts. The two commonly used swaps are:


Interest rate swaps: These entail swapping only the interest related cash
flows between the parties in the same currency.


Currency swaps: these entail swapping both principal and interest between
the parties, with the cash flows in one direction being in a different currency than those in opposite direction.

Inspite of the fear and criticism with which the derivative markets are commonly looked at, these markets perform a number of economic functions. 1. Prices in an organized derivatives market reflect the perception of market participants about the future and lead the prices of underlying to the perceived future level. The prices of derivatives converge with the pric as of the underlying at the expiration of the derivative contract. Thus derivatives help in discovery of future as well as current prices. 2. The derivatives market helps to transfer risks from those who have them but may not like them to those who have an appetite for them.

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3. Derivatives, due to their inherent nature, are linked to the underlying cash markets.With the introduction of derivatives, the underlying market witnesses higher trading volumes because of participation by more players who would not otherwise participate for lack of an arrangement to transfer risk. 4. Speculative trades shift to a more controlled environment of derivatives market. In the absence of an organized derivatives market, speculators trade in the underlying cash markets. Margining, monitoring and surveillance of the activities of various participants become extremely difficult 5. An important incidental benefit that flows from derivatives trading is that it acts as a catalyst for new entrepreneurial activity. The derivatives have a history of attracting many bright, creative, well-educated people with an entrepreneurial attitude. They often energize others to create new businesses, new products and new employment opportunities, the benefit of which are immense. In a nut shell, derivatives markets help increase savings and investment in the long run. Transfer of risk enables market participants to expand their volume of activity.



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Over the last three decades, the derivatives market has seen a phenomenal growth. A large variety of derivative contracts have been launched at exchanges across the world. Some of the factors driving the growth of financial derivatives are: 1. Increased volatility in asset prices in financial markets, 2. Increased integration of national financial markets with the International markets, 3. Marked improvement in communication facilities and sharp decline in their costs, 4. Development of more sophisticated risk management tools, providing economic agents a wider choice of risk management strategies, and 5.Innovations in the derivatives markets, which optimally combine the risks And returns over a large number of financial assets leading to higher Returns, reduced risk as well as transactions costs as compared to individual financial assets.



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Indian securities markets have indeed waited for too long for derivatives trading to emerge. Mutual Funds, FIIs and other investors who are deprived of hedging opportunities will now have a derivatives market to bank on. First to emerge are the globally popular variety - index futures. The derivatives trading on the NSE commenced with S&P CNX Nifty Index futures on June 12, 2000. The trading in index options commenced on June 4, 2001 and trading in options on individual securities commenced on July 2,2001. Single stock futures were launched on November 9, 2001. Today, both in terms of volume and turnover, NSE is the largest derivatives exchange in India. Currently, the derivatives contracts have a maximum of 3-month expiration cycles. Three contracts are available for trading, with 1 month, 2 months and 3 months expiry. A new contract is introduced on the next trading day following the expiry of the near month contract.



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On June 9, 2000, the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) introduced India's first derivative instrument - the BSE-30(Sensex) index futures. It was introduced with three month trading cycle - the near month (one), the next month (two) and the far month (three). The National Stock Exchange (NSE) followed a few days later, by launching the S&P CNX Nifty3 index futures on June 12, 2000. The plan to introduce derivatives in India was initially mooted by the National Stock Exchange (NSE) in 1995. The main purpose of this plan was to encourage greater participation of foreign institutional investors (FIIs) in the Indian stock exchanges. Their involvement had been very low due to the absence of derivatives for hedging risk. However, there was no consensus of opinion on the issue among industry analysts and the media. The pros and cons of introducing derivatives trading were debated intensely. The lack of transparency and inadequate infrastructure of the Indian stock markets were cited as reasons to avoid derivatives trading. Derivatives were also considered risky for retail investors because of their poor knowledge about their operation. In spite of the opposition, the path for derivatives trading was cleared with the introduction of Securities Laws (Amendment) Bill in Parliament in 1998. The introduction of derivatives was delayed for some more time as the infrastructure for it had to be set up. Derivatives trading required a computer-based trading system, a depository4 and a clearing house5 facility. In addition, problems such as low market capitalization of the Indian stock markets, the small number of institutional players and the absence of a regulatory framework caused further delays. Derivatives trading

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eventually started in June 2000 The introduction of derivatives was well received by stock market players. Trading in derivatives gained substantial popularity, and soon the turnover of the NSE and BSE derivatives markets exceeded the turnover of the NSE and BSE cash markets For instance, in the month of January 2004, the value of the NSE and BSE derivatives markets was Rs.3278.5 billion (bn) whereas the value of the NSE and BSE cash markets was only Rs.1998.89 bn. (Refer Exhibit I and II). In spite of these encouraging developments, industry analysts felt that the derivatives market had not yet realized its full potential. Analysts pointed out that the equity derivative markets on the BSE and NSE had been limited to only four products - index futures, index options and individual stock futures and options which were limited to certain select stocks...



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The prohibition on options in SCRA was removed in 1995. Foreign currency options in currency pairs other than Rupee were the first options permitted by RBI.

The Reserve Bank of India has permitted options, interest rate swaps, currency swaps and other risk reductions OTC derivative products.

Besides the Forward market in currencies has been a vibrant market in India for several decades.

