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v

{ & u Bsk
uSv - I
TPp UmThdu TkWu
AlTPp jRlThP
RrS AW
CXYNl TPp YZem
hPjur YPlThP
(tT]d Au)

wsh J a\
wsh J [S
wsh uzu \

u|mk
h PP

Pa \, \&600 006.
i

u|k A_
u v - 2004
vzv v - 2007

Sz u ]

hUh . _o

v ] (Retd.)
{U P (um]) \ - 600 005.

UXnY[oLs

XVoLs

PdPo, , xQoj.

PdPo, Gv,, ]h kRWm.

PdPo, Gm, LkRN.

PdPo, Bo, WUx

YVp TWVo,
UXd Lp (Ru]h)
Nu] - 600 005.

TWVo Utm \j RXYo


LU YVp\
Nu]l TpLXdLZLm
Nu] - 600 025.

PdPo, Gm, TZfN.

YVp TWVo,
AiQUXl TpLXdLZLm
AiQUXSLo - 608 002

YVp X WV[o
TWRNu TpLXdLZLm
fWlTs - 620 024

U, , _VW

YVp TWVo
AiQ TpLXdLZLm
Nu] - 600 025.

X YVp BVo,
Gv..K.H. Uhd UXlTs
Nu] - 600 001.

PdPo, _, NkR]Xx

PdPo, Gv, Uou vTu

TWVo
CVtVp YVp \
Nu]l TpLXdLZLm
Nu] - 600 025.

, , _nNeLo

YVp WV[o
Gu.Gu.AWd LXdLp
Tu] - 601 204.

X YVp BVo
.Gv.I. Tu Uhd UXl Ts
rlTdLm, Nu] - 600 010.

PdPo, L, NjVSWVQu.
X YVp BVo,
vPuv BeX-CkVu
UXlTs, LVmjo-18

PdPo, Gm, Bo, W_Xh.

: .

X YVp BVo
NhS jVvWm,
Nu] - 600 028.

h[P u : u|k A_UPP U P CUPP, u|k.

C 60 .G.G. u Aa]hmkx.
B\m Aa]mh:

ii

LW
Gek YVp YkR ? URX YWXt\ BnkRp, UdLs
ReL[f t AUkR XL AYRt Lm WUlThPoLs. AVu
J Y], YVu Xm XLjR EYdm TsLs TtV
LjLs Ttm AVlThP]. AUhUpX TsLs Noks[
LsL[l Ttm AVlThP]. TiPdLX WdL RjYOLs
Tu RuUVl Tt ReLdL EjR] LsLL[d
LikR]o. AdLs GuTY, TP VR ThLs Gu\
LjPVYoL[n CkR]o. CYoLu LjLs, TsLu RtLXjV
ThLu AUlL[ Nt\ TkYRLd L]m, TZeLX
WdLoLu TmTX] LjLuT, YVp AekRu
BWmjR Gu EiUVLd \ V.
WNYRm GuT AVp Bn, U\ Ts Bn Tu\ LXYVL
v, N], GlT Utm AWV Tu\ SLk Tt\Y G]d
LRXm. AdLXjp EY] CkR WNYRd LsL, C\Yj RuUV
WNYLs AkYRtV SnL[ RWR RuUm, EXLeL[ Utm
oUm (Elixir of life) Utm Uld \kR EXLeL[ ReLUL Utm
"RjY OLu Lp' (Philosophers stone) BVYt\d LiPYm
NjRlThP]. CYVpXm SPT\ VR NVpLs GuT Cu\V
Sp L]m, CWNYLs CkR BnL[ 2000 BiL[L
RPokR]o. CYtp RjYd Lp Utm Sn odm EXL Utm
oUm BVYt\ u]oLs L]Lp, J X LjdLs
LiPVlThP].
T]hPm t\iu p, BiP U, XYnVo Utm _u
PpPu BV YpX]oLu Ltu YVp RjYm Utm Tu
AjRuU Tu\ AV LilLu JlVo EZl RtLX
"u]t\U] YVd' jhP. TjRuTRm t\ip YVp
tTu]oLu RPofV] EZl]p, TpY RUeLdm,
AYLdPV HtTm ]j\u RPoLs Lt\VlThP].
pVU] EnjQo Utm NV] NR]Lu YL SPjRlThP
AmTm L] EZlu [YL, Sm RtNUVm TmTm TVuTj
Ym "RU YN AhPYQ' GkR. CY YVp EXLjp J

iii

JeLm u]o AY YVp tTu]oLs TZeLX LsLL[


uTt\Up CdLm J V GfV HtTjV.
RtLX u]V NLm, YVp tTu]oLs, SnL[d
QlTjm UkLs, fLpLs, SpX [fNXj Rm EWeLs,
ASL Rll ThL[ EYdm Yl ThLs BVYL[
EYdL CTjVWm t\ip GoTod\. C UhUpX, GqY
J Ts CVe\ Utm tl\m, UTjL[p UTPUp GqY
TLdLlT\ Gu\ dV LjdLd, Lt\p TXu ARXm
CfNLm GoTod\. AoxPYNUL YVp GpXYttm RkR
TpL[m Lis[.
G]Y L YLUL u] Y[ok Ym YVp, \ GpX
Ldm [dLm R\. Am EoYr ThLp Lm
AtReLdm PL[j Ru\.
G]Y Ckp, ""RV Lp BWnf Utm Tt'' (NCERT)
GoTolT Jhm, jV TPjhPju Tm GRlThP. JqY
TPju Cm RWlThs[ ]dLs, U ]dL[m. HW[U]
Ru Ulh] YlTjm NV]Yt\ RokR, LhP CPjR
Wl, Ld V PLs, RuUPV ]dLs A]j TPeLm
RWlThs[].
Rot UQYoLs ReL[ RVo Nnm T Ru
UlhtLL RWlThs[ ]dLs/LQdLs UhU
SmVdLd P. TP p YRm RV GkRR
]dLdm LQdLdm o Lm YLp ReL[
RVoTjdLs[ Yim.
JqY TPjm RWlThdm "Lt\u LhTLs' TPeL[
AYp FdLm HtTjm.
YVu LjdL[l Tt Um ASL RLYpL[ Am Th
RkR UtToY pLm RWlThs[].
Dr. V. TXlWUVu
j RXYo
(jV TPjhPd (YVp)
Utm XI Bm Yl
YVp TPm Gm )
iv

11 Bm Yl - YVp
TPjhPm R - I
LU YVp
AX 1 - YVp LQdLs

lPjRdL UlLs - SI AXLs - TUQeLs - GiL[


AVp AXLp GRp - AVp AXL[j RNU AXL[L
UtRp - LWQd \ - APoj Gi, BVYt]d LQdRp
- NUuTh GP LQdRp - AYLhW GiQ ARp - Up
LsL - LWTs, LWlTu Upu]m - U]d WUULm,
W] UXLm UtRp - NRR CV Utm TU]
TlTnk R YnlTh] APRp - R YnlThk
Xd YnlTh] LQdRp - Y CQ PpPu Ad
LsL - RXr R - PpPu Ad LtRd LsLm
ARu \TLs - Y Rf NUuTLs - Xd Yp Y
]L[f NUuNnRp - Bd_]t\m Bd_u JdLm (\jRp)
Bd_]t\ GiQd Li NUuNnRp - NUuThu AlTPp
LQdRp - \ / \ RPo - LWNpLu N]j Rdm
\ - TU] TlTnu RjY AlTPp LQdLs - J
RUju NU] \Tt LiPRp, BdN, [W, ahW_u
CPlTVof \p NU] \]d LiPRp - RUm, Utm
NoUju NU] \]d LQdRp - BVm LWTu
UXo \] AYLhWu LtRd LsLu AlTPp
LiPRp.
AX 2 - tfZp YVp
tjZp - UTRm, UTjLm - UTRu YLLs UTjLu YLLs - UTRdL] LWQeLs - UTRu
[Ls - tfZp UTRXj Rodm T Y\Ls.
AX 3 - EXLVp TtV TY] lLs
RdLm, LUeLm - , EoYr ThLs Utm LPpY
XeLs - BdN R, NpT R, LkRj R, LkRpXR R
v

BVYt\j nUlTjm \Ls - EXLVp \Ls - YjRp Bd_]t\m - Edl jRp - Bd_u JdLm - TUWdRp u]t Tl \, Y X nUVdLp \ Xm EXLeL[j
nUVdLp \ Xm EXLeL[j nUVdRp - CkVu
LU Y[m.
AX 4 - A AUl
A AUlu YWXt\ ALlTjRp - RoTo pvTu
AdLsLLu \TLs - A AUl Ttf NUopu [dLj
RPof - GXdhWu AUlm YiPm GiLm - BohPpLs s,
p Utm d BohPpLu YYeLs - GXdhWuLdL] YiPm
GiL[d lPp - T[u Rolj RjYm - aih - B@T
RjYm - BohPpLu Xlj RuU - GXdhWu AUl \
AlTPp RUeL[ YLlTRp.
AX 5 - BYojR] AhPYQ
BYojR] AhPYQu dV YWX - IUPAC BYojR]
AhPYQ - A Gi. 100 d Up Es[ RUeL[ IUPAC \p
TVRp - GXdhWu AUlm BYojR] AhPYQm - BYojR]
Ti - RUeLu WiThP BYojR] TiLs.
AX 6 - R 1 s - R RUeLs
ahW_u INPlLs RuUm, TVuLm - BojR ahW_u,
TW ahW_u - L] o - ahW_u TWdN - WY ahW_u J
GTs - LW EXLeLs - TY] TiLs - Yl TiLs BdN Utm ahWdNLu LWjRuU - jVm Utm NVjRl
jRjRp - TiLm TVuLm.
AX 7 - R 2 sR RUeLs
TY] TiLs - UdVm - LWUi EXLeLu NoUeLs.
AX 8 p R RUeLs
p R RUeLu TY] TiLs - R - 13. TWu
R - TWu dV RdLs - TW]l jRjRp, TiLs
- TWu NoUeLs - TWdv, TWuLs, PTWuLs, TWNp
vi

- RVjRp, TiLs - LoTu R - R 14 - LoTu \YtU


- WTh Utm YWju YY YT - LoTu Rp BdNLs,
LoTLs, aXLs Utm NpTLu CVtVp, YVp TiLs
- ShW_u - R - 15 - CVtLp Utm YVp \p
ShW_u - R - 15 - CVtLp Utm YVp \p ShW_u
XlTjRp - Shd AXm - BvYp \ - ShW_u Utm ARu
NoUeLu TVuLs - Bd_u - R - 16 - Xd Bd_u
dVjYm - Np GTs - \X Bd_dm, Xd
Bd_dm Es[ YT - BdNLu YLLs AX, LW SX
Utm TWdNLs - O3 RVjRp, TiLs Utm AUl - KNu
TPXjRl Tdm LWLs.

CVtVp YVp
AX 9 - P XU I
Pl ThLu YLLs - TL X, Ls X - AXd pXo LhLs - L]NW TL AUlp Es[ TLd Lu YLLs,
AX 10 - Y XU I
YdLu Su YL A[kRm TiLs - Y Ls Utm
SpVp Yf NUuT - R Gu\ Y Uu LQd - PpPu
T AjR - Wau TWRp - SpVp Xk
EiU YdLs Xf NpYRtL] LWQeLs - YiPo Ypu
NUuT - XU - RuU - _p RmNu [m, GoU YlTXm
- YdL[j WYUdRp - YdL[j WYUdm \Ls.
AX 11 - Yl Ql
Yl Ql TtV AlTP Ls - LNp - v \ GiU - Yl Qlu YLLs - AVl Ql - TL Bt\p,
Tou - aTo \ Xm TL Bt\Xd LQdPp - AVl Qlf
NoUeLu TiLs - NLY ]l - NLYl QltL] v
AUl - NLYl Qlf NoUeLu TiLs - T_uv Ls NLY Qlu ] Ls RuU - VSEPR U - CQ\u
Ql Xm NLY Ql] ARp - EPNu Lj]
[dRp - DRp Ql.

vii

AX 12 - RL No TiLs
RL No TiLs LjLs. CRu SdLm - B AjRd \l
- Wph - BvYp - YdLo \. ojR LWNu E\Xj
Rr - TdUu \ - ojR LWNu LX Ht\m - LhWp \
- Nq TWYp AjRm - Nq TWYp AjR Ls - Tod-aoh
\ - ANRWQ RL No TiLs.
AX 13 - YlT CVdLVp - I
YlT CVdLVp - SdLm - YlT CVdLVp Lm Af
Nt\PoLs - YlT CVdLVp TiLs - RuU - YlT CVdLVu
wV - YlT CVdLVu Rp - AL Bt\p - GuRp H Utm E CPV Es[ RPo - Rp u YnT - Rp
u LR YnlT - XU ] YlTm - EYRu ]
YlTm - GRu ] YlTm - SXVRu ] YlTm - Bt\u
TpY XeLs - \NW Bt\p XeLs.
AX 14 - Yf NUX - I
Yf NUXu SdLeLs - s] Utm [ ] - Yf
NUXu RuU - CVtVp Ut\eLu NUX - YVp Ut\eLp
NUX - Yf NUXdL] m, NUX Um - JTjR]
NUX - TXTjR] NUX.
AX 15 - Y] YLVp - I
SdLm - Y ]Lu YLm - ]YL m, ] YLjR
oQdmT - ]YL Vl TVuTj ]YLm LQdRp Y ]LdL] ]T GiQm, Xd Gim - ]YL
p TVuTm Ad GiLs TtV LQd - T GiQ
AlTPVLd Li ] YLjR YLlTjRp.

LU YVp
AX 16 - LU YVu AlPd LsLLs
LhU]j RuU - LUf NoUeLu YLTLs - ]T
NVpRLs - TVm \ - UtVm - LU ]Lu YLLs
- QlLu [ - GXdhWuLs LYo ThLs Utm LdLYo
ThLs - LoTVm AV, LoTu Go AV - CVe ElLs NLl Qlp GXdhWu CPlTVof.
viii

AX 17 - LUf NoUeL[j nUlTjRp


LUf NoUeLu RuULs - TLUdLp - u]l TLUdLp
TReLURp - Lnf YjRp - u]dLnf YjRp - WVp Lnf
YjRp - YiQl L \.
AX 18 - RUeL[d LiPRm A[Rm
LoTu Utm aW_]d LiPRp - ShW_]d LiPRp aX_uL[d LiPRp - LkRLjRd LiPRp - LoTu Utm
ahW_] A[Rp - ShW_] A[Rp - LkRLjR A[Pp aX_uL[ A[Rp.
AX 19 - ahW LoTuLs
ahW LoTuL[ YLlTjRp - IUPAC TVm\
BpLuLu XeLs - BpLuLu Tj RVl \Ls
CVtTiLs - YlTiLs - BpLuLu YYUlLs BpuLs BpuLu IUPAC \p TVRp - Tj RVl \Ls CVtVp TiLs - Yl TiLs - TVuLs - BpLuLs BpLuL[ IUPAC \p TVRp - TY] RVl \Ls CVtVpTiLs - Yl TiLs - TVuLs.
AX 20 - AWUhd ahW LoTuLs
AWUhd ahW LoTuLs - AWUhd ahW LoTuLu
IUPAC TVPp \ - Tuu LhPUl - Tuu Y[Vjp
TLu JLlTjm RuU - VTW A[p Tuu RVjRp
- Tuu Utm T YNL[j RVdm T\Ls - CVtVp
TiLs - Yl TiLs - TVuLs - Sf Utm tSn im
RuU.
AX 21 - LU aX_u NoUeLs
LU aX_u NoUeL[ YLlTjRp - BpLp aXLd
IUPAC \ TVRp - Tj RVl \Ls - TiLs - LdLYo
Th ] - dL ] - TVuLs - AWp aXLs - Tj
RVl \Ls - TiLs - TVuLs - AoApLp aXLs - AWp
aX, Ao ApLp aXLs JlRp - d]o ]l TVuLs
- RVl - Rl \ TVuLs.

ix

11 Bm YltV Nn\ Yp
I.

Wh. lTh Utm UPdLL[ (Logrithms) Tt Ak


Ls[ [dRp,

II.

NoUeLs RVl
1. TLUt\ LlTo NpTh LWNp Ck TL LlTo NpTh
RVjRp.
2. UoEl (TL ToWv AmUVm NpTh RVjRp)
3. Bvu RVjRp
4. AVPTom RVjRp
5. PhWuLlTo(II)NpTh RVjRp.

III. J So AV. J Go AV
rdLTYLk TiT TlTnRp,

BVYL[

So AVLs : Pb2+, Cu2+, Al3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+


Go AVLs : TWh, NpT, NpTh, LoT]h, ShWh,
[W, WU
IV. \kR EX EPV iUju EXV
LiPRp,
V.

RWm TojRp,

AX - LW RWm TojRp
1.

VU Bd^d AXm Utm NVm LoT]h LWNpL[ RVjRp.

2.

HCl Vs NaOH RWm TojRp.

3.

HCl Vs Na2CO3 RWm TojRp.

4.

Bd^d AXm Vs NaOH RWm TojRp.


x

hUP
AS Gs.

UP Gs.

LU YVp
1.

YVp LQdLs

2.

EXLVp TtV TY] lLs

46

3.

A AUl - I

61

4.

RUeL[ YLlTjRp - I

81

5.

R 1 sR RUeLs

113

6.

R 2 sR RUeLs

139

7.

pR RUeLs

153

CVtVp YVp
8.

P XU - I

185

9.

Y XU - I

205

xi

LU YVp

1, YVp LQdLs
Lt\u LhTLs

@ NUuTh GP] LiPm \ T\lTh, TX NoUeLu


NUuTh GP] ARp.
@ AYLhW GiQ k, u]o ARu dVjYjR EQoRp.
@ Up LsL Utm Wm AXL[ UpL[L Ut\m NnYR
k Ls[p.
@ R Utm Xd YnlTL[ ARp. R YnlThp Ck
Xd YnlTh] APm Y\L[ k Ls[p.
@ YRf NUuTL[l k Ls[p.
@ Xd Xp, NUuTh] NUu Nnm \L[ ARp.
@ JdLm Utm Bd_]t\m Tt k Ls[p.
@ Bd_]t\ GiQd Li, JdL Ht\ NUuTh] NUu
Nnm \] ARp.
1.1 Xd YnlTh GP (Formula Weight FW)

J NoUju Xd YnlThp Lm A]j AdLu


A \Lu hjRLV AfNoUju Xd YnlTh GP
Bm. A Xd\Lm CdLXm. ApX Xd CpXUm
CdLXm.
NVm [W, NaCl u YnlTh GP 58.44 amu Bm.
(NVju A GP 22.99 amu + [u A GP 35.45
amu)
NVm [W, AVL[n ClTRp, CR] NaCl Xd
GP Gu NpYp GkR EiUm PV. B]p AR NUVm,
Xd\P Utm YnlTh GP, Xd YnlThp Ck
T\lTu, CWiU NUm.
1

o LQd
A GP AhPYQ (AW) Vl TVuTj, uYY]Ytu
YnlTh GP]d LQd PL[ u dVjYm YnkR
GiLp l.
(a) [WTom CHCl3
(b) AVou(III)NpTh Fe2(SO4)3

o
(a) 1 AW of C

12.0 amu

1 AW of H

1.0 amu

3 AW of Cl = 3 35.45

106.4 amu

119.4 amu

CHCl3 u YnlTh GP

CkR P u dVm YnkR Gi Ult Ut\lT\. G]Y


P 119 amu.

(b) AVou(III)NpTh
2 Feu A GP

2 55.8 = 111.6 amu

3 Su A GP

3 32.1 = 96.3 amu

3 4 Ou A GP

12 16 = 192.0 amu

Fe2 (SO4)3 u YnlTh GP

399.9 amu.

CqP dVjY Gi ud Ut\lTm T 4.00 102


amu Pd\.

Tt LQdLs
rdLm NoUeLu YnlTh GPL[d LQdL.
(a) NO2

(b) Lv (C6H12O6)

(e) UjR]p (CH3OH)

(c) NaOH

(d) Mg(OH)2

(f) PCl3

(g) K2CO3

1.2 AYLhW Gi (NA )

12 (LoTu - 12) p Lm AdLu GidLV AYLhW


GiQm (CRu NA)
NTjV A[Ls, CkR Giu Ul 6.0221367 1023 Gu\
UlTj RkRRp, 6.023 1023 Gu dLlT\.
J Up Tp, AYLhW GidL Es[ XdLs
APes[]. J P_u hPLp 12 hPLs Es[]. J Wv
TupLs 144 TupLdf NUm Utm 1 Up GjR]p 6.023 1023
GjR]p XdLdf NUm.

dVjYm
SO2 u Xd \ 64g mol1. 64 g SO2 p 6.023 1023 SO2
XdLs Es[]. 2.24 102 m3, SO2 S.T.P Xp 6.023 1023
XdL[ Es[PdV.
CRl Tu\ CO2 u Xd \ 44 g mol1 44 g CO2 p
6.023 10 23 XdLs Es[]. S.T.P. p 2.24 10 2 m3 CO 2
6.023 1023 CO2 XdL[d Lis[.
1.3 Up LsL

J ]] LrjmT, TYL, Ap DTm AdLs


ApX XdLu GidLV AYp BoYm Cdm. UThP
]lThLu A ApX XdLu GidLV AYp
BoYm Cdm. X NUVeLp, UThP ]lThLu A ApX
XdLu lhP RjR Gjd Ls[ Yidm. (G.L.)
rdLm ]] Ljp LsL.
2 H2 + O2 2H2O
CkR ]p J Xd Bd_u C XdLs ahW_Pu
]d EhT\. G]Y ahW_u Utm Bd_u XdLu
Rm 2 : 1 G] AYVU\. G]YRu ]l ThLs YUL
]p DTm. B]p AdL[, XdL[ A[p V.
G]Y, JqYu\m RjRVL GiY GuT CVXR Ju\m.
G]Y, CkR CdLiLk TP, "Up LsL'
ALlTjRlThP. CdLsLuT, JqY Tp Lm
LsLu GidL AlTu \Pu RPo HtTjRlT\.
3

YWV\
LoTu-12 INPlp, 12 \p LQlTm LoTu AdLu
GidLdf NUU] A[ BRWj LsL[d Lis[ Tu
\V J Up G]lTm. ARY J Up A AYLhW
GidL AdL[d LiP.
J Up

= 6.023 1023 LsLs

J Up Bd_u Xd

= 6.023 1023 Bd_u


XdLs

J Up Bd_u A

= 6.023 1023 Bd_u


AdLs

J Up GjR]p

= 6.023 1023 GjR]p


XdLs

AVl ThLd AlTu YnlT AX GidLVl


Tj "Up' RPo TVuTjRlT\. GjdLhPL, J Up
NVm LoT]hp, (Na2CO3) 6.023 1023 AXLs Es[].
J Up Na2CO3- p 2 6.023 1023 Na+ AVLm 16.0231023
LoT]h CO32 AVLm Es[]. Up RP]l TVuTjm T,
Xd YnlTh]d lRp, RYRpL[j Rodm. G.L. J
Up Bd_u Ap (YnlT, O) 6.023 1023 Bd_u AdLs
E s [ ] . J U p B d _ u X d p (Y n T , O 2 )
6.023 1023 Bd_u XdLs ApX 2 6.023 1023 Bd_u
AdLs Es[].

UXo \
J Up Tu \V, ARu UXo \Vm. \ Utm
Up rdLm RPo] EPVY.
UXo \ =

\
Up

G.L. LoTu NV] UXo \ 12 /Up.


4

LQdLs
o LQdLs
1. Wm AXLp J [u Au, (Cl) \ Gu] ? Wm
AXp HCl AXju \ V ?

o
1. Cl u A\ 35.5 amu (AA), G]Y [u Au \
35.5 /Up (35.5 /Up), 35.5 . I 6.023 1023 Bp YdL
J [u \ Pd\.
J [u Au \

35.5

= 5.90 1023

6.023 1023
2. HCl u UXo \, H u A GPPu, Cl u A\]
h, T\lT\. ARY (1.01 + 35.5) amu (AA) = 36.5 amu.
G]Y 1 Up HCl, 36.5 HCl I Es[PdV.
J HCl Xdu \

36.5

= 6.06 1023

6.023 1023

Tt LQdLs
1. LpVm Ca, Au \], Wm AXLp LQd.
2. J GjR]p, C2H5OH Xdu \], Wm AXp LQd.
3. rLTYLp JqYuu \] (Wm AXp) LQd.
(a) Na A (b) S A (c) CH3Cl Xd (d) Na2SO3 YnT
AX

1.3.1 Up LQdLs
J Up Tu \]d LiPV C dV lL[
ARp AYVm.
(i) Tp, Lm Up GidLu \ GqY[ ?
(ii) RWlThP YnT AXp Es[ Up GidLp APes[
\ GqY[ ?
5

Cq LQdLm TlTnp AVlT\.


CYL[ [dYRt, GjR]p, (C2H5OH) Wm AXk
UpL[L Ut\lTYR Gjd LsYm. GjR]u UXo \
46.1 (), G]Y
1 Up C2H5OH = 46.1 () C2H5OH
G]Y, GjR]p, ARu Wm AXk UpLd Ut\m
NnVlTm.
YnT,

C2H5OH \
46.1 ()

Bm.

CRTu GjR]p UpL[, ARu Wm AXLd Ut\


TVuTY
46.1 ()
1 Up C2H5OH

Gu\ YnlTPm.

10.0 GjR]k Ahd AXm RVdLlT\. 10.0


GjR]p Es[ ARu UpL[d LQdL. uYU GP UpL[L
Ut\lT\.
10.0 C2H5OH

1 Up C2H5OH
46.1 C2H5OH

= 0.217 Up C2H5OH

1.3.2 ThLu UpL[, WmL[L Ut\m NnRp


o LQdLs
1. Zn I2, RUeLu SW ]Vp T\lTm NoUm. J YVXo
0.0654 Up ZnI2 EiPYRd LiPkRo. ARu \ V ?

o
Zn I2 u UXo \ 319 /Up (CRu YnlT \ 319 amu).
CkR Ul Zn Utm I2 A GPL[f Noj T\lThP.)
G]Y,
6

0.0654 Up ZnI2

319 ZnI2
1 Up ZnI2

= 20.9 g ZnI2

Tt LQdLs
1. H2O2 \Ut\ oUm. CRu NY] LWNp WdLh GT[
RVdm XUL TVuT\. ojR odLWNpLs J Ydm
T[L TVuT\. LWNX TlTn NnR T 0.909 Up
H2O2 1.00 L LWNp CkR. H2O2 u \ Gu] ?
2. Td AXm, H3BO3 Ko GV WjRlT]Lm LiL[ LYm
TVuT\. J Yp 0.543 Up H3BO3 Es[ Gp Td
AXju \ Gu] ?
3. CS2 \Ut\, Gp lTtd Lsm oUm. CfNoUm WVu,
NpXTu RVdLm TVuT\. J Yp, 0.0205 Up
CS2 Es[ Gp ARu \ Gu] ?

ThLu WmL[, UpL[L Utm \


Xh (II) WUh RVjR T 45.6 PbCrO4 PjR. Cp
Lm PbCrO4 UpLu GidLV LiP.
PbCrO4 u UXo \ 323 /Up
G]Y,

45.6 . PbCrO4 1 Up PbCrO4


323 . PbCrO4

= 0.141 Up PbCrO4

Tt LQdLs
1. Shd AXm, HNO3 J \Ut\, Adm oUm. ShW_u EWeLs
Utm Yl ThLs RVdLm TU[p TVuT\. WeL
Rp TVuTm J R V Yl ThL[ RVdm
NR]p 28.5 Shd AXm Yp Ft\lT\. Cp
Lm Up GidL GqY[ ?
2. uYY]Yts Es[ UpLu GidLVd LiP.
(a) 3.43 g of C (b) 7.05 g Br2 (c) 76g C4H10 (d) 35.4 g Li2 CO3
(e) 2.57 g As (f) 7.83 g P4 (g) 41.4 g N2H4 (h) 153 g Al2 (SO4)3
7

lhP \PV XdLp Lm UpLu


GidLV LQdRp
o LQd
3.46 g ahW_u [Wp, Es[ XdLu GidLVd
LQd.

l
RWlTm Tp Lm XdLu GidL, NoUju
UpLPu RPoPV. (1 Up HCl = 6.023 1023 HCl XdLs),
G]Y Rp HCl WmL[, UpLd Ut\m Nn. u]o UpL[,
Xd GidLd Ut\m Nn.

o
1 Up HCl
3.46g HCl
36.5 g HCl

6.023 1023 HCl XdLs


1 Up HCl

= 5.71 1022 HCl XdLs

Tt LQdLs
1. 56 mg HCN p GqY[ XdLs Es[] ?
2. uYY]Yt\d LQd.
(a) 43g NH3 p Lm XdLu GidL
(b) 32.0 g Br2 p Lm AdLu GidL
(c) 7.46 g Li p Lm AdLu GidL
1.4 NRR CV Utm TU] TlTnk
R YnlTh]d LQdPp

R YnlT ApX tlT\R YnT


""J NoUju R YnT GuT, AfNoUju J Xdp
APes[ TpY RUeLu AdLu GidLu dV
Rm Bm.''
8

TmTX] AVl ThLd, R YnT, AfNoUju


YnTPm. B]p Xd ThLd CqYpX. GjdLhPL,
NVm TWdNu AVf NoUjp Lm Na+ Utm O22 EshP
YnT Na2O2 Bm. CRu R YnT NaO. G]Y R YnT,
NoUjp Lm TpYThP AdLu RjRf Np\.

R YnThP GR LPdm TLs


RkR \Lu Xm, J NoUjp Es[ RUeLu NRR
CVLs LiPVlTu\]. CqY NLdLlThP, RLYpL[d Li
rdLm TLp, R YnT T\lT\.
(i) NoUeLp APes[ RUeLu R YnTh]d LQdP,
JqY RUju NRR CV], ARu A\Vp
YdLlTPp Yim. CdLQdhp Ck, NoUjp Lm TpY
RUeLu Jlh Rm T\lT\.
(ii) RtTp PjR DL[ Lf V DYp YdL Yim. CRu
Xm TpY RUeLu dLlThP Up Rm T\lT\.
(iii)CWiPm Tp PjR LQdL[ GiQLl T\ RkR
GiL[p Td.
(iv)Cp, JqY RUju h] G u\m Tp
PjR Gi] YX \jp ZhPL GRm. CY
CfNoUju dV R YnlTPm.

o LQd
J NoUjp Lm RUeLu NRR CV YU :
Mg = 9.76%, S = 13.01%, O = 26.01%, H2O = 51.22%, CfNoUju
dV Rm Gu] ? [Mg = 24, S = 32, O = 16, H = 1]

o
RUm

UpLu
GidL

GV
Rm

UdVm

dV
Gi Rm

9.76

9.76
= 0.406
24

0.406
=1
0.406

NpTo

13.01

13.01
= 0.406
32

0.406
=1
0.406

Bd_u

26.01

26.01
= 1.625
16

1.625
=4
0.406

51.22

51.22
= 2.846
18

2.846
=7
0.406

G]Y dV R YnT Mg SO4.7H2O.

Tt LQdLs
1. Bnu p, J Tp APes[ RUeLu NRR CV
rdLiPY AUkR. Na = 43.4%, C = 11.3%, O = 43.3%.
CfNoUju dV R YnlThPd LQd. (Na = 23,
C = 12, O = 16).
P : Na2CO3
2. uYm NRR CVTd Lis[ NoUju dV
YnT]d LQd. LoTu 80%, ahW_u, 20%. P : CH3
3. TlTnuT, PjR rdLm NRR CVL[d Lis[
NoUju dV R YnTh]d LQd. C - 54.54%,
H = 9.09%, 0 = 36.36%.
P : C2H4O.

1.4.1 R YnThk, Xd YnlTh]d LQdRp


J NoUju Xd YnT GuT, ARu dV R
YnThu Tdj RL Bm.

10

GjdLh
Ahu Xd YnT, C2H2, (CH)2 df NUm. CR]l
Tu\, Tuu Xd YnT C6H6, (CH)6 df NUm. G]Y,
Xd GP GuT, dV R YnThu J lhP UPeLm.
Xd YnlT, dV R YnlThp APes[ RUeLu
A GPLu hj RLp Ck T\lT\. G]Y GkR
Xd NoUjtm,
Xd GP = n dV R YnlThu GP
n GuT Xdp Es[ dV R YnlThu Gi UlTm.
n-u Ul, rdLm NUuThu Xm T\lT\.
Xd\P

n=

dV R YnlThu GP

Xd YnlTh] GR uTt\lTm TLs


(i)

dV R YnTh]d LQd.

(ii) dV R YnThp Es[ RUeLu A GPVd h,


dV R YnTh GP]d LiPL.
(iii) Xd\PV (RkR NR]u Xm T\lThP) dV
R YnTh GPVp Yj, n Gi T\lT\.
(iv) nu UlT, dV R YnThPu Td]p, NoUju
Xd YnT Pdm.

o LQd
J NoUjR TlTn NnRp uYm CV LiPVlThP.
C = 54.54%, H = 9.09%, O = 36.36%. CfNoUju B APoj 44
Bm. NoUju Xd YnTh]d LiP.

11

o
dV R YnThu LQd
RUm

UpLu
Jl Gi

dV Up dV
Rm
Gi Rm

54.54

54.54
= 4.53
12

4.53
=2
2.27

9.09

9.09
= 9.09
1

9.09
=4
2.27

36.36

36.36
= 2.27
16

2.27
=1
2.27

dV R YnT = C2H4O

Xd YnT LQd
dV R YnThu \ = 12 2 + 1 4 + 16 1 = 44
Xd \ = 2 B APoj
= 2 44 = 88
n=

Xd\P

88
=
dV R YnThu GP 44
Xd YnT

=2

dV YnT n = C2H4O 2

C4H8O2

2. J NoUjRl TlTn NnRp uYm CVLs AVlThP].


Na = 14.31% S = 9.97%, H = 6.22%, O = 69.5%, CfNoUjp Lm
GpX ahW_uLm Bd_] NokR Xp TL WV
XdL[L Es[]. CfNoUju Xd\ YnTh]d LQd.
CfNoUju Xd\P 322. [Na = 23, S = 32, H = 2, 0 = 16]

12

o : dV R YnThu LQd
RUm

UpLu
Jl Gi

dV Up dV
Rm
Gi Rm

Na

14.31

14.31
= 0.62
23

0.62
=2
0.31

9.97

9.97
= 0.31
32

0.31
=1
0.31

6.22

6.22
= 6.22
1

6.22
= 20
0.31

20

69.5

69.5
= 4.34
16

4.34
= 14
0.31

14

dV R YnT Na2SH20O14

Xd YnT LQd
dV R YnThu \ = (232)+32+(201)+(1614) = 322
n=

Xd \

322
=
dV R YnThu \ 322

=1

G]Y Xd YnT = Na2SH20O14


CfNoUjp A]j ahW_uLm H2O XdL[L Es[].
ARY 20 ahW_u AdLs NokR Xp CdL Yim G]Y
20 ahW_u AdLs, 10 Bd_u AdL[ Nok 10 Xd
TL o XdL[L Es[]. G]Y GgV (14 10 = 4) Bd_u
AdLs, NoUju GgV Tp Es[]. G]Y CNNoUju Xd
YnT Na2SO4.10H2O.

Tt LQdLs
1. J LUf NoUm, LoTu = 40.65%, ahW_u = 8.55% Utm
ShW_u = 23.7% BV NRR CVL[d Lis[. CRu
13

B APoj = 29.5. CfNoUju Xd YnT Gu] ?


(P : C2H5NO)
2. J NoUjp 32% LoTu, 4% ahW_u Utm GgV A[
Bd_]d Lis[. CRu B APoj = 75. CfNoUju
dV R YnT Utm Xd YnThP LQd.
(P : C2H3O3, C4H6O6)
3. J AXju Xd \ 104. CfNoUjp 34.6% LoTu,
3.85% ahW_u Utm GgV Bd_u. AXju Xd
YnTh]d LQd.
4. rdLm NRR CVL[ EPV NoUju dV R YnT
Gu] ? LoTu 80%, ahW_u 20%, CfNoUju Xd \
30 Gp, CRu Xd YnTh] LQdL.
1.5 NUu NnVlThP NUuTLs

NUu NnRp
J Y ]p DTm ]l ThLs Utm [ThLu
A[L[ LQdYR NUu NnRp Bm. J Y ]p DTm
]l ThLu Up GidLdm, [ ThLu Up
GidLdm Es[ RPoT AYR NUu NnRXm. J NUu
NnVlThP NUuT, J Y ]] dV AVp \p
lYRm.

NUu NnVlThP NUuTL[ GYp uTt\lTm Ls


(i) NVL NUu NnVlThP NUuTh] GR YiUp, ]d
EhTm ThLs, [kR A]j [ThLs Utm AYtu
Y YnTL[ AkP Yim.
(ii) Amdd CP\m ]l ThLu YnTL[ G
AYLdPV Sod CP Yim.
(iii) Amdu YXl\m, [kR [lThLu Y YnTLs
GRlTP Yim. Jud UtThP [ThLs Clu,
AYtdPV Sod CPlTPp Yim. CqY T\lThP
NUuT "NUu NnVlTPR NUuT' Gu AZdLlT\.
GjdLhPL, TVm [W Utm NVm NpTh
14

Y]dhTh, BaSO4 Utm NaCl BVYt\ RVdm


NUuT rYU GRlT\.
BaCl2 + Na2SO4 BaSO4 + NaCl
CfNUuT, "NUu NnVlThP NUuT ApX' TmTX] ]Lp
NUu NnVlTYpX.
GjdLhPL, Xh ShWh Rt Xh BdN, Utm
Bd_]j R\. CRtV NUu NnVlTPR NUuT YU :
Pb(NO3)2 PbO + NO2 + O2
(iv) "NUu NnVlTPR NUuThp', C \m, Lm LsLu
GidL Utm RuULm NUUt\Y.
(v) NUuTh], NUu Nnm T, ThLu YnTLs
Ut\lTPUp, XdLu GidL UhU RkRY
Ut\lTPXm.
(vi) dV TkR]L[V, YlTX, AjRm, ]YL Ut
RVYL[ Amdu UX ApX Z GRlTPp
Yim.
(vii) [Ts, YYL Clu UpSd AUm Amd ( )
VLm, rTYL ClTR rSd AUm Amd ()
VLm AR]Ru YnlTLd YX\m lP Yim.
(viii) A]j ]ThLs Utm [ThLs XdL[L
GRlTPp Yim. ahW_u, Bd_u, ShW_u, @u,
[u, Wu Utm AVu Tu\ RUeL[m H2, O2,
N2, F2, Cl2, Br2 Utm I2 Xd Xp GRlTP Yim.

1.5.1 Xd Yp Y]L[f NUu NnRp


J Yf NUuThp C\m Lm XdLu RuU Utm
GiLs NUUL CkRp, AY NNUu NnVlThP NUuT G]lTm.
Yf NUuThP NNUu NnV uTt\lTm TLs :

GjdLh 1
ahW_u, WPu CQk HBr Ij R\.
15

H2 + Br2 HBr
C NUu NnVlTPR NUuTPm. CPl\m C ahW_u AdLm,
YXl\m Jum Es[. G]Y HBr XdLs CWiPp YXl\m Jum
Es[. G]Y HBr XdLs CWiPp TdLlT\.
H2 + Br2 2HBr
CY NUu NnVlThP (A) NNUu NnVlThPf NUuTPm.

GjdLh 2
ThPVm ToUeL]h, HCl EPu ]t KCl Utm \
[ThL[j Ru\.
KMnO4 + HCl KCl + MnCl2 + H2O + Cl2
NUuThu YXl\m Utm CPl\jp J RUm JW J NoUjp
Uhm CkRp Rp AjRUm NUu NnVlTP Yim.
UtNu] uT, NUuThP NUu Nnm T uTt\lTm
YN K, Mn, O, (A) H B]p Cl ApX.
CPl\m
K

YXl\m

=1

Mn = 1

=4

G]Y NUuT rdLiPY U\.


KMnO4 + HCl KCl + MnCl2 + 4H2O + Cl2
ClT YXl\m Gh ahW_u AdLs ClTRp CPl\
NUuThp
8 HCl G] GR Yim.
KMnO4 + 8HCl KCl + MnCl2 + 4H2O + Cl2
CPl\m Es[ Gh [u AdLp, Ju KCl BLm, CWi
MnCl2 BLm, Ik [u AdL[Lm g Es[]. G]Y,
UtNu] NUuT uYU GRlT\.
16

KMnO4 + 8HCl KCl + MnCl2 + 4H2O + 5/2Cl2


NUuTLs Gi ReL[L GRlTP Yim. G]Y NUuT
Ym CWiPp TdL rdLiPY AU\.
2KMnO4 +16 HCl 2KCl + 2MnCl2 + 8H2O + 5Cl2

1.5.2 JdL-Ht\ ]Ls


(Bd_u JdLm - Bd_u Ht\m)
SU Au\P Yrp ASL NVp \L[ LiP\m.
(G.L.) EPLp \m URp, NUVd TVuTm GThL[V
UWm, L, NUVp Y BVY GRp Utm Cm ljRm, Au\Pm
SPTm NVpL[m. UtV GpX \Lm HRm J lhP
Y ]Lu YLVf Nok AUu\]. CqY AUm Y]
YLV Bd_u JdLm, Bd_]t\m ]Ls Bm.
TpY RVp \L[], uXm Rp, Al, Na Tu\
EXLeL[ jRjRp, NVm ahWdN RVdm \Ls
A]jU, Bd_u JdLUt\ ]L[ AlTPVLd Lis[].
uYd LXeLs Utm uT Rd LXeLs BV uLXeLs
JdL-Ht\ ]L[l uTtV Lru\].