In addition the Forward Markets Commission has allowed the setting up of commodities futures exchanges. Today we have 18 commodities exchanges most of which trade futures e.g. The Indian Pepper and Spice Traders Association (IPSTA) and the Coffee Owners Futures Exchange of India (COFEI).

In 2000 an amendment to the SCRA expanded the definition of securities to included Derivatives thereby enabling stock exchanges to trade derivative products.

The year 2000 heralded the introduction of exchange traded equity derivative products

The Year 2008 witnessed the launch of new products in the F&O Segment of NSE. The Mini derivative (Futures and Options) contracts on S&P CNX Nifty were introduced for trading on January1, 2008.



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NSE admits members on its derivatives segment in accordance with the rules and regulations of the exchange and the norms specified by SEBI. NSE follows 2-tier membership structure stipulated by SEBI to enable wider participation. Those interested in taking membership on F&O segment are required to take membership of CM and F&O segment or CM, WDM and F&O segment. Trading and clearing members are admitted separately. Essentially, a clearing member (CM) does clearing for all his trading members (TMs), undertakes risk management and performs actual settlement. There are three types of CMs: • Self Clearing Member: A SCM clears and settles trades executed by him only either on his own account or on account of his clients. • Trading Member Clearing Member: TM-CM is a CM who is also a TM. TM-CM may clear and settle his own proprietary trades and client's trades as well as clear and settle for other TMs. • Professional Clearing Member PCM is a CM who is not a TM. Typically, banks or custodians could become a PCM and clear and settle for TMs. Details of the eligibility criteria for membership on the F&O segment are provided in Tables 7.1 and 7.2 (Chapter 7). The TM-CM and the PCM are required to bring in additional security deposit in respect of every TM whose trades they undertake to clear and settle. Besides this, trading members are required to have qualified users and sales persons, who have passed a certification programme approved by SEBI.


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The futures and options trading system of NSE, called NEAT-F&O trading system, provides a fully automated screen-based trading for Index futures & options and Stock futures & options on a nationwide basis and an online monitoring and surveillance mechanism. It supports an anonymous order driven market which provides complete transparency of trading operations and operates on strict price-time priority. It is similar to that of trading of equities in the Cash Market (CM) segment. The NEAT-F&O trading system is accessed by two types of users. The Trading Members (TM) have access to functions such as order entry, order matching, order and trade management.It provides tremendous flexibility to users in terms of kinds of orders that can be placed on the system. Various conditions like Immediate or Cancel,Limit/Market price, Stop loss, etc. can be built into an order. The Clearing Members (CM) use the trader workstation for the purpose of monitoring the trading member(s) for whom they clear the trades. Additionally, they can enter and set limits to positions, which a trading member can take.


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In recent years, derivatives have become increasingly important in the field of finance. While futures and options are now actively traded on many exchanges, forward contracts are popular on the OTC market. In this chapter we shall study in detail these three derivative contracts.

Futures markets were designed to solve the problems that exist in forward markets. A futures contract is an agreement between two parties to buy or sell an asset at a certain time in the future at a certain price. But unlike forward contracts, the futures contracts are standardized and exchange traded. To facilitate liquidity in the futures contracts, the exchange specifies certain standard features of the contract. It is a standardized contract with standard underlying instrument, a standard quantity and quality of the underlying instrument that can be delivered, (or which can be used for reference purposes in settlement) and a standard timing of such settlement. A futures contract may be offset prior to maturity by entering into an equal and opposite transaction. More than 99% of futures transactions are offset this way. The standardized items in a futures contract. • Future contracts are organized / standardized contracts, which are traded on the exchanges. • These contracts, being standardized traded on the exchanges are very liquid in the nature. • In futures market, clearing corporation/house provides the settlement guarantee.

There are two kinds of Futures:

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Index Futures
Index futures permits speculation and if a trader anticipate a major rally in the market he simply buy a futures contract and hope for a price rise on the futures contract when rally occurs. In India we have index future contracts based on S&P CNX Nifty and the BSE Sensex and near 3 months duration contracts are available at all times. Each contract expires on the last Thursday of the expiry month and simultaneously a new contract is introduced for trading after expiry of a contract.

Stock Futures
A stock future contract is a standardized contract to buy or sell a specific stock at a future date at an agreed price. A stock future is, as the name suggests, a future on a stock i .e the underlying is a stock. The contract derives its value from the underlying stock. Single stock future are cash settled. Stock futures have been introduced for 31 scrips on which there are option contracts available. The list of stocks is given below. The stocks futures are currently available for a time frame of 3 months.The system is similar to that available for other derivative contracts. Thus, a contract will be available for trading for a maximum time period of three months. The contracts expire on the last Thursday of every month.


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Spot price: The price at which an asset trades in the spot market. Futures price: The price at which the futures contract trades in the futures market.
Contract cycle: The period over which a contract trades. The index futures contracts on the NSE have one- month, two-months and three months expiry cycles which expire on the last Thursday of the month.Thus a January expiration contract expires on the last Thursday of January and On the Friday following the last Thursday, a new contract having a three- month expiry is introduced for trading.

Expiry date: It is the date specified in the futures contract. This is the last day on
which the contract will be traded, at the end of which it will cease to exist.

Contract size: The amount of asset that has to be delivered under one contract. Also
called as lot size

Basis: In the context of financial futures, basis can be defined as the futures price minus
the spot price. There will be a different basis for each delivery month for each contract. In a normal market, basis will be positive. This reflects that futures prices normally exceed spot prices.

Cost of carry: The relationship between futures prices and spot prices can be
summarized in terms of what is known as the cost of carry. This measures the storage cost plus the interest that is paid to finance the asset less the income earned on the asset.

Initial margin: The amount that must be deposited in the margin account at the time a
futures contract is first entered into is known as initial margin.


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Marking-to-market: In the futures market, at the end of each trading day, the margin
account is adjusted to reflect the investor's gain or loss depending upon the futures closing price. This is called marking-to-market.

Maintenance margin: This is somewhat lower than the initial margin. This is set to
ensure that the balance in the margin account never becomes negative. If the balance in the margin account falls below the maintenance margin, the investor receives a margin call and is expected to top up the margin account to the initial margin level before trading commences on the next day.

A forward contract is an agreement to buy or sell an asset on a specified date for a specified price. One of the parties to the contract assumes a long position and agrees to buy the underlying asset on a certain specified future date for a certain specified price.

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The other party assumes a short position and agrees to sell the asset on the same date for the same price. Other contract details like delivery date, price and quantity are negotiated bilaterally by the parties to the contract. The forward contracts are normally traded outside the exchanges. The salient features of forward contracts are:

• They are bilateral contracts and hence exposed to counter-party risk. • Each contract is custom designed, and hence is unique in terms of contract size, expiration date and the asset type and quality. • The contract price is generally not available in public domain. • On the expiration date, the contract has to be settled by delivery of the asset. • If the party wishes to reverse the contract, it has to compulsorily go to the same counter-party, which often results in high prices being charged. However forward contracts in certain markets have become very standardized, as in the case of foreign exchange, thereby reducing transaction costs and increasing transactions volume.

Forward markets world-wide are afflicted by several problems: • Lack of centralization of trading, • Illiquidity, and • Counterparty risk

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In the first two of these, the basic problem is that of too much flexibility and generality. The forward market is like a real estate market in that any two consenting adults can form contracts against each other. This often makes them design terms of the deal which are very convenient in that specific situation, but makes the contracts non-tradable. Counterparty risk arises from the possibility of default by any one party to the transaction. When one of the two sides to the transaction declares bankruptcy, the other suffers. Even when forward markets trade standardized contracts, and hence avoid the problem of illiquidity, still the counterparty risk remains a very serious issue.

Forward contracts are often confused with futures contracts. The confusion is primarily because both serve essentially the same economic functions of allocating risk in the presence of future price uncertainty. However futures are a significant improvement over the forward contracts as they eliminate counterparty risk and offer more liquidity. Table 3.1 lists the distinction between the two.


Forward Contract

Future Contract
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Operational Mechanism Contract Specifications Counterparty Risk Liquidation Profile

Not traded on exchange Differs from trade to Trade Exists Poor Liquidity

Traded on exchange Contracts are standardized contracts. Exists, but assumed by clearing

corporation/house. as Very high Liquidity as contracts are

contracts are tailor made standardised contracts. Price Discovery contracts. Poor, as markets fragmented. are Better, as fragmented markets are brought to the common platform.

In this section, we look at the next derivative product to be traded on the NSE, namely options. Options are fundamentally different from forward and futures contracts. An option gives the holder of the option the right to do something. The holder does not have to exercise this right. In contrast, in a forward or futures contract, the two parties have committed themselves to doing something. Whereas it costs nothing (except margin requirements) to enter into a futures contract, the purchase of an option requires an upfront payment.

The workings: To take a position, an initial margin (IM) payment is required to be
paid out. The IM is calculated as a percentage of the contract value. The floor is specified by the exchange daily. However, brokers might keep the figure higher as per their

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comfort level either a particular client and the possibility of default. The figure may be as high 25% of the contract size. However, the floor for the IM will be 7.5%. The contract value is calculated by multiplying the price at which the stock futures are bought/sold. Market with market lot is minimum number of stock futures a participant has to by for particular scrip (please refer the below table). Thus, it is not possible to take position in one Infosys future. A tradable contract on the exchange will constitute of a minimum of 100 futures. This brings the contract value to around Rs 200,000 on an average. An initial margin of 15% would mean Rs 30,000, large enough to keep many retail investors out of the market. The minimum price movement has been kept as Rs 0.05. Theoretically, stock futures are exactly similar to the index futures, with the main difference being that the underlying is a stock, instead of being a stock market index. Thus, there is a possibility physical delivery. However, currently all contracts are cash settled for the time being. Once players have sufficient experience with the products, the exchange plans to introduce physical settlement.

Index options: These options have the index as the underlying. Some options are
European while others are American. Like index futures contracts, index options contracts are also cash settled.


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Stock options: Stock options are options on individual stocks. Options currently trade
on over 500 stocks in the United States. A contract gives the holder the right to buy or sell shares at the specified price.

Buyer of an option: The buyer of an option is the one who by paying the option
premium buys the right but not the obligation to exercise his option on the seller/writer.

Writer of an option: The writer of a call/put option is the one who receives the
option premium and is thereby obliged to sell/buy the asset if the buyer exercises on him. There are two basic types of options, call options and put options.

Call option: A call option gives the holder the right but not the obligation to buy an
asset by a certain date for a certain price.

Put option: A put option gives the holder the right but not the obligation to sell an
asset by a certain date for a certain price.