Bd_]f NojRp ApX ahW_] dLp


Bd_]t\Um. ""ahW_] NojRp ApX Bd_] dLp
JdLUm.''
(G.L.) [dm ahW_u NpTdm CPV SPTm ].
Ht\m
H2S

Cl2

2HCl +

JdLm
UtV ]p ahW_u NpTp Ck H2 YV Cl2
Pu N\. G]Y H2S Bd_]t\jtm, Cl2 JdLjtm
EhT\.

17

Bd_]t\m, Bd_u JdLm TtV GXdhWu LsL


GXdhWu LsLuT, ""J Y]p DTm A, Ju
ApX ARt UtThP GXdhWuL[ CZkRp, Bd_]t\m Bm.''
CqY HtTm GXdhWu CZl, AlTsLu Up SouhPjR
ALjm, Go uhPjR \dLm Nnu\].
(G.L.)

Fe2+ Fe3+ + e (SouhPm ALjRp)


Cu Cu2+ + 2e (SouhPm ALjRp)

]Lp CqY GXdhWuL[ CZdm ThLs, Jdm


ThLs ApX JdL[m. UtV ]Lp Fe2+ Utm Cu
Jdm ThL[m.

JdLm
J Y]p Te Tm A ApX A RLs Ju
ApX ARt UtThP GXdhWuL[ Ttd LiPp AY JdLm
Bm. CqY GXdhW]l TYRp ClThLu Up Es[ So
uhPm \km, Go uhPm ALdLm Nn\.
(G.L.)

Fe3+ + e Fe2+ (SouhPm \Rp)


Zn2+ + 2e Zn (SouhPm \Rp)

]Lp, GlThLs GXdhWuL[ Htu\]Y AY


Bd_]t\ ThLs ApX Bd_]tVm. UtLm ]p
Fe3+ Utm Zn2+ Bd_]tL[m.

Bd_]t\ Gi ApX Bd_]t\ X


J Xdp, \ GpX AdLm AVL[L YVV u,
Au s[ GgV uhPU, RUju Bd_]t\ Gi Bm.
AdLs, AYLu NokR XL[l Tj, wVm, Go ApX
So Bd_]t\ GiL[l Tu\].

Ko Au Bd_]t\ GiQ oQdm Ls


1. J RU A ApX RU Xdtp Lm At
Bd_]t\ Gi wVUm. He jp Es[ He u Bd_]t\
18

Gi = 0 Cl2 p Lm [u Bd_]t\ Gi = 0.
2. Jt\ A AVd ARu Es[ u U ARuBd_]t\
Gidf NUUL Cdm.
3. GpX NoUeLm @[u Bd_]t\ Gi - 1 BL
AU\.
4. TYL GpX NoUeLm ahW_u Bd_]t\ Gi + 1
Bm. B]p NaH. MgH2, CaH2, LiH Tu\ EXL ahWLp
ahW_u Bd_]t\ Gi -1 Bm.
5. GpX NoUeLm Bd_u Bd_]t\ Gi 2 Bm. Gm
H2O2. BaO 2, Na 2O2 Tu\ To Bd^Lp Bd_u
Bd_]t\ Gi 1 Bm. CR Tu\ Xd @[u
Utm Bd_u NoUeL[V OF2 Utm O2F2 NoUeLp \V
Bd_u Bd_]t\ Gi +2 Utm +1 Bm.
6. SX XdLp Es[ GpX AdLu Bd_]t\ Gi
hj RL wVUm. TX AdLs APeV K AVp
Lm GpX AdLu Bd_]t\ GiLu hj RL
AVu Up Es[ u Ud NUUm.
7. C RU EXL, AXL NoUeLp EXL A So Bd_]t\
GiQm AXL A Go Bd_]t\ GiQm Tu\].
G.L. KI p K u Bd_]t\ Gi +1 BLm, I u Bd_]t\
Gi 1 BLm AU\.
8. C AXL Af NoUeLp AL GXdhWu LYo RuU Es[
A, Go Bd_]t\ GiQm, \kR GXdhWu LYo RuU
Es[ A So Bd_]t\ GiQm Tt Cdm.
(G.L.) ClF3 NoUjp Cl d So (+3) Bd_]t\ Gim, ICl
NoUjp Cl d Go (1) Bd_]t\ Gim AUks[].

LQd
uYY]Yts LhP RUeLu Bd_]t\ GiL[d
LQdL.
CO2, Cr2O72, Pb3O4, PO43

19

o
1. LoTu P BdNp Es[ LoTu
LoTu Bd_]t\ Gi x GuL. JqY Bd_u Bd_]t\
Gi = 2. G]Y GpX AdLu Bd_]t\ GiLu hjRL
wVjt NUm. x + 2 (2) x 4 = 0 x = + 4.

2. Cr2O72 p Lm WVm (Cr)


(i) Cr- ju Bd_]t\ Gi = x
(ii) JqY Bd_u Bd_]t\ Gi = 2
G]Y GpX AdLp Bd_]t\ GiLu hj RL,
2x + 7(2) = 2x 14
Ko AVp Lm AdLp Bd_]t\ GiLu hj
RL, AVu Es[ uhPjtf NUm. G]Y,
2x 14
x

=2

2x

= + 12

= 12/2

=+6

Tt LQdLs
uYY]Yts LhP RUeLu Bd_]t\ GiQ
LQdL.
(a) MnSO4

(b) S2O3

(c) HNO3

(d) K2MnO4

(e) NH4+

Bd_]t\ Gi AlTPp Bd_]t\m - Bd_u


KdLm
Bd_]t\m
""J Y ]p, J RUju Bd_]t\ Gi, ALjRp''
A Bd_]t\Um.

20

Bd_u JdLm
""J Y ]p J RUju Bd_]t\ Gi \kRp'' A Bd_u JdLUm.
(G.L.) H2S Utm Br2 ]t HBr Utm ''S'' RRp ].
Bd_]t\ Gi
\Rp (Br)

+1 2
H2S

0
Br2

+11
2HBr

0
S

Bd_]t\ Gi
ALjRp (S)
UtLm ]p, Wu Bd_]t\ Gi ''O''p Ck
-1 BL \\. G]Y, C JdLm Bm.
NpTu Bd_]t\ Gi -2p Ck ''O''t ALd\. G]Y,
H2S Bd_]t\jt EhT\.
Bd_]t\ GiQ Tj Bd_]t Utm Jd
rLU YWVdLlTu\].
i) J Tp Lm J RUju Bd_]t\ Gi \kRp
A Bd_]tVm.
ii) J Tp Lm RUjp Bd_]t\ Gi ALjRp A
Bd_u JdVm.
UtV ]p H2S Jd, Br2 Bd_]tVm.

o LQd
rLm ]p Bd_]t, Jd Bd_]t\jt EhTm
Ts, JdLjt EhTm TsL[d LiPL.
MnO2 + 4HCl MnCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O

21

o
Bd_]t\ Gi
ALjRp

+4
MnO2

1
4HCl

+2
MnCl2

0
Cl2

+12
+ 2H2O

Bd_]t\ Gi \Rp
UtV ]p, UeLv, +4p Ck +2 Bd_]t\
GiQL \\. G]Y, MnO2 JdLjt EhTYRp, C J
Bd_]tVm. HCl Es[ [u Bd_]t\ Gi -1p Ck
"O"t EVo\. G]Y, Bd_]t\m TYRp C J JdVm.

Bd_]t\ GiQ
]L[f NUuTjRp

Tj

Bd_]t\

JdL

JdL-Ht\ ]] NUuTjR rLm TLs uTt\lTu\].


1. NUu NnVlTPR NUuTh] G, Ap Es[ JqY RUju
Bd_]t\ GiQ j, CYLp Bd_]t\ Gi Ut\m
Tm RUeL[d LiP.
2. KqY Au Bd_]t\ Gi \ ApX ALl]
LQd. CqY ALjR ApX \kR AdLu
Bd_]t\ Ut\jR Ko GiQp Td.
3. ]ThLu TdLm HtTm Bd_]t\ ALl Utm
Bd_]t\ \] RkR GiL[p ARu YnlTL[
Td NUu Nn.
4. Bd_u ApX ahW_u AdL[j RW \ AdL[
NUuThp N NUu NnL.
5. Bd_u AdLs \ Es[ TLp Bd_] N NUu
fVV, NU A[ o XdL[f No.
6. H AdL[ NUu NnV AV GXdhWu \ FPLjRl Tj
uTt\lT\.
22

rLm NUuTL[ Bd_]t\ Gi \lT NNUu NnYm.


MnO2+Cl Mn2++Cl2+H2O
AX Xjp
T 1
MnO2+ Cl Mn2++Cl2+H2O
T 2
Mnu Bd_]t\ Gi CWi \\.
4+
MnO2

1
Cl

+2
Mn

+ Cl2

H2O

Clu B.G. Ju ALd\.


T 3
ALjR/ \kR B.G.I NNUu NnV MnO2Y Ju\m, ClV
CWiPm TdL.
MnO2 + 2Cl Mn2++ Cl2+H2O
T 4
H Utm OY RW \ AdL[f N NUu Nn. G]Y CYL[j
RW Ut\ AdLs NNUu NnVlTm.
T 5
GlTp Bd_u A \s[R, o XdLs NodLlTh,
Bd_u NNUu NnVlT\.
MnO2 + 2Cl Mn2+ + Cl2 + H2O + H2O
T 6
H AdL[ NNUu NnV, GlTp H Ad\s[R,
AlTp H+, AVL[ Noj NNUu NnL.
MnO2 + 2Cl + 4H+ Mn2+ + Cl2 + 2H2O
23

Tt LQdLs
uYm NUuTL[ NUu NnL.
1. Mg + NO3 Mg2+ + N2O + H2O ( AX Xjp)
2. Cr3+ + Na2O2 CrO42 + Na+
3. S2 + NO3 + S
4. FeS + O2 Fe2O3 + SO2 (Xd X)
5. Cl2 + OH Cl + ClO3 + H2O

1.6 Yf NUuThu AlTPp LQdLs


J Y ]V Ydm NUuTh] o LiTu Xm
Yf NUuT LQdLs, o NnVlTu\]. J NNUu NnVlThP
Yf NUuThp GjR] ]lTs XdLs ]t GjR]
[lTs XdLs EiPdLlTu\] Gu\ EiULs
AVlTu\]. ThLu Xd \ NodLlTu, NUuT
]lThLu GjR] \ TLs ]t GjR]
[lThLu \ TL[ EiPdu\] GuTR]
du\. \ TLs TYL X Wm (Kg) A[p
dLlTu\]. G]Y, lhP \ EPV ]l Tp Ck
RYlTm Tu \V LQdPXm ApX URXVLm
LQdPXm.

1.6.1 \/\ - RPo


G.L.1
10 V CaCO3 ElT, HCl AXjp YUL LWdu\
T Pdm CO2- Yu \Vd LQd.
CaCO3 + 2HCl

CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

100 10-3kg

G]Y,

44 103kg

100 10-3kg CaCO3 44 10-3 kg CO2 Y R\.

44 10 3
10kg CaCO3 RY = 100 103 10 = 4.4 kg of CO2
24

G.L.2
10 kg V KClO3 ElT YUL, Rdm T GqY[ \
Bd_u Y Pdm GuTR LQdL (A\ : K = 39, O = 16,
Cl = 35.5)
2KClO3 2 KCl + 3O2
KClO3u Xd \ = 39 + 35.5 + 48 = 122.5
O2u Xd \ = 16 + 16 = 32
NNUu NnVlThP NUuThu T, (2 122.5) 10-3Kg KCIO3 V
YlTlTj]p (3 32) 10-3 kg O2 Pd\, G]Y
10kg KClO3

3 32 103
RY = 2 122.5 103 10 = 3.92 kg of O2

G.L.3
200 \s[ 90% nUV] CaCO3Y YlTlTjm T
Pdm hP iQmu (CaO) \ Gu]?

CaCO3
100 10-3 kg

CaO + CO2
56 10-3kg

200 kg 90% nUV] CaCO3 Cu \ =

90
200
100

= 180 kg V CaCO3
100 10-3 kg V CaCO3 Tjm T 56 10-3 kg CaO
Pd\. G]Y
180 kg CaCO V Tjm U =
VW
T Pdm CO
3

25

56 103 180
= 100.8 kg CaO
100 103

1.7. LWNu NY dm \Ls


lhP A[ LWNp ApX LWlTp, LWkdm LWTu
A[, LWNu N Bm. LWNu N, rdLm \Lp
lPlT\.

1. YU
J hPo LWNp Wm AXp Lm LWTu A[Y LWNu
YU Bm. C TYL gL-1 (..-1) Gu\ AXLp lPlT\.
YU =

LWTu \ (WmLp)
LWNu TUu (hPoLp)

'X' Wm LWTs V cm3 (N.3) LWNp LWklu,


LWNu N =

X 1000
V

2. UXh (M)
BnYL YlTXp, J hPo LWNp LWks[, LWTu
Wm UpLu GidLV, LWNu UXh Bm.
UXh =

LWTu UpLu GidL


LWNu TUu (hPoLp)

'X' Wm A[ LWTs
Vcm3(N.3) LWNp LWklu,
LWNu UXh =

1000

UXo \
V
UXh 'M' Gu\ AXLp lPlT\. C LWNu YUk
rdLm \p LQdPlT\.
UXh =

LWNu YU (Wm / hPo)


LWTu UXo \
26

GjdLh
0.1 M NodLW LWNp, (C12H22O11 UXo \ = 342) GuT,
34.2 NodLW J hPo LWNp LWks[ Gu YWVdLlT\.

SoUh
J LWNu SoUh GuT J hPo LWNp LWks[
LWTu Wm NU] \ G] YWVdLlT\. 'X' LWTs
Vcm3 (N.3) LWNp LWklu, LWNu,
SoUh (N) =

J hPp Es[ YU (Wm)


LWTu NU] \

LWTu \

LWTu NU] \

LWNu TUu
(hPp)

CfN 'N' Gu\ AXLp lPlT\.

GjdLh
0.1 N Gu\ P SoUp H2SO4 (NU] \ 49) LWNp 4.9
H2SO4 J hPo (1000 cm3) LWNp LWklTRd lYRm.

4. UXh (m)
J LWNu UXh GuT, 1000 Wm (ApX 1 ..) LWlTp
LWks[ LWTu Up GidL Bm. LQd \uT,
UXh (m) = LWTu Up GidL
LWlTu \ ()p
'X' WmLs LWTs 'b' Wm LWlTp LWks[ Gp,
LWNu UXh =

Xd \

1000
b

UXh m Gm hPp lPlT\.


27

5. Up u]m
J LWNp Lm J u (LWTu ApX LWlTu)
Up GidLdm, LWNp Lm UjR Lu (LWTs
Utm LWlTu) GidLdm Es[ RU LWNu Up
u]Um. C 'X' Gu\ hPp lPlT\. J LWNp A
Utm B Gu\ Ls Clu, Utm LWNp nA UpLs Am nB
UpLs Bm ClTRLd LiPp,
nA

Au UpLu u]m, XA = n + n
A
B

..........(1)

nB

Bu UpLu u]m, XB = n + n
A
B

........(2)

(1) Utm (2) BVYt\f NojRp


nA

nB

nA + nB

XA + XB = n + n + n + n = n + n = 1
A
B
A
B
A
B
G]Y, A Utm B BVYtu Up u]eLu hj RL
Judf NUm. C Ts LWNp, HRm J u Up u]m
Rklu, Ut\ u Up u]jRd LQdPXm.

o LQdLs
1. 4.5 V (Xd \ = 60 Up-1) p LWdLlTh,
LWNp 100 .. A[ TU] hPd Yp [Rp
NnVlT\. LWNu UXhVd LQdL.
Vu \ = 4.5 .
Vu Up GidL =
=
LWNu TUu = 100 .. =

UXo \
0.075 Up
100
= 0.1
1000
28

4.5
60 .Up-1

LWNu UXh (M) =

LWNu UXh (M) =

LWTu \ ()
LWNu TUu (hPoLp)
0.075
Up = 0.75 M
0.1

2. 3.15 , WV BdNd AXm (H2C2O4 . 2H2O) 250 . LWNp


LWks[. (UXo \ = 126) LWNu SoUhVd LQdL.

o
BdNd AXju \ = 3.15
BdNd AXju NUU] \ =

UXo \

=
BdNd AXju NU] A[ =
3.15 g
63 NU]m-1

LWNu TUu = 250 (..) =

LWjYm
126
= 63 NU]m-1
2

LWTu \
NU] \
0.05 (NU]m-1)
250
L = 0.25 L
1000

LWTu NU] A[Ls


SoUh (N) =
LWNu TUu (L A[Lp)
=

0.05 NU]m
0.25 L

29

= 0.2 N

3. J odLWNp, 3.0 V, (UXo \ = 60) 250 p


LWks[. LWNu UXhVd LQdL.

o
LWTu \ = 3.0
LWTu UpLs =

LWTu \
UXo \
3.0
60 Up-1

= 0.05 Up-1

LWlTu \ = 250
=

250
= 0.25 .
1000

LWTu UpLs
LWNu UXh =
LWlTu \ (.-Lp)
=

0.05 Up
0.025 .

= 0.02 m

Tt LQdLs
1. l L 0.1M NH3 LWNp RVdLj RYV] LWNu TU]d
LQdL.
2. 68% HNO3 AXjp Ck, 425 0.150 M Shd AXm
GqY T\lT\. 68% HNO3u APoj 1.41 /..
3. 100 .,, 0.3 M. H2SO4 Utm 200 . 1.5 M H2SO4 BVYt\
LXlTRp T\lTm LWNu UXhVd LQdL.
4. 0.850 . AmUV (NH3) 100 p LWjl T\lTm LWNu
UXhVd LQdL.

30

1.8. TU] TlTn RjYjRl uTt AUm


LQdLs

1.8.1 TU] TlTn


J lhP Tu A[]d LQdP, ] Tu LWNu
TU]l Tj AUm, J dV \V TU]l TlTnYm.
J LWNp Cdm A, Y LWNp Es[ BPu ]YRLd
LsYm. B LWks[ LWNu TUu Utm ARu N A EPu
]Vj RYV] A[ AYRu Xm Au A[]d LiPVXm.
RWmTojRp GuT J lhP A[ TUu, A LWks[ LWNp
pVUL N RkR B LWks[ LWNp NoTTu Xm Am
Bm ] \YPYRd d\. TU] TlTn, RWm TojRX
Tj AUm \Vm.

'' NU SoUh LiP C LWNpLs NU TUu A[p ]k


SXVdLd EhT\."
V1N1

= V2N2

V1, V2 = LWNpLu TUu


N1, N2 = LWNpLu N

o LQdLs
RYlTm ]lTs LWNu TU]d LQdRp.
1. J hPo 3M HCl TYRtLL RYlTm 6M HCl Utm 2M
HCl LWNpLu L] A[L[d LQdL.

o
1 L, 3M HCl LWNXl T\ RYlTm
6M HCl = x L G]d LsYm.
RYlTm 2M HClu TUu = (1 x) L
UXh NUuThPl TVuTj]p.
31

M1V1

M 2V 2

M3V3

6M HCl

2M HCl

3M HCl

6x

2(1 x)

31

6x

2 2x

4x

0.25 L

RYlTm 6M HClu TUu

= 0.25 L

RYlTm 2M HCl u TUu

= 0.75 L

2. 5M Ns[ 2.00 L HCl LWNp RVdLj RYV] 10 M HCl


L] A[Yd LQd.

o
M1V1

= M2V2

10 V1 = 5 2.00
=

5 2.00
= 1.00 L
10

Tt LQdLs
1. NiSO4 NoUm Na3PO4 EPu ]k UgNs LXkR TfN \
Ni3(PO4)2 rTYm, Utm Na2SO4 LWNXm R\.
3NiSO4(aq) + 2Na3PO4(aq)

Ni3(PO4)2 (s) + 3Na2SO4(aq)

45.7 mL TUPu, 0.256 M Ns[ Na3PO4 EPu ]Vj


RYlTm 0.375M NiSO4 LWNu TU]d LQd.
2. 42.4 mL TUPu, 0.150 M Ns[ Na2CO3 EPu ]Vj
RYlTm 0.250M HNO3 AXju TU]d LQd.
2HNO3(aq) + Na2CO3(aq)

2NaNO3(aq) + H2O + CO2(g)

3. J Yp 0.150 M NPV 53.1mL Ca(OH)2 LWNp Es[.


Ca(OH)2 LWNX Ym SXVdLj RYV] 0.350 M
LWNu TU]d LiP.
32

Na2CO3(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq)

CaCO3(s) + 2NaOH(aq)

1.8.2 RUeLu NU] \L[d LiPRp


rdLm \Lu Xm NU] \Ls LiPVlTu\].
1. ahW_u CPlTVof \ 2. BdN \
3. [W \
4. EXL CPlTVof \

1. ahW_u CPlTVof \
ojR AXeLPu ]k, ahW_] CPlTVof Nnm,
EXLeL[V , UdVm, jRSLm, Utm AVm Tu\
RUeLu, NU] GPL[d LiPV Cm\ TVuT\.
Mg + 2HCl

MgCl2 + H2

Zn + H2SO4

ZnSO4 +H2

2Al + 6HCl

2 AlCl3 + 3 H2

EXLju \, Utm YVtV ahW_u TUu


BVYtk EXLju NU] \ LQdPlT\.

LQd - 1
0.548 EXLm ojR AXjp 0.0198 ahW_] S.T.P
VUXp CPlTVof Nn\. EXLju NU] \]d
LQd.
0.548 EXLm, 0.0198 ahW_] CPlTVof Nn\.
G]Y 1.008 ahW_] YVt\ RYlTm EXLju
GP =

1.008 0.548
= 27.90
0.0918

EXLju NU] \ = 27.90 . NU]m

-1

BdN \
Gp BdNL[L Um TiPV RUeLu NU] \Vd
LiPV Cm\ TVuT\.

33

(G.L.) UdVm, LlTo


RUju BdN, SPVLY ApX U\LULY
T\lT\.
UdVm, Ltp YlTlTjm T, SPVL BdNPj
R\.
2Mg + O2

2MgO

LlTWl TjRYWp, CRu BdN U\LUL T\lT\.


LlTo, APo Shd AXjp LWdLlTh LlTo (II) ShWh T\lT\.
CfNoUjR AL YlTXp YlTlTjRlTh LlTo (II) BdN
T\lT\.
Cu + 4HNO3
2Cu(NO3)2

Cu(NO3)2 + 2H2O + 2NO2


2CuO + 4NO2 +O2

LQdLs
GdLlThP RUju \

= W1

RUju BdNu \

= W2
= (W2 W1)

G]Y Bd_u \

(W2 W1) Bd_u, W1 EXLjPu CQ\.


8 Bd_Pu NW
RYlTm RUju \

UV =
W

W1
W2 W1 8

CmUl EXLju NU] XVm.

LQd - 2
0.635 EXLm, Bd_]t\ju T, 0.759 BdNPj RkR.
EXLju NU] \]d LQd.
EXL BdNu \

= 0.795

EXLju \

= 0.635

Bd_u \

= 0.795 0.635 = 0.16

34

0.16 Bd_u, 0.635 EXLjPu CQ\.


8 Bd_] CQm EXLju \ =

8 0.635
0.16

= 31.75
EXLju NU] \ = 31.75 NU]m1.

[W \
[WL[, GRL RWdV RUeLu, NU] \ Cm\p
LiPVlTu\]. GjdLhPL, J lhP GPPV Ys
Ym ojR Shd AXjp LWdLlT\. Pdm pYo
ShWhPu V ahW [d AXjR ]V Yj, pYo
[W rT T\lT\. YLhPlTh, EXW Yj GP
GdLlT\. EXLm Utm ARu [WLu \Lk
EXLju NU] \ LiPVlTu\.

LQdLs
EXLju \

= W1

EXL [Wu \

= W2

[u \

= (W2 W1)

(W2 W1) [u, W1 EXLjPu CQ\.


35.46 [] CQm RUju \ =

35.46 W1
( W2 W1 )

CmUl, EXLju NU] \Vm.

TU] TlTn Lu TVuLs


Ko AXju TUu V1 G]m, ARu SoUh N1 G]m, LWju
TUu V2 G]m, ARu SoUh N2 G]m LiPp, TU] TlTn
uT
V1 N1 = V2 N2
35

TU] TlTn A[Ls A]jm, UtNu] RPo]


JhV AUu\]. HRm u UlLs Aklu, SuLm Ul
GRL, tNu] NUuThuT LQdPlTu\.

1.8.3 AXm, LWm, El, Bd_]t Utm Bd_u


Jdu NU] \
Ko AXju NU] \
AXeLs Ju ApX ARt UtThP CPlTVof NnVdV
ahW_]d Lidm. J Xd AXjs[ CPlTVof
NnVdV ahW_u GidLV ARu LWjYm G]lTm. 1.008
Te CPlTVof NnVdV ahW_]l Tts[ AXju TeLu
GidLV AkR AXju NU] \Vm.
AXju NU] \ =

AXju UXo \
LWjYm

Nu\L, LkRL AXju LWjYm = 2


H2SO4 NU] \ =

H2SO4u UXo \
2

98

49

2. LWju NU] \
J LWju NU] \ GuT ARu \p GqY[ Tep, Ko
CPlTVof NnVdV ahWdp R Es[R AY ARu
NU] \ G]lTm.
J Up LWjp Es[ ahWdp AVLu GidLV
AXjYm G]lTm. NVm ahWdN, ThPVm ahWdN,
AUVm ahWdN BVY Jt\ AXjY LWeLs. LpVm
ahWdN CWhP AXjY LWm.
KOH NU] \ = 56/1 = 56

3. Elu NU] \
J NU] \ AXm J NU] \ LWm Nok EiPm
36

Elu \V Elu NU] \Vm. Nu\L ThPVm [W


El, J NU] \ HCl J NU] \ KOH ]k EiP\.
KOH + HCl

KCl + H2O

BLY KCl Elu NU] \ ARu UXo \d NUm.

4. Bd_]tu NU] \
Ko Bd_]tu NU] \ GuT ARu \p GqY[ TeLs
8 Te Bd_] Bd_]t\jt LdU AlTeLu
GidLV ARu NU] \ G]lTm.
Nu : ThPVm ToUeL]h Ko Bd_]t Bm. AX
uXp KMnO4 rLiPY ] m.
2 KMnO4 + 3H2SO4

K2SO4 + 2MnSO4 + 3H2O+ 5 [O]

316

80

316 TeLs KMnO4 \k 80 TeLs Bd_u \


Pd\.
BLY 8 Te Bd_u \Vj Rm
KMnO4u \

UV
W=

316 8
= 3.16
80

KMnO4Cu NU] \ = 31.6

5. Bd_u Jdu NU] \


8 Te Bd_u ApX J NU] \ Bd_]tVp Bd_u
Ht\m APm Jdu TeL ARu NU] \Vm. AX uXp,
Cm (II) NpTh Bd_]tPu ]\.
2 FeSO4 + H2SO4 + (O)
2 152

Fe2 (SO4)3 + H2O

16

16 Te Bd_u, 304 Te Cm (II) NpThP Bd_]t\m


Nn\.
37

8 Te Bd_u, Bd_]t\m Nnm FeSO4 u \ =

304
8
16

FeSO4 (Wt\) NU] \ = 152


TL (FeSO4 . 7H2O)u NU] \ = 152 + 126 = 278
AX uXp BdNd AXm Bd_]t\m APm NUuT
(COOH) 2 + (O)

2 CO2 + H2O

16 Te \ Bd_u Bd_]t\m
Nnm BdNd AX \ = 90 Te
8 Te \ Bd_u Bd_]t\m
Nnm BdNd AX \ =

90 8
= 45
16

Wt\ BdNd AXju NU] \ = 45


TL BdNd AXju NU] \ =

(COOH) 2 2 H 2 O
2

= 63 NU]m

-1

1.8.4 dPo UVo \p Gp BVLd V NoUju


Xd \Vd LQdPp
LsL
dPo UVo \p Gp BVLd V NoUju Xd
\Vd LQdPXm. GfNoUju Xd \Vd LQ YiU
AfNoUjR BVd CPlTVof NnVlThP Ltu L] A[Y
NR]f NXp Lij, AdL] A[Y hP YlT AjR Xp
Pdm L] A[YLd LQdP Yim. CYtu hP YlT AjR
Xp 2.24 10-2 m3 Bu \Vd LQdP Yim. Ak\V
NoUju Xd \Vm.
dPo UVo ETLWQju rTLjp Nt TU]L Es[ Zn
Ju Es[. CdZp Ltl LRY CdL ARu Ut\jp J
RdL TjRlThs[. CdZu UpTLjp J Td Zn
38

Es[. Tdd Zu U ] oj Rhp Es[ [ UPd


Ap Es[. dPo UVo Zn J Yd LXju Eh\m AUks[.
Yd LXm Xd \ LidL YiV NoUjRd Lhm
30K ALd LXl Tts[ WYjRp WlTlThs[. dPo UVo
_s[ Ts Z mT EPVdL dPo UVo Zu
AlTLjp LpSoj iLs YdLlThs[].

3
1

4
2

1. l
2. BVm Tu LXVd
Lhm AL LX EPV
oUm
3. EsLXm
4. YdLXm

TPm 1,1 dPo UVo \p Xd \ LQp

Nn\
Yd LXjp Es[ WYjRd LdL YdL Yim. dPo
UVo Zp Es[ Lt YlTjRp YPk Tdd Zu YV
Nu u Up L[L YV\. Ls RuY u\Pu
o \kR A[ _ Ju\j [UP RXZL YdL Yim.
pVUL \ RkR NoUm Es[ lV Su YlTlTjRlThP
dPo UVo Zs Thd ZV EP] Su P Yim.
lp Es[ NoUm BVL Ut\m AP\. u]o Bdf NUU]
L]A[s[ Lt CPlTVof APk A[d LhP _s[
uUp NLdLlT\. Ltd rLs RuY _u \kR
]V d Li AR YV Gj Ut\ ojRhp
39

YdL Yim. _p Es[ oUhPm Rhs[ oUhPm NUUmT


NnRu A[ _s[ Ltu A[Yd jd Ls[ Yim.
ClT A[ _s[ DWU] Ltu AjRm Y UiPX
AjRjtf NUUm. A\u YlT XVm, YUiPX
AjRjRm jd Ls[ Yim.

LQdRp
A\u YlT X

= T1 K

hP YlT X

= 273 K

Y UiPX AjRm

= hP AjRm = Po
Po

= 1.013 105 Nm-2

T1 K YlT Xp Wu AjRm = P
EXo Bu AjRm

= P1

P AjRjp T1 K YlTXp
_s[ Yu AjRm

= (P P') = P1

LQdRp
BnYL UlLs

.Y. A. Xp UlLs

Bnp A[PlThP

L]A[ = V0 = ?

L] A[

= V1 m3

AjRm

AjRm

= P1 = (P p) Nm2

YlTX

= T1K

P0 V0
T0

= P0 = 1.013
105 Nm2

YlTX = T0 = 273 K

P1 V1
= T
1

T0
P1 V1
V0 = T P .Y.A.Xp Bu L] A[
1
0

.Y.A. Xp V0 m3 Bu \ = W Wm
40

.Y.A. Xp 2.24 102 m3


Bu \

2.24 102 W
=
= Xd \
V0

2 B APoj

= Xd \

(A) B APoj =

Xd \
2

LQd
0.790 \s[ Gp BVLd V NoUm 1.696 104 m3 L]
A[s[ Lt\ 303 K YlTXm 1 10 5 Nm2 AjRjm
CPlTVof NnR. 303 K YlTXp Wu AjRm 4.242 103
Nm2 Gp AfNoUju Xd \Vd LQdL.
LUf NoUju \

= 0.79

CPlTVof NnVlThP Ltu


L] A[

V1

= 1.69 104 m3

P1

= 1.696 104 Nm3


= (Y UiPX AjRm 303 K
YlTXp Wu AjRm)
= (1.013 105) (4.242 103)
= 0.958 105 Nm2
T1

= 303 K

BnYL UlLs

.Y,A. Xp UlLs

L] A[

V1 = 1.696 104 Nm3

L]A[ V0 = ?

AjRm

P1 = 0.958 105 Nm3

AjRm P0 = 1.013 105 Nm2

YlTX

T1 = 303 K

YlTX T0 = 27 K

41

P1 V1
T1 =

P0 V0
T0

P1 V1 T0
P0 T1

V0 =

0.958 105 1.696 104


273
V0 =

V = 1.445 104 m3
5
1.013 10
303 0
V0 .Y.A. Xp L] A[

= 1.445 104 m3

.Y.A. Xp 1.445 104 m3 Bu \ = 0.79


.Y.A. Xp 2.24

102

m3 Bu

Tu Xd \
B APoj =

2.24 102 0.79


\ =
1.445 104
= 2 B APoj

Xd \
2

122.46
=

= 61.23
2

]dLs
A. NV] PV RokRdL.
1. S.T.P. Xp, 16 Bd_u APjd Lsm TUu
(a) 22.4 L
(b) 44.8 L
(c) 11.2 L (d) 5.6 L
2. AYLhW Gip lm AdLu GidL Es[ Ts
(a) 12 g of C12
(b) 320 g of S
(c) 32 g of Bd_u
(d) 12.7 g of AVu
3. S.T.P. Xp, Wm Xd KNu TUu Ul
(a) 22.4 L
(b) 2.24 L
(c) 11.2 L (d) 67.2 L
4. 0.5 Wm - A ShW_p Lm AdLu GidLdf
NUU] AdLu GidLd LiP.
(a) 12 g of C
(b) 32 g of S
(c) 8 g O
(d) 24 g Mg
5. 128 Bd_p Lm Wm - AdLs
(a) 4
(b) 8
(c) 128
(d) 8 6.02 1023
42

6. 111 CaCl2 p Lm UjR UpLu GidL


(a) J Up
(b) C UpLs
(c) u UpLs
(d) Su UpLs
7. rdLTYLp G AL GPdL ?
(a) J Wm - A ShW_u (b) J Up o
(c) J Up NVm
(d) J Xd H2SO4
8. 6.0 LoTp (C-12) Es[ LoTu AdLu GidLVl
TtlT
(a) 6.0 DjRu
(b) 8 jRu
(c) 21 WlTu
(d) 28.0 CO
9. rdLTYLp G AL AdL[l Tts[ ?
(a) 2.0 ahW_u
(b) 2.0 Bd_u
(c) 2.0 ShW_u
(d) 2.0 jRu
10. rdLTYLp G A \u VUm ?
(c) 146C
(d) 168O
(a) H
(b) 126C
11. JW rXp, rdLm GkR CQLs JW GidL Es[
AdL[l Tts[] ?
(a) 1 L SO2 Utm CO2
(b) 2L O3 Utm O2
(c) 1 L NH3 Utm Cl2
(d) 1 L NH3 Utm 2 L SO2
12. 2.0 Bd_p Es[ AdLu GidLVl TtlT
(a) 4 S
(b) 7 ShW_u (c) 0.5 H2 (d) 12.3 Na
13. 6.02 1024 CO XdLp Lm Wm - XdLu GidL
(a) 1 Xd
(b) 0.5 Xd
(c) 5 Xd
(d) 10 Xd
14. J EXLju ahW_u TvThu YnT, MHPO4, EXL
[Wu YnT
(c) MCl2
(d) MCl4
(a) MCl
(b) MCl3
15. J NoUjp 50% X (A \ 10) Utm 50% Y (A \ 20 )
Es[]. UX Es[ LQdLd EV YnT.
(a) XY
(b) X2Y
(c) X4Y3
(d) (X2)3 Y3
16. Gjp Lm LoTu NRRjR GkR NoUm Tts[ ?
(a) Wlu (b) Nd[adNu (c) GjRu
(d) Tuu
17. 5L TUu 0.1M NVm LoT]h LWNp Es[.
(a) 53 Na2CO3
(b) 106 Na2CO3
(c) 10.6 Na2CO3
(d) Na2CO3 u 5 102 p UpLs
43

B. LhP CPeL[ WlL.


1. Y Yu J Up Es[ ..................... AdLs.
2. J Up Npd AXjp Es[ ..................... Bd_u AdLs.
3. S.T.P. Xp 11.2 L LoTu P BdN Yp ..................... Bd_u
AdLs Es[].
4. NU TUuL[ EPV UThP YdLs NU YlT AjR XLp
NU GidLs[ .....................
5. J hPo P UXo NaOH LWNp ..................... A[ NaOH Es[.
6. 7 5. CO Yp ..................... Bd_u AdLs Es[].

C. NVLl TjL.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

A YN
B YN
CaC2
(a) 106
TdL R
(b) 6.02 1023 AdLs
ahWoWm
(c) LWNu UXh
2 NU] A[Ls Na2CO3 (d) J hPo LWNp 0.01
UpLs LWTs
S.T.P. p 22.4 L
(e) oU RUm
J hPo LWNp Lm (f) LpVm LoT
XdLs
1 A Wmd NpTo
(g) (NH4)2SO4.FeSO4.6H2O
Nu UXo LWNp
(h) 1/8 XdLs
Uo El
(i) _u PpPu

D. rdLTYLd PV.
1. UThP NoUeLs J Xd YnTh] TtdL U ?
EU P] C GjdLhLPu [d.
2. J Yf NUuThtV dV RYLs Gu] ?
3. J Yf NUuT Rm NnLs VY ?
4. rdLm NUuTL[ NUu Nn.

(i) Fe + H2O Fe3O4 + H2


(ii) Fe2 (SO4)3 + NH3 + H2O Fe(OH)3 + (NH4)2 SO4
(iii) KMnO4 + H2SO4 K2SO4 + MnSO4 + H2O + O2 + Fe2 (SO4)3 + Fe SO4
(iv) K2Cr2O7 + H2SO4 + H2S K2SO4 + Cr2(SO4)3 + H2O + O2 + S
44

RlW
NR NUuNnVlThP NUuTLs Lm dVjYm YnkRY.
G]Y NUuTh] NUu Nnm \ [dLlTh Ttm RWlThs[.
Bd_]t\ Gi]l TVuTj JdL-Ht\ NUuTL[ NUuTjm
\Ls Su [dLlThs[].

UtToY pLs
1. General Chemistry - John Russel McGraw Hill International Edition
3rd Edition.
2. University General Chemistry - An Introduction to Chemical Science
edited by CNR Rao Mc Millan India Limited, Reprint - 2002.
3. Heinemann Advanced Science Chemistry - Second Edition
Ann and Paatrick Fullick 2000
Heineman Educational Publishers, Oxford
4. Inorganic Chemistry, P.L Soni.
___________

45

2, EXLVp TtV TY] lLs


Lt\u LhTLs

@ RUeLu RdLs Utm LUeL[l Tt ARp


@ RdL[j VRdm \L[l Tt Ak Ls[p
@ TpY YLL[] EXLVp \L[l Tt k Ls[p
@ Cu, Au, Ag, Pt, Zn Utm Al Tu\ RUeL[l jRdm
\L[l Tt k Ls[p
@ CkV Utm RZLju LU Y[m TtV RLYpL[ Ak
Ls[p.