Option price/premium: Option price is the price which the option buyer pays to the
option seller. It is also referred to as the option premium.

Expiration date: The date specified in the options contract is known as the expiration
date, the exercise date, the strike date or the maturity.

Strike price: The price specified in the options contract is known as the strike price or
the exercise price..

At-the-money option: An at-the-money (ATM) option is an option that would lead
to zero cashflow if it were exercised immediately. An option on the index is at-themoney when the current index equals the strike price (i.e. spot price = strike price).

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Out-of-the-money option: An out-of-the-money (OTM) option is an option that
would lead to a negative cashflow if it were exercised immediately. A call option on the index is out-of-the-money when the current index stands at a level which is less than the strike price (i.e. spot price < strike price). If the index is much lower than the strike price, the call is said to be deep OTM. In the case of a put, the put is OTM if the index is above the strike price.

Time value of an option: The time value of an option is the difference between its
premium and its intrinsic value. Both calls and puts have time value. An option that is OTM or ATM has only time value. Usually, The longer the time to expiration, the greater is an option's time value, all else equal.

An interesting question to ask at this stage is - when would one use options instead of futures? Options are different from futures in several interesting senses. At a practical level, the option buyer faces an interesting situation. He pays for the option in full at the time it is purchased. After this, he only has an upside. There is no possibility of the options position generating any further losses to him (other than the funds already paid for the option). This is different from futures, which is free to enter into, but can generate very large losses. This characteristic makes options attractive to many occasional market participants, who cannot put in the time to closely monitor their futures positions. Buying

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put options is buying insurance. To buy a put option on Nifty is to buy insurance which reimburses the full extent to which Nifty drops below the strike price of the put option. This is attractive to many people, and to mutual funds creating "guaranteed return products".

Operational Mechanism Product Risk Payoff

Traded on exchange Exchange defines

Traded on exchange the Exchange defines the product

product Covers both long at short Covers only short at risk. at risk Linear payoff Non linear payoff. Strike price is fixed, price moves..


Price is zero, strike price moves.

The Nifty index fund industry will find it very useful to make a bundle of a Nifty index fund and a Nifty put option to create a new kind of a Nifty index fund, which gives the investor protection against extreme drops in Nifty. Selling put options is selling insurance, so anyone who feels like earning revenues by selling insurance can set himself up to do so on the index options market. More generally, options offer "nonlinear


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payoffs" whereas futures only have "linear payoffs". By combining futures and options, a wide variety of innovative and useful payoff structures can be created.

Index derivatives are derivative contracts which derive their value from an underlying index. The two most popular index derivatives are index futures and index options. Index derivatives have become very popular worldwide. Index derivatives offer various advantages and hence have become very popular. · Institutional and la rge equity-holders need portfolio-hedging facility. Index-derivatives are more suited to them and more cost-effective than derivatives based on individual stocks. Pension funds in the US are known to use stock index futures for risk hedging purposes. · Index derivatives offer ease of use for hedging any portfolio irrespective of its composition. · Stock index is difficult to manipulate as compared to individual stock prices, more so in India, and the possibility of cornering is reduced. This is partly because an individual stock has a limited supply, which can be cornered. · Stock index, being an average, is much less volatile than individual stock prices. This implies much lower capital adequacy and margin requirements. · Index derivatives are cash settled, and hence do not suffer from settlement delays and problems related to bad delivery, forged/fake certificate.


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The futures & options trading system of NSE, called NEAT-F&O trading system, provides a fully automated screen-based trading for Index futures & options and Stock futures & options on a nationwide basis as well as an online monitoring and surveillance mechanism. It supports an order driven market and provides complete transparency of trading operations. It is similar to that of trading of equities in the cash market segment. The software for the F&O market has been developed to facilitate efficient and transparent trading in futures and options instruments. Keeping in view the familiarity of trading members with the current capital market trading system, modifications have been performed in the existing capital market trading system so as to make it suitable for trading futures and options.

There are four entities in the trading system. Trading members, clearing members, professional clearing members and participants.

Trading members: Trading members are members of NSE. They can
trade either on their own account or on behalf of their clients including participants. The exchange assigns a trading member ID to each trading member.

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Clearing members: Clearing members are members of NSCCL. They carry out risk
management activities and confirmation/inquiry of trades through the trading system.

Professional clearing members: A professional clearing members is a clearing
member who is not a trading member. Typically, banks and custodians become professional clearing members and clear and settle for their trading members.

Participants: A participant is a client of trading members like financial institutions.
These clients may trade through multiple trading members but settle through a single clearing member

The system allows the trading members to enter orders with various conditions attached to them as per their requirements. These conditions are broadly divided into the following categories: · Time conditions · Price conditions · Other conditions Several combinations of the above are allowed thereby providing enormous flexibility to the users. The order types and conditions are summarized below.


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Time conditions
Day order: A day order, as the name suggests is an order which is valid for the day on which it is entered. If the order is not executed during the day, the system cancels the order automatically at the end of the day. Immediate or Cancel (IOC): An IOC order allows the user to buy or sell a contract as soon as the order is released into the system, failing which the order is cancelled from the system. Partial match is possible for the order, and the unmatched portion of the order is cancelled immediately.

Price condition
Stop-loss: This facility allows the user to release an order into the system, after the market price of the security reaches or crosses a threshold price For the stop-loss sell order, the trigger price has to be greater than the limit price.