2.1 RdLm LUeLm


X EXLeLs CVtLp RVLm, CVtL Xm
Pdu\], B]p, TmTm TX EXLeLs Yd L YLp
CVtLVL Pdu\]. CY XjR NoUeL[L UiY
AjReL[ Nok Pdu\. RdL[ LXkdm UQp,
LUi, T\Ls Utm TX UdLs UiYL UdLs G]
AZdLlTu\]. Ag, Au, Pt Utm X EXLeLs RjR Xp
CVtLVLd Pdu\]. TmTX] RUeLs NokR Xp
Pdu\]. pYo RjR Xm, NoU Xm Pdu\].
G]Y CqRUL RjR XX ApX NoUeL[LY p
Pdm CVt\l ThL[ LUeL[m. G]Y LUm GuT u
TWlp ApX TWlTp CVtLVLd Pdm RjR ApX NoUXl
TsL[m.
J LUm RjR NoUeL[LY ApX TX NoUeLu hd
LXYVLY LQlT\. J lhP LUjp NoU Xp AL
A[ Cdm EXLm, GRL XTLWU] \m TU[p
jRdm Xm Clu AYL[ RdL[m. G]Y GpX
RdLm LUeL[m. B]p GpX LUeLm RdLs ApX.
GdLUjp Ck J EXLm XTLWU] \p jRdLlT\R
AdLUU RRm. GjRdLhPL, LUi (Al2O32SiO2 .2H2O) Utm
Td^h (Al2O3.2H2O) BVY AVju C LUeL[m. B]p
AVm, Td^h LUjp Ck UhU XLTWUL
jRdLlT\. G]Y, AVju R Td^h Bm. G]Y,
u TWlp Lm Tm T Xjp Ck, RdL[l
jRdm \d WeL\ G]lTm.
46

TYL RdLs BdNLs, NpTLs, NpThLs, [WLs


Utm LhLs NoUUL, NokR Xp LQlTu\], CR]
AhPYQ 2.1 [d\.
R
R ApX
CV
Lm
LUm
EXLm
Bd
RdLs

NpT RdLs

LoT]h
RdLs

aX
RdLs

NpTh
RdLs
Lh RdLs

TvTh RdLs

TdNh
lWh
aUhPh
eLh
uLp (A)
LhPWh
TWNh
h [i
LlTo TWhv
LlTo [uv
ed [i
u]To
L]
Bo_i Ph(A)
pYo [uv
Ud]Nh
PXUh
LXUu
UXLh
XmvPu
EldLp
Lo]Xh
aou pYo
pYu
WV Xh
GlNm El
lNm
TWhv
BeNh
AvTvPv
(LpSo)
TpvTo
UL
TvTWh

Al2O32H2O
Cu2O
Fe2O3
ZnO
SnO2

Al
Cu
Fe
Zn
Sn

MnO2
U3O8
Cu2S, Fe2s3 or CuFeS2
Cu2S
ZnS
HgS
PbS
Ag2S

Mn
U
Cu
Cu
Zn
Hg
Pb
Ag

MgCO3
CaCO3MgCO3
ZnCO3
CuCO3Cu(OH)2
CaCO3
NaCl
KCl.MgCl2.6H2O
AgCl
KCl
3NaF.AlF3 or Na3AlF6
MgSO4.7H2O
CaSO4.7H2O
BaSO4
PbSO4
CaSiO3.3MgSiO3

Mg
Mg
Zn
Cu
Ca
Na
Mg
Ag
K
Al
Mg
Ca
Ba
Pb
Mg

K2O.Al2O3.6SiO2 or
KAlSi3O3

Al

K2O.3Al2O3.6SiO22H2O

Al
P

Ca3(PO4)2
47

2.2 p Eo Y]eLs Utm LPp Pdm


XeLs p Lm XeLs

ASLUL 80 RUeLs LU TYL u \lTWlX ApX


TWlu AX LQlTu\].
(A) ]VR EXLeLs NWR Xp (RU Xp) CWiPm,
u\m CPX YNLs[ VIIIB Utm IB RLp
Es[. (G.L.) Pt, Au, Ag. CVtLp Ag RjR Xm
LQlT\.
(B)EXL TLs (G.L.) Ge, As, Sb Utm AR AjR EXLeLs
TUTm AL AVVdm Bt\X EPV]. G]Y
NpTL[Ld Pdu\].
(C) AL EXLj RuUs[ RUeLs Gp So AVL[L
RuRXp AYLs Bd^L[Lm (CP X EXLeLs)
LoT]hLs ( IIA EXLeLs) ApX [WLs (IA
EXLeLs)
(i)

u EVV EXLeLs (Cu, Ag, Au), Hg Utm B [h]m


EXLeLs (Ru, Os, Rh, Ir, Pd Utm Pt) RjR Xp
CVtLp LQlTu\]. GpX EXLeLm CVtLp
NokR Xp LQlTu\].

(ii) lTWlu CV : NR GPp O (49.1%), Si (26%),


Al(7.5%), Fe(4.2%), Ca (3.2%), Na(2.4%), Mg(2.3%) Utm
H(1.0%)
(iii) NokR Vp LQlTm EXLeLs
(a) BdNLs - Mg, Cu, Zn, Al, Mn, Fe
(b) LoT]hLs - Na, Cu, Mg, Ca, Ba, Zn, Fe
(c) TvThLs - Ca, Pb, Fe
(d) LhLs - Li, Cu, Zn, Al, Mn, Ni,
(e) NpThLs - Fe, Cu, Pb, Hg,

LPp Y[m
Na, Mg, Cl2 Utm Br2 (Wu) BV Su RUeLm, Jt\
AdLu AVLs (Na+, Mg2+, Cl, Br) LiP NjWeLm El
k jRdLlTu\].
48

EoYr C] Y[m
XeLp Es[ RUeLs AYtu \u C\e YNp
AhPYQ 2.2 Cp RWlThs[]. H\d\V 30 NRR GuNmLs,
AYtu NVp \s[ Tp J EXL AYd Lis[].
EXL AVL[l TVuTjm EVp XdLu Rl
AhPYQ 2.2Cp RWlTh Es[. CYtu TmTX] XdLs
WReL[m. CRW TmTX] EXL AVLs ELu LhPUlp
dV Te YlTYL[L TL Es[ LUeL[LY ApX TL
EYUt\ iUl TsL[LY AUks[].
AhPYQ 2.2 RUeLu \u AlTPp C\e YN
u TUm

LPp

URu

Si

Al

Cl

Fe

Na

Ca

Mg

Na

Mg

Na

Ca

Ca

Mg

Ti

Br

Cl

2.3 RdL[j nUlTjRp


RdLs TYL LUi, UQp Tu\ T\ NmTkRU]
UdL[, NokR UiYL UdLs Es[].
RYj nUTjRp GuT s NnVlThP Rk UiYL
UL[ dYRm. Cm\ RY APojRp ApX RY
49

VRdRRp G]lTm. G]Y, CVtLp Pdm RY P


APodLlThP R AL NRRm RYd Lidm. Ru
RuUdLtT R rdLiP \Lp APodLlT\.

i) Dol \p jRp ApX ]p LRp :


Cm\ aUPh, YsVdLp Tu\ L]U] "BdN'
RdLd Lm Ht\. Cp [dLlThP RY NY] R[jp
Yj YLUL Km p LYlT\. Ui Utm p Es[ XN]
UdLs ]p Ajf NpXlTh L]U] R Ap Re\.

ii) W Rl \
Cm\ NpT RdL[] ed [ih (ZnS) Utm LlTo
TWhv (CuFeS2) Tu\ NpT RdLd Lm TjRU].
NpT Ru LsLs GiQnp S]Vd V; B]p BdN
R Utm RYVt\ UdLm p S]Vl V] Gu\ RjYm
Cm\p TVuTjRl Tu\. Cm\p [dLlThP R
Tu GiQn (Zj RdLj im Ts) LXdLlThP Pu
Lt\ AL AjRjPu Nj d LXYm TXYkRUL
LXdLlT\. LtPu GiQn LXk WV EiPd\. Rl
ThLs Wp Jhd Li u UtTWlp Rd\; Ui Utm
T\ NmTkRU] UdLs u Ap Reu\]. TPm 2.1 W UYLj
Rs GdLlTh NLdLlT\. u APodLlThP R RVLl
m YW Ljk GdLlT\.
1

3
4
5
6

1. AjR Lt 2. Ltd Zn 3.[dLlThP R + o + Tu GiQn 4.NpT


LsLs Es[ W 5. GiQp ZdLlThP R Es[ Ltd r 6. UiYL
AjReLs 7.Wk APodLlThP NpT R

TPm 2,1
50

iii) uLkRl l \
Cm\p LkRpXR RdLk LkRl Tis[ UdLs
jRdLlTu\]. (E.m) YsVd Lp (J YsVj R). Cp
YsVd Lp LkRj RuU At\. As[ Cm, UeL Utm
PevPh BVY LkRj RuU Es[ UdL[m. [dLlThP RY
(LkR UdLs LXkR) u LkR E[ SLok Npm Yol
ThPu U (m Tu\ AUlu Xm) NnVlT\.
LkR UdLs LkR E[u Dol NVp ARu AXV VXL
Yk u\]. LkRUt\ R LkRjt RXp UVXd
NVp Y\ VXL Yk u\].
2

5
7
6
8
9
1. [dLlThP R. 2. uLkRm 3. YuXm 4. UuXm 5. Ztu N 6.LkRVp
ThLs 7. SLm YolThP 8. Ztu N 9. LkRUt\ ThLs

TPm 2,2

iv) Yp \
R Lj nU Xp CdL YiUp Cm\
uTt\lT\. (G.L) AVm jRjRp AVju JRY]
TdNhp (Al2O3), SiO2 Utm Fe2O3 Tu\ UdLs LXks[].
TdNh RY NaOH EPu ]lTjm T Al2O3, NVm UhP
A]hPL Ut\UPk LWNp LW\. LWVR UdLs (Fe2O3,
SiO2, Fe(OH)3 BV]) LWNu Ap Reu\]. u AY YLh
dLlTu\].
Al2O3+ 2NaOH

2NaAlO2 + H2O

NVm UhP A]h (LWNp)


51

YW (NVm UhP A]h Es[) ojRp Nn Su LXdm


T AVm aWdN rTY\. AR YLhVu V
A] PdmT PlT\.
NaAlO2 + 2H2O
2Al(OH)3

Al(OH)3 + NaOH

Al2O3 + 3H2O

2.4 EXLVp \Ls


EXLVp GuT rdLiPYt\ [dm YVp Ym.
i) Rk EXLjRl jRjRp.
ii) UdLds[ EXLjRj nUl TjRp.
iii) EXLd LXYL[j RVjRm, AYLu Tl TsLs,
AUl, TiLs TtV [dLm,
iv) EXLeL[ EXLd LXYL[L Utm CVtVp Utm
\LdPV Es[ RPo.
A]j EXLeL[m jRdL JWR \Vd LV[
CVX. H]p JqY EXLjRm jRdL YqY \Ls
LV[ Yis[. C EXLeLu RuU, RVdm \L[l
TjR. TYL EVV EXLeL[] Au, Ag RVY YZdLUL
AYLu [WLs, BdNLs ApX aWdN-Lk
u]tTl \Lp jRdLlTu\]. L] EXLeL[] Cu,
Zn, Fe, Pb, Sn BV] YjRp Utm Edl jRp Xm
jRdLlTu\].

2.4.1 YjRp - Bd_]t\m


RY EXL BdNPL Utm J Bd_]t\m \V YjRp
G]lTm. YjRp \p R UhU ApX RkR TP]
AL Lt rXp ARu EXdd \Y] YlT Xp
TjRl T\. YjRp TYL GoYlT A]p EX ApX F
EXp SPT\. YjRu T (A) S, As, Sb Tu\ BVLd
V UdLs Bd_]t\UPk SO2, As2O3 Utm Sb2O3 Tu\
BVm YdL[L YVu\]. (B) NpT RYL CkRp
52

A \t SO2 YY Yh AYLu BdNL[u\].


(C) DWm dLlT\.

Bd_]t\ YjRp
CqYL YjRp S, As Utm Sb UdLs AYtu BVd V
Bd^L[] SO2, As2O3 Utm Sb2O3 BL Lt, YlTm BVYtu
h NVpThPp dLlTu\]. AR NUVm Rm ARu BdNL[L
Ut\lTu\. CjRLV YjRp LlTo TWhv, ed [ih Utm
Xh R (PbS) BVYtp SPTu\.
2ZnS + 3O2 2ZnO + 2SO2

2PbS +3O2 2PbO + 2SO2

LtpX rXp YjRp


RY ARu EXL BdNPL (Bd_]t\m) Utm Ut\
\ LtpX rXp YjRXm. Cm\p LtpX Zp
R ARu EXV P \kR YlTXp Su EVoYlTXd
EhTjRl T\. Cm\ YjRp LoT]hLs Utm Wt\UPkR
RLd LV[lT\. CqYL YjRu [YL (A) DWm
dLlTu\. (B) YdLs YVt\lTu\]. (C) BVLd V
UdLs dLlTu\]. (D) Ts i[ Es[R\. (E) Rp
YlTf R HtTu\. GjdLhPL
CaCO3 (iQmd Lp)

CaO + CO2

MgCO3 (Ud]Nh)

MgO + CO2

MgCO3.CaCO3 (PXUh)

MgO + CaO + 2CO2

CuCO3.Cu(OH)2 (UXLh)

2CuO + H2O + CO2

ZnCO3 (LXUu)

ZnO + CO2

2Fe2O3 . 3H2O (U]h)

2Fe2O3 + 3H2O

LpNhP YlTf Rd EhTjm T hP iQm


PjRRp CqYjRp Lp]t\m G]l TVo Tt\. TYL CqYL
YjRp Go YlT A]p EXp SPT\.

2.4.2 Edl jRp - Bd_u JdLm


EXL BdNP, EXLUL Utm J JdL ]V
EdljRp G]lTm. RY Ed EXLjRl dm A]j
53

NVpLm Cm\ TVuT\. RPu C[d ApX Bd_u


JdVp Edl dm T Ap YjRp, LtpX rXp
YjRp, Bd_u JdLm BV \Lm SPTu\]. TYL
EXLm ApX EXL NpTP ARu EdV Rk jRX
Edl jRp Bm. YZdLUL Edl jRp F EXLp
SPT\. AlT uNd ApX XdLV Gj EVoYlTX
EiPdLlT\.
Edl jRp Lts[ Zp ApX Lt CpXL Zp
YjR R LpLPu LXk, EXp YlTlTjRlT\. CRu
]YL TV[Y GkR LoTk T\lTm CO, BdNP
EXLUL Jd\. GjdLhPL AVou jRjRp aUPh
R (Fe2O3) LpLPm, iQmd LpPm (C[d) Edl
dLlT\. CkR JdLju LWQUL AVou EV ApX WY
Xp Pd\.
Fe2O3 + 3C 2Fe + 3CO

CaCO3

CaO+CO2

Fe2O3 + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO2

CaO+SiO2

CaSiO3

C TXY LlTo LWhk LlTo jRjRp R


LpLPu LXk F EXp YlTl TjRl T\. ELR UY]
FeO, FeSiO3 (LN) BL Ut\lTh dLlTu\. Uh G]lTm. AVou,
LlTo NpTLu LXY EV Xp Pd\.
FeO + SiO2
U
C[d

FeSiO3
LN

\ GjdLhLs
ZnO + C Zn + CO ;

SnO2 + 2C Sn + 2CO

MnO2 + 2C Mn + 2CO

2.4.3 TUWdRp
C Yol Cmk G@ Cm EtTj NnV Cm\
TVuTu\. G@ Cm GuT 0.15 - 1.5 % LoTu LXkR LoTu
Cm LXYVm.
Cp Lf R[ NpTo, TvTWv, UeL Utm Lu UdLs
Es[]. LoTu A[Yl Tj G@ Cm, \kR LoTu G@
54

(0.15 - 0.3 %) RU] LoTu G@ (0.3 - 0.8%) Utm AL LoTu


G@ (0.8 - 1.5) G] YLVLl dLlThs[.
Cm\V CeXk RNjRf NokR au TUo LijRo
(1856) Cm\p Ut G]lTm dLUi NlThP LsLXjp 2
YUiPX AjRjp YdLlThs[ Yol Cmp oLt FRlTm
T UdLs Bd_]t\m NnVlTYRPpXUp Yol Cmm G@LL
Ut\lTu\.
Utu NlTm LW ApX AXj RuUs[ ELl
T[l Tj Cm\ YT\. AX TUo \p TvLWv
\YL Es[ Yolm (0.09% d r) TVuTjRlT\. LW \p
EVo TvTWv Yom (1.5%d Up) TVuT\.
Ut 6 EVWm 3 hPm EPV Dh YYs[ Ko EXVm.
A G@ RhL[p NnVlThP. Es\m L ApX UdV (MgO)
NlT\. C Yol Cms[ UdL[l Tjs[. Yol
Cms[ U LWUL CkRp G.L. UeL, L NlThP NeLp
TVuT\. Cm\ AX TUo \ G]lT\. UdLs
AXjRuU EPVRL CkRp G.L. NpTo, TvTWv BV], LWjRuU
EPV hP iQm (CaO) ApX UdV (MgO) Utp
TVuT\. Cm\ LW TUo \ G]lT\. CkR Ut 10 Rp
25 Pu YW T[ JW NUVjp Ht NVpTjRd V. Ut
Nn R[eLu Up YdLlThs[. Cp Ju EsPt\ Lt
Njm ZVL Es[. CRu s[ UtV GkR Np l
YdmT AUdLlThs[. UtVm Lt\ ALUL
NjYRtLt\Y \V [Ls TPlThs[].
EV Vs[ Yolm LXdp LXkR u Utp
u]t\m NnVlT\. H\d\V 15-16 PuLs YW JW NUVjp
Cm Ht\m NnVlTPXm. Ut Rp PUhPULm Ht\m NnRu
NejRLm YdLlT\. Ht\m NnRu ARu s[ [Ls
YVL 2-3 . / N., 3 AjRjp okR Lt AL A[p
NjRlT\. AL A[ Lt Uo 15 PeLs Njm T
UdLs Bd_]t\m APu\]. Mn B] MnO BLm Si B]
SiO2 BLm Bd_]t\m APu\]. LoTm CO BL Bd_]t\m
NnVlTu\. Mn Utm Sn BdNLs ( MnO Utm SiO2) Nok
UeL Lh Gu\ LN EYu\. TPm 2.3
55

1
2
3

4
5

1. EV G@ 2. Lt\X 3. V Zn 4. Ltl Th 5. Lt 6. R Ht
7. FRp 8. NnjRp

TPm 2,3 TUo Ut Utm TUo \

2.4.4. EXLeL[j nUVdRp


u]t Tl \
CY nUV] EXLjRl Tm J \kR, dVU]
\Vm. Cm\ Cu, Ag, Pb, Au, Ni, Sn, Zn Tu\ TX EXLeL[j
nUlTjR TVuT\. Us[ EXLj Ri SouYVLm,
EXLju UpV RL Gou YVLm NVpT\. AkR EXLd
LWNp uTVL Gjd Ls[lT\. uNWjR uT YVL
NjmT Sou Ys[ V EXLm LWk Gou Yp
T\.
LWVR UdLs uTp LW\. ApX LWNu Ap
SouYn UdL[Lj Re\. GjdLhPL RWm jRlTjRp
Fe Utm Zn UdLs uTp LWu\]. Ap Au, Ag Utm Pt
SouYn UdL[L PlTu\].

LlTo : LlTW u]t nUl TjRp U LXkR LlTu

TV Ri Sou YVLm jRU] LlTu UpV RL Gou


56

YVLm GdLl Tu\]. LlTo NpTh LWNp uTVLl


TVuT\. uNWjRf NjmT rdLiP ]Ls
SPTu\].
1. Cu2+ AVLs (LlTo NpTh LWNk) GouYndf
Npu\]. Ae AY LlTWL JdLUPk GouYp Tu\].
Cu2+ + 2e

Cu

2. LlTo, (U LXkR Sou Yp) LlTo AVV EiTi


u A uTds Np\
Cu2+ + 2e

Cu

CRu [YL V LlTo SouYk GouYnd


Ut\UP\. ed, AVou Tu\ UdLs LWNp LXdu\]. EVV
UdL[] pYo, Lph BVY Sou Yn Ls BL PlTu\].
u]t nUl TjRp LlTo 99.98% nUl TjRlT\. (TPm
2.4)
2

3
4

1. Sou RL, 2. GouRL, 3. ULXkR LlTo, 4. Sou ]rT Ui, 5.


UpV LlTo RLLs, 6. LlTo NpTh LWNp (uT)

TPm 2,4 LlTW u]t nUlTjRp

b) Y]j nUVdLp
Cm\ Lm V EXLm (Lu, PpVm, _oUVm
Tu\Y) RVdL LV[lTu\. CY \LPjLp
TVuTu\]. UdLs CdmT J Tu EX \m
GuTR Cm\u RjYUm. CRuT Us[ EV Xs[
EXLjRd odm T V EXLju TLm iU Xp
57

Pd\. s[ EXLjPu UdLs Re u\]. (TPm 2.5)


1
2

3
4
1.U LXkR EV EXLm 2. Y[V YlTh 3. U LXkR EXLj Ri
4. UNt\ im TLUL BdLlThP EXLm

TPm 2,5 Y]j nUVdLp

Cm\p Us[ EXLm NhP Yp YodLlT\. CfNhPjRf


rkdmT J YlTh, NhPju J ]k Ut\
]d [Ydp SLmT TjRlThs[. YlTl TjRlThP
Tp NhPm E\. YlTh SLm T V EXLm TLU\.
ARNUVm UdLs TdLjs[ EV Tdf Np\. CqY\L
UdLs J ]k Ut\ ] YW dLlTu\]. Cm\V
mTj mT Nn LjnUs[ EXLm T\lT\.

c) Uih \
YlT\Ls LoT]p \Vm, ahWP RjRp
Tu\Yt\m Es[PdVY. Fe, Ni Tu\Yt\j nUlTjR
LoT]p \ TVuT\. GjdLhPL dLX Gjd LiPp
Us[ EXLm CO EPu YlTl TjRlT\. PjR dLp LoT]p
(Lnf YjRu Xm UdL[ dV u) RdLlTh V dLp
EXLm COEm T\lT\. Cm\ Uih\ G]lT\.
Ni + 4CO

Ni(CO)4

Ni + 4CO

C rdLiP EiUL[ AlTPVLd LiP (A) dLp UhU


( Cu, Fe BVYLs ApX) 50oCp CO Njm T BVm
LoL]p, Ni(CO)4I EiPdLd V. (B) 180oCp dLp LoT]p
Rk V dLXd Ld\.
58

]dLs

A. NV] PVj RokR


1. aUPh Ru L dV TL LidLlThP CPm
a) Jv^
b) AUW
c) W_vRu d) UNXWRNm.

B. LhP CPeL[ WlL


RdL[ NokR u UdLs ............... G]lTm.
W Rl \ ............... RY APoldL Ht\.
Lm V EXLm ............. \p T\lT\.
UiYL U + C[d ..................
J LUjk XTLWU] EXLm dLl ThPp ARt .................
Gu TVo.
6. LlTo, AVou BVYtu NpT LXY ...................... G]lT\.
7. ..................... Zj RdLj im T[Ll TVuT\.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

C. K YdVeLp PV.
1. RkR Gjd LhPu LUjRm, RYm YTjd LhL
2. LPpo Xjk Pdm RUeLs VY?
3. RY APoldm TpY \Ls VY?
4. ol \p jRp Gu\p Gu]?
5. W Rl \p APodLlTm RdLu TVoL[d lL.
6. EXLVp \V YWV.
7. EXLVp TVuTm dV \Ls Gu]?
8. LtpX Zp YjRp Gu\p Gu] ? G.L. RL.
9. TUo \u RjYm Gu]?
10. u]tTl \p nUl TjRp Gu\p Gu]? GjdLh
RL.
11. SouYn U Gu\p Gu]?
12. rdLiPYt\l Tt Gu] AYn,
i) YjRp
ii) Edl jRp.

D. rdLiPYt\l Tt dLUL [dL


1. E AUlp RUeLu Xm Tt l YWL.
59

2. W Rl \Vl l\ NV] TPjPu [d.


3. LkRj RuU Es[ UdLp Ck LkRj RuU Es[ RY
jRjRp u]t l GqY TVs[RL Es[? TPjPu
[dL.
4. YVp \p Rk GqY UdLs dLlTu\]?
5. YjRp Gu\p Gu]? Cm\V GjdLhPu [dL.
6. Edl jRp Gu\p Gu] ? Cm\V GjdLhPu [dL.
7. Y]j nUVdLp Gu\p Gu]? Cm\p EXLeL[
nUlTjYRu RjYm Gu]?
8. Uih \p dLp GqY jRdLlT\? Cm\p Lm
TpY Y]L[ G.
RlW

@ EXLVu dVl TiL[ CkR AjVVjp [dLlThs[.


@ TpY RdLs AYt\j nUlTjm \Ls.
@ YjRp, Edl jRp, TUo \ TtV YVp dLUL
[dLlThs[].
@ nUlTjRu TpY \Ls [d TPeLu Xm
RYdLlThs[].
UtToY pLs

1.

Engineering chemistry - P.C.Jain and Monika Jain Twelth Ed- 1999.

2.

Industrial chenistry - B.K. Sharma, Tenth Ed- 1999.

3.

A text book of Material Science and metallurgy - O.P. Khanne - 1996.

4.

Basic Resource Atlas of Tamil Nadu.


_________

60

3, A AUl - I
Lt\u LhTLs

@ "A AUl' TtV YWXtj RPofV k Ls[p.


@ pv - To AUu \Ls Utm \Ls Tt LY]jp
Ls[p.
@ NUopu A UVd Lt\p.
@ YiPm GuLu dVjYjR Ak Ls[p.
@ BohPpLu YYeL[ Ak LsRp.
@ GXdhWu YiPm L[ Ak Ls[p.
@ T[u Rolj RjYm, aih Utm B@T LsLLu
TVuTL[ Ak Ls[p.
@ GXdhWu AUlT GYRt, TpY BohPpLu Xlj
RuUVl k Ls[p.
@ GXdhWu AUlL[l Tj RUeLu YLL[l k
LsRp.

3.1 A AUlTl Tt dV YWXt ALm


AVp kR]Lp 1808Bm Bi _u PpPu ALlTjV
Ad LsL, YVp kR]Lp J V AjVVjRj
RtjR.
CdLsLuT, GpX ThLm L iV LsL[V,
AdL[p BdLlThPYL[m. CdLsLuT AdLs, AUlLs
At\, L], FYR Ls TiPV, dL VR ThL[m. _u
PpPu LjLs 19Bm t\ip, AlT T\lThP NR]Lu
Lu [L[m. CTRm t\iu RPdLjp Ko A,
Lf V LsL[V GXdhWuLs, WhPuLs Utm hWuL[p
BdLlThPY G] dLlThP. Au UV TLU] EhLp Es[
SouhPjL[ WhP]m. EhLYf t, GouhPm EPV
Ls GXdhWu Bm. Au EhLs SXj RuUs[
61

hWm Es[. A SXjRuU YnkRRp, EhLp Lm


SouhPju GidLd NU] GidL A[ GXdhWuLs
Es[].

RmNu AU
1904Bm Bi No._._. RmNu J lhP Au Es[UlT
[dm LsLV ALlTj]o. CdLsLuT, AY],
JeL] 1010 m A[t SouhPThP L[eL]p B]. CRs,
Ap Lm SouhPj LsLdf NUUL GXdhWuLs
TdLlThs[] G] AjRo. CdLWQju [YL AY]
SXj RuUVl Tts[ G]m AjRo.
CkR YL A U, Au uNW SXUj RuUV UhU
[dYRL AUks[. B]p RoTo NVpTjV UpV Lp
RLhu Rm NR]u L[ [dL VpX.

RoTou R\p NR]


GXdhWuLs Utm WhPuLs GqY AUks[] GuTR
AYRtLL 1911Bm Bi RoTo Rm NR]V SPj]o.
AYLUL SLm SouhPm EPV BpT LsL[ UpV Lp
RLhu UR YjRo.

RoTou AdL U
LVdL Xjp Ck T\lThP BpT LsLs UpV
EXLjRLhu HtTjm R\pLs Xm T\lThP LuT,
CmUVj RtjRo.
CYu LjlT,
i) UpV RLhu FP TmTV] BpT LsLs Gp
Ff NpYRp, Au TmT, YtPUm.
ii) J X BpT LoLs XdLm Tu\]. ClTi ALU]
Xd NVp SPTYRm. G]Y, Au SouhPm,
Au GpX TLm RmNu VT TW AUVpX.
SouhPm
lhP V TUp Nt ClTRp,
SouhPPV BpT LsLs XdLm Tu\]. CmLfV
Au TV, RoTo GuTYWp 'EhL' G] AZdLlThP.
62

iii) Au TU] Jlm T, EhL APjd Lsm TUu


L Lf \V. Au BWm 1010 m G]lTm T, EhLu
BWm 1015 m Bm. CdLjuT, EhL J dLh Tk G]
L]p, Au BWm Nt\ H\jRZ 5 X hPWm.
UtNu] BnkRkR LjdLu Tm, Lu Tm,
RoTo Au EhL UV ALlTj]o. CkR A
UuT,
(a) Ko Au, UVlTp iV SouhPPV EhL
Es[.
(b) EhLu SouhPjt, WhPuL[ LWQUm. EhLu
\, WhPuLs Utm, WhPuLu \L[l TXY
Tts[ SXj LsL[l Tj AU\. CqYL
SXj L[ hW]m. 1932p Nhd GuTo CkR hWu
L[ LiPkRo. EhLp Es[ WhPuLm, hWuLm
Jh UjRUL EhLjLsLs (Nucleons) G] AZdLlTu\].
EhLj LsLu UjR GidLV Au \ GiQm
(A).
(c) EhL]f t, GXdhWuLs TpY YhP YYl TRLp
YLUL CVeu\]. CqYhP YYL[l TRLLs 'Boh' ApX
`Y[VeLs' G] AZdLlTu\]. G]Y., RoTo A U,
V UiPXjp Lm V]l Tu EhLm, Utm AR]f
tYm WLeLs, GXdhWuLdm Tku\].
(d) Ko Ap Es[ GXdhWuLu GidL, Ap Es[
WhPuLu GidLdf NUm. G]Y, EhLu UjR
SouPjR NVLf NUuTjR, Ap Es[ JhUjR
GouhPm Es[Rp AY SXUj RuUd
EhTj\. Ko Ap Lm WhPPuLu GidLV
AqYu A GiQm.(Z)
(e) GXdhWuLs Utm EhL JuPu Ju u CVdNVp
LYWlTh JeL Es[].

3.2 RoTo A Uu \TLs


RoTo AUuT, Ko A GuT SouhPPV
EhLm, AR]f t AUm YhP TRLp tYm
63

GXdhWuL[m LiPRm. B]p _.. UdvYp GuTu


LjuT, GlTRpXm GXdhWu AYLjt EhTjRlT\R,
AlT AY LVdLjR YjRs, Bt\X CZdm. CRu [YL,
Y[VlTR RL em, (TPm 3.1) Um, Cp s YY
TRp Nu EhLp Z NjVUm. ARY A Am. G]Y
RoTo U AdLu Xl RuUV [dL YpX.
EhL

GXdhWuLs

TPm 3,1 RoTou Rpt\ AU

TPm 3.1 RoTou Rpt\ A U Utm RoTou


A U GXdhWu AUlTl Tt Gm NpXpX. ARY
GqY GXdhWuLs EhLuN t AUu\], Utm
GXdhWuLu Bt\pLs AUu\] GuT Tu\ ]dLd P
AdL VpX. G]Y, ahW_u A \ Wp LQlTm
hP LL[ [dm RpVj RV.

pv To AUu LsLLs
UtNu] RoTo A Uu \TL[ L[YRtLL
pvTo GuTYo 1913Bm Bip YiPm LsL] Nok
A UV Ut AUjRo.

UtVUjR AUu dV LsLLs


1. EhLYf t AUm, lhP Y[V TRLs ARY lhP
RkRdLlThP, Boh Lp UhU GXdPuLs, EhLYf
t Yu\]. CqY[V TRLs lhP Bt\pL[
Tts[Rp, CYLs Bt\p Ls ApX Bt\p UhPeLs ApX
YiPm UhPeLs Gu AZdLlTu\]. CYLs
64

1,2,3,4...............etc (EhLp Ck BWmdm) G]Y ApX


K.L.M.N (TPm 3.2) G]Y lPlTu\]
2. GXdhWu hP Bohp Cdm T, Bt\Xl T\Y
ApX CZdLY NnV. J lhP TRp GXdhWu Cdm
T, ARu Bt\p U\. G]YRu CqYL BohLs (YhP
TRLs) XLs G] AZdLlTu\].
3. LQ EkRm h/2 Gu\ Uhep AUVl Tt\ GXdhWuL[
Htm BohLs (Y[V TRLs) Uhm "HtLlTm BohLs''
Bm. Cp 'h' GuT [ed U. J Y[V Bohp tYm
GXdhWu LQ EkRm mvr Bm. Cp 'm' GuT GXdhWu
\Vm, v GuT LQ EkRjRm, mvr GuT h/2 Ulu
UPeL[m.
mvr = nh/2 where n = 1,2,3..........
GXdhWu LQ EkRm, YiPm UlL[d LiPRm.
4. Ko GXdhWu, J XV] \p Ck Rut U]p,
GXdhWu lhP AoYi EPV LofN Egm ApX
YjRsm. CqY T\lTm \Wp LLs BWmT, C
UhPeL[ Tj AUm, Ko GXdhWu im \kR Bt\p
UhPjt m]p lhP Bt\X LofNL YlTjm.

EhL

TPm 3,2 pv Tu YhPl TRLs

To A Uu \TLs
i)

pv Tu LsLuT, Ko GXdhWu J lhP Bt\p


UhPjp Ck Ut\ Bt\p UhPjtj Ru\ T,
Lof HtT\. B]p GqY CdLof Lr\ GuTR]
To LsLp [dL VpX.
65

ii)

pv To LsL, H-\ Wp Lm ASL LL[


[du\. lhP Lj RPoL[ Uhm [du\].
B]p , AkR LXLhPjp CR] UhU EQW kR. LXl
Tdp, u]V NR]eLs, Utm AVp \Ls
Y[ofVPm T, u]o AkR L GuT JuPu Ju
Se AUkR TX iV LL[ Es[PdV GuT
AVlThP (iV Wp). GjdLhPL, J H \ Wp
L TpUo RPo (Balmer) ASL SeV LLs NokR
AUlTm.

iii) ASL LLs ClT, TX Bt\p UhPeLs ClTR


XlTju\]. JqY YiPm Gi 'n'm, CY JuPu
Ju Se AUu\]. G]Y CYLu, LilL[p,
V YiPm GiLs RYlTu\].
iv) Tu LsL, ahW_u A Utm ahW_] Tu AUm
AVLu (G.L. He+, Li2+, Be3+ ) \ WX YtLWUL
[d]m, AL GidLVl Tts[ GXdhWuL[ EPV
AdLu \Wp RPoL[ [dL VpX.
v)

h/2 Gu\ UPep AUm mvr LQ EkSjRl Tm GXdhWu


UhU, lhP Y[Vl TRp tm Gu\ Ljt, l
Adm ElT Gm PV. ARY, LQ EkRju
YiPm CVp LsLu TVuTL[l Tt GkR J [dLm
PV. C J EjRN [dLUm.

vi) Ko Ap Lm GXdhWu, EhLp Ck lhP Wjm,


lhP YLjPm tm G] pv To L]o. ARY
GXdhWu J lhP EkRjR Tts[ Gu T[m.
B]p CdLsL, anNuTod XpX LhTht GWL
AU\. CdLsLuT J Lu, ClPm Utm EkRjR
JNW AV V.
vii) Uu [ (Zeeman effect) Tt GkR [dLm RWlTPpX,
J Ts LkR Xjp YdLlThPp, Er \ Wp L TX
Se AUkR LL[L [Tm. CY Uu [Ym.
CkR []l Tt Tu LsL GkR [dLjRm RW
CVXpX.
viii) vPod []l Tt GkR [dLm CpX. Er \ WXj
66

Rm Ts, Y uLkR Xd EhTjRlThPp, Um ASL


Se AUm LL[L [Tm, CY vPod [Ym.
Tu LsL, Cq[] [dL VpX.

3.3 GXdhWu AUl Utm YiPm GiLm


YiPm GiLs
Ko Ap Lm GXdhW] lP RYlTm lL[
YiPm GiL[m. Ko Ap TX GidL EPV GXdhWu
BohPpLs AUdLlTm. Ko BohPu A[ VRu, GXdhWu,
EhLu NTjp AUV Ynli. CqYL BohPpLs lhP
Gi RL[L YiPm GiL[L' lPlTu\]. Bt\p, A[,
YYm, Utm GXdhWu N Sdm Ti BVYL[ lTRt
u YiPm GiLs RYlTu\]. CYLs rdLiPY
[dLlTu\].

1. RuUd YiPm Gi (n)


As, GXdhWuLs UThP Bt\p UhPeLp ApX GXdhWu
Lp (A) BohvLp AUdLlThs[]. JqY m lhP
YiPm Gi, ARY RuUd YiPm Gi Gu AZdLlT\.
CY 'n' Gu\ hPp lPlT\. 'n'd 1,2,3,4 Tu\ TX
UlLs Ei. Rp UhPm 'K' Gum CWiPm UhPm 'L' Gum, u\Y
UhPm 'M' Gum, SuLY UhPm 'N' Gum \V dLlTu\].
EhLt Lf NTUL AUY K Bt\p UhPUm. CWiPYRL 'L'm
u\YRL 'M'm AUu\].

2. LQ EkRm (ApX) Q YiPm Gi (l)


NUop LjuT, GXdhWu J lhP Bt\p UhPjp Cdm
T, YhPlTR ApX LQdLt\ sYhPl TRL[, EhLYf
t Ttdm. CkR BohPpLu YYeLs Nt\ UThdm,
CR]p, EhL GXdhWu Up HtTjm LYofVl Tj Bt\p
jVNeL[d Lidm. CdLsLu [YL, Ap,
JqY dV YiPm Gitm Q Bt\p UhPeLs Es[
RYu\. CY 'l' Gu\ GjRp lPlT\. 'l' Q Bt\p
UhPeLp UlLs '0'p Ck (n 1) UlL[l Ttdm.
G]Y,
67

n = 1 Gp, l = 0 G]Y J Ul UhU Ei (J UhPm). s


UhPm.
n = 2 Gp, l = 0 Utm 1 Bm. (C UlLs ApX C Q
UhPeLs ) 's' Utm 'p' UhPeLs.
n = 3 Gp l = 0,1 Utm 2 Bm. (u UlLs ApX 3 Q
UhPeLs ) s, p Utm d UhPeLs.
n = 4 Gp, l = 0, 1,2 Utm 3 Bm. (4 UlLs ApX 4 Q
UhPeLs) s,p,d Utm f UhPeLs

3. LkRd YiPm Gi (m)


Yu LkR Xp, J Q Bt\p UhPm, lTUQjp UThP
N SdL[L u\]. CqY T\lTm V Q Bt\p
UhPeLs Bt\p V YTL[ Tts[]. Ko A, LkRl
Xp YdLlTm T Rum A \ Wp Um TX LLs
EiPu\]. JqY BohPm 'm' Gu\ LkRVp YiPm
GiQp lPlT\. CRu UlLs 'l' Ul]l Tj AUm.
CmUlLs lp Ck wVju YVL +l YW Ttdm.
G]Y CYLu UlLs (2l + 1) Bm.
G]Y, l = 0, Gp m = 0 (JW Ul (A) Ko BohPp)
l = 1, Gp m = 1, 0, +1 (3 UlLs ApX u BohPpLs)
l = 2, Gp m = 2, 1, 0, +1, +2 (5 UlLs ApX 5 BohPpLs)
l = 3, Gp m = 3, 2, 1, 0, +1, +2, +3 (7 UlLs, 7 BohPpLs)
A BohPpL[ lm Cm\, BohPp Lm
GXdhW]m lTRm. Gm GXdhW] UVLd dL, Um
J YiPm Gi, RtZt YiPm Gi (s) RYlT\.

4. RtZt YiPm Gi (s)


Ko Ap Lm GXdhWu, EhLYf tYR UhUpXUp,
Ru Af]f t Zm RuUm EPV]. CfZt CReLp
SPTu\]. (LLWm N, Utm LLW Go N). G]Y Zt
YiPm GiLu C UlLs +1/2 (A) -1/2 Bm. wVm Es[PdV
JqY m UlLdm sd CUlLs Ei.
68

Rjd u Su YiPm GiLm rdLm RYLpL[


SUd Ru\].
1. n h] AV ERm, C, BohPu A[ Utm,
BohPu Bt\u A[]m LQd\.
2. n ht, n Q Ls Ei. l Qd h]
LiPk ARu YYjRm LiP\, JqY Qdhu
Udm, (2l + 1) BohPpLs Ei. J `s' BohPp ( l = 0 ),
u p BohPpLs ( l = 1) Utm JqY Q BohPdm
Ik d BohPpLs ( l = 2) TX GXdhWu AdLp BohPu
Bt\X AVm `l' ER\.
3. m1, BohPu NSdm Ti] [d\. lhP
Ult,m1, ( 2l + l ) UlL[l Tts[. CY JqY
Q Lp Lm BohPpLu GidLf NUm. G]Y,
BohPpLu GidL, GjQ NSdL TiLd NUm
G] E Nnu\].
4. Ms GXdhWu Zt N Sd]d d\.

GjdLh - 1
RuUd YiPm Gi n = 3 RPoPV, UjR BohPpLu
GidL Gu]?

o
n = 3 Gp lu UlLs 0, 1 Utm 2 Bm. G]Y, J 3s
BohPp (n = 3, l = 0 Utm ml = 0); u p BohPpLs
(n = 3, l = 1 Utm ml = 1, 0, 1) Utm Ik 3d BohPpLs (n = 3,
l = 2, ml = 2, 1, 0, 1, 2). G]Y, UjR BohPpLu GidL
1 + 3 + 5 = 9.

GjdLh - 2
s, p, d, f L[d Li, rdLm YiPm GiL[
Tts[ BohPpL[ Y.
(a) n = 2, l = 1

(b) n = 4, l = 0 (c) n = 5, l = 3 (d) n = 3, l = 2.

69

o
n

BohPp

(a) 2

2p

(b) 4

4s

(c) 5

5f

(d) 3

3d

3.4 YYeLs
\lTWlLs

ApX

BohPpLu

GpX

s-BohPpLs : s BohPd l = 0. G]Y, m JW Ul


Ei; m = 0. ARY s BohPp GXdhWuL]d Lm Ynl
GpX NLm lhP Wjp NUUm. ApX s BohPp
oUV] L[ YPV.
TPm 3.4p l s BohPu GXdhWu ULjWs LhPlThs[.
EVo Bt\Xl Tts[]. `s' BohPpLm CqR L[ YYjRV
Tts[]. B]p CYLs ALUL W, GXdhW] ALThNUL
Lm Ynl wVUm. CYL[ `ShLs' (nodes) G]lTm. 2s
BohPp, J L[ Sh Ei. G]Y, ns BohPp Lm
ShLu GidL (n 1) Bm.
p- BohPpLs : p-BohPpLd, l = 1 G]Y `m'd u
UlLs Ei. +1, 0, 1 ARY `p' Q ht, u YLV]
N Sdm TiLs Ei. p- Q BohPu u BohPpLs
px , py Utm pz \V x-Af, y-Af z-AfLu FP AUu\].
JqY BohPdm C UPpLs (lobes) Ei. CY CWim wV
GoTolT HtTjm s ARY `Sh' Bm. JqY
p- BohPm, PmTp CL[ (Dumb bell) YYm Bm. uXm
CpXVp, Cmu p-BohPpLm, NU Bt\pL[l Ttdm.
G]Y mU NU Bt\p AUl (triply degenerate) G] AZdLlT\.
B]p YLkRl Xp, u BohPpLu Bt\pLs UTm.
CkR URp BohPpLu NSd ApX LkR YiPm GiQl
Tj AUm. CY, LkRl Xp J lhP \ Wp L

70

LQdLt\ iV LL[L YPYRt LWQUn AU\.


(iV AUl).
d-BohPpLs : d BohPpLd, l = 2, m = 0, 1, 2 Bm.
CYV `d' BohPpLs Ik NSd TiL[ EPV] GuTR
du\]. G]Y Ik 'd' BohPpLs Ei. CYLs \V dxy,
dyz, dzx, dz2 Utm dx2-y2 Bm. CqY \lThP Ik BohPpLm
LkRXu At\ rXp NU Bt\Xl Tu\]. G]Y Ik YL
NU Bt\p UhPeL[L (five-fold degenerate) LQlTu\].
dxy, dyz, Utm dzx BohPpLs LQ AfdLd CPV, ReL[
UPpL[ WL Ws[]. CR]V CYLu ZhLs du\].
(G.L) dxy BohPu UPpLs (lobes) x Utm y AfLdPV W
Es[]. Cmu BohPpLm `t2g' R G] AZdLlTu\].
dx2-y2 Utm dz2 BohPpLs eg R G]m lPlTu\].

3.5 T[u Rolj RjYm


B@T RjYjR uTt, TpY A BohPpLp GXdhWu
WlRp Nnu\]. CqY BohPpLp GXdhWu WlRp T[u
'Rolj RjYjR' uTtV Lru\].
lhP Ap, GXdhWuLu YiPm GiLu Te
T[u Rol RjYjRl uTt AUu\].
Ko Ap Es[ C GXdhWuLs A]j Su YiPm
UlL[m JW UVL TtdL V. J lhP Ap,
C GXdhWuLs ALThNUL u YiPm GiLu UlT JW
A[YLl TtdLXm. (n, l, m) B]p SuLm YiPm Giu
Ul (s) UTm.
G]Y, s = +1/2 G] J GXdhWu TtkRp, R GXdhWu
's' Ul 1/2 G] AUm. R \p NpX YiUp, JW
BohPp GXdhWuLs Go ZtL[l Ttdm. ()

CjRjYju TVuLs
CjRjYju Ll TV TVu, lhP dV Bt\p UhPjp
ALThN GXdhWuLu GidLVd LiPVXm. CR Lj],
K Utm L L[ GjdLhL[Ld Lim [dLXm.
71

a) K- : Cdht n = 1. n = 1 Gp 1 = 0, m = 0. G]Y 's'u


Ul +1/2 (A) 1/2 (BL) CdLXm. T[u JdRp RjYjR
Jh, n, l, m Utm s-u UThP UlLs rdLm Su YiPm
GiLu C NodLL[Ld LRXm.
NodL (i)
J GXdhWdm,
NodL (ii)
Ut\ GXdhWdm EVRm.
(i) n = 1, l = 0, m = 0
s = +1/2 (1Bm GXdhWu)
(ii) n = 1, l = 0, m = 0 s = -1/2 (2Bm GXdhWu l = 0 Gu\ Q
hp Es[ C GXdhWuLs. ARY 1s BohPp)
Cq NoLLm K hp, l = 0 Gp, JW Qd Es[Rd
Lh\. (s - Qd)
l = 0 Ul Gp UThP ZtPV C GXdhWuLs Es[Rd
d\.
b) L - : CkR ht n = 2 Bm. n = 2 Gp, l, m Utm s.
Su YiPm GiLu UThP GhR NodLL[d
du\]
(i)

n = 2, l = 0, m = 0, s = +1/2

(ii) n = 2, l = 0, m = 0, s = 1/2
(iii) n = 2, l = 1, m = 0, s = +1/2
(iv) n = 2, l = 1, m = 0, s = 1/2
(v) n = 2, l = 1, m = +1, s = +1/2
(vi) n = 2, l = 1, m = +1, s = 1/2
(vii) n = 2, l = 1, m = 1, s = +1/2
(viii) n = 2, l = 1, m = 1, s = 1/2
UtLhV, Gh NodLLs, L C Qd L[L TYRd
Lh\.
l = 0 ( s Qd) Utm l = 1 ( p Qd) Utm CkR 8
GXdhWuLd Up CjRp CVX. ARY, CRu EfN GXdhWu
Ul GhPm.
72

3.6 aih
CquT p, d ApX f BohPpL[ Wlm T, CQ
NoYRt u]o, GjR] CQ NW GXdhWuLs CdL YiU,
AjR] GXdhWuLs BohPp LRp Yim. GXdhWu
CQNoRp, Bt\Xl Tt AUm NVXm. G]Y, RWlThs[
Q UhPjp GpX BohPpLm T WYp WmmYW GXdhWu
CQ SPdL. CY aih Bm. GXdhWuLs lhP
(n + 1) UlL[ EPV Qd hp Zm T, Cdm
BohPpLs Jt\ WRXV Ttdm (AhPYQ 3.1)
AhPYQ 3.1 : GXdhWu AUlL[ lRp
A
Gi

RUm

1s

He

Li

Be

10

Ne

2s

2px

2py

2pz CQNWR GXdhWuLu GidL

1
2

G]Y, u GXdhWuLs p- UhPjp Wlm T, JqY


GXdhWm \V, JqY ( px, py, pz ) BohPpLp Nm, SuLm
GXdhWu BohPp Nok UThP Zt EPV C GXdhWu
CQVLf N\. CY CQVRp G] AZdLlT\. QlLs
EYL, CQ NWR GXdhWuLs dV Te] Ydu\].

3.7 B@T RjYm (Aufbau Principle)


_oUu Up 'aufbau' Gp 'LhPUlf No' G] TsTYRm.
'BohPp LhPUlf No' Gp BohPpLp GXdhWuLs Wm
73

\ G]lTm. CdLsL rdLiPY \lT\. RrXp


Cdm AdLp, GXdhWuLs BohPpLu Bt\Xl Tj
HL YNp Wlm. ARY GXdhWuLs Rp Bt\p Ld \kR
BohPpLp WlV u]o, ARt AjR AL Bt\X EPV
BohPpLdf Npm. BohPpLs Bt\p H YNm, AkR
BohPpLp GXdhWuLs WlRp HL YNm rdLiPY
AUm.
ls, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s .............
CkR YN TPm 3.5p LhVT ] WlT\. EVW Ck
BWmdm T, Amdu N, BohPpLp GXdhWuLs Wm
RuUV [d\. U\L, BohPpLu Bt\p ALl (n + 1)
uT [dLlT\. (n + 1)u Ul J BohPd \m
T, ARu Bt\m \\. C BohPpLs NU (n + 1) UlTl
Tu, GkR BohPp \kR 'n' UlTl Tts[R, AkR BohPX
\kR Bt\Xl Ttdm.

TPm 3,3 BohPpL[ Wlm RuU

AL GXdhWuL[l Ttdm Ap Es[ J lhP hu,


TpY Qd Ls UThP Bt\Xl Ttdm.
74

3.8 BohPpLu Xlj RuU


aih uT, NT A[ WmV BohPpLs ApX
UVL WmV BohPpLs, KW[Y WmV BohPpL[ P AL
Xlj RuU Tt\Y. G]Y, Xlj RuU Tt\ CqYL
BohPpLp, GXdhW] YVt\ AL Bt\p RYlTm. G]Y
CjRLV AdLs, RU YN AhPYQp Ttdm CPjRl
Tj, GoTodm AVVdLp Bt\p ApX AVGuRpVd
Lhm AL UlTl Ttdm. CqY N T A[ WmV
BohPpLs ApX UVL WmV BohPpLu AL Xlj
RuUV oU Utm Bt\p TUt\m Xm [dLXm. N T A[
WmV BohPpLs ApX UVL WmV BohPpLu GpLhWu
AUlLp GXdhWuLu Te oUj RuUPVY. CkR oUV
CYLu Xlj RuUd LWQm Bu\]. CRtm UXL, CqYL
oU AUlp GXdhWu ReLu CPeL[ Gp AL A[ TUt\m
NnV CVm. CqYL TUt\m, Xlj RuUVj R\.
GjdLhPL ShW_u NT WmV 2p BohPp Utm UVL
WmV BohPpL[ EPV Vu NuL[L Es[].

RUm

A
Gi

RrX GXdhWu
AUl
oUV]
GXdhWu
Te

AUl, UVL WmV ApX NT WmV BohPpLs


Es[Rp AL Xlj RuU Es[]. Um, WVm Utm LlTo
RUeLu 3d BohPpLp GoTodm GXdhWu AUlLs \V
Su Utm JuT GXdhWuLdl TXL, Ik Utm Tj
GXdhWuLs EPV]. G]Y, AL Xlj RuUVl T\ 4s
BohPp Es[ 4s GXdhWu 3d BohPd Ut\m NnYRp N
T ApX UVL WmV 3d BohPpLs \V WVm Utm
LlTo AdLp LQlT\.

75

WVm
GoTodm GXdhWu AUl
LQlTm GXdhWu AUl

: 1s2 , 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 3d4, 4s2


: 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 3d5, 4s1
GXdhWu TUt\m

LlTo
GoTodm GXdhWu AUl
LQlTm GXdhWu AUl

: 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 3d9, 4s2


: 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 3d10, 4s1
GXdhWu TUt\m

]dLs

A. NV] PVj RkR


1. A \, fNVUL GiQL CjRp CVX H]p,
a) C, GXdhWuLs, WhPuLs Utm hWuL[d
Lis[.
b) C \ YtU CVL[d Lis[.
c) AdLs [T VRuTR HtL V.
d) INPlL[d Lis[.
2. Ko Ap Es[ GkR C GXdhWuLm JW UlT EPV Su
YiPm GiL[d LiW.
a) T[u Rolj RjYm
b) XpXd LhT
c) aih
d) B@T RjYm
3. 3d BohPp \m T, GXdhWu ZY
a) 4p BohPp
b) f BohPp
c) 4s BohPp
d) 4d BohPp
4. ShW_u Au 3 Jt\ GXdWuLu Cl AYVjRuUV
[dLlT\.
a) T[u RojRp RjYm
b) B@T RjYm
c) XpXd LhT
d) aih
76

5. p Qd hp Lm BohPpLu GidL
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 6
6. Au EhLp Es[]
a) GXdhWuLm WhPuLm
b) hWuLm WhPuLm
c) GXdhWuLs, WhPuLs Utm hWuLs
d) hWuLm, GXdhWuLm
7. uYY]Yts G Lm XN]?
a) ahW_u A
b) J GXdhWu
c) J hWu
d) J WhPu
8. rLTYLp GkR EhLp hWuLs PV?
a) hhVm b) hVm
c) Vm d) WhVm
9. LQ EkR YiPm Gi Ul 3 G]lTm T, LkR YiPm
Giu UlLs
a) +1, -1
b) +1, 0, 1
c) +2, +1, 0, 1, 2
d) +3, +2, +1, 0, 1, 2, 3
10. 2p BohPpLu Ul
a) n = 1, l = 2
b) n = 1, l = 0
c) n = 2, l = 0
d) n = 2, l = 1
11. J RUju A Gi 17. ARu \ Gi 37. CkR SX
Ap Lm WhPuLs GXdhWuLs Utm hWuLu
GidL
a) 17,37,20
b) 20,17,37 c) 17,17,20 d) 17,20,17
12. nth UhPjp EfN GidLVL Es[ GXdhWuLu GidLL
a) n2
b) n + 1
c) n 1
d) 2n2
13. LkR YiPm Gi oUlT
a) EhLk BohPp Wm
b) BohPu YYm
c) lTUQjp BohPu NSd
d) GXdhWu RtZt

B. LhP CPeL[ WlL.


1. u]t\X Nj uTVf RlT .............. Gu TVo.
2. Gou Lo UpV EXL RhuUp Z Yd\T, A
YlTlTY ......................
77

3. Gou Yn Lo L Zp RY .......................
4. LkR XjRp TdLlTPR LoLs ................. G]lTm.
5. hWuLs ..................... GuTYWp LiPVlThP.

C. Ju ApX C YdVeLp GL.


GXdhWu, WhPu Utm hWuLs s[ uhPm Gu]?
A Gi Gu\p Gu]?
Ko BohPp ALThNm GjR] GXdhWuLs CdL CVm?
CWiPY t Y[V TRp Lm BohPpLu GidL
Gu]? AY GqY lPlTu\]?
5. s Utm p BohPu YYjR YWk AYtu LQ Teh
GXdhWuL[ l.
6. Ko GXdhWu uhPm Utm \ Gu]?
7. BohPp Gu\p Gu]?
8. rdLm BohPu GXdhWu WRu YNlTV RL 3s,
3d, 4p, 3d Utm 6s
9. RuU YiPm Gi Gu\p Gu]?
10. 18O8 Cp GjR] WhPuLs Utm hWuLs Es[]?
11. AdLu EhLdLp TYL LQlTm LsLs VY?
12. J RUju A \ 24. ARu A Gi 12. GqY CkR A
AUl Es[?
13. J WhPu Utm hWu Ldm Es[ YTh] NR]
Xm GqY YTjd LhYn?
14. To A Uu dV \T Gu]?
15. hP Gm
a) A Gi 56 EPV EhL Utm \ Gi 138.
b) A Gi 26 EPV EhL Utm \ Gi 55
c) A Gi 4 EPV EhL Utm \ Gi 9
16. Ko A BohPu n = 3 Gp, l CVU] UlLs VY?
17. Ko A BohPu l = 3 Gp, ARu CVU] m UlLs VY?
18. WVju GXdhWu AUl]j RL. (z = 24)
19. GkR Bt\p UhPm p- BohPX Tt CW?
20. J RUju Ap 19 GXdhWuLs Es[]. p- BohPp
UjR GidL GjR]?
1.
2.
3.
4.

78

21. J d- Qd hp GjR] GXdhWuLs s+1/2 UlTl


Tts[]?
22. p- BohPpLu l Utm m UlL[ GL.
23. GXdhWu BohPu NSd Ti] GkR YiPm Gi
X j\?
24. BohPu YYjR i) n = 2 Utm l = 0 Utm ii) n = 2 Utm
l=1
25. ShW_p ( z = 7) Es[ 2p- GXdhWuLu GpX YiPm
GiL[m RL.
26. Mn2+ Utm Cuu GXdhWu AUlTj RL. Cu A Gi 29. Mn
A Gi 25.
27. Cr Utm Cu CYtu GXdhWu AUlLs \V 3d4 4s2 Utm
3d9 4s2 Gu lPUp \V 3d5 , 4s1 Utm 3d10 4s1 Gu Hu
lPlT\?

D. dLU] PV.
1. B@T RjYjR [d. AdLu GXdhWu LhPUlu
dVjYm Gu]?
2. s, p, d L[l TVuTj, rLm YiPm GiL[ EPV
BohPX Y.
(a) n = 1, l = 0, (b) n = 2, l =0, (c) n = 3, l = 1, (d) n = 4, l = 3
3. B@T RjYjRl TVuTj, rLm AdLu RrX
GXdhWu AUl] GL. TWu ( Z = 5), Vu ( Z = 10 )
Utm AVm ( Z = 13)
4. RoTou BpT Lo R\p NR] Gu\p Gu]? CYtu
Ls VY?
5. To A LsLu LhTLs VY?
6. Ko Ap Lm GXdhW] UVL lP TVuTm TX
YiPm GiL[ [dL.
RlW

@ Au EhL UV UmTjm RmNu, RoTo EhL


AULs Utm AYtu \Ls [dLlThP].
79

@ TP [dLju Xm pv To U Utm NUop YdLm


BVY lPlThs[].
@ Ko Au GXdhW]d lP ERm Su YiPm GiLm
AYtu dVjYm [dLlThs[].
@ aih , B@T RjYm, T[u Rol RjYm BVY
GXdhWuLs GqY BohPpLp WlTlTu\] GuTR] RkR
NuL[p [dLlThs[].
UtToY pLs

1.

Concise Inorganic chemistry - J.D. Lee, 3rd Edn - 1977 and 5th Edn 2002.

2.

Theoretical Inorganic chemistry - M.C.Day and J.Selbin, 2nd Edn- 1985.

3.

Theorical principles of Inorganic chemistry - G.S.Manker, 9th Edn 1993.

4.

Selected topics in Inorganic Chemistry - U.Malikk, G.D.Tuli and


R.D.Madan, 6th Edn - 1993.
_________

80

81

82

(B) F EXp YlTlTjRp


Cp YlTd Lt\ YLULf NjYRp Bd_]t\m
SPTu\. Cm\ L] Utm LlTo TWhLd
LV[lT\.
(C) JdL YjRp
Cm\p Bd_]t\m NnVlThP EXLd LUeLs ARu
EXV Pd \kR YlTXp JdLu (G.L. VdL
ahW_u, LoTu Utm EXL NpTLs RV]) NVpTht
EhTu\]. GjdLhPL Cu ApX Pb jRjRp AVou NpT
JdVL NVpTu\.
2CuFeS2+O2 Cu2S+2FeS+SO2
2Cu2S+3O2 2Cu2O+2SO2
2FeS+3O2 2FeO+2SO2
(D) NpThPdm YjRp
Cm\ YjRp NpT ARu BdNPL Ut\lTPUp LWVd
V NpThPL Ut\lTu\. Gjd LhPL CuS ARu CuSO4
BLm ZnS ARu ZnSO4 Ut\lTu\]. Pdm LWVd V El
p LWj RV GdLlTu\].
PbS+2O2 PbSO4

CuS+2O2 CuSO4

(E) []t\ YjRp


Cm\p EXLm ApX ARu R Ltu uXp NVm
[WPu YlTl TjmT ARu [WPL Ut\lTh, pYWL,
UoVp JdLlT\. GjdLhPL,
Ag2S+2NaCI 2AgCI+Na2S

AgCI+2Hg Ag.Hg+HgCI.

]]

4.6 GXdhW] YiPm 83


\p jRp
rLm
[du\].

lLs TpY YiPm GiLu RPoL[

i) dV Ls K, L, M, N BVY Th Ju (ls), CWi


(2s, 2p) u (3s, 3p, 3d) Su (4s, 4p, 4d, 4f ) QLs.
ii) a) l=0 Gp `m'd JW Ul Uhm Ei (m = 0) (s-Qd)
`s' Qdht Um QdLs PV. GpX dV Lm
`s' BohPpLs Ei. G]Y K (n = 1) JW J Q h] (ls)
l Tts[.

4, RUeL[ YLlTjRp - I
Lt\u LhTLs

@ RUeL[ YLlTjYRu YWXt\ ARp.


@ RU YN AhPYQV k LsRp Utm A Gi 100d
ALUL Es[ RUeL[ TVRp.
@ RUeLu GXdhWu AUlT k Li ARuT AYt\
YLlTjRp.
@ A BWm, AVVdm Bt\p, GXdhWu ShPm Utm GXdhWu
LYo\u Tu\ BYojR]l TiL[ BnRp.
@ RUeLu KeLt\ BYojR] TiL[ Rk AYttL]
LWQeL[ ARp.
4.1 RUeLs YLlTjRp TtV dLU] YWX

RtT 109dm UtThP RUeLs LiPVlThs[]. RU YN


AhPYQV], YVp YWXtp dVU] UpLpXL
AUks[. RjRVL A]j RUeLs Utm AYtu
NoUeL[l TtV YVp L]UL AU\. B]p RU YN
AhPYQu Xm RUeLu Yl TiL[l TtV RLYpL[
Lm GRL Ak Ls[Xm. G]Y, RUeL[ YqY
RL[L AYtu TiLd HtT YLlTjRlTY AYVU\.
CqYLlTjRX RU YN AhPYQVL Es[. RU YN
AhPYQ GuT YqY RUeL[ AYtu TiLd HtT
AhPYQVL YNlTjRp G]lTm.
RPdLjp RUeLs AYtu A \u AlTPp
YLlTjRlThP]. TmTuUV] YVp Yp]oLs RUeL[
YLlTj AYtu TiL[ BWnkR]o.

PTu]u mU YLlTjRp
1829p PTu]o GuTYo JjR TiPV u RUeLs LiP
RL[L YLlTj]o. CjRLs mULs G]lTm.
CqlT u RUeLs AYtu A\u HYNp
81

YNlTjRlTu\]. Sp Es[ RUju A \V] Ut\


CWi RUeLu A\Lu CVtLR NWNVL Cdm.
ERWQUL, jVm, NVm Utm ThPVm BVY J mUVL
Es[. B]p, lhP X RUeL[ UhU mUj RVL
GR CVm.

AhPYQ 4.1 : PTu]u mU


RUeLs

A \

RUeLs

A \

RUeLs A \

Li

Ca

40

Cl

35.5

Na

23

Sr

88

Br

80

39

Ba

137

127

Xiu Gh
1865p _u Xih GuTYo Gh V ALlTj]o.
CqlT, RUeL[ A\Lu HYNp YNlTjmT
GhPY RUU] RXY RUju TiL[ Jj Cdm. ARY
CNp GhPY Rp V Jj Cdm. G]Y, C Xiu
GhPY G]lTm. CqV] \kR A\ LiP
RUeLd TkRd V. B]p AL A\ LiP
RUeLd TkR.

XRo - UVu YLlTjRp


1869p _oUVf NokR XRo UVo GuTYo RUeLdPVV]
Lm Y] Utm NV] RPoT ALlTj]o. XRo UVo
RUeLu A \Ldm, A L]A[tm CPV YWTPm
YWm T Y[L Pd\. JW TiL[d LiP RUeLs
Y[Lhp JW CPeLp AUklTR Y[L Lh\.

UiPlu RU YN AhPYQ
1869p h UiPl Gum xV YVp Yp]o AlT
LiPVlThP 63 RUeL[ AYtu A\u HYNp
AhPYQlTj]o. AYo ALlTjV RUeL[ YLlTjm
\V] BYojR] G]lTm. CqlT, ""RUeLu TiL[]
AYtu A\Lu NoTL Cdm'' ARY RUeL[ AYtu
82

A\Lu HYNp AUdm T AYtu TiLs W]


CPYLp JW UVL Cdm. BYojR] u AlTPp
UiPl RUeL[ AYtu A\Lu HYNp PUhPUL
YNlTj]o. UiPl RU YN AhPYQV BWmT
AjRjR CWi RUeLdPV Jjl Tm RuU CpXRR
LiPkRo. G]Y, Cd\Vl TdYRt AkR CPeLs
YtPUdLlTh CkR. GoLXjp Y RUeLs LiPVlThP
T AkR CPeLs TjRUL CkR. ERWQUL LVm Utm
_oUVm BVY UiPl RU YN AhPYQV EYdVT
LidLlTPpX. UiPl AYt\ \V GL AVm Utm
GL dLu Gum TVhPo. H]p, AY \V AVm
Utm dLu BVYtu TiL[ Jj Cdm Gu
SmdLkRo. u]o CjRUeLs LidLlThPT CYtu
TiLs UiPl VY AUkkR]. V RUeLs LijRm,
RjRm Cum RPoYRp CYW LidLlThP RUeLu
GidL 120BL EVoks[. A Gi 92 YW Es[ RUeLs
CVtLp PlTYVL Es[]. GgVY BnYLeLp RdLlTh
LiPVlThs[ Ut\ RUeLs WVm LPkR RUeLs G]lTu\].
CY AL Xj RuUVt\RLm, LVdLjRp RYPY]YLm
Es[].
UuUlTjRlThP RU YN AhPYQ UuPl RU YN
AhPYQm Jj CkR. Um, TjRuTRm t\iu Cp
LiPVlThP UkR YdLd RV] R V AhPYQp
NodLlThP. UuUlTjRlThP UuPl RU YN AhPYQl TtV
YWm uYU :
(1) JuT NejRL Es[Y RLs G]lTu\]. AY I
Rp VIII Utm O Gu GiL[p dLlTu\]. Um RLs
I Rp VII YW Es[Y C RL[L A Utm B Gu
dLlTu\]. R VIIIp JqYum u RUeL[d LiP
u RLs Es[]. wV Rp UkR YdLs Es[].
(2) PUhPjp Es[Y YNLs G]lTm. CY 1 Rp 7 Gu
GiL[p dLlTu\]. Rp YNp CWi RUeLs Es[].
CWi Utm u\Y YNLs JqYum Gh RUeLs Es[].
CY YNLs G]lTm. Su Utm IkRm YNLs JqYum
83

T]h RUeLs Es[]. CY iP YNLs G]lTm. B\Y


YNp 32 RUeLs Es[Rp L iP YN G]lTm. HZY
YN tT\Up 19 RUeL[d Lis[.
5.2 IUPAC RU YN AhPYQ Utm A Gi
100d Up Es[ RUeLd IUPAC \ Xm
TVRp

V BYojR]
1913p BeXV CVtVp Yp]o au Uv GuTYo J
RUju A GiQ] A \V P dVU] AlTPl
Ti GuTRd LiPkRo. CdLilu [YL V BYojR]
lT, ""RUeLu CVtVp Utm YVp TiLs AYtu A
GiL[ AlTPVLd LiPRm.
RUeL[ AYtu A GiLu H YNp GmT,
RUeLu TiLs lhP W] CPYdl \ JjTu\].
CqY JjR TiLs mT YYR BYojR]m G]lT\. J
RUju YVp Utm CVtVp TiLs AYtu CQ\u
hs[ GXdhWuLu AUlTl TjRU\. G]Y, AdLu
CQ\u hs[ GXdhWuLu AUl JW UVL CdmT
AYtu TiLm Jj Cdm. ERWQUL LWUi EXLeLu
CQ\u hp JW J GXdhWu s - BohPp AUkdm.
LW EXLeLu JW Tid LWQm AYtu AdLu
CQ\u hu JjR GXdhWu AUlTVm. CRTp, Ut\
RUeLu GXdhWu AUlT BWnkRp, A Gi ALdmT
lhP W] CPYp AdLs JjR GXdhWu AUlT
Tts[R LQXm. G]Y, lhP W] CPYp JjR
CQ\u h GXdhWu AUlTl Tts[Rp TiLs JW
UVL Es[]. 2, 8, 18 ApX 32 A Gi CPYp RUeLs
JjR TiL[l Tts[].

sYNj RU AhPYQ
RU AhPYQV] AdLu mTj mT YWdV GXdhWu
AUlT AlTPVLd Li A GiLu HYNp
AhPYQlTjRlThP. ClTPjp sYNj RU AhPYQ
LLlThs[. sYNj RU AhPYQ AUlu \lL[
TdmT AhPYQV Ljp LsU Lhd Ls[lT\.
84

sYNj RU AhPYQ AUlu \lLs


s YNj RU AhPYQp PUhPUL YNlTjRlThP
RUeLs YNLs G]m NejRL YNl TjRlThP RUeLs
RLs G]m AZdLlTu\].

YNLs
J YNp Es[ RUeLu AdLs A]jm JW
GidLX] GXdhWu h] Tts[]. ARY RuU
YiPm GiQl Tts[]. UjRm H YNLs Es[]. JqY
YNm YqY RuU YiPm GiPu RPe\.
Rp YNp Es[ RUeLp GXdhWuLu Rp Bt\p UhPm
oj NnVlT\ (n = 1). CkR Bt\p UhPjp JWV BohPp
(1 s) Uhm ClTRp C CWi GXdhWuL[ Uhm oj NnV
CVm. CRuT Rp YNp CWi RUeLs (ahW_u 1 s1 Utm
Vm 1 s2) UhU ClT RY\.
CWiPm YNV] GXdhWuLs CWiPY Bt\p Xk
ojVYk RPe\ (n = 2). Su BohPpLs (J 2s
Utm u 2 p BohPpLs) UhU ClTRp Gh GXdhWuL[
oj NnV CVm. G]Y CWiPY YNp Ghj RUeLs Es[].
C jVm (z = 3) Rp RUUL J GXdhWu 2s BohPp oj
NnYk RPe\. YNV] Vu, (z = 10) CWiPY
2s22p6 YUL ojVYp YP\.
u\Y YNV] GXdhWuLs u\Y Bt\p hp
ojVYk RPe\. (n = 3). CkR Bt\p hp Es[ JuT
BohPpLp (J s, u p Utm Ik d) Ik 3d BohPpLs 4s
BohPpL[ P AL Bt\p LiPY. G]Y SuLY Bt\p
UhPm ojVYRt u Su BohPpLs n = 3I NokRY oj
NnVlT\. (J 3s Utm u 3p). G]Y, u\Y YNp
NVm (z = 11) Rp BoLu (z = 18) YW Gh RUeLs Es[].
SuLY YNV] n = 4p GXdhWuLs J 4s Utm u 4p
BohPpLp oj NnVlTu\]. (4d Utm 4f BohPpLs 5s
85

BohPX P AL Bt\X Tts[Rp \ oj NnVlT\)


4s Utm 4p BohPpLd CPV Ik 3d BohPpLs oj
NnVlTu\]. G]Y, UjRUL JuT BohPpLs (J 4s, Ik
3d Utm u 4p) oj NnV YilTRp SuLY YNp
T]h RUeLs Es[]. SuLY YN ThPVjp (z = 19)
RPe lPp (z = 36) YPu\]. RUeLs vLuVm (z =
21) Rp ed (z = 30) YW Es[Y 3d CPXj RUeLs G]lTm.
IkRY YNV] SuLY YNVl Tp 5s BohPp
(n = s) RPe\. UjRm JuT BohPpLs (J 5s Ik 4d Utm
u 5p) oj NnV YilTRp T]h RUeLs Es[].
IkRY YNV] Vjp (z = 37) RPe N]u (z = 54)
RUjp YP\.
B\Y YN 6s BohPp (n = 6) ojVYp RPe\.
CYtp UjRm T] BohPpLs (J 6s H 4f Ik 5d Utm
u 6p) AjR Bt\p Uhm ojVYRt u GXdhWuLs
ojVY RPe\. CkR YNp RUeLs Vjp (z = 55)
RPe WPp (z = 86) YP\. 4f BohPpLs ojVY
Vm (z = 58) RUjp RPe Vm (z = 71) RUjp YP\.
C Rp Es CPXj RU YNV] XkR] YNV
Es[PdV.
HZY YN 7s BohPp (n = 7) ojVYk RPe\.
32 RUeLs CdL YiV Cp \V T] BohPpLs (J
7s, H 5f, Ik 6d Utm u 7p) ojVL RPe]m tT\Up
Es[]. RtT Cp 23 RUeLs UhU Es[]. 5f BohPpLs
ojVY RVm (z = 90) RUjp RPe XWuVm (z = 103)
RUjp YP\. CqYNV] CWiPm Es CPXj RU
YNV] Bd] YNV Es[PdV. CYtp TmTm
UR]p EYdLlThP LVdLj RUeLs Es[]. RU YN
AhPYQV] TRLd V RuUp ClTRp 4f Utm 5f Es
CPXj RUeLs RVL YdLlThs[].
RUeLu GidLm AYtu BohPpLs oj
NnVlTYm Z LdLlThs[].
86

AhPYQ 4,2

YN
Rp
CWiPm
u\m
SuLm
IkRm
B\m
HZm

RuU BohPpLs
CQ\u WllTRp
n=1
n=2
n=3
n=4
n=5
n=6
n=7

1s
2s, 2p
3s, 3p
4s, 3d, 4p
5s, 4d, 5p
6s, 4f, 5d, 6p
7s, 5f, 6d, 7p

GXdhWuLs
WlTlTRp
2
2+6
2+6
2 + 10 + 6
2 + 10 + 6
2 + 14 + 10 + 6
2 + 14 + 10 + 6

GXdhWuLu

GidL
2
8
8
18
18
32
32

2, 8 Utm 8 BV RUeL[d Lis[ Rp u YNLs


V YNLs G]lTm. AjR 18, 18 Utm 32 RUeL[d Lis[
u YNLs iP YNLs G]lTm.

RLs
RU YN AhPYQp NejRL Es[ Tj, R G]
AZdLlT\. J Rp Es[ RUeLs A]jm JW UV]
Ydh GXdhWu AUlTl Tts[]. s YNj RU
AhPYQp 18 RLs Es[]. International Union of Pure and
Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Gu\ AUlu BXN]lT CjRLs
A]jm 1 Rp 18 YW GiL[p dLlThs[]. JW Rp
Es[ RUeLs Es[PdV mTm G]lTm. ERWQUL R 17
(VIIA)I NokR RUeLs aX_u mTm G]lTm.

Z > 100 Es[ RUeLd IUPAC TVRp


WVjR (z = 92) Ajs[ RUeLs A]jm Rl \p
RVdLlThPY. CY WVm LPkR RUeLs G]lTm. RUm ToVm
(z = 100) AjR RUeLs ToVm LPkR RUeLs G]lTm. RUeLs
ToVm (z = 100), UiPVm (z = 101), SVm (z = 102) Utm
XWuVm (z = 103) BVY LrTt\ AVp AOoLu TVp
YdLlThs[. CkRm CTu\ RUeLu TVoLm,
Lm TmTuUVL CYW Htd Ls[lTPpX. Utm
X RUeLd CWi TVoLs/Ls Es[]. ERWQUL A
Gi 104 Es[ RUm ofNPVm (Ku) ApX RoToVm (R f)
G]lT\. CRTp A Gi 107 Es[ RUm pvTVm (Ns)
ApX TVm (Bh) G] AZdLlT\. B]p, rdLiP A]jj
87

RUeLm JW TVPu Es[]. ERWQUL A Gi 105 B]


PlVm G]m, A Gi 106 B] ToVm G]m, A Gi 108
a v Vm G]m Utm A G i 109 Un h V m G ] m
AZdLlT\. CjRYL[ N NnYRtLL z > 100 LiP
RUeLd IUPAC \p TVPlThP. IUPAC BXN]lT A
Gi 100I P ALm LiP RUeLd AYtu GiLd Xju
YojRLs TVuTjRlThP]. CjRUeLu TVoLs AYtu GiLu
AlTPVLd LiPRm.
Gi YodLm 0
nil

1
un

2
bi

3 4
5
6
7
8
9
tri quad pent hex sept oct en
AhPYQ 4,3

A Gi
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120

RUju TVo
Unnilunnium
Unnilbium
Unniltrium
Unnilquadium
Unnilpentium
Unnilhexium
Unnilseptium
Unniloctium
Unnilennium
Ununnilium
Unununium
Ununbium
Ununtrium
Ununquadium
Ununpentium
Ununhexium
Ununseptium
Ununoctium
Ununennium
Unbinilium
88

Unu
Unb
Unt
Unq
Unp
Unh
Uns
Uno
Une
Uun
Uuu
Uub
Uut
Uuq
Uup
Uuh
Uus
Uuo
Uue
Ubn

4.3 GXdhWu AUlm, RU YN AhPYQm

RUeLu GXdhWu AUltm, sYN RU AhPYQdm


CPV SeV RPo Es[. J As[ GXdhWu
\lVpLs YWVlTRt Su YiPm GiLs RYlTY RkR
Ju\m. RuU YiPm Gi (n) G]lTm. dV Bt\p UhPjR
YWVd\. RUeLu GXdhWu AUlT AY RU YN
AhPYQu R Utm YN BVYtp GqY UT\
GuTRu Xm AVXm.

(a) YNLu GXdhWu AUl


RU YN AhPYQp Es[ JqY AjRjR YNm AjR
EVo RuU Bt\p Xp (n = 1, n = 2 etc.) GXdhWuLs WlTlTYR
Tj AU\. J YNp Es[ RUeLu GidLV]
AkR Bt\p UhPjp Es[ A BohPpLu GidLVl Tp
C UPeLL Es[. Rp YN \kR Bt\p LiP 1 s BohPX
WlYk RPe\. ahW_u (1s1) Utm Vm (1s2)BV
CWi RUeLs RpYNp Es[]. CWiPY YN
jVjk RPe\. u\Y GXdhWu 2s BohPX
AP\. AjR RUm TVm Su GXdhWuLPu 1s22s2 GXdhWu
AUlTl Tts[. AjR RUm TWk 2p GXdhWuLs
WlY RPeLlTh, Vu (2s22p6) RUjPu L Wm\.
G]Y, CWiPY YNp 8 RUeLs Es[]. u\Y YN
(n = 3) NVjp BWmd\. NodLlTm GXdhWu 3s BohPp
N\. AjRj 3s Utm 3p BohPpLp NoYRp, u\Y
YN 8 RUeLPu NVm Rp BoLu YW ojV\.
SuLY YN (n = 4) ThPVm RUjPu 4s BohPp
WmYRu Xm RPe\. 3d BohPpLs, 4p BohPpLs
WlYRt u WlTlTYRp 3d CPXj RUeLs Pdu\].
4p BohPpLs WlYRt u WlTlTYRp 3d CPXj RUeLs
Pdu\]. 4p BohPpLs WlTlTYRp SuLY YNV]
lPu RUjPu \. IkRY YN (n = 5) Vm
RUjPu RPe\. CPp 4d CPXj RUeLs ChVm
(z = 39) Rp RUUL Es[. 5p BohPpLs WlTlTYRp YN
N]u RUjPu \.
B\Y YN (n = 6)p 32 RUeLs Es[]. AjRjR
89

GXdhWuLs 6s, 4f, 5d Utm 6p BohPpLp WlTlTu\]. 4f


BohPpLs WlTlTY Vjp (z = 58) BWmj Vjp
(z = 71) YPu\]. CY 4f EsP Xj RUeL[j Ru\].
CYtt XkR]n YN Gu TVo. CRTp HZY YN (n = 7)
AjRj GXdhWuLs 7s, 5f, 6d Utm 7p BohPpLp
WlTlTu\]. CYtp TmTuUV]Y UR]p EYdLlThP
LVdLj RUeLs Bm. CkR YN A Gi 118Pu UkR YY
CVLd Li VXm. BdVjR (z = 89) Aj 5f BohPpLs
WlTlTYRp 5f EsP Xj RUeLs Pd\. CYtt
Bd]n YN Gu TVo. 4f Utm 5f EsP Xj RUeL[
RU YN AhPYQp, ARu AUlT JeTjRm Utm
YLlTjRp lT JW TiLPV RUeL[ JW Rp
YdLm, RVL YdLlThs[].