Other conditions
Market price: Market orders are orders for which no price is specified at the time the order is entered (i.e. price is market price). For such orders, the system determines the price. Trigger price: Price at which an order gets triggered from the stop-loss book. Limit price: Price of the orders after triggering from stop-loss book.

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Pro: Pro means that the orders are entered on the trading member's own account. Cli: Cli means that the trading member enters the orders on behalf of a client.

The eligibility criteria for stocks for derivatives trading on account of corporate restructuring is as under: All the following conditions shall be met in the case of shares of a company undergoing restructuring through any means for eligibility to reintroduce derivative contracts on that company from the first day of listing of the post restructured company/(s) (as the case may be) stock (herein referred to as post restructured company) in the underlying market,

The Futures and options contracts on the stock of the original (pre restructure) company were traded on any exchange prior to its restructuring;

The pre restructured company had a market capitalisation of at least Rs.1000 crores prior to its restructuring; the post restructured company would be treated like a new stock and if it is, in the opinion of the exchange, likely to be at least one-third the size of the pre restructuring company in terms of revenues, or assets, or (where appropriate) analyst valuations;


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In the opinion of the exchange, the scheme of restructuring does not suggest that the post restructured company would have any characteristic (for example extremely low free float) that would render the company ineligible for derivatives trading.

II. If the above conditions are satisfied, then the exchange takes the following course of action in dealing with the existing derivative contracts on the pre-restructured company and introduction of fresh contracts on the post restructured company In the contract month in which the post restructured company begins to trade, the Exchange introduce near month, middle month and far month derivative contracts on the stock of the restructured company.

In subsequent contract months, the normal rules for entry and exit of stocks in terms of eligibility requirements would apply. If these tests are not met, the exchange shall not permit further derivative contracts on this stock and future month series shall not be introduced.


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The maximum brokerage chargeable by a trading member in relation to trades effected in the contracts admitted to dealing on the F&O segment of NSE is fixed at 2.5% of the contract value in case of index futures and stock futures. In case of index options and stock options it is 2.5% of notional value of the contract [(Strike Price + Premium) * Quantity)], exclusive of statutory levies. The transation charges payable to the exchange by the trading member for the trades executed by him on the F&O segment are fixed at the rate of Rs. 2 per lakh of turnover (0.002%) subject to a minimum of Rs. 1,00,000 per year. However for the transactions in the options sub-segment the transaction charges are levied on the premium value at the rate of 0.05% (each side) instead of on the strike price as levied earlier. Further to this, trading members have been advised to charge brokerage from their clients on the Premium price(traded price) rather than Strike price. The trading members contribute to Investor Protection Fund of F&O segment at the rate of Re. 1/per Rs. 100 crores of the traded value (each side).


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National Securities Clearing Corporation Limited (NSCCL) undertakes clearing and settlement of all trades executed on the futures and options (F&O) segment of the NSE. It also acts as legal counterparty to all trades on the F&O segment and guarantees their financial settlement.

The clearing mechanism essentially involves working out open positions and obligations of clearing (self-clearing/trading-cum-clearing/professional clearing) members. This position is considered for exposure and daily margin purposes. The open positions of CMs are arrived at by aggregating the open positions of all the TMs and all custodial participants clearing through him, in contracts in which they have traded. A TM's open position is arrived at as the summation of his proprietary open position and clients' open positions, in the contracts in which he has traded. While entering orders on the trading system, TMs are required to identify the orders, whether proprietary (if they are their own trades) or client (if entered on behalf of clients) through 'Pro/ Cli' indicator provided in the order entry screen. Proprietary positions are calculated on net basis (buy - sell) for each contract. Clients' positions are arrived at by summing together net (buy - sell) positions of each individual client. A TM's open position is the sum of proprietary open position, client open long position and client open short position.


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All futures and options contracts are cash settled, i.e. through exchange of cash. The underlying for index futures/options of the Nifty index cannot be delivered. These contracts, therefore, have to be settled in cash. Futures and options on individual securities can be delivered as in the spot market. However, it has been currently mandated that stock options and futures would also be cash settled. The settlement amount for a CM is netted across all their TMs/clients, with respect to their obligations on MTM, premium and exercise settlement.

Futures contracts have two types of settlements, the MTM settlement which happens on a continuous basis at the end of each day, and the final settlement which happens on the last trading day of the futures contract.

MTM settlement: All futures contracts for each member are marked-tomarket(MTM) to the daily settlement price of the relevant futures contract at the end of each day. The profits/losses are computed as the difference between: • The trade price and the day's settlement price for contracts executed during the day but not squared up. • The previous day's settlement price and the current day's settlement price for brought forward contracts. • The buy price and the sell price for contracts executed during the day and squared up.

Settlement prices for futures

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Daily settlement price on a trading day is the closing price of the respective futures contracts on such day. The closing price for a futures contract is currently calculated as the last half an hour weighted average price of the contract in the F&O Segment of NSE. Final settlement price is the closing price of the relevant 99 underlying index/security in the capital market segment of NSE, on the last trading day of the contract. The closing price of the underlying Index/security is currently its last half an hour weighted average value in the capital market segment of NSE.


Options contracts have three types of settlements, daily premium settlement, exercise settlement, interim exercise settlement in the case of option contracts on securities and final settlement.