(b) RLp GXdhWu AUl


RUeLs AYtu RLp JW GXdhWu AUlL[l
Tts[]. Um AY AYtu Ydh BohPp NU
GidLp GXdhWuL[m, JW TiL[m Tts[].
R-1 (LW EXLeLs) RUeL[ ERWQULd Ls[Xm.
RUeLu TiLs AYtu A GiQ AlTPVLd
LiPRm. Jl A \V TjRRpX GuTR AVXm.
AhPYQ 4,4 : R - 1 RUeLs

A Gi

GXdhWu AUl

Li

1s22s1 or [He] 2s1

11

Na

1s22s22p63s1 or [Ne] 3s1

19

1s22s22p63s2 3p64s1or [Ar]4s1

37

Rb

1s22s22p63s2 3p64s23d104p65s1 or [Kr] 5s1

55

Cs

1s22s22p63s2 3p64s23d104p65s2 4d105p66s1 or [Xe] 6s1

RUeLu YLLs s, p, d, f RLs


B@T LsL Utm AdLu GXdhWu AUl BVY
RUeL[ YLlTjYRt AlTPVL Es[]. RU YN
AhPYQp Es[ Nej YNp Es[ RUeLs R G]lTm.
90

CPXj RUeLs

RU YN AhPYQ

91

Rs[ RUeLs JW Yl TiTl Tts[]. Vm s RVf NokR. B]p A p RVf NokR 18 RUeLPu
CPm Tts[. H]p, He B] YUL oj NnVlThP
BohPp (1s2) AUlPu UkRY TiL[l TtlTRp p- Rp
YdLlThs[. Ut\u VhW_u Bm. ahW_u RjR 1s
GXdhW] TtlTRp R-1 (LW EXLeLs) p YdLlThs[.
Um C J GXdhW] Yed Li UkRY GXdhWu AUlTl
TYRp R-17 RUeL[ Tp NVpT\. G]Y, \lj
RVL ahW_u RU YN AhPYQu UpTp
YdLlThs[. Su YLV] RUeLu RL[l Ttl
TolTm.

s-R RUeLs
R-1 (LW EXLeLs) Utm R-2 (LWUi EXLeLs)
RUeLs \V Yh GXdhWu AUlT ns1 Utm ns2 G]
TtlTRp AY s- R RUeLs G]lTm. CY \kR
AVVdm GuRp LiP ]\u dL EXLeLs. CY Gp
Yft GXdhW] CZk + 1 (LW EXLeLs) ApX + 2 (LWUi
EXLeLs) AVL[j Ru\]. EXLjRuU Utm ]j\u
BVY Rp \emT EV\. TVjRj RW s- R
RUeLu NoUeLs AVj RuUPVY.

p-R RUeLs
RLs 13 Rp 18 YW Es[ RUeLs p- R RUeL[m.
s- R RUeLm Noj CYt\ RuU R RUeLs G]lTm.
JqY Rm Yft GXdhWu AUl ns2np1 k ns2np6
YW UT\. JqY YNm UkRY GXdhWu AUlPu
(ns 2np 6 ) \. UkRYdLu BohPpLs YUL
WlTlThs[Rp CkR XV] AUlp GXdhW] NodLY ApX
GdLY CVX. G]Y, UkRYdLs Ld \kR ]\]
Tts[]. UkRYdLs Rd uRL CWi dVU] YVp
RLs Es[]. AY aX_uLs (R-17) Utm NpL_uLs
(R-16) Bm. CkR C Rj RUeLm AL GXdhWu LYo
GuRpV TtlTRp Ju ApX CWi GXdhWuL[ Ht
UkRY GXdhWu AUlT Tu\]. RUeLu AXLjRuU
YNp CPk YXUL NpmT ALdm. EXLjRuU
Rp \emT ALdm.
92

d-R RUeLs (CPXj RUeLs)


CY R 3 Rp 12 YW Es[ RU YN AhPYQu
UVjp Es[ RUeL[m. AdLu Ehhp Es[
d- BohPpLp GXdhWuLs WlTlTu\]. G]Y CY d-R
RUeLs G]lTu\]. CYtu Yftu GXdhWu AUl
(n 1)d1-10 ns1-2 CYLs A]jm EXLeL[m. CY TmTm
CY TmTm \s[ AVL[j Ru\]. Um Jud UtThP
CQ\uL[l Tts[]. B]p, Zn, Cd Utm Hg BVY
(n 1)d10ns2 GXdhWu AUlTl Tts[]. Utm TmTX]
CPXj RUeLdL] TiTl TtlTpX. CPXj
RUeLs ]\u dL s-R RUeLdm, \kR ]\u
LiP RLs 13 Utm 14dm CPV TXUL [e\. G]Y
CY CPXj RUeLs G] AZdLlTu\].

f-R RUeLs (Es CPXj RUeLs)


RU YN AhPYQu rTp Es[ XkR]Ls (58Ce
Rp 71Lu YW) Utm Bd]Ls (90Th Rp 103Lr YW) Es[Y Es
CPXj RUeLs G]lTm. CYtu CQ\u h GXdhWu
AUl (n-2) f 1-14 (n-1)d 0-10 ns2. JqY RUjm Nodm GXdhWu
f- BohPp N\. G]Y, CWi YNj RUeLs Es CPXj
RUeLs G]lTm. CY A]jm EXLeL[Lm, AYtu TiLs
JW UVLm Es[].
Bd] RUeLs AL Bd_]t\ GiL[l TtlTRp
CYtu YVX] XkR]L[ P dLXL Es[. Bd]
RUeLs LVdLj RuU EPVY. TmTuUV] Bd]
RUeLs S]Wm A[p ApX ARP \kR A[p
AdL]L]p RVlTRp AYt\l Tt UVL Akd
Ls[ CVX. WVjR Ajs[ RUeLs WVm LPkR
RUeLs G]lTm.
(G.L) RUeLs z = 117 Utm z = 120 BVY Cum
LiPVlTPpX. CY GjRp AUks[] Utm AYtu
GXdhWu AUlT GL.
RU YN AhPYQp z = 117 B] aX_u RVf (R
- 17) NokR. ARu GXdhWu AUl [Rn] 4 f 446d10 7s27p5. Z = 120
93

B] LWUi EXLj RVf (R-2) NokR. ARu GXdhWu


AUl [Uuo]8s2 Bm.
RUeL[ s, p, d Utm f RL[L YLlTjRXj RW AYtu
TiL[l Tj Ut\ YLVL YLlTjRlT\. RUeLs
A]jm EXLeLs Utm AXLeLs G] YLlTjRlTu\].
75% UtThP RUeLs EXLeL[Lm AY RU YN AhPYQu
CPl\jm Es[]. UodVj RW A]j EXLeLm A\
YlTXp iUUL Es[]. Um AL LX Utm
EXVl Tts[]. YlTm Utm uNWjR Su LPjRd
VY. LmVL hPm, RLPLm Ut\ CVm. AXLeLs RU
YN AhPYQp YXlTdLju Ut\jp AUks[. AXLeLs
A\YlTXp iUULY ApX YYLY \kR LX
Utm EXVl Tts[]. Um YlTX Utm uNWjR
\kR A[Y LPju\]. TmTuUV] AXL iUeLs L]UL
ClTRp LmVLY ApX RLPLY NnV CVX. Rp
\emT RUeLu EXLl Ti ALd\. YNp CPk
YXULf NpmT AXLl Ti ALd\. RU YN
AhPYQp Es[Y EXLj RUk AXLj RuUd
UY odLU] LL[p CdL. Lhu GpXp Es[ RUeLs
(NoUVm, Lu, BoNd, BuU Utm PpVm) EXLl
TiL[m, AXLl TiL[m Tts[]. CjRUeLs EXLl
TLs G] AZdLlTu\]. (G-L) rdLiP RUeL[ AYtu
EXLj RuUu HYNp GL. Si, Be, Mg, Na, P.
EXLj RuU Rp Uk ZL EV\. YNp
CPk YXlTdLUL NpmT \\. G]Y EXLjRuU
EVm YN, P < Si < Be < Mg < Na.
4.4 RUeLu BYojR] TiLs

RUeLu TiLs lhP W] CPYdl \ im


JW UVL ClTRt BYojR] Ti G]lTm. RUeLu
Ydh GXdhWuLu AUl JW UVL ClTR CRtd
LWQUm. CjRLV TiLs X uYU :

(i) A Utm AV BWeLs


Au EY[ ARu A BWjk AVXm. A BWm
94

ApX AV BWm GuT AdLtm, A ApX AVu


Ydhp Es[ GXdhWdm CPlThP RX G]
YWVdLlT\. ERWQUL ahW_u Au A BWm 74/2 pm
= 37 pm (ahW_u Xdu (H2) Ql [m 74 pm Bm.)
RU YN AhPYQp Es[ NRWQ RUeLd A Utm
AV BWeLs CPk YXlTdLm NpmT \u\]. ERWQUL
2 Y YNLs Es[ Li Rp F YW Es[ RUeLu NLlQl
BWm \\.
Li Be B C N O F
NLlQl BWm

UlLs \Rp

G]Y, GkRY YNm LW EXLeLs (RU YN


AhPYQp CPdLp Es[Y) TV EY A[Pm, aX_uLs
(RU YN AhPYQp YXdLp Es[Y) V EY A[Pm
Es[].

[dLm
J YNp CPk YXULf NpmT GXdhWuLu JW
RuU Bt\p LiP BohPpLd WlTlT\. YqY
GXdhWuLs JW Bt\p UhPjp WlTlTYRp EY[ ALlTpX.
B]p, JqY GXdhW] NodmTm AdLu uU (A
Gi) Ju \. CqY AdLu uU ALlTRp
GXdhWuLs AdL]p DodLlTu\]. AdLu EY[
\\.
AhPYQ 4,5 : A BWm (pm) Rp

A BWm

A BWm

Li
Be
B
C
N
O
F

152
111
88
77
70
74
72

Na
Mg
Al
Si
P
S
Cl

186
160
143
117
110
104
99

95

A BWm / pm

A Gi

TPm 4,1 CWiPm YNp A BWm A GiQ Tj


UTRp

J Rp Uk ZL YmT A BWm Utm AV


BWm BVY A Gi EVYRl Tj ALdu\. ERWQUL
Li Rp Cs YW Es[ R 1A RUeLu NLlQl Utm AV
BWeLs ALdu\].
R I A RUeLs

Li Na K Rb Cs

NLlQl/AV BWeLs

UlLs ALjRp

[dLm
J Rk ZL YmT NodLlTm GXdhWu AjR
RuU Bt\p hp N\. C AdLk RXp Es[.
CRu LWQUL AdL Utm CQ\u GXdhWu
BVYttPVV] Xu Dol N \\. G]Y A Utm
AV BWeLs ALdu\].
AhPYQ 4,6 : A BWm (pm) Rp

A BWm

A BWm

Li
Na
K
Rb
Cs

152
186
231
244
262

F
Cl
Br
I
At

72
99
114
133
140

96

A BWm / pm

A Gi

TPm 4,2 LW EXLm Utm aX_uLu A BWm A GiQ


Tj UTRp

X AdLs Utm AVLm JW GidLp GXdhWuL[


TtkRp ARt JjR GXdhWu (Isoelectronic) AUlPVY
G]lTm. ERWQUL O2-, F-, Na+ Utm Mg2+ BVY JW GidLp
10 GXdhWuL[ Tts[]. B]p AYtu BWeLs YqY
uUV TtlTRp YqY\L Es[]. AL uU LiP
Gou AV AL BWjRl Tts[. AdLu uUV P
GXdhWuLu XdN ALUL ClTRp AV YPk EY[
ALU\.

ERWQm
rdLiPYtp G TV EY[Ym, V EY[Ym Tts[].
Mg, Mg2+, Al, Ap3+

o
A BWeLs YNp CPk YXUL \k LiP Y\.
Sou AVLs AYtu AdL[ P \kR EY[Yl Tts[].
JjR uU LiP AVLp AL Sou U LiP AV V
EY[Yl Tts[. G]Y Mg B] TV EY[Yd LiP
Al3+ V EY[Yd LiPRm.
Gou U LiP AVu EY[ ARu AY P
97

ALUm. F (= 1.36 ) > F (= 0.72 ) ; Cl - (= 1.81 ) > Cl (= 0.99 ) ;


Sou U LiP AVu EY[ ARu AY P \kRRm.
Na+ (= 0.95 ) < Na (= 1.90 ) ; Ca2+ (= 0.99 ) < Ca (= 1.97 ).
Na, Na+, Cl Utm Cl BVYtu BWeL[d Ljp LsYm.
Na+ AVV] Na- P \kR BWm EPVRtL] [dLm uYU.
Na+p 10 GXdhWuLs Es[]. (Na+ 1s2,2s2p6) B]p Na Ap 11
GXdhWuLs Es[] (Na+ 1s2, 2s2p6, 3s1). CWim Es[ AdLu
uU NUUm. ARu +11 (Nau A Gi). AdL uU +11
B] Na+ AVp 10 GXdhWuLu Njm LYof NV]
Na Au 11 GXdhWuLu Njm LYof NV P ALUL
Cdm. G]Y, Na+ AVV] Na AY P V EY[Yl
Ttdm.
Cl AVV] Cl-I P TV EY[ TtlTR uYU
[dLXm. Cl AVp 18 GXdhWuLm (Cl 1s2, 2s2p6, 3s2p6) Cl
Ap 17 GXdhWuLm (Cl 1s2, 2s2p6, 3s2p5) Es[]. JqYum
AdL uU +17 B] Cl- AVp Es[ 18 GXdhWuL[P
Cl Ap Es[ 17 GXdhWuL[ AL A[p Dod\. G]Y, Cl
AVV] Cl AY P TV EY[ LiP.

(ii) AVVdm Bt\p


V \p AVVdm Bt\X], AVVdm GuRp
Gu\ZdLlT\. J Ak J GXdhW] dYRt
RYlTm Bt\p AVVdm GuRp (IE) G]lTm. RjR
YXs[ J Ak J GXdhW] dYt RYlTm
Bt\p Rp AVVdm GuRp G]lTm.
A(g) + Bt\p

Sou AV(g) + GXdhWu

ERWQUL
Li (g) + 520 kJ mol-1 Li+ (g) + eAVVdm GuRpV] AVVdm u]jRm Gum
AZdLlT\. H]p, C YXs[ Ak GXdhW]
dYRt RYlTm Bt\X u]jRjRp A[PlTYR CRtd
LWQUm. C kJ/mol ApX eV/ A Gu\ AXp A[PlT\.

98

AR RUjk CWiPY GXdhW] dYRt Rp


GXdhW] dYR P AL Bt\p RYlT\. H]p J
SX AY P SouU LiP AVk GXdhW]
dY L]Um.
Li (g) + 7297 kJ mol-1 Li2+ + eCRTp u\Y AVVdm GuRp CWiPY AVVdm
GuRpV P ALUm. TPm 4.3p X RUeLu AVVdm
GuRpu YWTPm Es[.

A Gi

TPm 4,3 RUeLs z = 1 Rp 60 YW AVVdm GuRpu


UlLs

RU YN AhPYQp AVVdm Bt\p UTRp


TPm 4.3k J RUju AVVdm GuRpV] ARu
GXdhWu AUlTf NokR G]Xm. UkRYdLs ALThN AVVdm
GuRpVm, LW EXLeLs \kRThN AVVdm GuRpVm
Tts[]. UkRYdLs Ym WlTlThP Ydhu GXdhWu
AUlT TtlTRp ALThN AVVdm GuRpV Tts[].
LW EXLeLs AYtu TV EY[ Utm Jt\ GXdhWu LiP
Yd BVYt\p \kRThN UlTl Tts[].
AVVdm GuRp J YNp CPk YXULf Npm T
ALd\. AdL uU ALjRp Utm YNp CPk
YXULf NpmT EY[ \Rp BVYtk CR]
99

[dLXm. TYL RU YN AhPYQp Es[ Rp Uk


\emT AVVdm GuRp \\. Ydh GXdhWuLs
AdLk RXp ClTRp GXdhW] GRL dLXm.
Um Ehhp Es[ GXdhWuL[p U\dm RuU ALlTm
CRtd LWQUm. G]Y GXdhW] Rp Uk
\emT dY GR\.

TPm 4.4(a) CWiPY YNj RUeLu AVVdm GuRp


(b) LW EXLeLu AVVdm GuRp

AVVdm GuRpV Tdm LWLs


J Au AVVdm GuRp uYm LWL[ AlTPVLd
LiPRm.

(i) Au EY A[
Au EY A[ ALdm T AdLtm Ydh
GXdhWdm CPVV] Wm ALdm. G]Y, AjRLV GXdhWuLs
R] AdLu Dol N \m G]Y, AYt\ Gp
dPXm. J Au EY A[ ALdmT AVVdm
GuRp \m.

(ii) GXdhWuLs FRp [


Es GXdhWuLu Fm \]], rdLiP YNp
\\. s>p>d>f. s-GXdhWu AdLYl Tj Fm \u
100

ALm TtlTRp AYt\ dLY L]U]. G]Y, s GXdhW]


dYRt p-GXdhW] P AL AVVdm GuRp RYlTm.
CRTp, p GXdhW] dYRt d GXdhW] P AL AVVdm
GuRp RYlT\.

(iii) GXdhWu ShPm


V SP\p GXdhWu ShPU] GXdhWu LYo GuRp
G] AZdLlT\. YXs[ SX At J GXdhW]f
Noj Gou UPV AVV EYdmT YPlTm Bt\X
GXdhWu LYo GuRp G]lTm.
A(g) + GXdhWu
Cl(g)

e-

Gou AV(g) + Bt\p


Cl-(g) + EA

J At J GXdhW] Nojd Lsm RuU ALUL


CkRp, AL Bt\X Y\. G]Y, GXdhWu LYo GuRp
ALU\. U\L, J At J GXdhW] Nojd Lsm
RuU \YL CkRp, \kR Bt\X YPlT\. G]Y
ARu GXdhWu LYo GuRpu Ul \\. GXdhWu LYo
Bt\u UlLs eV/atom ApX kJ/mol Gu\ AXp lPlT\.
F2 = 322 kJ mol1

Cl2 = 349 kJ mol1

Br2 = 324 kJ mol1 and

I2 = 295 kJ mol1

aX_uLs (R 17 RUeLs) GXdhW] LYok XV]


UkRYu AUlTl Tu\]. G]Y, AYtu GXdhWu LYo
GuRpu UlLs Lm ALUm. aX_uLu GXdhWu
GuRpu UlLs YWTPm 4.4p Es[].
J Rp \em T GXdhWu LYo Bt\u UlLs
\k LiP Y\. Au EY A[ ALlTRp, GXdhWu
R] AdLu Dol N \\. G]Y, Rp A Gi
EVmT GXdhWu NolTRtL] \u \k LQlT\.
GXdhWu LYo GuRp UlLp, GoTojR TX ApXUp,
u GXdhWu LYo GuRpV] [] P \YL Es[.
u A V EY A[Pu Su LhPUkR GXdhWu hP
TtlTR CRtd LWQUm. u Su LhPUklTR]p
101

GXdhWu ShPm

2p BohPp GXdhW] NodmT XdLm HtT\. G]Y


GXdhWu LYo GuRpV] GoTojRR P \YL Es[.
[u Ap Es[ 3p BohPpLs p Es[ 2p BohPXl
Tu\ LhPUlT T\pX. NodLlTm GXdhW] [u \kR
Xd NVp Gp Yed Ls\. G]Y [u GXdhWu
LYo GuRp ] P ALUm.

A Gi

TPm 4,5 aX_uLd GXdhWu LYo GuRp

UkR YdLp, AYtu YdPs[ s Utm p BohPpLs


YUL WlTlThs[]. CkR BohPpLp Um GXdhWuL[
NodL CVX. G]Y, UkRYdLs GXdhW] HtTpX. CYtu
GXdhWu LYo GuRp wVUm.
GXdhWu LYo GuRp TYL J YNp CPk YXULf
Npm T ALdm. AdLu uU ALlTRp GXdhWu
LYof Nm ALlTR CRtd LWQUm.
CWiPY GXdhWu LYo GuRp GuT Gou AVPu J
GXdhW] Nodm NVp\Vm.
(E-m) O- (g) + e-

O2- (g)

Gou AV O- Utm GXdhWu BVY Ju\Vu


XdYRp, Bt\p RYlT\. Bt\p EZlTYpX. G]Y,
CWiPm GXdhWu LYo GuRp GoV EPV.

102

GXdhWu ShPju Gi UlT Tdm LWLs


GXdhWu ShPju Gi UlT] uYm rdLiP LWL[p
TdLlT\. AY (1) Au EY A[ (2) TVPV AdL
uU Utm (3) Es GXdhWuLu U\jRp [.
ERWQm
uYY]Ytp G AL Go GXdhWu LYo GuRp Utm
\kR Go GXdhWu LYo GuRp, P, S, Cl, F PV [dL.

o
YNp CPk YXULf Npm T GXdhWu LYo GuRpVL
Go Ul ALU\. Rp, CRu Ul \kR GoV
EPV. 2p BohPpLp GXdhW] Nodm T, 3p-BohPpL[
TX ApXUp, XdLm AP\. G]Y, AL Go GXdhWu LYo
GuRpV Tts[ RUm [u, \kR Go GXdhWu LYo
GuRpV Tts[ RUm TvTWv Bm.

(iv) GXdhWu LYo \u


J Xdp Es[ AY] Qls[ GXdhWu _V
RuTp Dojd Lsm TiT GXdhWu LYo \u G]lTm. TVPV
AdL uU Utm A BWm BVYt\ GXdhWu LYo\u
AlTPVLd LiPRm. TVPV AdL uU ALdmT
GXdhWu LYo \u ALUm. A BWm \YL CkRp GXdhWu
LYo Bt\p ALUm.
J YNp CPk YXULf NpmT GXdhWu LYo Bt\p
ALdm. YNp A BWm \Ym, AdL uU ALlTm
CRt LWQUm. aX_uLs AL GXdhWu LYo UlTl Tts[].
Rp \em T GXdhWu LYo Bt\p Ul \\.
A BWm EVYR CRtd LWQUm. aX_uLp u AL
GXdhWu LYo Bt\p UlPVRm. u AL GXdhWu LYo
Bt\p LiP RUUm. (4.0 - Tv A[) Vm TV EY A[
Utm AL U\jRp [Y TtlTRp \kR GXdhWu LYo
Bt\p (0.7) LiP RUUm. U\L Vm AL SouU LiP
RUm Utm AL EXLjRuU YnkR RUm G]Xm.
103

GXdhWu LYo GuRpdm, GXdhWu LYo Bt\dm Es[


YTLs uYU.
GXdhWu LYo GuRp

GXdhWu LYo Bt\p

C RjR YXs[
A GXdhW] Htm
TiTm.

C J Xds[ A
GXdhWu _ Dojd Lsm
TiTm.

C eV / A (A) kcal / Up C J GiQm. AXLs


(A) kJ / Up Gu\ AX]p CpX.
A[PlT\.
C J RjR Au
TiTm.

C Qls[ Au
TiTm.

J Au GXdhWu LYo
GuRp hP UlTm

C Qlj RuUV TjR


Jl A[Ym. ERWQUL sp
C]dLXl LoTu sp2 LoT] P
AL GXdhWu LYo Bt\p
LiP. CRTp sp2 B] sp3
P AL GXdhWu LYo
Bt\PV.

C R ApX YNp C R ApX YNp


JeLL UYpX
JeLL U\.

(v) T Utm UVL WmV BohPpLs


J AY] T ApX UVL WmV BohPpL[
TtkRp, RU YN AhPYQp AYtu AVVdm
GuRpV] GoTodm UlT P ALUL Cdm. H]p,
CjRLV AdLs AL XjRuUV TtlTRp, AYtu XV]
GXdhWu AUlk GXdhW] dY L]Um.
J RUju GXdhWu LYo Bt\u Ulk Qlj
RuUV oQdLXm. CWi AdLs JW GXdhWuLs LYo Bt\X
TtkRp AY NLQlTl Ttdm. U\L AL GXdhWu
LYo Bt\p YT CkRp AVl QlTl Ttdm. V
NLlQl Utm V AVl Ql BV CWidPV
104

QlLs YqY AVl TiTl Tts[]. A[hlT, GXdhWu


LYo Bt\p YT 1.7 CkRp, Ap 50% AVjRuU Cdm.
1.7 I P \YL CkRp NLQlTm, 1.7I P ALUL CkRp
AVl QlTm Ttdm.
AhPYQ 4.7 : Teu GXdhWu LYo \u UlLs
H
2.1
Li
1.0

Be
1.5

B
2.0

C
2.5

N
3.0

O
3.5

F
4.0

Na
0.9

Cl
3.0

K
0.8

Br
2.8

Rb
0.8

I
2.5

Cs
0.7
4.5 U\jRp U, XjRuU YXL UThP
BYojR] TiLs

ih u T, T ApX UVL WmV BohPpL[d


LiP AdLs AL XjRuUV Ttdm. G]Y AjRLV
AdLp GXdhW] dYRt AL Bt\p RYlTm AkR
AdLu AhPYQp Es[T AVVdm GuRpV]
GoTojRR P ALUL Cdm.

ERWQm
RU YN AhPYQu YNp Es[ X RUeLu AL
AVVdm GuRp UlL[ T Utm UVL WlTlThP
BohPpLu Xm [dLXm. CWiPY YNp Es[ Be Utm
N BVYm u\Y YNp Es[ Mg Utm P BVY
GoTojRR P AL AVVdm GuRpV Tts[].
Be (Be 2s2) Utm Mg (Mg 3s2) BVY \V UVL
105

WlTlThP 2s Utm 3s BohPpL[ Lis[]. Np Es[ T


WlTlThP 2p BohPm (N 2s22p3) Utm Pp Es[ T WlTlThP
3p BohPm (P 3s2p3 ) CRtd LWQUm.
B Utm Be BVYtp Ut\ UThP AVVdm GuRpVd
LQXm.
TWu AVVdm GuRp (B 2s 22p 1 ) TVjR
(Be 2s2) P \Ym. [B = 8.3 eV, Be = 9.3 eV] TWp 2p1
GXdhW] dL Yis[. B+[B (2s2p1) B+ (2S2) + e- ] TVjp
AR RuU hs[ 2s1 GXdhW] dL Yis[. + [ (2s2p1)
B+(2S2 ) + e-] TVjp AR RuU hs[ 2s1 GXdhW]
dL Yis[. [Be (2s2) Be+(2s1) + e-]
AVVdm GuRpp Nejj RuUm UT Es[.
A Gi 72I LPkR RUeLp CjRLV Ti LQlT\. Ta73
Rp Pb82 YW Es[ Rj RUeLu AVVdm GuRp UlLs
ARt UX Es[ RV P ALUL Es[].
AhPYQ 4,8
VB

VI B VII B

VIII

IB

II B III A IV A

Nb41

Mo42

Tc43

Ru44

Rh45

Pd46

Ag47

Cd48

In49

Sn50

6.8

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

8.3

7.5

8.9

5.7

7.3

Ta73

W74

Re75

Os76

Ir77

Pt78

Au79

Hg80

Tl81

Pb82

7.7

7.8

7.8

8.7

9.2

9.0

9.2

10.4

6.1

7.4

CkR UThP RuUdL] LWQm (I1 Ul EVRp Nb Ta, Mo


W, ......, Sn Pb) Ta73 k Pb82 YW XkR] dLm Bm.
CPXj RUeLp EY[ ALdLUp AdL uU
ALlTR CRtd LWQUm. TYL ClTp EY[ \\.

BYojR] UTLs
CRTp Rp \em T GXdhWu LYo GuRp
\\. ECl>EBr>EI. RUeLu A BWm WL EVYR CRtd
LWQUm.
106

XdLs
CkR T d X XdLs uYU : EF<ECl (EF = 322 kJ
mol , ECl = 349 kJ mol-1) GuT Rm. F-d \kR Ult LWQm
GXdhWu -GXdhWu Xd N Utm 2p BohPp LhPUl Bm.
-1

YNp GXdhWu LYo GuRpVL UlLs TYL


AhPYQp CPk YXUL NpmT ALd\. CkR T
d XdLs uYU :
Be Utm Mg-u E4 UlLs wVUm. Be Utm Mg BVY
Ym WlTlThP s-BohPpL[ Lis[]. (Be 2s 2,
Mg 3s2). G]Y NodLlTm GXdhWu \V Bep 2p-BohPXm,
Mg- p 3p BohPXm No\. CY 2s BohPX P AL Bt\p
LiPYVm.
]dLs

A. NV] PV RokRdL.
1. A Gi 31 I Lis[ RUju R
(a) d-R (b) f-R (c) p-R
(d) s- R
2. RuU R RUeLs
(a) s Utm d-RLs
(b) s Utm p-RLs
(c) p Utm d-RLs
(d) d Utm f-RLs
3. RU YN AhPYQp Es[ AL GXdhWu LYo\u LiP
RUm
(a) AVu
(b) u
(c) [u
(d) Bd_u
4. Lm XjRuU LiP Y Xs[ Sou AV
(a) F
(b) Cl
(c) Br
(d) I
5. Rds AL AVVdm Bt\Xl Tts[ RUeLs
(a) aX_uLs
(b) UkR YdLs
(c) LW EXLeLs
(d) d-R RUeLs
(e) LW Ui EXLeLs
6. RU YN AhPYQp Rp Uk \em T
ALdm Ti
(a) AVVdm Bt\p
(b) GXdhWu LYo GuRp
(c) GXdhWu LYo \u
(d) Jdj RuUu \u
107

7. AdLu s Utm p Bt\p UhPeLs tTts[ RUeLs


(a) NRWQ RUeLs
(b) d-R RUeLs
(c) aX_uLs
(d) UkR YdLs
8. mU TkY
(a) [u, Wu Utm AVu
(b) ahW_u, Bd_u Utm ShW_u
(c) NVm, Vu Utm LpVm
(d) UtV A]jm
9. GhPm V VYo
(a) PTu]o (b) UiPl (c) UvX (d) Xih
10. rdLiP GlTi Rp Uk \em T \\.
(a) AVVdm GuRp
(b) A BWm
(c) CQ\u
(d) UtV A]jm
11. rdLiPYtp G AL LWjRuU LiP
(a) CsCl
(b) RbCl
(c) KCl
(d) NaCl
12. rdLiP ahWdNLp G AL LWjRuU LiP
(a) Mg(OH)2 (b) Ba (OH)2 (c) Ca(OH)2 (d) Be (OH)2
13. ahW_u Utm VjRj RW RU YN AhPYQp V
EY[ LiP RUm
(a) jVm
(b) Bd_u (c) u (d) [u
14. rdLiPYtp G TV AV BWjR EPV.
(a) Na
(b) Mg
(c) Al
(d) Si
15. rdLiPYtp G XN] EXLm
(a) LpVm
(b) jVm
(c) UdVm (d) NVm
16. rdLiPYtu AL AVVdm Bt\X LiP RUm
(a) NVm
(b) UdVm (c) LoTu (d) u
17. ahW_] Tj []]
(a) SouUPV
(b) GXdhWu LYo \PV
(c) SXV]
(d) JupX
18. rdLiP RUeLp G GXdhW] Gp CZdm RuUPV
(a) [u
(b) NpTo
(c) vWuVm
(d) TVm
19. aX_uLu R
(a) s-R
(b) p-R (c) d-R (d) f-R

108

20. Rp AVVdm GuRpV LmT CWiPm AVVdm


GuRp
(a) ALUm
(b) \
(c) JW A[ (d) Rs[jRdL
21. Na, Rb, K Utm Mg BVYtu A BWeLu H YN
(a) Na, Mg, K, Rb
(b) Na, K, Mg, Rb
(c) Mg, Na, K, Rb
(d) Na, Mg, Rb, K
22. RUeL[ Ru Rp YNlTjYR ALlTjVYo
(a) UiPl (b) Xih (c) XRo-UVo
(d) PTu]o
23. CPX RUeLp tT\R
(a) d-BohPpLs
(b) f-BohPpLs
(c) p-BohPpLs
(d) s-BohPpLs
24. rdLiPYtp G Ld \kR AVVdm Bt\Xd LiP
(a) Na
(b) Al
(c) Mg
(d) Si
25. rdLiP RUeLp G J GXdhW] Htm T AL Bt\X
Y\
(a) Na
(b) Mg
(c) Al
(d) Cl
26. CPXj RUeLu GXdhWu AUl
(a) ns2 nd1-10
(b) ns2np(n-1)d1-10
2
1-10
(c) ns (n-1)d
(d) ns2np6(n-1)d1-10
27. Rp CPXj RU YNp Nm GXdhWu
(a) 4d-BohPpLs
(b) 3d-BohPpLs
(c) 5d-BohPpLs
(d) 6d- BohPpLs

B. LhP CPeL[ WlL.


1. UiPl BYojR] lT RUeLu TiLs AYtu .....................
AlTPVLd Lis[].
2. V BYojR] lT, RUeLu CVtVp Utm YVp TiLs
AYtu ..................... AlTPVLd Lis[].
3. s YN RU AhPYQV] RUeLu A GiLu H
YNp AYtu AdLu ..................... AlTPVLd Li
AhPYQlTjRlThP.
4. Rp YNp Es[ RUeLs 2, 8 Utm 8 BV RUeLs .....................
G]lTu\].
5. RUeLu CQ\u GuT Ydh BohPp Es[
GXdhWuLu GidL Utm/ApX ..................... Ydh
GXdhWuLdf NUUm
109

C. dLUL PV.
1. F, Cl, Br Utm I BVYt\ GXdhWu LYo GuRpu HYNp
G.
2. A GiLs 6 Rp 14 YW Es[ RUeLu GXdhWu AUlT
GL. AY RU YN AhPYQp GkR RVf NokRY
G]d Li.
3. rdLiP GkR GXdhWu AUl Ld \kR AVVdm
GuRpV Tts[. (a) 1s2, 2s2, 2p6 ; (b) 1s2, 2s2, sp6 ; (c) 1s2, 2s2,
2p2, 3s2.
4. V BYojR] Vd .
5. UkR YdLs wV GXdhWu LYo GuRpV Tts[R [dL.
6. rdLiPYtp GkR _ RUeLs \kR AVVdm GuRpV
Tts[].
(a) Cl ApX F
(b) Cl ApX S
(c) K ApX Ar
(d) Kr ApX Xe
7. HRY CWi CPXj RUeL[m, CWi Es CPXj
RUeL[m GL.
8. Hu JW Rp Es[ RUeLs JjRl TiL[l Tts[].
9. rdLiPYt\ Al TUuLu H YNp GL.
(a) Li, Na Utm K ;
(b) C, N Utm O ;
(c) Ca, Sr Utm Ba
10. RU YN AhPYQp Es[ YqY RLs VY ? JqY
Rdm Es[ TY] GXdhWu AUlT GL.
11. 3d104s2 GXdhWu AUl LiP RUm GkR RVf NokR.
12. ShW_]] Bd_] P AL IE Tts[R [d.
13. u Utm [u BVYtp G AL GXdhWu LYo
GuRpV EPV.
14. d-R RUeLs Hu CPXj RUeLs G] AZdLlTu\].
15. UiPl RUeL[ GkR Tiu AlTPp YNlTj]o ?
16. Li, K, Ca, S Utm Kr BVYtp G AL Rp AVVdm
Bt\Xm, \kR AVVdm Rp AVVdm Bt\Xm
Tts[.
110

D. YL PV.
1. Rp R RUeLs Hu \kR AVVdm GuRpV
Tts[] ?
2. rdLiP RUeLp GY AL GXdhWu LYo GuRpV
Tts[]. (a) N ApX O ; (b) F ApX Cl [dL.
3. XkR]Ls Utm Bd]Ls RU YN AhPYQp Z
RVL AhPYQlTjRlThs[]. CRtL] LWQjR [dL.
4. RUeLs Gu\p Gu] ? RU YN AhPYQp CjRUeL[d
LiP RLs VY ?
5. CPXj RUeLs YWV. YqY CPXj RU YNL[
TVL.
6. rdLiP GkR _ RUeLs \kR AVVdm GuRpV
LiPY. (a) Ca ApX Be ; (b) Ca ApX K ; (c) Cl ApX I
[dL.
7. NVm AY] Li Utm Mg AdL[ P TV EY[
Tts[RtL] LWQjR [dL.
8. GXdhWu LYo GuRp Gu\p Gu] ? A GqY R Utm
YNLp UT\ GuTR Y.
9. RU YN AhPYQp RUeLs GqY YNlTjRlThs[].
GuTR Y.
10. NRWQ, CPX Utm Es CPXj RUeLs Gu\p Gu] ?
11. NRWQ Utm CPXj RUeLdPVV] YTLs VY?
12. SX Au EY[Y P ARu Sou AV V EY[Y
Lis[. SX Au EY[Y P ARu Gou AV
TV EY[Y Lis[. CdtL[ [dL,
13. Cl > Na+ CYtu EY[Y [dL.
14. GXdhWu LYo GuRp Gu\p Gu] ? A Noks[ LWLs
VY ?
15. RU YN AhPYQp GXdhWu LYo GuRp TYL
UTYR Y.
16. AV BWm YWV. J Sou AVu BWm Rn AY P
ALUL ClTR [d.
17. AVVdm GuRp Gu\p Gu] ? A GqY R Utm
YNp UT\ ?
111

18. GXdhWu LYo Bt\p Gu\p Gu] ? A GdLWL[ Tj


UT\ ?
19. UiPl RU YN AhPYQu dV AmNeLs VY ? GqY
CkR AhPYQ UuUTjRlThP ?
RlW

RUeLu GXdhWu AUlTl Tj, AYLu YLlTjRX


RU YN AhPYQV k Ls[ CkR TPm HYL Es[.
RU YNp LQlTm JeL] BYojR] TiL[ [d\.
A BWm, AVVdm Bt\p, GXdhWu ShPm Utm GXdhWu
LYo\u TiLs Su [dLlTh Es[. RUeLu JeLt\
BYojR] TiL[m Rk ARtV LWQeLm Ak Lsm
YLp AlTiLs [dLlThs[.
UtToY pLs

1. Concise. Inorganic Chemistry J.D. Lee, 3rd Edition, 1977.


___________

112

1s-R RUeLs
1

1
2

Li

Be

Na

Mg

Ca

Rb

Sr

Cs

Ba

Fr

Ra

ns 1

ns 2
ns 1-2

1
2

LW EXLeLs
LWUi EXLeLs
113

5, R 1s-R RUeLs
Lt\u LhTLs

@ CVtLp ahW_u LQlTm Rm, ARu INPlL[l Tt


ARp.
@ ahW_u TpY INPlLu CV, TiL[ k
Ls[p.
@ BoR Utm TW AUlT YTjRp.
@ L]u TVu TtV AYl TRp.
@ ahW_u TWdN RVjRp, TiLs Utm TVuLs Tt ARp.
@ WY ahW_u Ko GTs GuTRu \lVpL[l k Ls[p.
@ LW EXLeLu TiL[ BnkRRp.
@ BdN, ahWdNLu LWj RuU TtV A.
@ jVm, NVm Tu\ LW EXLeLs jRjRXd Lt\p.
@ jVm NVm BVYtu TiLs, TVuL[l k Ls[p.
BYojR] AhPYQp ahW_u Rp RUUm. C GV
GXdhWu AUlPV 1s1. EhLp J WhP]m Utm
Yftp Ko GXdhW]m LiP.

INPlLs
JW A GiL[m YqY \ GiL[m EPV JW
RUju AdLs INPlLs G]lTm. ahW_d A\ 1,
2 Utm 3 Es[ u INPlLs Es[]. AY JqYuu A
Gim Ju\m.

1p

WhVm

1p
1n

hVm
114

1p
2n

hVm

1. WhVm ApX NRWQ ahW_u : C ahW_u NRWQ


AUlTm. C EhLp J WhP]m ARf t Ym
Ko GXdhW]m LiP. CVtLp LQlTm UjR
ahW_p 99.984% NRWQ ahW_] Es[. CRu A\
Ju\m.
2. hVm ApX L] ahW_u : 1H2 ApX 1D2 CVtLp C
Lf R[Y LQlT\. CVtLp LQlTm ahW_p
CYtu RUY D:H = 1:6000. CRu EhLp J WhPm,
J hWm Es[]. Gm Ko GXdhW] EhLYf t
Y\. CYLu Y]Ls WhVjR JjkRm ]
NVpTm YLm UTu\.
3. hVm 1H3 ApX 1T3 : C EVoY UiPXjp uLkR
iQXL[p iPlTm EhL ]Lp RPofVL
EYu\. hVjRl TXpX C LVdLj RuU
LiP. CRu AW BhLXm ~ 12.3 BiL[m. CRu
EhLp J WhPm CWi hWuLm Es[].
Y
Gi
1.

2.

3.

AhPYQ 5,1 : ahW_u INPlLs


TVo
A A
GidL NRR
Gi \ WhPuLs hWuLs

A[

WhVm
ApX
ahW_u

1
1H

99.984

hVm
ApX L]
ahW_u

2
1H

0.016

hVm

3
1H

1015

AYLs JW UV] Y]L[l Ttlm ]YLjp


UTu\]. AYLu CVtVp TiLs lPjRdL A[
UTu\].

RVl \Ls
1. WRp \ : C INPlLm Y WRp Tip
YThlTRp hVjR SWVL aW_u Yk T\ m.
CXN] ahW_u J Tp TPlThP [u YV \kR
115

AjRjp NpU NnmT C hVjR P ALULl


TW\. AjRjRd \dmT CRu TWm RuUm ALUm.
Cq WRp \ aohv WRp AX G]lTm. TX WRp
LXuL[d LiP AUlp SPTu\. JqY WRp AXm
i[L[PV Nq]l Ttdm. Uo WRp Tmu Xm
\kR AjRjR HtTj WRp AXp CkRd LXYVf Njm
T XN] ahW_u L YLUL W\. AR NUVm L] ahW_u
RURUL W\. Cm\ TXRPY ahW_u YXlTdLjm hVm
CPlTdLjm Pdm YW NnVlTu\. WRp LXuL[
ALUd Cm\u TVuThP ALUdLXm.