Daily premium settlement
Buyer of an option is obligated to pay the premium towards the options purchased by him. Similarly, the seller of an option is entitled to receive the premium for the option sold by him. The premium payable amount and the premium receivable amount are netted to compute the net premium payable or receivable amount for each client for each option contract.

Exercise settlement

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Although most option buyers and sellers close out their options positions by an offsetting closing transaction, an understanding of exercise can help an option buyer determine whether exercise might be more advantageous than an offsetting sale of the option. There is always a possibility of the option seller being assigned an exercise. Once an exercise of an option has been assigned to an option seller, the option seller is bound to fulfill his obligation (meaning, pay the cash settlement amount in the case of a cash-settled option) even though he may not yet have been notified of the assignment.

Interim exercise settlement
Interim exercise settlement takes place only for option contracts on securities. An Investor can exercise his in-the-money options at any time during trading hours, through his trading member. Interim exercise settlement is effected for such options at the close of the trading hours, on the day of exercise. Valid exercised option contracts are assigned to short positions in the option contract with the same series (i.e. having the same underlying, same expiry date and same strike price), on a random basis, at the client level. The CM who has exercised the option receives the exercise settlement value per unit of the option from the CM who has been assigned the option contract.

Final exercise settlement
Final exercise settlement is effected for all open long in-the-money strike price options existing at the close of trading hours, on the expiration day of 100 an option contract. All such long positions are exercised and automatically

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assigned to short positions in option contracts with the same series, on a random basis. The investor who has long in-the-money options on the expiry date will receive the exercise settlement value per unit of the option from the investor who has been assigned the option contract

The trading of derivatives is governed by the provisions contained in the SC(R)A, the SEBI Act, the rules and regulations framed there under and the rules and bye–laws of stock exchanges.

SC(R)A aims at preventing undesirable transactions in securities by regulating the business of dealing therein and by providing for certain other matters connected therewith. This is the principal Act, which governs the trading of securities in India. The term “securities” has been defined in the SC(R)A. As per Section 2(h), the ‘Securities’ include: 1. Shares, scrips, stocks, bonds, debentures, debenture stock or other marketable securities of a like nature in or of any incorporated company or other body corporate. 2. Derivative


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3. Units or any other instrument issued by any collective investment scheme to the investors in such schemes. 4. Government securities 5. Such other instruments as may be declared by the Central Government to be securities. 6. Rights or interests in securities. “Derivative” is defined to include: · A security derived from a debt instrument, share, loan whether secured or unsecured, risk instrument or contract for differences or any other form of security. A contract which derives its value from the prices, or index of prices, of underlying securities. Section 18A provides that notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, contracts in derivative shall be legal and valid if such contracts are: · Traded on a recognized stock exchange

SEBI Act, 1992 provides for establishment of Securities and Exchange Board of India(SEBI) with statutory powers for (a) protecting the interests of investors in securities (b) promoting the development of the securities market and (c) regulating the securities market. Its regulatory jurisdiction extends over corporates in the issuance of capital and transfer of securities, in addition to all intermediaries and persons associated

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with securities market. SEBI has been obligated to perform the aforesaid functions by such measures as it thinks fit. In particular, it has powers for: Regulating the business in stock exchanges and any other securities markets. Registering and regulating the working of stock brokers, sub–brokers etc. Promoting and regulating self-regulatory organizations. Prohibiting fraudulent and unfair trade practices. Calling for information from, undertaking inspection, conducting inquiries and audits of the stock exchanges, mutual funds and other persons associated with the securities market and intermediaries and self–regulatory organizations in the securities market. Performing such functions and exercising according to Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956, as may be delegated to it by the Central Government.

SEBI set up a 24- member committee under the Chairmanship of Dr. L. C. Gupta to develop the appropriate regulatory framework for derivatives trading in India. On May 11, 1998 SEBI accepted the recommendations of the committee and approved the phased introduction of derivatives trading in India beginning with stock index futures. The provisions in the SC(R)A and the regulatory framework developed there under govern trading in securities. The amendment of the SC(R)A to include derivatives within the ambit of ‘securities’ in the SC(R)A made trading in derivatives possible within the framework of that Act.

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1. Any Exchange fulfilling the eligibility criteria as prescribed in the L. C. Gupta committee report can apply to SEBI for grant of recognition under Section 4 of the SC(R)A, 1956 to start trading derivatives. The derivatives exchange/segment should have a separate governing council and representation of trading/clearing members shall be limited to maximum of 40% of the total members of the governing council. The exchange would have to regulate the sales practices of its members and would have to obtain prior approval of SEBI before start of trading in any derivative contract. The Exchange should have minimum 50 members. The members of an existing segment of the exchange would not automatically become the members of derivative segment. The members of the derivative segment would need to fulfill the eligibility conditions as laid down by the L. C. Gupta committee. The clearing and settlement of derivatives trades would be through a SEBI approved clearing corporation/house. Clearing corporations/houses complying with the eligibility conditions as laid down by the committee have to apply to SEBI for grant of approval. Derivative brokers/dealers and clearing members are required to seek registration from SEBI. This is in addition to their registration as brokers of existing stock exchanges. The minimum networth for clearing members of the derivatives clearing corporation/house shall be Rs.300 Lakh. The networth of the member shall be computed as follows: Capital + Free reserves Less non-allowable assets viz.,

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• • • • • • • • •

Fixed assets Pledged securities Member’s card Non-allowable securities(unlisted securities) Bad deliveries Doubtful debts and advances Prepaid expenses Intangible assets 30% marketable securities

The minimum contract value shall not be less than Rs.2 Lakh. Exchanges have to submit details of the futures contract they propose to introduce. The initial margin requirement, exposure limits linked to capital adequacy and margin demands related to the risk of loss on the position will be prescribed by SEBI/Exchange from time to time. The L. C. Gupta committee report requires strict enforcement of “Know your customer” rule and requires that every client shall be registered with the derivatives broker. The members of the derivatives segment are also required to make their clients aware of the risks involved in derivatives trading by issuing to the client the Risk Disclosure Document and obtain a copy of the same duly signed by the client. The trading members are required to have qualified approved user and sales person who have passed a certification program approved by SEBI


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Way2Wealth is a premier Investment Consultancy Firm, launched with the aim of making investing simpler, more understandable and profitable for the investors. Way2Wealth brings a wide range of product offerings from Equity and Derivatives (NSE), Fixed Income Securities, Insurance (Life & Non-Life), Mutual Funds to Portfolio Management Services for the convenience and benefit of it customers. Way2Wealth today has over 60 easily accessible ‘Investment Outlets’ spread across 25 major towns and cities in India.

Origin of the Company
Sivan Securities started in 1984, has a long and illustrious track record of being amongst the premier Financial Intermediaries in the country as well as being an incubator for IT start-up firms. The Venture Capital division came to be known as ‘Global Technology Ventures -GTV’ and the Financial Intermediary Division was spun off as ‘Way2Wealth’ in the year 2000.


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the years, Way2Wealth has developed a strong reputation for navigating its

investors through all the ups and downs in the market. Way2Wealth has inherited these same values in addition to a base of 100,000 individual customers, over 500 corporate/institutional clients.

The Logo
Blue symbolizes Knowledge. Knowledge is limitless, so is the sky and sea, both of which are blue in color. Knowledge applied leads to creation of wealth for our Investors. Red symbolizes Trust. Red is the color of blood and the heart. Trust is a matter of the heart. Our knowledge bears fruit only when the investor places his Trust in us. Yellow symbolizes Excitement and Involvement of the investor. We strive to make investing an exciting and involving experience for our investors. Green symbolizes Growth. Growth in Nature is visible in the form of plants and trees; all of which are green. Knowledge, Trust and Excitement should ultimately lead to Growth of the investors’ wealth.

Founder of Sivan Securities: Mr. V.G. Siddhartha - Chairman
He is the visionary behind Way2Wealth and the founder of Sivan Securities. He has been involved in the Indian Capital Markets since 1984. During his early years of his worklife he has spent valuable years with J.M. Morgan Stanley, this experience stood him in

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good stead when he became a successful investor. Having a Masters in Economics from Mangalore University, he is an avid reader and traveler with a yen for creating companies and brands. Mr. Siddhartha’s business interests spreads across Coffee retailing, Plantations, Real estate, Venture Capital and Financial Services.

Group Companies

It has provided venture capital to companies such as Keshena Technologies, Mind Tree, and Ivega etc.GTV today is the Billion$ company, partners with exceptional entrepreneurs, who have a gut for the original, and are passionately dedicated to building category-leading tech companies. Investing in technology ventures across all stages, GTV provides access to capital and resources to companies with global market leadership potential.

India’s largest coffee conglomerate and coffee exporter.

India’s first concept café’s ‘Café Coffee Day’, a chain of youth hangout coffee parlours. From a handful of cafés in six cities in the first 5 Years, ‘Café


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Coffee Day’ has today become India’s largest and premier retail chain of cafes with 483 cafes in 84 cities around the country

Services and solutions that cater to the retail and institutional investors at large that encompass primary and secondary market instruments: 1. Equity Trading 2. Derivatives Trading 3. Commodities Trading 4. Distribution Services: IPO’s, Mutual Funds and Fixed Income products 5. Advisory services: Asset Allocation Planning and End to end personalized investment management services for Wealth Generation, Retirement Planning and Capital Build up at different stages of life. 6. Wealth Management Services: Portfolio Management Services 7. Online Services & Tools - Online Trading, Portfolio tracking in-depth research reports and much more. 8. Insurance Marketing – Life and Non-Life Plans 9. In-house Research & Analytics 10. Depository Services

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11. Tax planning


Personalized Investment Solutions: All their customers receive individual

Full choice of Investments: Mutual funds, Life Insurance, Fixed Income
Instruments, Equity and Derivatives

Processing support: They take care of all your paper work and provide
service at your doorstep.

Investor eligibility criteria: Customers with a minimum investment amount
as low as Rs. 5000 per month can avail the services.This unique Way2Wealth concept can be easily experienced through the innovative and customer friendly network of 60 Investment outlets that spans 25 major towns and cities in the country. In addition to the national branch infrastructure,

Way2Wealth also has an online presence to enhance its value proposition to its customers. • • • Established Brand – 20+ years in the financial services industry Rich pedigree - part of the billion$ ‘Global Technology Ventures (GTV)’ group Top quality management – having a combined experience of 100+ years in the financial services industry • Network of 60 full service branches covering 25 Indian cities / towns
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• • • • • •

Reputed Research Desk for Fundamental & Technical analysis Structured product offering for HNI & Corporate clients 100,000+ client acquaintances (30,000+ satisfied retail relationships) Over 3000+ channels partners 750+ wealth managers across the country Dedicated ‘PEG & PCG Desk’ for servicing HNI clients

Exclusive ‘Corporate Advisory Desk’ catering to key corporate clients.