2. WY ahW_] u]d Lnf YjRp


WY ahW_] u]d Lnf Ydm T LPp Ggs[
WYjp Es[ hVjR dLXm. H]p hVm 23.5KCm
ahW_u \kR YlTXV] 20.2 KCm Ldu\].

3. L]W u]tTjRp
p 6000 Td J T Ru L]o ClTRp, LWm LXkR
p dLp uYnL[l TVuTj u]tTl Nn L]u N
ALUdLlT\. GjdLhPL Cm\p 20 hPoLs Rik
1 .. L]o Pdu\.
L]W NVm, NgPdLlThP AVou ApX PevPu Xm
RjR ApX NVm LoT]hPu u]t TjR hVjRl
T\Xm.
2D2O

u]tTjRp
hVm

2D2O + 2Na

2D2 + O2
2 NaOD + D2

NVm hWdN

PjR hVjR WRp \p Um nUlTjRXm.

CVtVp TiLs
ahW_]l Tu\ hVm J \Ut\, UQUt\, YVt\,
p LWVR YYm. YlTm, uNWm BVYt\ Ap LPjm
116

LX, B AjRm, L Bt\p, ERu Es\ YlTm


BVY hVjRP WhVjt \kR UlPV]YL Es[].

YVp TiLs
hVju AL \ LWQUL A ah_] P UYL
]\.
1. Bd_p GRp : ahW_u Tu\ C GVd V. Bd_u
ApX Ltp Gk L]o G]lTm hVm BdNP
Ld\.
2 D2 + O2

2D2O

2. aX_uLPu ] : ahW_u Tu\ C RkR rXp


aX_uLPu V hWL[ Ei Tim.
D2 + Cl2
D2 + F2

Jp
Cp

2 DCl
D2 F2

hVm @lW

3. ShW_Pu ] : ahW_u Tu\ ]du uXp


ShW_Pu ShW_u hW EiPd\. C L]
AmUV ApX hW AmUV G]m AZdLlT\.
3D2 + N2

2ND3

4. EXLeLPu ] : ahW_u Tu\ C EVo YlTXp


(633 K) LW EXLeLPu Nok hWL[ EiPd\.
2 Na + D2

2 NaD

NaD + H2O

NaOH + HD

5. NodL ] : ahW_u Tu\ \\ NoUeLPu Nok


NodL ]p DT\. GjRdLhPL hVm, Gju
LXkR LXYV YlTlTjV dLp Nj]p DjRu
Tu \t\ NoUU] Gju hW Pd\.
C2H4 + D2

Ni
535 K

CH2D-CH2D
117

6. Th ]Ls : hVm A aW_dl TXL T


NnVlT\. NH3, H2O Utm CH4 BVYtp EVl YlTXp
hVm TV[ ApX YUL UYL T Nn\.
H2 + D2

2 HD

2NH3 + 3D2

2ND3 + 3H2

H2O + D2

D2O + H2

CH4 + 2D2

CD4 + 2H2

C2H6 + 3D2

C2D6 + 3H2

hVju TVuLs
1. Y]Lu Y\L[ Am YPY]Ll TVuT\.
2. NVtL LVdLjR HtTjR AYL hWuLs TVuTu\].
3. L]o G]lTm CRu BdN (D2O) AdL EXLp hWu
YLjRd \dL UhlTjVL TVuT\.

hVm RVjRp
(i) jVjR UYLf Npm hWuL[d Li RdYRp,
3
1T Pd\.
6

3Li

+ 0n1

1T

+ 2He4

(ii) Be EhLY 1D2 Ls Li Rd]p 1T 3 Pd\.


4Be

+ 1D2

1T

+ 4Be8

4Be

+ 1D2

1T

+ 2 2He4

TiLs : C 12.4 BiLs AW BhLXm LiP LVdLj


RuU EPV RUm. C LoL[ Erk Vm-3 BL R\.
1T

2He

+ -1eo

TVuLs
(i) TX Y]Lp NVtLd LVdL YPY]Ll TVuT\.
(ii) AdL Ql ]Lp hVm TVuT\.
118

5.1 BoR Utm TW ahW_u


ahW_u EhL Ko Afp TmTWjRl Tp Zp\. C
ahW_u AdLs Nok Xd ahW_u EYm T
AdLdLu ZtVl Tj rdLiP CYL ahW_u
XdLs AVlThs[]. ahW_u Xdp Es[ C ahW_u
AdLu WhPuLm JW Np Zu\p AmXd BojR
ahW_u G]lTm. C ahW_u AdLu WhPuLm GWo
Np Zu\p A TW ahW_u G]lTm.
e

P+

P+

P+

P+

BojR ahW_u

TW ahW_u

BnYL YlTXp NRWQ ahW_p 75% BojR YLm


25% TW YLm Es[]. YlTX \mT TW ahW_u
A[ ALd\. 25 K YlTXp 99% TW YLm 1% BojR
ahW_u YLm Es[]. CqWi YL ahW_u A[Lu
R Ut\m [h]m, A ahW_u Tu\ ]YL Ut
uXm u TnfN]m Lr\.
Yohv LXp YdLlThP FdLhPlThP L 20K YlTXp
TW ahW_] tm Egd Ls\. Cm\p CqYL
ahW_] Rjl dLXm.

TW ahW_] BoR ahW_]L UtRp


BojR ahW_u TW ahW_] P XV]. TW ahW_u
BojR ahW_]L rdLiP TkR]L]p Ut\m AP\.
(i)

[h]m, AVou Tu\ ]YL UtLPu NodmT

(ii)

u TnfNX EhNjmT

(iii)

800oC ApX ARt UtThP YlTXd Ptm T

(iv)

O2, NO, NO2 Tu\ TW LkRj RuUs[ XdLPu


Nodm T
119

(v)

\X ahW_u ApX AX ahW_]


NodmT

TiLs
BojR Utm TW ahW_u Yl TiLp Jj LQlTu\].
B]p CVtVp TiLp YTu\].
(i)

TW ahW_u EX 13.83K NRWQ ahW_u


EX 13.95K.

(ii)

TW ahW_u LX 20.26K. NRWQ ahW_u


LX 20.39K.

(iii)

oU TW ahW_u B AjRm oU NRWQ ahW_u


B AjRjR P ALm.

(iv)

TW ahW_u LkR lj \u wVm Bm. AdL


Zt D NnVlTYR CRtd LWQm Bm. B]p, BojR
YLu LkR lj \] J WhPu LkRl TiTl
Tp CWi UPe Bm.

(v)

TW ahW_u Xd Es Bt\p, BojR ahW_u


Es Bt\XPd \.

5.2 L]o
C hVm BdN G]m AZdLlT\. L] ahW_u
(hVm) BdN L]Wm. L]o 1932 Bm Bi W GuTYWp
LidLlThP. NR]u Xm NRWQ p (H2O) Lf R[
L]o D2O (6000 TLp 1 T) ClTRd Lh]o.

RVjRp
L]o NRWQ k jRdLlT\. G]Y, NRWQ W
ARu dV XUm. TYL RPofVL u]t Tl Nn A
RVdLlT\.

RjYm
LWm LXkR Wj RPok u]t Tl NnR ApX
u]dLnf YjR L]o jRdLlT\. 1933 Cp PnXo Goe,
120

@lWvh LWNp Utm dLp uYnLs ERVp H TLp W


u]tTl Nnm \L[l j]o.
+

gases
YdLs

W ater
Nickel
dLp
anode
SouYn

steel
G@
cell

LXm

CkR LXm 18 AeX [m, 4 AeX hPm LiP G@]p


NnVlThP. CdLXU Gou YVL NVpTu\. SouYVL AL
[TPlThP E[ YY dLp RL NVpTu\. CTu\ TX
LXeLs W u]t TjRp TXTLp TVuTu\]. JqY Tm
Pdm YdLs RjRVL GdLlTh EiPm o im TZV
LXjtL AlTlTu\]. L]o s[ Tk TlTVL
APoldLlT\. Cm\ Ik TL[ EPV.
NRWQ k TV[ L]o dL u]d Lnf YjRp
\ TVuT\. Cm\p WhVm BdN (H2O) Utm hVm
BdN (D 2 O) BVYLu V A[ LX YT
TVuTu\.
Wm L]Wm JlRp

Ti
20oC p APoj
E\X
LX
EVokRThN APoj
20oCp VYlTm
20oCp TWld LYof
u AjRj Re
Ts XVi
20oCp Tl Ti

H2O

D2O

0.998
0o C
100oC
1.000 (4oC)
1.00
72.8 PuLs/N..
82.0

1.017
3.82oC
101.42oC
1.1073 (11.6oC)
1.01
67.8 PuLs/N..
80.5

10.09 p TnNv

12.6 p TnNv

121

L]m, NRWQ m TsLu LWm RuU YTu\.


NRWQ WP L]p 15% \YL NVm [W LW\.

CVtVp TiLs
L]o \Ut\, UQUt\, YVt\ SLok Npm oUUm. L]u
ALl Tl TiT NaCl Tu\ AVf NoUeLu \kR LWm
RuUdm, AVLs R[Y SLok NpYRtm LWQULs[.

YVp TiLs
H2O Utm D2O CPV Es[ YVp Ti YT Lf V
A[YVm. Clm D2Op ]u YLm \Ym.

L]u dV ]Ls
1. EXLeLPu :
D2O LW Utm LWUi EXLeLPu L UYL ]lTh L]
ahW_] YVt\.
2 Na + 2 D2O

2 NaOD + D2 NVm hWdN

Ca + 2 D2O

Ca (OD)2 + D2 LpVm hWdN

2. EXL BdNLPu :
NVm, LpVm Tu\ EXL BdNLs D2OCp LWk YU
dL LWeL[ Ei Tiu\].
Na2O + D2O 2 NaOD

CaO + D2O Ca(OD)2

3. AX Pu :
AX LPu ]k L] ahW_] EPV JjR AXeL[
D2O Ei Ti\.
SO3 + D2O D2SO4

hWNpd AXm.

P2O5 + 3D2O 2D3 PO4

hW TvTd AXm

4. EXL LoTLPu :
EXL LoTLPu D 2O ]k hW ahW
LoTuL[ EiTim.
122

Al4C3 + 2D2O

4 Al (OD)3 + 3C2D2

CaC2 + 2D2O

Ca(OD)2 + C2D2

hW Ahu

5. P2O5 Pu :
P2O5 LWkR L]W u]t Tdm T hVULm,
Bd_]Lm Rt, \V GouYm So uYm
dLlT\.
2D2O

2D2 + O2

6. EldLs Utm \ NoUeL[ :


EldLs Utm \ NoUeL[ ]k hWhL[ Ei
Tiu\.
CuSO4. 5 D2O, Na2 SO4. 10D2O, NiCl2.6D2O
7. ThP ]Ls :
ahW_]d Lis[ NoUeL[ D2O EPu ]lTjmT
aW_dl TXL hVm T NnVlT\.
NaOH + D2O

NaOD + HOD

NH4 Cl + 4D2O

ND4 Cl + 4HOD

Eo Xdl TiLs
TYL L]o RYWeLs, XeLs Tu\ ELu Y[ofV
RP Nn\. L]p LX RLs [lTpX. uLs,
RXlWhP Utm GLs V L]W EhLiPp C\k u\].
B]p J X E]eLs L]p Su\L Y[of APVm Nnu\].
5.3 ahW_u TWdN

ahW_u TWdN L.J. R]o GuTYWp 1813 Cp RuRXLj


RVdLlThP. CYo ojR AXjR TVm TWdNp ]lTj
RVjRo. Y UiPXjm J X RYWeLm H2O2 Lf R[
LQlT\.

ahW_u TWdN - BnYLj RVl


1. ojR LkRL AXjR NVm TWdN ]lTjYRu
123

Xm LQdPlThP A[ Na2O2 20% TdLh LXkR LkRL


AXjp NodLlT\.
Na2O2 + H2SO4

Na2SO4 + H2O2

Cm\p 30% H2O2 LWNp Pd\.


2. BaO2 I AXjPu ]Vf Nn V H2O2 T\lTu\.
BaO2 + H2 SO4

Ba SO4 + H2O2

3BaO2 + 2H3 PO4

Ba3 (PO4)2 + 3H2O2

3. 50% LkRL AXjR u]t Tl Nn u YtPjp Lnf


YlTRu Xm H2O2 TU[p RVdLlT\. Lnf YjR
oUjp 30% LWNp V H2O2 Bm.

]Ls
H2SO4

H+ + HSO4-

2HSO4-

H2S2O8 + 2e- (Sou Yp)

H2S2O8 + H2O

H2SO4 + H2SO5

H2SO5 + H2O

H2SO4 + H2O2

2H+ + 2e-

H2 (Gou Yp)

ahW_u TWdN LWNX APoljRp


Cs[ UdL[] LUl ThLm, EXL AVLm A
Yjf R\YR iPXm.
(i) G]Y UtV \p oj Rhp YdLlThP LWNp LY]UL
\kR AjRjp ld LXuL[l TVuTj BVdLlT\.
(ii) \kR AjRjp 330 Kdm \Y] YlTXp LnfNlThP
LWNp 90% LWNp PjRu, TLUdLlT\.

ahW_u TWdNu YU
J L] A[ H2O2 STP Xp YlTlTjm T, Gj]
124

L]A[ Bd_]d Ldm Gu\ LQd XUL ahW_u


TWd^u YU [dLlT\.

CVtVp TiLs
Wt\ Xp ahW_u TWdN \Ut\, UQUt\ T Tu\
oUm. GpX Rjm o, BpLap Utm DRW LXdLd V.

YVp TiLs
V H2O2 XVt\. AR AlTV YjkRX ApX
YlTlTj]X Rk Wm Bd_]m Ld\.
2H2O2

2H2O + O2

Bd_]t\l Ti
J YU kR Bd_]t, A GXdhWu HtVL NVpT\.
H2O2 + 2H+ + 2e-

2 H2O (AXd LWNp)

HO2- + H2O + 2e-

3OH-

(LWd LWNp)

(i) Xh NpTPu ]k Xh NpThPL Bd_]t\m Nn\.


PbS + 4H2O2

PbSO4 + 4H2O

(ii) C TWv EldL[ Tod ElTL Bd_]t\m Nn\.


2Fe2+ + 2H+ + H2O2

2 Fe3+ 2H2O

CRu Bd_]t\l TiTp J \kR YU dL YlT]Lm


UVt\ S Utm Rt dVLm TVuT\. Y]
TsL[] Th, LmT, BVY H2O2Bp YdLlT\.

Jdm TiLs
pYo Bd^Pu ]k pYWL Jd\.
Ag2O + H2O2

2 Ag + H2O + O2

TVuLs
(i) C TdVY AlTRp W RlT]L, SVL LVeLs,
LLs, TtLs CYt\d Lf jRm TiYp TVuTu\.
125

(ii) X LUf NoUeLu \jR Ad\. , LmT, Th, RkRm,


C\ Tu\ Y] ThL[ YdLl TVuT\.
(iii)Bd_]tVLl TVuTu\.
(iv)WdLhLp Ek NV HtTjR TVuT\.
5.4 WY Xs[ ahW_u GTs

Ko Au AUlt ahW_u A J U [dLl T[L


Es[. Ut\ TsL[l Tu\ ahW_m J T[L NU
dVjYm Tts[. ahW_u NRWQUL H2 XdL[p B]
\Ut\, UQUt\ YYm. VTW VL TU[ RVdLlThP
ahW_p H\d\V 40% AmUV RVdLm, H\d\V AR
A[ ThWVm jLjRm TVuT\. GoLXjp CRP
AL A[p ahW_u Ko GT[Ll TVuTm.
oU ahW_u, H2 J \kR WdLh GT[m. AR Gdm
T Ut\ GTsL[ P J Wt AL YlTjRj R\.
Y Xp Es[ ahW_u CTjRu\m t\ip \kR
GT[Ll TVuTjRlTPXm. ahW_u Ltp Gm T PlT
WVm. G]Y T GTsL[ (CVtL Y, ThWVm Utm
XdL) P ahW_] GlTp \kR TXu Pd\.
TU GTsL[ GlTRp tl\m UNP\. AYL[p Sfj
RuUs[ SO2, CO2 Tu\ YdLs YPlTu\]. CYLs
AXUZ HtTP X LWQUL Es[]. Y UiPXjp LoTu P
BdN YRXd LhlTjY J L]U] NYXm. CRf
NUdL dL]UL ahW_]l TVuTjRXVm. ahW_p \kR
Bt\p Es[. GjdLhPL YL]eL[ ahW_] Gj CVdLXm.
RtLXjp ahW_u Nld LXeL[d Li, ARtL] RlThP
\p RVdLlThP vPu Utm GkWeL[d LiP LW
TVuTju\]o. Ck ahW_]d Li LW CVdY
NjVU] GuT RYu\.
ahW_u J RuU Bt\p Xm ApX. B]p A NRLU],
UTjRR GT[m. B]p A \ Bt\p XeLk T\lTP
Yim.
1. WPu LoTu U]fNPf Noj AL YlTlTj J
]du uXp AjRjRd Lj V H2 Im
126

CO2 Im T\Xm. LWod LWNp CO 2 Id LWj A


dLlT\.
CO + H2O

Ni

CO2 + H2

2. W Rjm SWVL ahW_]l T\Xm. GjdLhPL V


Ju NLlTu Xm Pdm uNWjR uTlTp Wf
Rdm Bt\p XUL Gjd Ls[Xm. BWnfV[oLs
W ahW_u Utm Bd_]L SPVL Ut\ V NdVl
TVuTju\]o.
5.5 LW EXLeLs

1. LW EXLeLs T[T[lT]Y, Yi\U]Y, Y]Y.


2. CYt\d LjVm YhP CVm.
3. CY Vm kR EXLeLs Bm. CY Vs[ LW
BdNL[m, ahWdNL[m Ru\].
4. CjRu Cs[ WuVm LVdLj RUUm.
5. LW EXLeLs Vm kRY. BRXp AY CVtLp
NoUeL[L UhU LQlTu\].
6. A]j LW EXLeLm + 1 Bd_]t\ XVl Tts[].
H]p AY Ydhs[ Jt\ GXdhW] GRL
CZdu\].
7. LW EXLeLs uNu Pp lhP \jR Adu\]. jVm
APoYl \jRm, NVm UgNs \jRm, ThPVm Xd
\jRm, Vm, Vm BVY FR \jRm Ru\].
LW EXL ElT uNu Pp Pt]p EXL Au Yd
hs[ ns1 GXdhWu Bt\Xl Tt [ot EVo Bt\p
UhPeLd Np\. CqY [ot\ GXdhWu im BWmT
Bt\p UhPjtj mm T EgNlThP Bt\p LhX]m
Tp JVL YPlT\.

127

AhPYQ 5,2 LW EXLeLu GXdhWu JeLUl

RUm

A Gi

GXdhWu JeLUl

jVm
NVm
ThPVm
Vm
Vm
@WuVm

Li
Na
K
Rb
Cs
Fr

3
11
19
37
55
87

Vm 2s1
Vu 3s1
BoLu 4s1
lPu 5s1
N]u 6s1
WPu 7s1

CVtVp TiLu TlTV] Ut\m


1. APoj : TYL CjRUeLs TLd hp AdLu
AUlTl Tj \Y] APojVl Tts[]. jVm
Au \ \YL ClTRp \kR APojVl Tts[.
CjRp Uk ZLf Npm T APoj ALd\.
CRtd LWQm A Gi ALdm T A \m
ALlTRVm. Gm K, NVjR P CXN]. ThPVm
Au EY[ CVpT P TVRL ClTR CRtd
LWQUm.
2. A TUu : CjRp Li- Ck Cs dd rSdf
NpmT A TUu ALd\. CR LWQjRp A BWm,
AV BWm TlTVL EVu\].
3. EXm, LXm
GpX LW EXLeLm iUXp Yd\kR QlTl
TtlTRp \Y] EXm, LXm Tts[].
Yd\kR Qltd LWQm CQ\u GXdhWu Ju
ClTm AYLu ABWm TVRL ClTm Bm. Au
EY[ ALdmT Ql HtTjRR GXdhWuLu Xd
Nm ALlTRp CjRp jVjk Cs YW,
Uk ZLf Npm T LX Utm EX \k
LiP T\.
4. AVVdm Bt\p : LW EXLeLu AVVdm Bt\p
Ut\YL[ Pd \. C jVjk Vjt Npm
128

T \k LiP T\.
M(g)

M+(g) + 1e-

CjRp Uk ZL A BWm ALjd LiP


NpYRp EhLtm Ydh GXdhWuLdm CPV Es[
Wm ALjd LiP Np\. BLVp AVVdm Bt\m
\k LiP Np\.
LW EXLeLu CWiPm AVVdm Bt\p Lm ALm.
H]p A UkRYu GXdhWu AUlTl TtlTRp CWiPm
GXdhW] dY Lm L]Um.
5. GXdhWu Sou RuU : LW EXLeLs \kR AVVdm
Bt\Xl TtlTRp AY GRL J GXdhW] CZk Jt\
Sou AVVj Rtdu\].
M

M+ + 1e-

G]Y AY YU kR Sou RuU EPVY. Sou RuU


Ru Z NpXf NpX ALd\. LW EXLeL[
Ju TRp Yj, JhPl Tt\p GXdhW] Yj
Rsm A[t AL SouU EPVY. Cq[ Ju
[ G]lTm.
6. Bd_]t\ X : A]j LW EXLeLm Ydhp
CQ\u GXdhWu Ju Es[. CQ\u ht AjR
Es m Wm Es[Rp CY Ko GXdhW] CZk
ALUs[ UkRYdLu AUlTl Tu\]. G]Y AY
Jt\ CQ\s[ RUeLs, AYLu Bd_]t\ X + 1
7. Jdm TiLs : LW EXLeLs \kR AVVdm Bt\Xl
TtlTRp J CQ\u GXdhW] CZk JdL]L[j
Ru\]. G]Y CY \kR JdL[Lf NVpTu\].
5.6 jVm, NVm jRjRp

jVm jRjRp : jVm [WP u]t TjRp.


J RjR eL]p NnVlThP Pd Lp LV SouYVLm
Cmd LmV Go uYVLm Li DWpXR jVm [WP
u]tTl Nn jVm T\lTu\. TU[p CkR EXLjRl
129

T\ jVm, ThPVm [W NU A[ LXkR EV Xs[


LXY Gjd Ls[lTu\. H]p, CdLXY \kR YlT
XXV 720 K ELd V.
u ApX AhPp Es[ APo jVm [W LWNX
u]t Tl Nnm jVm T\lTu\.

jVju TiLs
CVtVp TiLs
jVm, Ys Tu\ YiU \PV EXLm. iUj
RUeLXV C Lm CXN]. CRu B Pp LXu Yl
\jRd Ldm. C \kR YlTm, uLPjVm. C TX
EXLeLPu Nok EXLd LXYm, WNd LXYm EiTim.

YVp TiLs
1. LtPu : jVm EXokR Lt\p TdLlTYpX. B]p
DWs[ Ltp EP]VL Bd_]t\m AP\. Ltp
450 Kdm ALUL YlTlTjmT A Gk jVm
U]dNPm, jVm ShWPm R\.
4 Li + O2

2 Li2O

6 Li + N2

2 Li3N

2. C okR W Rj jVm ahWdNPm, ahW_]m


Ru\.
2 Li + 2 H2O

2 LiOH + H2

3. jVm VdL SouRuU Es[ EXLm. C AXeL[


]k, ahW_] CPlTVof Nn AR] JjR jVm
ElL[ Ru\. ojR Utm APo ahW [d AXm,
ojR LkRL AXm BVY EP]VL ]u\]. APo LkRL
AXm CRPu UYL ]u\. Shd AXjPu CRu
] Lm VdL. CkR AXjp E, lTt G\.

TVuLs
1. EXLd LXY TU[p RVdL
2. LlTo, dLp nUlTjRp Bd_u dVL.
130

3. jVm hWh, NXh BVY SnL[ QlTjR.


4. LiAlH4 JdVL
5. jVm NoUeLs, LiQ, UhTiPeLs RVjRm
TVuTu\].

NVm jRjRp
P[u \
EV NVm [WP u]t Tl Nn NVm TU[p
RVdLlT\.
P[u u]tTl LXm AVou Th Tu\ AUlPV. CRu
AlTLjp YhP YY LoT]p B] Sou Yn Es[. Sou
YVf t Y[Vm Tu\ Cm Gou Yn Es[. C Lm
YXVp ZlThs[. CqYX C u YnL[m dm Rlf
Yo Tus[.
u]tTdm T [u SouYp Th EVWjp Es[
J Zn Xm YV\. Gou Yp NVm Th Lm
YXds Re\. EV NVju A[ ALdm T A
Yk J LsLXjp \.
2 NaCl
2Na + Cl2

1. NaCl

2. EV NaCl 3. Lm YXd 4. WTh GouYn


5. Cm SouYn 6. NVm 7. [u
131

CVtVp TiLs
1. C RL YhPlTm T Ys Tu\ Yi\U]. B]p
EP]VL Ltp Ue \.
2. C Y] EXLm.
3. C uNWjR Su LPjRd V.
4. C WY AmUVp LWk APokR FRd LWNXd
Ld\.

YVp TiLs
1. Ltp ] : C DWd Ltp ARu T[T[lT CZk NVm
BdN, ahWdN Utm LoT]hL[ ARu UtTWlu
EiPd\.
4Na + O2
4NaOH

2 Na2O
2CO2

2H2O

Na2CO3 + 2H2O

Ltp YlTlTjm T WUL Gk U]dNPm,


TWdNPm EiTi\.
4 Na + O2

2Na2O

2 Na + O2

Na2O2

2. Pu ] : C Wd WUL Rj NVm ahWdNP


Ei Ti ahW_] Y\.
2 Na + 2 H2O

2 NaOH + H2

3. AmUVPu ] : NVm, AmUVPu NPUP


Ei Ti ahW_] Yu\.
2 Na + 2NH3

5706670K

2 Na NH2 + H2

WY AmUVp LWkR NVm LU YVp JdVLl


TVuT\.
132

4. AXjPu ] : C AXjk ahW_] CPlTVof


Nn\.
2 NaCl + H2

2 HCl + 2 Na

5. Jdm Ti : CR \V NoUeLPu LtpX rXp


YlTlTjmT AYL[ Jd\.
Al2O3 + 6 Na
SiO2 + 4Na

2 Al + 3 Na2O
Si + 2 Na2O

TjmT LoTu P BdNP Jd LoT]m, NVm


LoT]hPm EYd\.
4 Na + 3 CO2

2 Na2CO3 + C

6. UodPu : UodPu YlTlTjmT NVm TpY


\Lp CQk TpY CVPV WNd LXY Na2 Hg Na3Hg,
NaHg BVYL[d Ld\.

TVuLs
1. NVm TWdN, NPU, NVm NV], PhW Gjp
Xh Tu\ RVlp TVuT\.
2. NVm WNdLXY JdVLl TVuT\.
3. CXN] EXLd LXY RVlm, X AV Ui EXLeL[
ARu BdNLk RVdm Tm Bd_u dVLl
TVuTu\.
4. IN ] (C 5 H 3) TpTVd NVtL WlTo RVlp
]dVL C TVuT\.
5. LU YVp ] LWVLl TVuT\.
]dLs

A. NV] PVj RokR.


1. JW A Gim YqY \ GiLm EPV JW RUju
AdLs AZdLlTm Rm
(a) INPlLs
(b) INToLs
(c) INPuLs
(d) UtVm
133

2. hVm EhLp ClTY


(a) 2 WhPuLs Uhm
(b) J hWu
(c) J WhPm J hWm
(d) 2 WhPuLm J hWm
3. hVm Bd_] Nok LlT
(a) Bd hVm
(b) o
(c) L]o
(d) UtV A]jm
4. jVjR ................ ERVp Rd hVm RVdLlT\.
(a) hWuLs
(b) UNuLs
(c) UYLf Npm hWuLs
(d) Vm EhL A]jm
5. A\ YlTXp NRWQ ahW_p Es[Y
(a) 25% TWm 75% BojRm
(b) 75% TWm 25% BojRm
(c) 99% TW 1% BojR
(d) 1% TW 99% BojR
6. D2O, P2O5 EPu ]k LlT
(a) DPO4
(b) D2PO4
(c) D3PO3
(d) D3PO4
7. ................... hVm RVdLl TVuTu\.
(a) hVm BdN
(b) L] o
(c) am bm
(d) hVm TWdN
8. H2O2 J Nd YnkR ...................
(a) o d
(b)Bd_]t
(c) Jd
(d) LkRLm d
9. WdLhLp Ekm T[Ll TVuTY
(a) H2O2
(b) D2O
(c) ND3
(d) CH2 = CH2
10. LW EXLeLu Bd_]t\ X
(a) + 2
(b) 0
(c) + 1
(d) + 3
11. uNu YXp YlTlTjm T jVm Ldm \m
(a) UgNs
(b) FR
(c) Xd (d) mNu Yl
12. Rp Uk ZLf Npm T LW EXLeLu APoj
(a) ALd\
(b) \\
(c) ALUl u \\ (d) \k u ALd\
134

13. J RUm GXdhW] GRL CZkRp A ................ RuU EPV.


(a) Gou RuU
(b) Sou RuU
(c) GXdhWu NojRp
(d) AVj RuU

B. LhP CPeL[ WlL.


BYojR] AhPYQp Es[ Rp RUm .....................
..................... GuT ahW_u NRWQ AUl.
hVju AWYr LXm .....................
hVm AmUVPu ]k LlT .....................
ahW_u AV INPl .....................
AdL EXLp YLULf Npm hWuLu YLjRd
LhlTjR ..................... TVuT\.
7. TW ahW_u LkRj lj \u .....................
8. hVm El Ut\ NoUeLPu Nok LlT .....................
9. ahW_u TWdN ..................... GuTYWp ................... YPm Ru Rp
RVdLlThP.
10. V ahW_u TWdNu N .....................
11. Bp Gm AWf Npu Ts .....................
12.ThPVju A AUl
.....................
13. LW EXLeLs ..................... EXm, LXm EPVY.
14. LW EXLeLu Rp Uk ZLf NpmT
AVVdm Bt\p .....................
15. A]jj iUj RUeLm Lm CXN] .....................
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

C. K YdVeLp PV.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

INPlLs Gu\p Gu] ? ahW_u INPlL[d l.


hVjRl Tt l YWL.
GqY hVm ShW_Pu ] \ ?
hVm GqY EXLeLPu ] \ ?
hVju TVuLs VY ?
hVm GqY RVdLlT\ ?
TW ahW_] GqY BojR ahW_]L UtYn ?
GqY L]o EXLeLPu ]\ ?
aW_u TWdN BnYLjp GqY RVdLlT\ ?
135

10. ahW_u TWdN LWNp GqY APodLlT\ ?


11. ahW_u TWdNu JdLl TiTl Tt GL.
12. H2O2 Cu C dVl TVuL[ GL.
13. LW EXLeLs Hu \kR EXVm, LXVm
Lis[] ?
14. Hu LW EXLeLs YU kR Sou RUVl Tts[] ?

D. YL PV.
hVm GqY WRp \p T\lT\ ?
hVju Th ]Ls Tt G ?
BojR, TW ahW_u Gu\p Gu] ? Y.
BojR Utm TW ahW_] YTjL.
L]o RVjRX Y.
Wm L]Wm JlL.
ahW_u TWdNu Bd_]t\l TiT [dL.
WYXs[ ahW_u GqY GT[Ll TVuTjRlTPXm
GuTR [dL.
9. jVm ARu Rk GqY jRdLlT\ ?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

LQd
J RUm R 1Cm 3 Y RPm CPm Tts[. CkRj
RUjRd Ltp YlTlTj]p A Gu\ NoUjRj R\. RUm
Pu B Gu\ NoUjRj R\. C YU kR LWm.
AmUVPu AkR RUm C Gu\ NoUjRj R\. C LU
YVp JdVLl TVuTu\. A, B, CI Li.

o
(i) BYojR] AhPYQp R 1 Cm RPo um Es[ RUm
NVm
(ii) Ltp YlTlTjm T A NVm TWdNPd (A) Ld\.
4Na + O2

2Na2O2

(iii) Pu NVm, NVm aWdNPj R\.


2Na + 2H2O

2NaOH + H2
136

(iv) AmUVPu NVm NPUPj R\.


570670 K

2Na + 2NH3
2NaNH2 + H2
RUm NVm
A Gu\ NoUm NVm TWdN
B Gu\ NoUm NVm ahWdN
C Gu\ NoUm NPU

LQdLs
1. ahW_u Ko INPl Bd_Pu ]k (A) Gu\
NoUjRj R\. C AdL EXp UhPdVLl TVuT\.
ahW_u Tu\ CkR INPlm NodL ]dhT\. A
GjPu ]k B Gu\ NoUjRj R\. C J \t\
ahW LoTu. A Im B Im Li.
2. ahW_u INPl TpVjR hWuL[p Rd
RVdLlT\. C LoL[ Yh A Gu\ RUULf
R\. CkR INPl Gu] GuTRm A Vm Li.
3. AdL EXLp UhPdL[Ll TVuTm (A) Gu\ J hVf
NoUm Ca EPu ]lTh B Gu\ NoUjRj R\. A, SO2 EPu
]k C Gu\ NoUjRj R\. u]tTl Nnm T
A J hVm Xd\j R\. ahW_Pu A C Gu\ J
AVf NoUjRj R\. A, B, C BVYL[d Li.
4. J RUm R 1 Cm RPo 2 Cm CPm Tts[. AjRUm
Ltp Gk A Gu\ NoUjRj R\. Pu A B Gu\
NoUjRj R\. ahW_Pu AjRUm C Gu\ AVf NoUjRj
R\. A, B, C BVYL[d Li.
RlW

BYojR] AhPYQp ahW_u Rp RUUm. A u


INPlL[ EPV. AY WhVm, hVm Utm hVm
GuTYL[m. hVm RVjRp Utm TiLs YL
[dLlThs[].
ahW_u Xds[ ahW_u AdLu EhL ZtVl
Tj BojR Utm TW Gum CYL ahW_u AVlThs[].
Ko AUl Ut\ AUlTL Ut\lTPXm.
137

hVju dV NoUU] L]o NRWQ k


jRdLlT\. L]o, EXLeLs, EXL BdNLs, AX Ls
BVYLPu ]u\. C Th ]d EhT\.
1813 Cp L.J R]o ojR AXeL[ TVm TWdNPu
]Vf Nn ahW_u TWdN RVjRo. C Lf V A[
Y UiPXjp LQlTu\. V H2O2 XVt\. C YUV]
Bd_]tVLf NVpT\.
GT[L WY ahW_u TVu CkR TPjp YdLlThs[.
R-1 Cs[ RUeLs LW EXLeLs G]lTu\]. APoj,
A TUu, E X, LX, AVVdm Bt\p BVYLu
TlTV] Ut\m CjRp LQlTu\].
jVm, NVm
[dLlThs[].

jRjRm

AYLu

TiLm

UtToY pLs
1. General Chemistry - John Russel McGraw Hill International Edition
3rd Edition.
2. University General Chemistry - An Introduction to Chemical Science
edited by CNR Rao Mc Millan India Limited, Reprint - 2002.
3. Heinemann Advanced Science Chemistry - Second Edition
Ann And Patrick Fullick 2000
Heineman Educational Publishers, Oxford
4. Inorganic Chemistry, P.L. Soni.
__________

138

6. R-2 s - R RUeLs
Lt\u LhTLs

@ LWUi EXLeLu TY] RuUL[ k LsRp.


@ LW Utm LWUi EXLeLdPV YTL[ ARp.
@ u]tTl \p UdVm jRjRp \ Utm ARu
TiLs, TVuL[ Tt k LsRp.
@ LWUi EXLeLu UThP NoUeL[l Tt EQok LsRp.
@ LpVm BdN, CaO, Tv Nk Utm MgSO4 BVYtu
RVl, TiLs Utm TVuL[l Tt YL k Lt\p.

6.1 RU YN AhPYQp CWiPm Rp TVm (Be),

UdVm (Mg), LpVm (Ca), vWuVm (Sr), TVm (Ba), Utm


WVm (Ra) BVY APe Es[]. CjRUeLs LWUi EXLeLs''
G]m AZdLlTu\]. 'Ui' Gum YojR TZeLXjp J EXL
BdNPd lTRm. H]p LpVm, vWuVm Utm TVm
BdNLs Pu LW LWNpL[j RYRp CYLs LWUi
EXLeLs G] AZdLlTu\]. YVp TiLp WVm Ut\
LWUi EXLeL[l TXY CkRm, A LVdLj RUUL
ClTRp, ARu TiLs Ut\ LVdLj RUeL[ Lt\VlT\.
LW EXLeL[l TXY, CjRUeLm Lm AL ]m
RuUVl Tts[Rp, CVtLp Rj PlTpX. Utm ASL
AXLeLPu ]d EhTu\].

GXdhWu JeLUl
RUm
TVm

A
GXdhWu JeLUl
Gi
4
1s22s2

Qld hp
Lm AUl
2s2

UdVm

12

1s22s22p63s2

3s2

LpVm

20

1s22s22p63s23p64s2

4s2

vWuVm 38

1s22s22p63s23p64s24p65s2

5s2

TVm

56

1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p66s2

6s2

WVm

88

1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p65d10
5f 14 6p67s2

6s2
7s2

139

GXdhWu AUlLs JqY RUjm SX A, UkR Y


AUl hd u C GXdhWuL[ \t\ s-Qd hP
Lis[]. G]Y, JqY RUju Y GXdhWu AUl ns2
G] lPlTu\. Cp n GuT CQ\u h] lTRm.
CQ\u hs[ C GXdhWuL[ GRL ALt UkR Y
GXdhWu AUl] APm. G]Y, CjRUeLs Vm CWi CQj
\u AV ElL[m Ru\]. CdLWQjRp Rp R RU
AV ElL[d Lhm \kR LWjRuU EPV]. JW UV]
GXdhWu AUlTl Tts[Rp CjRUeLs CVtVp Utm YVp
TiLp Se AUu\].
CjRj RUeLs JW UV] EXL TL h] T\R
LWQjRp, LW EXLeL[l TX CVtVp Ti Ut\eLs JeLL
AUV YpX.
CjRUeLs Vm Y]Y. B]p, LW EXLeL[d Lhm
\kR j RuU EPVY. H]p, CjRUeLp Lm EXL
Qlu YU LW RUeL[d Lhm ALU].
TVm dVUt\ RUm. H]p, CYLs \kR A[Y
LQlTYRm CRl j GlTm L]U]Rm Bm. UdVm
Utm LpVm ALU] A[p LQlTu\]. u TWlp Lm
Gh dV RUeLp Cq RUeLm APem. vWuVm Utm
TVm \kR A[p LQlThPm Su\L AVlThP RUeL[m.
WVm Lm \kR A[p LQlT\. ARu LVdLj RuU
ARu YVXd Lhm dVU]Rm.

EXLl TiLs
LW EXLeL[d Lhm LW Ui EXLeLs AL L]jRuU
EPV]. A Gi ALdm T CYtu L]j RuU \\.
CjRUeLp Lm CWi s-GXdhWuLs TLd hp Up GRL
SLYRp SpX T[T[lm, AL uLPjm Ti Utm YlTm LPjm
TiTm Tts[]. CY \kR E Utm LXL[ EPV].
B]p, Rp Rj RUeLp Lm Ql GXdhWuL[d
Lhm C UPe] CjRUeLs Tts[Rp LW EXLeL[d
Lhm AL E Utm LX EPVY.

140

A BWm
LW EXLeL[d Lhm Cq AdLs V]. H]p,
CqYdLp Lm EVo EhL uhPm, BohPp GXdhWuL[
Ru]LjR ClTRp CjRuU HtT\. CjRUeLu A BWeLs
\YL ClTRp, Rp Rj RUeL[d Lhm AL
L]jRuU, AL E XLs Utm AL APojL[l Tts[].
JW Rp Uk Z NpmT JqY Tm GXdhWu
Ls ALlTRp A BWm ALd\.

AV BWm
TYL CqYVLs TRL Clm, Rp R RUeL[d
Lhm A[p VY. H]p, C BohPp GXdhWuL[ dV
u]o CQ\u CWiPV So AVL[ M2+ (Be2+, Mg2+, Ca2+,
Sr2+) RYRp, LW AdL U ALj, GXdhWuLs Es ClTRp
CqYVLu A[Ls \u\], CWiPm Rp Uk ZL
NpmT AV BWm ALdu\.

A TUu
TVjk WVm YW NpmT JqY GXdhWu m
ALlTRp, A TUu ALd\.