Advisory Services:-A) Mutual Fund Advisory Services: “Sound Investment Advice, backed by incisive analysis” Research is the fundamental basis of all sound investment decisions and superior research allows us to deliver superior solutions. WAY2WEALTH are backed by indepth research generated by top-drawer research team As a part of its Mutual Fund Advisory Services, its team of experts across India helps its customers in selecting the right scheme from over 500 offerings, matching customers needs, goals and risks. In addition to this, company also help clients constantly monitor their MF portfolio, making changes according to their changing

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needs as per the market scenario, in order to make their money work for them. At WAY2WEALTH, the expert teams of relationship managers interact with the customers on a regular basis to discern their changing needs, in tune with the changing environment. Most of them require some assistance in making selections appropriate to their individual needs. WAY2WEALTH Advisory Team helps the clients in customization and execution of plans, based on their individual needs towards wealth maximization.

Portfolio Management Services (PMS):
Financial markets today offer enormous growth potential. But managing client’s own investments can be an extremely challenging task. Anticipating market trends, assessing the impact of socio-economic changes on customers’ investments, keeping abreast of latest corporate developments and financial analysis all adds up. Managing one’s investments has become nearly a full-time affair that requires considerable time and expertise. WAY2WEALTH offers its customers just the solution that allows them to relax as they put their money to work through the WAY2WEALTH, a Discretionary Portfolio Management Service.


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IPO Advisory & Distribution Services:
WAY2WEALTH offers numerous channels to access its customer’s world of finances. It is present across India through over 300 offices spread across almost every Indian state. Its clients can also access its online services through the website of company Or call, its customer service desk through the toll free help line numbers. WAY2WEALTH is one of India's leading companies engaged in the activity IPO Advisory and Distribution. Its primary markets division does a comprehensive research before recommending issues to clients. Its pan India reach helps it in mobilizing large number of applications across India during public offerings; this has ensured that it is constantly figure amongst the top ranking performers in the primary market distribution space. As a part of its online offering, customers can invest in IPO's not only through its branches but also through its website, which also provides the clients with regular updates on the IPO scenario, Open IPO's as well as all the forthcoming IPO's at any given point of time.


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Daily Feature - Daily Trading Bites, Post Market Commentary Equity Research- Investment Ideas Daily Feature, Industry Updates , Currency Special Reports Weekly Report , Result Updates , Special Reports ,Monthly Report , Monthly Market Review , IPO Analysis, Trading Pick

Derivative Research-Investment Ideas Daily Feature, Industry Updates, Trading

Commodity Research- Special Report, Weekly Technical Report Mutual Funds -MF Outlook, Fund Snapshot Wealth Compass- Investor’s Monthly Magazine - Jun 09 ,Weekly Globanomics
Coverage, Special Report


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• It is suggested that like foreign countries the derivatives trading is to be conducted through separate exchange

Index option and stock futures is not at all popular among investors. So it is recommended to take due action to make them more popular.

Provide the trader with knowledge ,training , advantages of the this system which is required to increase the number of participants

Exchanges should work in order to reduce this fear and encourage the public to invest more and reap benefit. So it is suggested that the investors be motivated to invest

It was suggested that options are the best alternative for the market because of risk liability being less in the brokers should take initiative to give in proper insights to investors who invest in shares, to invest in option

It is found that most of the investors want a return of 15-35% on their investment. So when they expect such high returns, it is recommended they thoroughly study


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the market and if possible take professional or brokers help before deciding on the investment. • It is also seen that though most of the investors are aware of derivatives they do not use it effectively by hedging at right time and avoiding risks. So it is suggested that with the help of professionals, investors should learn the advantages of hedging and to hedge at right time so as to minimize risk and reap better benefits.

Number of financial service providers are also increasing in number so the authorities should have a proper security measures and should keep a watch on them.


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After a detail study on derivative market in India as compared to other foreign markets is still in the developing stage. The volume trading is increasing in a slow pace from year to year.

The trading mechanisms are also being standardized and all trading processes are regulated. The brokers being integral part of the market play a very important role in efficient functioning of the market.

The awareness of investors towards derivatives seems to have increased, but most of the investors still hesitate to trade in derivatives. This may me due to lack of proper knowledge about usefulness of derivatives in hedging the risk.

There is necessity to take appropriate steps to popularize derivatives trading in India and increase the awareness of investors about derivatives, so that investors can hedge risk appropriately and reap better returns.

Financial services provided with client centric and clear focus on providing long term value addition to clients is maintaining high standards of excellent ethics and professionalism. And also provide with advisory and training facilities

Financial services providers are increased in number and FII also play a major role in derivative market.


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(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Indian Securities Market Review, National Stock Exchange NSENEWS, National Stock Exchange (F &O segment) of NSE & NSCCL Understanding futures markets by Robert W. Kolb http://www.derivativesindia.com http://www.derivatives-r-us.com . http://www.nseindia.com . http://www.rediff/money/derivatives http://www.sebi.gov.in


(vii) (viii) (ix)


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