AVVdL Bt\p
LWUi EXLeLs LW EXLeL[d Lhm A[p V].
B]p, AL EhL uhPjRl Tts[]. G]Y, GXdhWuLs
Lm CdLUL QdLlThlTRp, LW EXLeL[d Lhm Rp
AVVdL Bt\p AL UlT EPV].
CWiPm AVVdL Bt\p, Rp AVVdL Bt\Xd Lhm
H\jRZ C UPeLL Es[.
LWUi EXLeLu CWiPm AVVdL Bt\p Lm AL
Ul] TtkRm, M2+ AVL[j Ru\]. H]p iU
Xp, o LWNp AL Wt\ YlTjRm Utm AL TL Bt\X
TtlTR LWQUm. TVjk TVm YW NpmT A
A[ ALd\. G]Y, TVjk TVm YW CjRUju
IE1 Utm IE2 UlLs \u\].
141

CWiPm R RUeLp TVm EfN AVVdL Bt\p


Ul] EPV. G]Y, Be2+ AVVdm RuU Lm \. G]Y,
TVm, ShW_u, Bd_u, NpTo, Utm aX_] Nok T\lTm
NoUeLs NLlQlj RuUVm, CfNoUeL[l Tu T\lTm
Mg, Ca, Sr Utm Ba NoUeLs AVj RuUVm EPV].
LW EXLeL[d Lhm CWiPm Rj RUeLs CQ\u
CWi EPV Y X AVVj RW Su UPe Bt\p RYlT\,
CkR AL A[ Bt\p RYV EVo Wt\ Bt\p ApX TL Bt\p,
Su UPe ALUn ClTRt LWQUm.

Bd_]t\ XLs
LP BolhPp C s GXdhWuLs LQlTYRp C So
uhP AVLu Wt\ Bt\p ALULm \kR A[ CWiPm
AVVdL Bt\Xm Tts[]. CQ\u CWi EPV
CjRUeLu AV NoUeLp CQ NWR GXdhWuLs CpXR
LWQjRp PV LkR RuUm Utm CfNoUeLp Lm Go
AVLs \Ut Clu, CfNoUeLm \Ut LQlTu\].

Po \Ut\p
CjRUeLm AYtu NoUeLm Pp lhP \eL[j
Ru\]. TVm - TfN Bls \jRm, LpVm - NeLp Yl
\jRm, vWuVm Utm WVm mNu Yl \jRm
Ldu\].
CjRUeLm ARu NoUeLm Pp YdLlTmT, GXdhWuLs
Bt\Xl Tt EVo Bt\p UhPjt EkRm Tu\]. RrXdj
mmT, EgV Bt\X lhP AX [m LiP LW Y
RsYRp Pp \jRj Ru\].
TVm Utm UdVm AdLs A[p V]. AYtp Lm
GXdhWuLs EhLPu Lm YYL QdLlThs[]. G]Y, Pp
CY EVo Bt\p UhPeLdm NpX YpX. G]Y, Po NR]p
lhP \eL[j RYpX.

TVjtm AVjtm CPV X hP RPo


TVm RU YN AhPYQp CWiPm YNj RPp Es[.
CjRUm CWiPm RV NokR ARu R RUeL[d Lhm
142

13m Rp Es[ AVm Ru TiL[l Tts[.


CjRUju Lf V A[ Utm AL GXdhWu LYo RuU
BVYL[ TVju ANRWQUL Titd LWQUm. Cq
LWQeLU, Be2+ AVu ]m RuU] ALdLf Nn,
AI3+ AVu ]j RuUd NUULm Utu\]. G]Y,
TVm AVm TX TiLp JuThs[].
6.2 UdVm

UdVju RY] Ud]Nhu TVk T\lThP, Utm


UdV Gu\ TVu AlTPm ClTTVWl Tt\. BeX
YVXo aml P GuTYWp 1808m Bi V UdVm
LiPVlThP.
CRu \kR APojVp GpX YL AUll TLd CjRUm
TVuT\.

dVU] RdLs
UdVm CVtLp Rj PlTpX. NokR Xp AL
A[p TWlp LQlT\.
Ud]Nh, MgCO3
PXUh, MgCO3, CaCO3
GlNm El, MgSO4, 7H2O
Lo]Xh, MgCI2 KCI.6H2O
LPp p LWkdm Cl Utm Na+ AVL[ Aj u\YRL
2+
Mg LQlT\. G]Y, TeLPpL[ UdVju XeL[m.
RYW EXLjp TfN \jRPV CXLp [W@p Gu\
NoUjp UdVm TWk LQlT\.

EXLVp
AL A[p UdVm, EV UdVm [W ApX
UdVY u]t Tjj RVdLlT\.

1. EV UdVm [W u]tTjRp
Cm\p VRdLlThP Lo]Xh RY Cm\d dV
XUm. NU A[ Lo]Xh Utm NVm [W LXY 973 K
YlTXp V oUUL EdLlT\. LW [WLs, UdVm
[W, WtTld EhTRX Rjm, Utm EV LXYu
LPj \] ALdLm Nnu\].
143

EV LXY 6-7 Pu GPs[ u TV Rem Lt LR


Cm LXjp XdL Y rXp uTlt EhTjRlT\.
uTu YlTX 970 Kp Xj YdLlT\. Cm LXU
Go u ]VLm, LoTu ApX WTh Ri Sou ]VLm
TVuTjRlTu\]. LoTu ApX WTh Ri eLu Z]p
ZlTh CRu Xm [u YV\. EV UdVm
uTd Lhm XN]Rp, TWlt EVk lhP LX A[p
RkR NR]eL[p dLlTu\. CkR u]tTlp EV UdVm
Bd_]t\jt EhTPR YLp XdL Y rks[.
UdVjR Um VRdL Wt\ UdVm [W Utm NVm
[W C[dLs mTm EdL Yj T\lTu\.

1. WTh Sou RL 2. eLu 3. L Y Tu\ UkRY


4. UdVm 5. uT (EV) 6. Cm LXm 7. [u 8. UkRY
9. Cm Go u RL

TPm - UdVm [Wu uTl JdLm

CVtVp TiLs
V UdVm EXLm ]\u EPV YsV Tu
YiUV] EXLm. ARu EXd Nt Z LmVm Utm,
RLPm RuUL[l T\. UpV LmL[L Ut ApX
lTuL[l Tu CY tLlTu\]. C J CXN] EXLm.

YVp TiLs
1. LtPu ] : EXokR Ltp CY LlTpX. B]p DWd
Ltp Yi\ BdN TUjR R\.
144

2. LtPu Gm T : Lt ApX Bd_Pu Gm T


ALl \FRd LoL[ APdV WLNU] JVj R\.
CRu [YL UdVm BdN Utm UdVm ShW
EYu\].
2Mg + O2 2MgO 3Mg + N2 Mg3N2
3. CO2 EPu ] : CO2 rXp RPok Gm TiTl
Tts[ 2Mg + CO2 2MgO + C
4. Pu ] : WPu YlTlTjm T WLNUL Gk
UdVm BdNPm, ahW_]m R\.
Mg + H2O MgO + H2
W

5. AXeLPu ] :
1. ojR HCI ApX H2SO4 EPu ahW_]j R\. ojR HNO3
EPu J T YV] ahW_u, Shd AXjRp
Bd_]t\m Tt. N]l Tj JdLjRp UThP
[l T[j Ru\]. APo HNO3 EPu AmUVm ShWh
R\.
4Mg + 10HNO3 4Mg(NO3)2 + NH4NO3 + 3H2O
6. EXLeLu CPlTVof :
Mg J YV Sou RUUm. G]Y, UdVm GpX
EXLeL[m ARu ElLk CPlTVof Nn\.
Mg + 2AgNO3 Mg(NO3)2 + 2Ag
7. Jdm ] :
UdVm, Bd_]d LYm RuUPV. NVm, ThPVm,
TWu Utm dLu BdNLk EVo YlT Xp
CjRUeL[ YVtu\.
K2O + Mg MgO + 2K
B2O3 + 3Mg 3MgO + 2B

UdVju TVuLs :
1. EPu J LlTPj Rp, UjRlj Rp Utm ThPj
RpLm TVuT\.
145

2. TWu Utm dLu RVlLp JdVLm EXLVp


Bd_u Ht\jt GWLm TVuT\.

6.3. LWUi EXLeLu NoUeLs, UdVm


NpTh, GlNm El, MgSO4 . 7H2O

UdVm BdN ApX LoT]hP ojR H2SO4p LWj


CfNoUm RVdLlT\.
MgO + H2SO4 MgSO4 + H2O

TVuLs :
1. UX[dVLm,
2. NVm Utm Rp TRm \Lm, Tg ThL[ NVdLm
3. [h]m LXkR ]YL Ut BLm TVuT\.

LpVm BdN, CaO hP iQm


iQmd LpX, CRtLu EYdLlThP EXLp GdL Yj
CfNoUm T\lTu\.
CaCO3

1070K

CaO + CO2

TiLs
1. iQmj [ EPV Yi\ iUm.
2. W Nodu\ T 'x' Gu\ JV EiPd EfN YlTjRj
R\. CR]p T\lThP s ojR iQm (Ca(OH)2)
G]lT\. Cm\ 'iQm ojRp' G] AZdLlT\.
CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2 p Es[ iQml TN iQml
Tp G]m YLh T\lThP V LWNp iQm o G]m
AZdLlTu\].
3. [Pu Nok NXY s CaOCI2. H2O R\.
4. CO2 EPu LpVm LoT]hPm, SO2 EPu LpVm NpThPm
R\.
5. DW ahW[d AX YPu ] k LpVm
[WPj R\. B]p EXo YPu ] V.
CaO + 2 HCI CaCI2 + H2O
146

TVuLs :
1. LpVm [W, LW Utm LiQ RVdm Rm,
2. YdLs Utm BpLap BVYt\ EXojRm,
3. iQml Tp Xp, NodLWVj VRdLm Utm Yi\
NXYj Rm,
4. iQm WL NR]f NXp ]V]Lm UjYjm
TVuT\.

LpVm NpTh, CaSO4


Wt\ CaSO4 BLm, lNm CaSO4.2H2O BLm Pd\. ojR
Npd AXjR LpVm ElPu Noj CfNoUm T\lT\.
CaCO3 + H2SO4 CaSO4+H2O + CO2

lNju TVuLs
1. XvPo RVdLm,
2. Uih CYR RlTRtm TVuTu\.
Tv Nk

lNm El] Uo 393 K YlTXp Tjm T J


Xd lNm 1 Xd W CZk CaSO4.H2O G]lTm Tv
Nk Pd\, Tp Es[ Uih Uoh Gum CPjp Tv
Nk RVdL lNm ALUL TVuTjRlThPRp ClTVo CRt
YZeLlThP.
Tv NkPu ARu \p up J Te \s[ Wf
Nodm T [vd Tu\ RuUPV Ts Pdu\. C
CYRt 5 Rp 15 PeLs B\. C L]UPm T i
LsL[PV iUm Pdu\. CmT CRu TUu Nt
ALd\. G]Y, NV] YolLs RVdLl TVuT\.
L]URp Lrf CWi TLp Lr\. Rp Tp EXoRp
Lr\. B]p CWiPY Tp L]UP\.
CaSO4.H2O

3/2 H2O

L]URp

CaSO4.2H2O

CRp T

147

CaSO4.2H2O

NVm [WP Tv NkPu Nodm T L]URp Wk


SPT\. TLWm ApX TWd^ Nodm T ]u YLm
\dLlTu\.

TVuLs :
1. Tv Nk UjYj \p Gm L[ N NnVl
TVuT\.
2. XLs NnV ERm YolL[ RVdLm, Tp UjYjm,
3. T W RVdLm TVuT\.
]dLs.

A. NV] PV RokRdLm
1. uYY]Yts LWUi EXLm G?
(a) NVm
(b) LpVm (c) jVm

(d) ThPVm

2. LWUi EXLeLu CQ\u


(a) 1
(b) 3 (c) 2 (d) 0
3. LWUi EXLeLp, .................. Lm AL AVVdm Bt\X
EPV.
(a) TVm
(b) UdVm
(c) Lpm

(d) TVm

4. Pp TVm ....................... \jR Rm.


(a) NeLp Yl (b) Bls TfN
(c) Yl
(d) Xm
5. LPp p AL A[p LWks[ u\Y RUm
(a) TVm
(b) TVm
(c) LpVm (d) UdVm
6. hP iQm GuT
(a) LpVm Bd^
(b) LpVm ahWd^
(c) LpVm ShWh
(d) LpVm NpTh
7. NXY u YnT
(b) CaOCl2. H2O
(a) CaCl2. H2O,
(c) CaSO4.2H2O
(d) CaSO4. H2O
148

8. Tv Nk GuT
(a) CaSO4. 2H2O (b) CaCl2,

(c) CaSO4

(d) CaSO4. H2O

9. X NnYRtL] YolLs NnV TVuTm NoUm.


(a) GlNm El
(b) LpVm Np@T
(c) Tv Nk

(d) lNm

10. UjRlj Rp TVuTm RUm


(a) UdVm
(b) TVm
(c) LpVm

(d) TVm

B. LhP CPeL[ WlL.


LWUi EXLeLu TY] GXdhWu YnlT ................
CWiPm Rp Uk rf NpX AV BWm ................
Pp LpVm ....................... \jRj Rm.
13Bm Rp Es[ ...................... RUjR TVm JjR
TiPV.
5. UdVm Gu\ TVo ....................... Rp Ck YkR.
6. [W@pp ........................ RUm Es[.
7. EV ........................ u]tl Tlu Xm UdVm RVdLlT\.
8. LtPu UdVm ..................... Utm ...................... R\.
9. GlNm Elu YnlT ......................
10. GlNm El ................. BL TVuT\.
1.
2.
3.
4.

C. TjL
1. Ud]Ph

CaSO4. 2H2O

2. PXUh

Mg Cl2. KCl. 6H2O

3. GlNm El

MgCO3

4. Lo]Xh

MgCO3 CaCO3

5. lNm

MgSO4. 7H2O

D. dLUL PV
1. 2Bm R RUeLu Bd^Ls AL E XV EPV.
Hu?
149

2. CWiPm R EXLeLp M3+ AV EYYRt RYV]


AVVdm Bt\p ALd\. Hu?
3. MgCl2 LWNPu NH4Cl Utm ojR AUV Nodm T
Mg(OH)2 rT EYY CpX. Hu?
4. M2+ AVVdm Bt\p, M+ AVVdm Bt\X P Nt\ EVok
LQlT\. Hu?
5. LWUi EXLeLu LoT]h Utm ahWd^Lu Xl
RuUVd Li AdL?
6. Hu TVm aX LtPu L\?
7. LW EXLeL[d Lhm CWiPm R RUeLs \kR
EXLj RuUPV. Hu?
8. TVm aXLs NLlQlj RuUm UdVm aXLs
AVj RuUm Lis[ Hu?
9. LWUi EXLeLu U] Bd^Ls Lm Xlj RuU
EPV Hu?
10. Bep Ck Ba YW CWiPm R RU Bd^Lu LW
YU ALd\ Hu?

E. YL PV.
1. LWUi EXLeLs Gu\p Gu]? Hu AqY AZdLlTu\]?
2. CWiPm Rp Be Utm Mg RUeL[d Lhm GYtp
YTu\.
3. TVju YlThP RuU] Y.
4. CVtLp UdVm GqY Pdu\? ARu Rk
UdVm EXLm GqY dLlTu\?
5. EXLl QlTd Li CWiPm R RUeLu uYm
TiL[ [d.
(a) LW RUeL[d Lhm YUPVY.
(b) uNWm Utm YlTjR Su LPjm \U EPVY.
6. LWUi EXLeLu Rp AV Bdm Bt\p Rp R
RUeLu AV Bdm Bt\X P ALm Hu?
7. Tv Nku TVuLs VY?
8. Tv Nk GqY RVdLlTu\?
9. MgSO4 GqY RVdLlTu\?
10. UdVju TVuLs VY?
150

LQd
J RUm R Gi CWi Utm YN Gi u EPV,
CjRUm Bd_u Utm ShW_Pu ]k A Utm B NoUeL[
R\. C J YV So u]t\j RUm. BRXp, AgNO3 LWNp
Ck pYW CPlTVof Nnm. APo Shd AXjPu C NoUjRj
R\. RUm A, B Utm C NoUjRd LiP.

RlW
RU YN AhPYQp CWiPm Ru RUeLs LWUi
EXLeLs Gu AZdLlTu\. LW EXLeLs Tu CYLm
AV ]m Bt\p EPV. CkRl TPjp CjRUeLu CVtVp
Utm YVp YdLlThs[]. Be Utm Al CPV Es[ X
hP RPo TiLs [dLlThs[.
UdVju EXLVm, ARu CVtVp Utm Yp TiLs
YL [dLlThs[]. LWUi EXLeLu NoUeL[V GlNm
El, LpVm NpTh, hP iQm, lNm Utm Tv Nk BVY
CkRl TPjp YdLlThs[].

UtToY pLs
1. General Chemistry - John Russel McGraw Hill International Edition 3rd
Edition.
2. University General Chemistry - An Introduction to Chemical Science
edited by CNR Rao Mc Millan India Limited, Reprint - 2002.
3. Heinemann Advanced Science Chemistry - Second Edition
Ann and Patrick Fullick 2000
Heineman Educational Publishers, Oxford
4. Inorganic Chemistry, P.L. Soni.
_________

151

p-R RUeLs

13 -

TWu R

14 -

LoTu R

15 -

ShW_u R

16 -

Bd_u R
152

7, p-R RUeLs
Lt\u LhTLs

ClTPjRl TjR u]o o AV YiV LjdLs


@ p - R RUeLu RuUL[m, TiL[m k Ls[p.
@ TWu dV RdL[ ARp.
@ TWu RdLp Ck TW] jRlTRl k Ls[p.
@ TWu NoUeLu RVl, TiLs Utm TVuL[l Tt k
Ls[p.
@ LoTu \YtU CVL[l Tt Ltd Ls[p.
@ WTh Utm YWju AUlTm k Li,
AYLdPV Es[ YTL[m k Ls[p.
@ LTu Ru, BdNLs, LoTLs Utm NpTL[l
Tt Ak Ls[p.
@ "ShW_u X jRX'l Tt Ltd Ls[p.
@ Shd AXju RVl, TiLs Utm AUl] Rk
Ls[p.
@ ShW_u Ut\m ARu NoUeL[l TtV dVjYjR EQoRp.
@ Xd Bd_u dVjYjRm, \ X Bd_u Utm
Xd Bd_dPV Es[ YTL[ ARp.
@ Yrt dVU] KNu GuTR EQoRp.
7.1 TY] TiLs

RU YN AhPYQp 13Bm Rk 18 Bm R
YWf Nokdm RUeLp, p BohPpLp GXdhWuLs
RPofVL WRp Nnm RUeL[ p-R RUeLs G]
AVlTu\].
GpX RUeLm s BohPpLp UVL WlTlThm, p
BohPpLs UVL WlTlTPR XUm Es[]. 13Bm
153

Rk (ns2 np1) 17Bm R YW (ns 2 np 5) JqY


GXdhW]L RPofVL WlTlTu\]. 18 Bm Rp (ns2 np6)
s-Utm p-BohPpLs UVL GXdhWuL[p WlTlThs[].
p-R RUeLs So Utm Go Bd_]t\ XL[ EPV].
JW Rp Uk ZLf NpXf NpX, Ql s BohPp
Lm C GXdhWuLs, Y Qlt EhTP. Ql p
BohPp Es[ GXdhWuLs UhU Qlp DTu\]. CY
"UkR_ [' G] AZdLlT\.
UkR_ [ GuT J TVW RW, [dLm ApX. JW Rp
Uk ZLf NpXf NpX M-X (NLY Qlf NoUeLd)
Qlu YU \\. ApX M+4 AV (AVf NoUeLd)
EPV NoUeLu TL Bt\p \\. CRt [dLm
RYlT\. CR \p MX4 YnT EPV NoUeLs EYYRtj
RYlTm Bt\p, CR NoUm 4M-X QlL[ EYYRt
YlTm Bt\Pu NUlTjRlT\.
G]Y NUX CPl\jt NRLU\.
MX2 + X2 MX4
R GiQf NokR So Bd_]t\ Gi, Ut\ Xp
C AXLs \Yn ClTRt LWQm UkR _ [Ym. CkRj
RPo Ql s GXdhWuLs EVo Bd_u Ht\ Xp TeLt
\kR Bd_]t\ Xp \YLm TeLtu\].
AGP ALdL ALdL, 13 (IIIA) Bm R RUeLs
EYdm NoUeLu AVj RuU ALd\. Am X L]
EXL AVLs od LWNp +3 Bd_]t\ Xp Es[]. B]p,
CfNoUeLu XljRuU CjRp Es[ L] EXLeLu
+1 Bd_]t\ XVd Lhm \kR Xlj RuUV EPV].
G]Y RVm +1 Bd_]t\ Xp, + 3 XVd Lhm AL
Xlj RuU EPV. H]p ns Q hp Es[ s GXdhWuLs
Ql EiPLl TVuTYpX.
CqYL UkRj RuU C LWQeL]p HtT\.
1. s GXdhWuLs Ik ApX EVo Rp X YiPm Gip
LQlThPm,
154

2. CYLu dLm EVV YdLu AUl] TtdLR


Xm UkR _ [Ls Lr\. G]Y ns BohPp
Es[ CQ GXdhWuL[ RdL Yj \kR Bd_]t\
XV XlTjYR UkR _ [ Gu\m.
CqYL [ TuWiPm R (2B), 14 (IV A) Utm 15
(V A) R RUeLp LiPVlT\. CjRLp Lm L]
RUeLs (0 +2, +3) Bd_]t\ XL[ \V Tts[].

BdNLu RuU
p R RU BdNLs LW TiTm (EXL RUeLd
Uhm), DVp RuU (EXLl TLd Uhm) ApX AXj RuUm
AXLeLd Uhm) Tts[].
AXLeLs LQdLt\ Bd AXeL[j Ru\]. GpX
RLm, BdNLu AXj RuU, Rp Up Ck ZL
NpX \km, JW YNj RPp, CPm Ck YXUL NpXf NpX
ALjm LQlT\.
(G.L.) LW BdN
DVp BdNLs AX BdN
Bd AXeLs
-

Bi2O3
SnO, SnO2, PbO,Pb,O3
SO3, Cl2O7
HNO3, H2SO4.

JW Rp Up Ck ZL NpX NpX LW Qm ALd\.


CO2
AXm

SiO2
\kR AXm

GeO2
DVp

SnO2
LWm

PbO2
AL LWm

JW YNj RPp AXj RuU ALd\.


Al2O3
DVp

SiO2 P4O10
AX

SO2 Cl2O7
AL AXj RuU

ahWLu RuU
ASL p-R RUeLs ahWL[ EYdu\].
AXLeLu ahWLs AL Xlj RuUPV]. GkR
Rm Uk ZL NpX NpX ahWLu Xlj RuU
\\. CqYLf NoUeLu AXj RuU ALd\. CR Tu
155

ahW_u AVP p AL A[ AXj RuU EPV. 15 Bm


Rp, ShW_u AL Xlj RuU EPV ahWPj R\.
ahWLu Xlj RuU rdLiPY AUu\.
NH3 > PH3 > AsH3 > SbH3 > BiH3

aXLu RuU
p-R RUeLp, AXLeLs NLl Ql aXL[j
Ru\]. EXL aXLs AVj RuUk NLYjRuUVL
TlTVL Uu\]. JW YNj RPp CPk YXULf NpXf
NpX aXLu AVj RuU \k, NLYjRuU ALd\.
GjdLhPL, SbCl2 J No AVj RuUVm, TeCl4 NLYlj
RuUVm Tts[.
EXLeL[l TjRUhp, Judm UXL Bd_]t\ Xp
aXL[j RUV]p, \kR Bd_]t\ Xp Es[
aXLs AVj RuUm, AL Bd_]t\ Xp Es[
aXLs AL NLYj RuUVm Tts[].
aXLu ] Ls RuU, AYtu A[]l Tj
AUu\]. AVPLs Utm WULs AL NLYjRuUm
WLs AL A[ AVj RuUm Lis[].
7.2 R 13-TWu R (B, Al, Ga, In, Tl)

CVtLp TWu RjR Xp CpX. NokR Xp, Td


AXju EldL[Ld LQlTu\].

7.2.1 TWu RdLs


(i) Td AXm H3BO3
(ii) TWdv
Na2B4O7.10H2O

7.2.2 jRjRp
TU[p TWu, ARu RdL[V TWdv Na2B4O7 ApX
LpU]h Ca2B6O11p Ck jRdLlT\.
LpU]h Rp lhP RjPu NVm LoT]h LWNPu
LdL Yj, Rp TWdv NoUUL Ut\lT\.
2Ca2B6O11 + 3Na2CO3 + H2O 3Na2B4O7 + 3CaCO3 + Ca(OH)2
156

LWVR CaCO3 rTYL T\. LWNk TWdv TLUL


YVt\lT\. TWdv NoUjk TWu, rdLm C
TLp jRdLlT\.

(A) TWu W BdN RVjRp


TWdv, APo YlT ahW [d AXjPu NodLlTm
T, AW\VLd LWm Td AXm UYL dLlT\.
Na2B4O7 + 2HCl 2NaCl + H2B4O7
H2B4O7 + 5H2O 4H3BO3
Td AXm, ALUL YlTlTjm T, TWu W BdN
T\lT\.
2H3BO3 B2O3 + 3H2O

(B) TWu W BdN JdLm TRp


TWu W BdNPu NVm, ThPVm ApX UdVm
iLs LXkR LXY J Np Nk\ hp YlTlTjRlT\.
APo LWNp Cdm Lp Ck TWu [T\. u]o APo
HCl EPu LdL Yj UdVm BdN Utm AL A[p
Cdm Td AXm LWj YVtVPu LmTl \ TLUt\
TWu s TYL PdLlT\. CR] p L, u]o
EXojRlT\.
B2O3 + 3Mg 2B + 3MgO.
TWu W WU BPu ahW_]f Noj T\lThP
LXYV PevPu uZ Li 1470 K YlT Xp, YlTlTj,
V TL TWu T\lT\. TWu W [W B Utm
ahW_u LXY, EVo AjR u pp, TP Yj, u]o
odLlTm T, L] LU \ TLUt\ Ts Pd\.

CVtVp TiLs
TWu C \ YtU CVL[L Es[. TLUt\ Utm TL
TWu BVY C \ YtU CVL[m. TWu J Ap
LPjm AXLj RUm Bm.
157

YVp TiLs
1. LtPu ]
NRWQ YlTXp TWu Lt\p TdLlTYpX. B]p
975 K YlTXp YlTlTjm T, Gk TWu W BdN
Utm R[ TWu ShWP, BN EiPd\.
4B + 3O2 2B2O3

2B + N2 2BN

2. AXeLPu ]
TLUt\ TWu APo Npd AXm Utm Shd AXeLp
LWk Td AXUL U\.
B + 3HNO3 H3BO3 + 3NO2

2B + 3H2SO4 2H3BO3 + 3SO2.

3. LWeLPu ]
EV LWeLp LWk, Td AXm Pd\.

4. JdVL NVpTm Ti
TWu J YV Jd Bm. LoTu P BdNP LoT]Lm,
LY, L]Lm TWu Jd\.
3CO2 + 4B 2B2O3 + 3C
3SiO2 + 4B 2B2O3 + 3Si
5. EXLeLPu ] : AL YlT Xp, EXLeLPu (Cu,
Ag Utm Au RW) uXp ]k TWL[L Uu\].
6. AXLeLPu ] : TWu, ShW_u, [u, Wu
Utm LoTPu EVo YlT Xp Nok \V, TWu ShW,
BN, TWu W [W, BCl3 TWu W WU, BBr3 Utm
TWu LoT BV NoUeL[j Ru\]. Lm L]U]
T[L TWu LoT LRlT\.
7.2.3 TWu NoUeLs
TWdv (ApX) NVm PhW TWh, Na2B4O7 - uLp, J U
LXkR TWdv, Cp TWdv 55% Es[. Tju EXokR HLp
CfNoUm LQlT\. TWdv rdLm NoUeLk
T\lTu\.
158

1. LpU]h Rk :
LpU]h R APo NVm LoT]h LWNPu LdL Yj
TWdv T\lT\.
Ca2B6O11 + 2Na2CO3 2CaCO3 + Na2B4O7 + 2NaBO2.
YLhm, NYdm TWdv TLeLs dLlTu\]. CO2
Y LWNp Nj UPTWh, TWdv BL Ut\lT\.
4NaBO2 + CO2 Na2CO3 + Na2B4O7
TVuTjV, Ggdm NVm LoT]h im LpU]h EPu
NodLlT\.

2. uLp Rk :
CVtLp Pdm U LXkR TWdv (uLp) p LWdLlTh,
YLh, APoj, V TWdv TLeLs T\lTu\].

TiLs
1. TWdv ARu EXd Up YlTljm T, TL Wt\
o XdLs YV, \Ut\ LiQ Tu\ T[j
R\. CY "TWdv LiQ' Bm. CfNoUm Rk NVm
UPTWh Utm TWu (III) BdNPLm U\.

Na2B4O7.10H2O
Na2B4O7

Na2B4O7 + 10H2O

2NaBO2 + B2O3

CdLXY, EXL BdNLPu Edm T lhP \PV


UL[n U\. CkR \j]d Li EXL AVLs
LiPVlTu\].
GjdLhPL, CuO + B2O3 Cu(BO2)2.

TVuLs :
1. TiT TlTnp EXLd L[ LiPVm.
2. EXL Ype \Lp C[dVLm
3. LiQ, Nl Utm eLu BVYLs RVlm
159

4. Rp Tm Rp, jLdLm, NVl T[Lm


5. EQYl TLdLm TVuT\.

TWdv U NR]
V A[ TWdv J [h]f tp Yj YlTljm T
LiQVl Tu\ \Ut\ U Pd\. CkR U u]o \PV
LXo Eld LWNp S]jR u]o im YlTlTjRlT\. lhP
\jR EPV ULs T\lTu\]. Uu \j]d Li
LWdLs APV[m Li Ls[lTu\]. EXL UP TWh
EiPYRp lhP \eL[l Tu\].
GjdLh : LlTo EldLs X \ UVj Ru\].
Bd_]t\ Pp
Bd_u JdL Pp
EXLf NoUeLs
\m
LlTo
Cm
UeL
LTph
WVm
dLp

CuSO4 + B2O3 Cu(BO2)2 + SO3


2Cu(BO2)2 + C 2CuBO2 + B2O3 + CO
2CuBO2 + C 2Cu + B2O3 + CO
Bd_]t\ Pp
Pp \m

Bd_u JdL

Xm
UgNs
ed LXkR FR
Xm
TfN
Tl

Yl
TfNf N
\Ut\ X
Xm
TfN
NmTp

7.3 LoTu R RUeLs

LoTu, Lu, _oUVm, u Utm Xh BV RUeLs, RU


YN AhPYQp, 14 Bm Rp APes[].
RUm
A Gi
GXdhWu AUl
LoTu
6
[He] 2s2 2p2
Lu
14
[Ne] 3s2 3p2
_oUVm
32
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
u
50
[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
Xh
82
[Xe] 4f 14 5d10 6s2 6p2
160

7.3.1 LoTu \YtU YYeLs


LoTu \YtU TiTl Ttd\. CqY LQlTm
\YtU YYeL[Y] :
1. PVUih (YWm) J AZV TLl Ts.
2. WTh, J UuUV], NmTp LXkR LUV] TLl Ts.
3. TLUt\ LoTu, LoTu NoUeLs YlTlTjV u Ggdm
Lll T
TLUt\ LoTu TpY YLLs : (i) XdL, (ii) L, (iii) GkR L,
(iv) Gm Ll (A) L Gmd L, (v) [d Ll, (vi) Ll
LoTu, (vii) Y LoTu, (viii) ThWVm L.

7.3.2 PVUih ApX YWju AUl


YWjp JqY Am \ APu NLYl QlL[p
QdLlTh p Ll TV Xd\L EiP\. JqY LoTu
Am Aj Es[ Su LoTu AdLPu CQk, Suu
Su XL[ Sd NLYl QlLs AUks[]. C-C
QlLs Lm YUV]Y. G]Y YWlTLm Lm L]jRuU
YnkR. AL EX Utm LXLs EPV.
J Su AUlp AUks[ LoTu
AdLu AUl, mTj mT AUk YWju
C YYjRj R\.

161

AUl 7.3 : YW AUls Lm ASL LoTu - LoTu

QlLu UjR YU YWjt Lm AL L]j RuUVm,


Y]d EhTPR RuUVm Ad\.

7.3.3 WThu Al
Cl\ YtU YYm TX AdL[d LiP. LoTu AdLsJ
JeL] ALQ RhP AUlp AUks[]. AdLdPV
YUV] QlLs PV. G]Y, AdLs RjRV m
TiPV. AjRjR R[eLdPV NLY Ql CpXR
LWQjRp, WTh R[eLu YNlT GRL Sm TiPV.
ClTiT CRt UuUj RuUVm, EWnj RlT]Lm
(Lubricating power) NVpTP ER\.

Vanderwaal's
interactions

AUl 7.4 : WThu AUl. Ads YUV]

QlL[m, AdLdPV YUVtm ClTRp AdLs


JqYum Ut\uu Up Ydm Ti]l Tu\].

TdvPo @[uv
AUdL Pd^v ULQjp Es[ Wv TpLXd LZLjp
TVtm fNoh vU (Richard Smalley) Utm WToh Lop (Robert
curl) GuTWp LoTu V \ YtU CV LiPVlThP. CYoLs
N^dv TpLXd LZLjp (Sussex University) TVtV a WP
(Harry Kroto) GuTPu Nok LiPVlThPRm.
60 AdL[m, 32 TdLeL[m (20 ALQ AUlLs, 12
IeLQ AUlLs) LiP CR] NpXUL "TdTp' Gu TVhP]o.
162

\ CY Td vPo @[u (Buck Minister Fullarene) Gu


AZdLXt. AUdL LhU] Yp]o R. Td vPo pXo GuTWp
LhV L[ YY LhP AUl] Cl\ YtU CV TtkRRp
ClTVo YdLXt. CqRUL L[ Yp AUkR LoTu
XdLu R @[uv G] AZdLlT\. CfNoUeLs
A W LPjm (Super conducting) TiL[l Tts[]. CdLil
YVp J lYV HtTjV. YVp Bnp "TdTp'
TtV A, Y[ok LiP Y\.

TPm : @[uv

TLUt\ LoTu
TLUt\ LoTu \YtU CV Lm ]VjRdL YYm
Bm. Ltp GRL Gm TiPV. CdLWQjRp GT[L
NVpT\. YUdL Bd_]tL[p Gp RdRd
EhT\. CqYYm WThPl Tu\ RhLs, AdLs Tu\
AUlTl Tts[. B]p Cp Es[ LoTuLu AUl
JeLt\Y AUks[].

7.3.4 TY] TiLs


EXLl Ti
LoTm, Lm AXLeLs, _oUVm J EXLl T, um,
Xhm EXLeLs. G]Y CjRp Uk ZLf NpXf NpX
EXLl Ti ALd\. H]p AVVdL Bt\p \\.

ahWLs
CjRj RUeLsVm NLY ahWL[j Ru\].
ahWLs Utm AYtu GidL LoTp Ck Xh YW
163

NpXf NpX \\. LoTu Lm AL GidLs[


ahWL[m (BpLuLs), Lu Utm _oUVm (XuLs Utm
_oUuLs) ahWL[m Ru\]. B]p vP]u (SnH4) Utm
[mTu (PbH4) BVYL[ u Utm Xh Ru\].
BpLuL[l TXpX. XuLs, \kR JdL[m..
[] Ydm Ti]m, LWd LWNpLp Gp Wt
Tlt EhTm TiL[m EPV. CqYT LoTu Utm Lu
BVYtdPV GXdhWu LYo RuU jVNm Es[Rp
HtTu\]. CR]p C-H Utm Si-H QlLm AL YT
LQlT\.

aXLs
GpXj RUeLm PhW aXL[j Ru\]. NRWQ YlT
Xp PhW aXLs TYL Lm oUeL[m. LoTu PhW
aX Wt Tl] Godm RuU EPV. H]p d
BohPpLs PV. LoTp EfN NLY Ql SuLm. G]Y
H2O XdL[ DRp Ql HtTP YnlpX.
Ggdm GpX RUeLu PhWaXLm WtTlt
EhTu\].
SiX4 + 2H2O SiO2 + 4HX
LoTu, Lu Utm _oUVm MHCl3 Gu\ WaXL[j
Ru\]. Xh Utm u WaXL[j RYpX. Lu,
_oUVm, u Utm Xh PaXL[j Ru\].

[WLs
1. GpX [WLm GV SuL YY XdL[m.
2. [WLu Xlj RuU, Rp Uk ZLf NpXf
NpX \\. +2 Bd_]t\ X, +4 Bd_]t\ XVd
Lhm, Xlj RuU EPV. CYLp u Utm Xh UhU
+ 2 Bd_]t\ [WL[j Ru\]. B]p \
[WLs + 4 Bd_]t\ Xp UhU Es[]. u(II)
[W J iUm, Utm p LWm. CkR odLWNp u
Bt\Xd LPjm, \ LUd LWlTuLm LWm. CRu EX
164

246oC. Xh(II) [Wm J iUm. p AW\VLd LWm.


14 Bm R RUeLu [WLs, + 4 Bd_]t\ Xp
RUeLs AXLj RuUk, EXLj RuUd UYR
[d\. Xh(II) [W LWNp u]t\Xd LPjm
501oCp Em TiTl Tt\. ClTiLs, u (II) [W
NLY Utm AVj RuUVl TtlTRm EQoj\.
B]p Xh(II) [W AL A[ AVjRuUVl Tts[.
3. PhW [W jRu (CCl4) Ij RW \ GpX [WLm
+ 4 Bd_]t\ Xp Wt Tlt EhTu\].

LoTLs
\kR GXdhWu LYo RuU EPV RUeLPu (G.L. Be, B, Si)
Tm NoUeLs LoTLs G] AZdLlTu\]. CYLs u Tm
L[L YL NnVlTu\].
(i) AV (ApX) El Tu\ LoTLs G.L. AXLs,
UjR]Ls, ApXLs.
(ii) CPd (ApX) EXL LoTLs G.L. WC Utm
(iii) NLYl Ql LoTLs. G.L. B4C9 SiC
Cmu YL LoTLm RUm ApX BdN LoTu ApX
ahW LoTPu EVoYlTXp YlTlTjl T\lTu\].
2Be + C Be2C
CaO + 3C CaC2 + CO
SiO2 + 3C SiC + 2CO

BdNLs
1. BdNLs, LoTu P BdNLs Xd AUlk, TV
Xd AUl]l Tts[].
JW Rp Uk ZLf NpXf NpX NLYlQk
AVj RuUd BdNLs Ut\m Tu\].
2. Xh BdN + 2 Bd_]t\ Xp AL Xlj RuUVm,
Xh(IV) BdN YlTlTj]p 886oC YlTXp Em
RuU EPV Xh(II) BdNPj R\. Xh (II) BdN
TmTm AVj RuU EPV.
165

3. CjRp, UXL AUm BdNLs (CO2 Utm SiO2) AXj


RuUm, ojR od LWNp CO32- AV Gm EiP\.
Bd^ Go AVLs, D[SIO32- GeO32-) EYY. Rp
Uk ZLd NpXf NpX \\. H]p AXj RuU
\\, _oUVm u Utm Xh BdNLs Vp
RuUVUm.AXeLPu ]k ElL[j Ru\].

LoTu Utm ARu NoUeLu TiLs


1. EXLju T[RWju dV Te, LoTm ARu NoUeLm
oQdu\].
2. aX_]t\m Tt\ LoTu NoUeLs olTuLs, Ek Lt
RlTuLs, VQl GkWeLp Utm LWlTuL[Lm
TVuTu\].
3. CS2, vLv WVu (NVtL Th) Utm NpXTu RVdLm
TVuT\.
7.4 ShW_u R

ShW_u, TvTWv, BoNd, BiU Utm vUj BV RUeLs


RU YN AhPYQp 15Bm Rp APem. CjRUeLs Vm
ns2np3 Gu\ TY] GXdhWu RuU EPV]. LP BohPpLp,
Ik GXdhWuL[d Lis[]. s BohPp 2 GXdhWuLm,
p BohPp 3 GXdhWuL[m EPV]. CkR 3 GXdhWuLm px1,
py1 Utm pz1 Gu\ u p BohPpLp NTVL Wms[].
Rp Uk ZLf NpXf NpX Ql s BohPp
Es[ C GXdhWuLs Qld TV]t UkR XUp Es[ RuU
ALd\. CY UkR_ [ G] AZdLlT\.
ShW_k vUj YW, Npm T, CQ\u Ik \t,
CQ\u u Xl AP\.
RoTo Gu\ vLhv UjYm Utm YVp tTu]Wp
1772 Bm Bi ShW_u LidLlThP.
N2 + 3H2

2NH3

CqY TU[p RVdLlThP AmUV, Shd BdNPL


Bd_]t\m APVf NnVlT\. AmUV Utm Lt LXkR
166

LXYV 1070K YlTXp, YlTlTjRlThP [h] Lm YXu


Nj Shd BdNPL Ut\lT\. Shd BdN, AL
A[ Bd_Pu CQk ShW_u P BdNPL U\. u]o
AL A[p ShW_u P BdN p LWV Yj Shd AXm
T\lT\. (BvYph \)
4NH3 + 5O2

4NO + 6H2O

2NO + O2

2NO2

2NO2 + 2H2O + O2

4HNO3.

TU[p T\lThP AmUV Utm Shd AXm \V


AmUVm EldLs Utm ShWhL[L Ut\lTh RkR EWeL[Ll
T\lTu\]. G]Y CqR ShW_u XlTjRp \
YNLd dVU]. Ltp 3/4 Te RU ShW_u Es[.
Nph hPo (KNO3) NVm ShWh (p Nph hPo) Utm AmUVm
EldL[L TU[ ShW_u NokR Xp Es[. RYW Utm
LeLu WhuLp ShW_u J AYVd \m..

7.4.1 ShW_] XlTjRp


YUiPXjp Lm ShW_u RjR Xp Es[. B]p,
ShW_u NoUXp Noklu, CY, ShW_u X jRp G]
AZdLlT\. RjR RU X ShW_u, ShW_u NoUUL Ut\m
TYR ShW_] XlTjRp Gu AZdLlT\.
ShW_u XlTjm \Ls ApX YUiPX ShW_],
NoUXd Utm \Ls

1. AmUV RVjRp (aTo \)


1 : 3 Gu\ Rjp Es[ ShW_u Utm ahW_u LXYV EVo
AjRjp (200-900 atm), 770K YlTXp, s Cm ]YL
Utu Njm Ul]m ]YL Ut Fdu Xm
NH3 RVdLXm.

CVtLp SPTm ShW_u X jRp


YUiPXjp, uNW ZlTm Ru, YUiPX ShW_m,
Bd_m CQk Shd BdNPL U\. u]o Um
167

Bd_]t\jt EhTh ShW_u P BdNPL U\. u]o,


Bd_]t\jt EhTh ShW_u P BdNPL U\. u]o,
ShW_u P BdN UZ p, AL A[ Bd_p LWk Shd
AXUL U\. u]o, UZWp LYlTh u TWld Yk
Nok, UQp LWeLPu ] k ShWhL[j R\.
CR]m RW, ThP, uv Tu\ RYWeLp LQlTm J
X TdVdLs ShW_], ShW_u NoUeL[L Ut\. CqY
Ut\m Tt\ ShW_u NoUeLs SWVL RYWeL[p EgNlTu\].

ShW_u Zt
YUiPXm, Ui, LPp Utm EoYr ThLdPV ShW_u
URp RPofVL Ut\m AP\.
Y UiPXjp Lm ShW_u RYWeLs, Utm LeLdm,
TVuRm [ThL[L AmUV, Shd AXeL[L Np\.
Clm lhP A[ NRR ShW_u YUiPXjXV Ut\m
APVUp LQlT\. H]p, NokR Xp EiP] ShW_u
im YUiPXjtj mTf NpYR LWQUm. CqY HtTm
Zt Ut\m ShW_u Zt G] AVlT\.
NodLlTm AmUVm

u
]
p

NVtL
ShWh
(EWeLs)

168

AmUV

XdL

UQp Es[
ShWhLs

Lt
d
T

p
ShW

u
L`

h
S

ShL`u

o
G

L
C Whu
A \jR
j
R m
m

Rl
YX
YjRp

El EWm

UY
SPTm
LoT]Nu

UQp Lm
AmUV
NoUeLs

RYW
Whu

ShW_u NoUeLu TVuLs


1. oU AmUV J LWlT]L TVuT\.
2. TdLh RVdm LLp AmUV, olT]L
TVuT\.
3. NVtLlTh, V, EWeLs, NXY NP BVY RVlLd
AmUV TVuT\.
4. ShWv BdN Utm Bd_u LXY, Tp UjYjp V
A[ AYf fN NnYp, UVdL UkRL TVuT\.
5. AN-NVeLs RVdLm ShWv AXm TVuT\.
6. EWeLs, TNT, GTN Tu\ Yl ThLs TU[p RVlTRt
Shd AXm TVuT\.
7. Lph Utm pYo EXLeL[ VRdL Shd AXm
TVuT\.
8. L\TP G@ RVdLm Shd AXm TVuT\.
9. YN]j WVeLs, NVtL Th, Utm UkLs RVdLm
Shd AXm TVuT\.
10 oU ShW_u J lT]L TVuT\.

7.4.2 Shd AXm


ShW_u Bd AXeLp Shd AXm dVU]Ru\m.
WNYL[p AY Pov G] AZdLlThP. AY Pov Gu\p
YUV] o G] AZdLlT\. Rp 1650 Bm Bi [To
CR]j RVjRo. u]o, LYiv 1784Bm Bi, DWeLXkR
Bd_u Utm ShW_u LXY uTp Nj Shd AXm
T\Xm Gu RjRo. Ltp Cm\p R[ Shd AXm
LXks[. CqY Ltp LQlTm Shd AXm UZWp LYlTh
Yj Rs[lT\.

RVl
1. NR]f NXp RVjRp
NR]f NXp, ShWh El APo Npd AXjPu
YlTlTj Shd AXm T\lT\.

169

NaNO3 + H2SO4 NaHSO4 + HNO3


Shd AX BLs, okR of rXp YdLlThP NLld
LXjs W Yj NLdLlT\. LWkR ShW_u BdNLs
mm Lnf YjRu Xm dLlT\.

2. Shd AXjR TU[p RVjRp


NejRn AUdLlThs[ LkRl Xu ERVp
AUdLlThdm, Wp odLlTm LlTo u ]dPV,
Lt] WYL F TU[p RVdLlT\. Cm\ AL
A[p PV.

3. BvYph \
AL A[p aTo \p T\lThP AmUV, BvYph \p
Shd AXUL Ut\lT\.
[h]d Lm

4 NH3 + 5O2

4NO + 6H2O
1155K

2NO + O2
4NO2 + 2H2O + O2

2 NO2
4HNO3

LX U\d LXY (98%) YU[t ojR Shd AXm,


Lnf YjRu Xm APodLlT\. CqY PjR AXm, APo
Npd AXjPu Lnf YdLlTh, Lm Shd AXm
T\lT\. E\Xd LXYVl TVuTj, 98% AXm
odLlTh, V Shd AXl TLeLs T\lTu\].

TiLs
CVtVp TiLs
1. V Xp, \Ut\ Lm oUm, RYPm T ShW_u
P BdN EiPYRp UgNs \jRl Tts[.
2 Ru Up ALm Adm TiTm, YVj RWdV LVjRm
HtTjm.
3. V AXju Jl APoj 1.54. 359 K YlTXp Ljm
231 K YlTXp E\m TiPV.
170

7.5 Bd_u R - 16 Bm R

Rp Su RUeLs AXLeL[m. UjRUL CYLs


LpL_uLs ApX RL[j Rm RUeLs AZdLlTu\].
H]p AL GidLs[ EXLeLs BdNLs (A)
NpTL[m.
ASLUL, GpX RUeLPu ]YRp, Bd_u, LU
YVp J dV RUULd LRlT\. TU[ LQlTm
RUeLp Bd_m Ju\Lm RjR Xp, P Bd_u (ApX)
Xd Bd_]L, YUiPXjp 20.9% L] A[Ym, 23%
GPVm EPV.
7.6 Xd Bd_u dVjYm

Yl WjR NpLp Lm U[u (Hb) AVou Es[


AQf NoUUm. CY, WWk, EPmu GpX TLeLdm
Bd_]f Uk NpXd LWQU\. UV[u (Mb) CR]l
Tu\ NoUUm, RNj dLp Es[. Bd_]f Nj Ydm
AQ Tum, RN NpLds, Bd_] Udm NVp\]
EPV. Fe(II), Tou DPu QdLlThP Xm, Utm [u
Wh] CQdLlThP Xm Es[, am Gu\ AQf
NoUjR, UV[u Es[PdV. B\m CPm U[p
LVL Es[. CkR CPm, Bd_u NokR Xp, Bd
U[u BL U\. U[m (Hb) O2-m. Bd
U[] NUXp Es[.
HbO2 Bd U[u

Hb + O2

WWp EiP] Bd U[u NpLdf Nu,


Bd_]d Ld\.
Np Yj RsV CO2, Pu ]k T\lThP HCO3 EPu
U[u CQ\. WWX APkRPu, WtTlp CO2
YY Yj Rs\.
Hb + O2
Lungs

HbO2

Cell wall Myoglobin


Hb + O2
Cell
171

MbO2
O2

TmTV] O2 JfNodLVp EiPdLlT\. P Bd_u


ApX Xd Bd_u TUj RYWeL[p RVdLlT\.
RYWeLu TUl Tp Es[ [Wp, V Bt\Xd Li,
LoTahWh Utm Xd Bd_]j RVd\. u TWlp
46.6% Bd_u EPV, Utm Lh LUeLp dV CVTL
Es[ Pt, Au, W Utm EVV YdL[j RW \ GpX RUeLm
,A\ YlTXp (ApX) YlTlTjm T, P Bd_Pu
]u\], Bd_u Ql Bt\p (493 KJ mol1), ALUL
Clm, ]Ls TYL YUV] YlT Y]L[m.
G]Y, ] BWmjRPu, RufNVL RPm TiPV.
P Bd_u, Xd Bd_u G]m AZdLlTu\.
YjRd LeLs Utm RYWeLd Xd Bd_u Lm
AYVm (EPms Bt\X YlTjR). G]Y Xd Bd_u J
Np GT[m.
P Bd_dm, U-[dm (WjR NpLp Es[ Yl
\) CPV HtTm AQf NoUm Lm dVjYm EPV.
H]p Cm\p EVo LeLp, Bd_]f Uk, NpLdf
NpX Cm\ Lm AYVU].

7.6.1 \X Bd_m, Xd Bd_m


Bd_u Xd Lm Xlj RuU EPV. EVo YlTXp
Tjm T, Ld \kR A[Y R\. CkR ] J
YlT Eg ]Vm.
O2 2[O]

H = + 116.8 kcal

B]m, Ld \kR AjRjp Bd_s u]t\Xf Njm


T, 20% R AP\.
GjdLhPL, 1 mm AjRjp J L Zs Bd_]f
Njm T, YYm Y YVp Lm ]m RuU
YnkR. CRu L \ Wp, Xd, R AdL[L ClTR
E Nn\. G]Y, YlT Eg ]p AX Bd_u
EY\.
O2 O + O ;

H = 489.6 kJ

172

]Ls
1. Xd Bd_u EYRp
J UpV [h]d LmV, AX Bd_p Ydm T,
YlTlTjRlTh, Gm RuU HtT\. CY Bd_u AdLs,
Xd\L U YlTjR Yj RsRX E Nn\. VU
rXLp, [h]d Lmu YlTX EVo, Y A X
Bd_u NYl Tj AU\.

2. KNu EYRp
A Bd_u, Xd Bd_Pu CQk, KN]L U\.
C oU Lt]p W YdLlT\. O2 + [O] O3

3. Bd_]t\m
AX Bd_u J Yu Bd_]tVm. AThd Utm
AWUd ahW LoTuLs Utm Up BpLap BV NoUeL[
AX Bd_u, Bd_]t\UPVf Nn, YlTm Utm JV
Zf Nn\. Shd BdNPu J lhP TfN LXkR YiU
JoY EiPd\. H2S Utm CS2 BVY AX Bd_]
]k NmTp LXkR X\ YXV Yj Rs\.

7.6.2 BdNLs
GpX RUeLm, P Bd_Pu ]k BdNL[
EYdu\]. BdNLs AYtu AUl]l Tjm ApX
AYLu YVp Ti]l Tjm YL NnVlTu\].

(i) AX BdNLs
TmTm, AXLeLs, NLYl RuUV EPV]. Utm AX
BdNL[j Ru\]. CY \kR EX Utm LXL[
EPV]. B]p B2O3 Utm SiO2 NoUeLs GpXX Ll TV
XdL[ EYdu\]. A]jm AX TiL[ EPV].
X BdNLs p LWk AXeLs EYdu\].
G]Y CqYL BdNLs AX G] AZdLlTu\].
B2O3 + 3H2O 2H3BO3
N2O5 + H2O 2HNO3
P4O10 + 6H2O 4H3PO4
SO3 + H2O H2SO4
173

SiO2 Tu\ BdNLs p LWYpX. B]p NaOH EPu


]u\]. G]Y AXl TiL[ EPV].

(ii) LW BdNLs
EXL BdNLs TYL LW Qm EPV]. TmTX] EXL
BdNLs AVj RuUVm O2- AVVm Lis[]. X
BdNLs p LWk LWd LWNpL[j Ru\].
Na2O + H2O 2NaOH
BaO + H2O Ba(OH)2
ASL EXL BdNLs M 2 O 3 Utm MO 2 YnTPV
BdNL[j Ru\]. AVj RuU TtkRm, Pu
]YpX
GjdLh : Tl2O3, Bi2O3 Utm ThO2 CqYL BdNLs
AXjPu ]k EldL[j Ru\]. G]Y CYLs
LWeL[m.
CaO + 2HCl CaCl2 + H2O
J EXLm Jud UtThP Bd_]t\ Xp Clu, CYLs
Jud UtThP BdNL[j Rm.
(G.L.) CrO, Cr2O3, CrO3, PbO, PbO2

(iii) DVp BdNLs


Yu AXeLs Ut\m Yu LWeLPu ]YRp CY DVp
BdNL[m.
ZnO + 2NaOH Na2ZnO2 + H2O NVm eLh
ZnO + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2O

(iv) TWdNLs
Bd_]t\m Tt\ CqYL BdNLs, GoTodm A[t
ALU] Bd_]l Tts[]. X BdNLs AVj RuUVm,
TWdN AVVm O22- Lis[]. Rp Utm CWiPm
RVf Nokdm EXLeLs (Na2O2, BaO2), O22- AVL[
EPV]. \ BdNLs NLY QlTp QdLlTh -O-O- AUlT
EPV].
174

PbO2 Tu\ BdNLs, AXeLPu ]k []


YVtu\].
PbO2 + 4HCl PbCl2 + 2H2O + Cl2

(v) NoU BdNLs


J X BdNLs, C BdNLu hf NoUUL Es[].
(G.L.) ToWv - Td BdN (Fe3O4). FeO Utm Fe2O3 BV
LXYVL LRlT\.
CY AXeLPu ]k ToWv Utm Td Eld LXYVj
Ru\].
Fe3O4 + 8HCl FeCl2 + 2FeCl3 + 4H2O

(vi) SX BdNLs
J X NLY BdNLs AXU, LW QeL[V
TtlTpX. (N2O, NO, CO)

(vii) P BdNLs
CqYL BdNLm GoTolTRtm UXL AL A[ Bd_]d
Lis[]. B]p AXeLPu H2O2 j RW. (G.L.) NO2, SO2

7.7 KNu
KNu Bd_u \YtU YYm Bm. CRu Xd YnT
O3. Xlj RuUVt\ LXPV PV LkRj RuUPV YYm.
Lf V A[ KNu YUiPXjm LPp ApX TV HLu
Am LQlTu\].
u TWlt Up 12 p Ck 15 UpLd AlTp YiV
A[ KNu Es[. Y UiPXjp EVW AUks[ KNu UiPXm,
Vd LoLk Ym UVj Rm \ FRd LoL[ Eg,
p Ym UPo Utm \ E]eL[m TLd\.

NR]f NX RVl
KN]No Gu\ NR]jp EXokR Bd_] \kR AjRjp
u]t\df Nj KNu T\lT\.
175

Uuv KN]No
CfNR]m C EXLd ZnLs Ju\f t Ut\uUL AUk,
J \m PlThP AUlTm. EsZu Eh\m, YdZu
Yl\m UpV u f NlThs[. JqY Zm JqY
u YjPm CQdLlThs[. Cq ZnLdPV \kR
YlTXm, \kR AjRjm EXokR V Bd_u Y, u
iRd EhTjRlT\. CR]p R[ Bd_u Xd\L
KN]L U\. KN]Nk YYm KNu NjRlThP
Bd_p 12% Es[.
u
T
IN RL
F O IL
DEXokR
ry O 2 O2

+
Induction
C oil
i
s

TiLs
CVtVp TiLs
Yo X \PV Y 160.6K YlTXp Je LX oUUL
U\. 23.3K YlTXp E\m TiT EPV.

YVp TiLs
1. R : V KNu J YlPu Rm TiPV.
2O3 3O2
2. Bd_]t\ ] : KNu, GRL \X Bd_]j
RYRp, \kR Bd_]tVL NVpT\.
(i) Xh NpT, Xh NpThPL Bd_]t\UP\.
PbS + 4O3 PbSO4 + 4O2
(ii) ThPVm UeL]h, ThPVm ToUeL]hPL Bd_]t\UP\.
2K2MnO4 + H2O + O3 2KMnO4 + 2KOH + O2
176

3. KNu TWdNLPu ]k, AYL[ BdNL[L


Jd, Bd_] YVt\.
BaO2 + O3

BaO + 2O2

H2O2 + O3

H2O + 2O2

KNu TVuLs
1. SVLm, fd LpVLm TVuT\.
2. GiQn, RkRm, U Utm vPofN YlTRtm TVuT\.
3. NVtL pd Utm Pm RlTm TVuT\.

KNu AUl

0.

nm

Y[kR AUlPV KNu Xdp u Bd_u AdLs


Es[].
12

nm

0.

12

117 o

JqY Bd_m, B GXdhWuL[ YZem, BL UjRm 3


6 = 18 GXdhWuLs Es[].

KNu Xd I Utm II AUlLu EPN AUlTLm.

KNu TPXm
EVo Y UiPXjp, Bd_u Xd, TPu Jd LW (hv)
Eg, KNu EY\.
O2(g) + h 2O(g)

O(g) + O2(g) O3(g)

CqY EYV JNu, AL Bt\Xl Tts[Rp im O2


Utm O BL R\. u]o (M) Tu\ CO2, N2 (A) O2 Tu\
XdLPu ]\. CY KNu Xd Xlj RuU
Bt\dm LWQU\.
O*3(g) + M(g) O3(g) + M*(g)
177

KNu TPXjRl Tdm LWLs


Vk YYm YU dL \ FRd LoLPk SmUl
TLdm LYNUL YUiPXjp EVW Es[ KNu TVuT\.
CqY\] KNu LYNm 30 .. EVW, YiV A[ Es[. CY,
\kR AX [jR EPV UV LofN (300 nmdm r) Eg
SmUd Ldm LYNUL Es[. G]Y KNu Vd Ldm P
LRlT\. CqY EgYRp, O3 Rk im O2 BL U\.
O3(g) + h O2(g) + O(g)
2O(g) O*2(g)
O*2(g) + M(g) O2(g) + M*(g)
p Ym EoLu dLs \kR AX[m Es[ \ FRd
LoL]p Tm Tld Es[u\]. NT LXUL, CkRd LYNm,
AYLULf Npm lToNd Y]Fo Utm _h U]eLs Yd
Ldm [WW LoTu [l ThL]p TdLlTh, LYNjp
Lm KNu N \\.
[WW LoTuLs (CFC) O3 EPu ]k, KNu [
H t T P L W Q m B \ . CFC N o U e L s o l T u L [ L m ,
RlTuL[Lm TVuTjRlTu\]. CFC NoUeLu Ym LXm
ALURXp AjR X RX\Lp, CkR KNu [ TRm
Ynl Es[. AiPoL Utm Bodd NjWjtm EVW UtNu]
CFCdL[p [ HtTP LWQUu\]. CR]p AL A[ \ FRd
Lo Vj Rd Rp tSn (UX]U) YW LWQU\.
UV
CFC Cl(g)

Cl(g) + O3(g)

ClO(g) + O2(g)

ClO + O(g) Cl(g) + O2(g)

O3(g) + O(g)

2O2(g)

ShW_u BdNLs (Lo LTdu XUL YYm) Utm


aX_u KNu TPXjRj Rdm G] LiPVXt. G]Y
UTRXd LhlTjYRu Xm Vd Ldm LYNjRl
TLdLXm.

178

]dLs

A. NV] PV RokR.
1. RU YN AhPYQp 13p Ck 18 Bm R YW Es[
RUeLs AVlTY
(a) s - R RUeLs
(b) p - R RUeLs
(c) d - R RUeLs
(d) f- R RUeLs
2. 18Bm R RUeLu TY] GXdhWu YnT
(b) ns2 np1
(c) ns2 np1-5 (d) ns2 np6
(a) ns2
3. rLiTYLp LW BdN
(a) Bi2O3
(b) SnO2
(c) HNO3 (d) SO3
4. rLTYLp Lm Xl RuU EPV ahW
(a) NH3
(b) PH3
(c) AsH3
(d) BiH3
5. TWdu YnT
(a) NaBO2
(b) Na2B4O7
(c) H3BO3
(d) UtV GpX
6. LoTu R RUeLu TY] GXdhWu AUl
(a) ns2np6
(b) ns2
(c) ns2np1
(d) ns2np2
7. AUVY TU[p RVdm \
(a) TN \
(b) BvYp \
(c) aTo \
(d) iP \
8. AXLeLu BdNLs TYL
(a) AV
(b) DRp Ql
(c) NLYQl
(d) UtV GpX
9. EXL BdNLs TYLl Ttdm Ti
(a) AXm
(b) LWm
(c) DVp (d) SX
10. ShW_u XlTjRp Xm PlT
(a) ASL Bd_u NoUeLs (b) ASL TvTWv NoUeLs
(c) ASL ShW_u NoUeLs (d) ASL NpTo NoUeLs
11. AN NV RVlp TVuTm, ShW_u Bd AXm
(a) ShWv AXm
(b) Shd AXm
(c) aT TvTWv AXm
(d) To Shd AXm
12. NVtLTh TU[ RVjRp TVuTm IkRm R ahW
(a) AUV (b) vu
(c) Tvu (d) vju
179

13. Tp UjYm Utm AY fNp TVuTm UVdL Uk


(a) ShWv BdN
(b) Shd BdN
(d) ShW_u P BdN
(c) ShWv BdN + O2
14. fNohv, vU AVXoLs LiPkR LoTu \YtU YYm
(a) WTh
(b) PVUi (c) @[u (d) Ll LoTu

B. LhP CPeL[ WlL.


1. TWu R RUeLu TY] GXdhWu YnT .....................
2. TWu ShW_Pu CQk T\lTY .....................
3. TiT TlTnp EXLd ] LiPV ERY .....................
4. ..................... LU Tuu Gu\ZdLlT\.
5. PVUip JqY LoTu Am \ AdLPu CQY
..................... Ql.
6. C60 Td vPo @[u NpXUL AZdLlTY .....................
7. CCl4 Wp Tlt .....................
8. ShW_]d LiPkRYo .....................
9. Shd AXju TVod LWQm .....................
10.[Rp ALdL ALdL Shd AXju Bd_]t\m \u
.....................
11. P Bd_u GuT ..................... Gum AZdLlT\.
12.AX Bd_u Xd Bd_] CQk T\lTY ............
13. KNu RVdLl TVuTm KN]No ..................... G]lTm.
14.KNu Gp ..................... Bd_] Rsm.
15. Rl Pm RVlp TVuTY .....................

C. TjL.
(a)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

TWdv
WTh
ZnO
CFC
NH3

a.
b.
c.
d.
f.
180

LoTu \YtU
Na2B4O7
KNu
SX BdN
ShW_u XlTjRp

(b)
1. UkR_ [
2. Bd AXm
3. oU ShW_u
4. BvYp \
5. Xd Bf_u

a. Shd AXm
b. Np GTs
c. \ Bd_]t\ XV
XlTjRp
d. KLu
e. [h]d Lm YX
f. olTu

(c) TWdv U NR]


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

LlTo
AVou
UeL
LTph
WVm

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Xm
NmTp
Ll
TfN N
\Ut\
TfN

D. K YojRLp PV.
1. p-R RUeLs \ Bd_]t\ X XlTjYu
LWQeL[ L.
2. TWu W Wu GXdhWu Ht Ti] Nu Lh [d.
3. III Rp Ju Utm mU CQ\uLs Es[ RUeLd
JqY Nu RL.
4. PUih WThPd Lhm Hu L]U] ?
5. TWu R Hu ahWL[ EYdm RuUV Tu\].
6. TWu B3+ AVVj RYpX Hu ?
7. PH3 V Lhm, NH3 Hu AL LXV EPV Hu ?
8. AUV p LWm, B]p 15 Bm R RUeLu
ahWLs p LWYpX - Hu ?
8. G u TLl P G]d LRlT\.
10. KNu HRm u TVuL[d L.
11.CFC dLs Gu\p Gu] - CY tl\jR NVpTYR .
12. h BdNLs Gu\p Gu] ? Nu RL.
181

13. U[u, UV[p Lm EXL AVL[d ARu


NVp\uL[ [d. B2O3 + CuSO4 Cu(BO2)2 + SO3 G]Y
NoUm B LlTo U Cu(BO2)2 Bm.

E. dLU] PV.
1.
2.
3.
4.

UkR _ [] RkR GjdLhPu [dL.


15Bm R RU ahWhL[ Tt Yn [d.
TWdp Ck GqY TWu j GdLlT\.
rLTYL[ TWu HtTm ]L[j RL.
(a) APo H2SO4
(b) APo HNO3
(c) SiO2

5. LXU]hp Ck GqY TWdv T\lT\.


6. TiT TlTnp TWdv U NR] GqY LWd L[
LiPV ERu\.
7. rLm NoUeLs GqY RVdLlTu\].
(a) PTWu
(b) TWNp
8. PUidm, WThdm Es[ AUl YThP [d.
9. ShW_u XlTjRXf d YWL.
10. BvYph \p Shd AXm GqY RVdLlT\.
11.SiC Hu EWnl T[L TVuT\ ?
12. Bd_] Nok AUm LeL[ GqY Xd Bd_u
dVjYjRl T\.
13. KNu rLTYL[ GqY ]\? : (a) PbS (b) KMnO4

LQd
J RUm 13Bm Rm, CWiPm YNj RPm Es[.
C AkR Ru WjY RUUm. C CO 2 Pu
BdNPj (A) R\. A, CuSO4Pu ]k XUVj (B)
R\. RUm Utm, NoUm, A, BV LiPL. ]V G.

o
CWiPm YNj RPm, 13Bm Rm Lm RUm TWu
Bm. CjRUm, CO2Pu ]\.
3CO2 + 4B 2B2O3 + 3C G]Y NoUm A B2O3 Bm.
B2O3, CuSO4 EPu ]k Cu(BO2)2 UVj R\.
182

CuSO4 + B2O3 Cu(BO2)2 + SO3


FR

G]Y, NoUm B LlToU Bm Cu(BO2)2.

NR]d LQd
1. BF3, LiH Pu CQk NoUm A V R\. NoUm A Pu
CQk B V R\. A AUVPu 390K YlTXp
]k NoUm C R\. NoUm A, B, C BVYL[d LiPL.
2. J RUm 15Bm Rm, CWiPm YNj RPm Es[.
AL AjRjp ]YL Ut uXp ahW_Pu A
ahWPj R\. AL Ltu uXm, [h]m
uXm B Bd AXjRj R\. A Utm B V LiPL.
3. J RUm 16Bm Rm, CWiPm YNj RPm Es[.
\kR AjR u Td EhTjmT A R\. A,
XhNpTPu BV R\. A BaO2 Pu D V R\. A,
B, C, D BVYL[d LiPL.
4. J RUm 14Bm Rm, CWiPm YNj RPm Es[].
CjRUm ASL \YtU YYeL[ EPV. Cp J YYm,
A Ydm Ti] EPV. Ut\ YYm B Lm
L]jRuU EPV. CjRUju V \ YtUd Lil
C TdTp G] AZdLlT\. C Ko A W LPjVm. A,
B,C BV YLL[d LiPL.

RlW
@ RU YN AhPYQp 13 Bm Rp Ck 18 Bm YW
Es[ RUeLs p-R RUm G] AZdLlTu\]. CYtu
\kR Bd_]t\ XLs, UkR _ [L[p
XlTjRlTu\].
@ 13 Bm R TWu RVm. TWdv Utm LXU]h
RdLp Ck, TWu j GdLlT\. CYts
dVU] TWdv. CR]d Li TiTl TlTnp, LWd
Ls LiPVlTu\].
@ TWu GV ahW BH3 Bm. TWu hW aXLp
Ck B2H3 RVdLlT\.
183

@ 14 Bm R LoTu R G] AZdLlT\. LoTu TpY


\YtU YYeL[ YPV. PUih, WTh, @[u Utm
TLUt\ LoTu Bm. CjR RUeLs ASL ahWLs,
aX Utm LoTL[j Ru\].
@ 15 Bm R ShW_u R G] AZdLlT\. RYW
YrdLd ShW_u Lm AYVm. C ShW_u X jYp
dV Te Yd\. ShW_u Ztu Xm CRu dVjYm
Su AVlT\,
@ ShW_u dV Bd AXm Shd AXm Bm. BvYp
\p RVdLlT\. C EXLm, AXLeLs Utm NoUeL[
Bd_]t\m Nn\.
16 Bm R Bd_u R G] AZdLlT\. Eo Yrdd
Bd_u Lm AYVU]. P Bd_u ApX Xd Bd_u
U[u Utm UV[u NVp\uLd Lm dV Te
Yd\. EVo Y UiPXjp Es[ KNu Utm KNu TPXjRl
Tt AY Lm AYVm. KNu TPXl TlTl Tt Su Ak
AR] NNnYR Lm dVU] TVLd LRYim.

UtToY pLs
1.

General Chemistry - John Russel McGraw Hill International Edition


3rd Edition.

2.

University General Chemistry - An Introduction to Chemical Science


edited by CNR Rao Mc Millan India Limited, Reprint - 2002.

3.

Heinemann Advanced Science Chemistry - Second Edition


Ann and Patrick Fullick 2000.

4.

Inorganic Chemistry, P.L. Soni.


_________

184

CVtVp YVp

8, PXU - 1
Lt\u LhTLs

@ TLj PlTu YWV\.


@ TLj PlTs Utm TL YYUt\ PlTs BVYttL]
YTLs.
@ AXd hu YWV\.
@ NVm [W Utm Vm [Wu AXd h] ARp.
@ pXo LhLu YWV\.
@ J L]fNW AUlp Es[ dV R[eL[ pXo LhLs
YVL ARp.
@ YqY YLV] L]fNW TL AUlL[ ARp TL
AUlL[ ARp.
8.1 TLj PlTsLs

NVm [W. LkRLm Utm NodLW Tu\ X PlTsLs


dL CVXjRuU Utm LhdLm BV TiL[l Tu W]
YWVdLlThP YYUlT Tts[]. CjRLV PlTsLp Es[
AdLs ApX XdLs JeL] Utm W] lTUQ AUlp
AUks[]. CqYUlTl Tts[ NoUeLs TLj PlTsLs
Gu\ZdLlTu\].
X-Lo Bnk TLjp Es[ XdLs, AdLs ApX
AVLs W] lTUQ AUlp TLm Ym AUks[ GuTR
LiPVXm. CjRLV W] Utm JeL] AUlT] TLjp
[j RXYL AUks[R iP GpX YN G]lTm.
TLj PlTsLs odLU] EXVl Tts[]. u Utm
YlTd LPjj \u Tu\ CVtTiLs TLj Pl TsLd
YqY NLp YqY\L Es[Rp AY NVl TiXl
TsLs G]lTm.
185

TL YYUt\ PlTsLs

LiQ, CWlTo Utm [vd Tu\ PlTsLs KW[ dL


CVXjRuU Utm LhdLm BV TiL[ TtkRm, AY
YWVdLlThP YYUlT Tt ClTpX. CjRLV NoUeLs TL
YYUt\ PlTsLs Gu\ZdLlTu\].
TLYYUt\ PlTsLs JeL] YYUlTm. odLU]
EXVm TtlTpX. B]p. YlTlTjm T oUXV
APm YW Eu\]. CjPlTsLd Su YWVdLlThP
Llm, YYUlm CpX. TmTX] TL YYUt\ PlTsLs
Xd LXYVL JuPu Ju CQdLlTPUp Es[]. Ut\Y
TV dLX] XdL[L Es[]. TL YYUt\ PlTsLs A
W YdLlThP oUeL[L LRlTu\]. B]p, AYts[
XdLdPVs[ Dol N ALUL Es[Rp LhdLjPu
V KeLt\ YYUlTl Tts[]. TL YYUt\ PlThLs
odLU] YlTXp EYpX. TXL lhP YlTX
GpXp AYts[ YqY XddPlThP N \k
UuUVP\.
TL YYUt\ PlTsLu CVtTiLs A]j NLm
Ju\L Es[Rp. AY NVl TiPV TsLs G]lTm.
TLj PlTsLs Utm TL YYUt\ PlTsLs
BVYttPVV] YTLs :
TL PlTsLs, TL YYUt\ PlTsLk uYU
YTu\].

1. JeL] YYUl
TLj PlTsLp XdLs ApX AdLs NV]
lTUQ AUlp AUks[Rp odLU] Utm JeL]
YYUlT Tts[]. U\L. TL YYUt\ PlTsLp Es[
XdLs ApX AdLs NV] AUlp AUVpX. G]Y.
AY JeL] YYUlT TtlTpX. J X TL YYUt\
PlTsLp Es[ XdLs ApX AdLs JeLL
AUkkRm. AUkdm RXY] X BedvhWm [m UhU
Es[. G]Y, TL YYUt\ PlTsLs, TLj Pl TsL[
TX iP GpX YNVl TtlTpX.
186

2. E XLs
J PlT[ TjmT ARPV Xd AoY]
ALd\. CkR Ao Lm ALUm T XdLs AUks[
sk YY\. ClT AY Um RVL CVe Zt
CVdLjPu NVpTu\]. CfNVp\ Lm YlTX EX
G]lTm.
TL PlTsLs odLU] EXVl Tts[]. ARY.
lhP YlTXp Ym oUUL U\dV. U\L TL YYUt\
PlTsLs odLU] EXV TtlTpX. GjdLhPL
LiQV UYL Ptm T UuUV \ UYL
oUU\. G]Y, TLYYUt\ PlTsLs A]j YlTXLm
oUUL LRlTu\]. X-Lo Bnu Xm TL YYUt\ PlTsLs
JeL] Xd ApX A AUlT TtlTpX Gu
EV\. G]Y, PX GuT TL PlT[ UhU d\.
ARY, TL PlTsLs UhU EiUV] PlTsL[L
LRlT\.

3. NVl TiPVY Utm NVl TiTt\Y


TL YYUt\ PlTsLs, TLj PlTsLPu YTh
CkRm oUeLPu X TiLp JjTu\], u Utm YlT
LPjj\u, AjRj]p TU A[ \m RuU CpXU BV
TiLu UlLs A]jj NLm NUULY Es[]. G]Y,
TL YYUt\ PlTsLs NVl TiPVY Bm. oUeLs
Utm YdLm NVl TiPVY. TL PlTsLs NVll
TiTt\Y. ARY AYtu CVtTiLu UlLs YqY NLp
YqY\L Es[]. GjdLhPL, J TL PlTu YV Npm
Ju NYLm A A[dLlTm NVl Tj UT\.
CqY\L, CjRLV TLm Jus m JdLt\ C L[Ll
Vd m. JqY m YqY NLp, YqY
NYLeLPu Npm. CjRjYU CWhP J XdLm G]lT\.
TL PlTsLp, XdLs J JeL] \p AUks[]
GuTRt NVll TiTt\Y J YY] Nu\L AU\. CR]
TPm 8.1p Es[ YqY AdL[d LiP J GV C TUQ
JeLUl Lh\.

187

TPm 8,1 TL PlTu NVll TiTt\Y

CD Gu\ NnkR Lhu YV A[dLlTm TiLu UlLs,


AB Gu\ Nejd Lhu YV A[dLlTm TiLu UlLk
YThdm. CRtd LWQm, CDu Np JqY YNm
CYLV] AdLs U U AUks[]. ABu Np JqY
YNm JW YLV] AdLs AUks[], TY YYUt\
PlThLs, oUeLs Utm YdLp, AdLs ApX XdLs
JeLt\j RuUp AUks[]. G]Y, A]j NLm Ju\LY
ClTRp, AYtu A]j TiLm A]j NLm Ju\LY
Es[].

TeLu EYUl Utm YYUl


CVtLp Pdm TmTX] PlTsLs JeL]
YYUlT Tts[]. Ut\ PlTsLs [LY ApX iV
LsLu NodLVLY PlTRp, TY YYUt\ PlT[Lj
Rum. B]p, AYtu RjR L[ iQd YVL BWmT
TL YYUl RVY\. CjRLV iQd Xm UhU AV
CVm. CY iTLeLs G]lTm. TLju EYUlT] TLm
EYm RjR TjRU\. UY] YL Rjp EY]p
TLm TV EYUlPu Pd\. TLjp Es[ AdLs ApX
XdLs NV] CPjR Ro NnYRt GjdLsm SWU
CRt LWQUm. NVm [W, Ys [W Utm jVm
[W Tu\Ytu TV TLeLs AYtu EldL[ Ed,
UYL W] YLjp W Yj RVdLlT\. CVtLf
NVp\p Pdm TmTX] LUeLu TLeLs LlTV
EYUlT TtlTRt CY LWQUm.
TLeLs rdLiP \l AmNeL[ Tts[].
188

1. LlLs : TLeLs R[ LlL[p ZlThs[]. TWlLs TYL


R[ULm, JeL] R[ AUlLs Ttdm (EsTdL YYUlu
LWQUL) TLeLu TWlLs LlLs G]lTm.

CYLV] LlLs
NUU]Y : ClTLeLp A]j LlLm NUUL Cdm (G.L)

ovTo

GWW]Y : ClTLeLp LlLs YqY\L AUk Cdm.

(G.L) L].

2. AUl : TLjp Es[ A]j LlLm NokR AUl


G]lTm.
3. XLs : AjRjR CWi LlLs CQk XV
EYd\.
4. Ll LQm : CWi LlLs Nm CPjs[
NejdLd CPlThP LQm Ll LQm G]lTm.
LlLu A[ ApX JW NoUju TLju Llu A[
EYm Rm Tu\Yt\ Tj YThPm LldLQm NUUL
Cdm. TLju Ym AjRjR LlLd CPlThP
LlLQm NUUL Cdm.
Yl\ AUl YTh CkRm, LldLQm NUUL Cdm.
TLeL[l Tt
AYRt Lld LQjR A[Y
CuVUVRRm. CR] Tt AY TL YYUlVp G]lTm.
8.2 AXd

TLeLp AdLs ApX AVLs JeL] lTUQ AUlp


AUks[]. TLj PlTs ApX TLjp Es[ LfV im
im Ru\d V lTUQ YYUl AXd G]lTm. AXd
P] J Yu LpXL LRlT\. A Lpu EYUl, TLju
EYUl Utm AXd hu EYUlT Tj AU\. G]Y,
AXd GuT TLj PlTu GUV] AlTP TVm.
AXd h] AYRu Xm TLju AUlT AVXm.

189

AXd h] YWVdm LWLs

1. TLVp AfdLs
J AXd hp JW R[jp AUVR u LldLu Nklu
YVL YWVlTm Lht CQVL YWVlTm LLs TLVp
AfdLs G]lTm.

2. Lld LQeLs
u TL AfdLd CPlThP LQm Lld LQeLs
G]lTm.

3. Yhj iLs
J AXd hu a , b Utm c BV
u TdLeLs Yhj iLs G]lTm.
TL AfdLs : OX, OY, OZ
Ll LQeLs : , ,
YhjiLs : a, b, c
AXdP] a, b Utm c BV [eL[m, ,
Utm BV LQeL[m YWVdLlTu\. AXd hu
EY A[Y] AdLs ApX AVLu EY[ Utm AYtu
AUl BVYt\ TjRRm. AXdP] TLju
YYjRm WTlTRp, AXd hs[ AVLu RU]
UjR YYUlu RUL AU\.
HYLV] AXd YLLs Es[]. 1. L]f NWm, 2. fN,
3. J N, 4. BojR Nn NWm, 5. StLQm, 6, ALQm, 7. Nn
190

NWm, JqY YLm SdLU] Tks[ AUlLs


YTu\], Ce L]fNW AUlTl Tt Uhm TdLXm.

L]fNW AXd Ls
u YLV] L]fNW AXd Ls Es[]. JqY AXd
m JWY YLV] A]p [dLlT\.

GV L]fNWm
Lm GUV] AXd AUl GV L]dNW AXd
Bm. L]fNWjs Gh XLm Gh AdLs AUks[].
TLd hPUlp AjRjR AdLdPlThP RX NUUL
Cdm, AfdLdPlThP LQm 90o.

Ts UV L]fNWm
Ts UV L]fNWjp A]j XLm, L]fNWju
UVjm AdLs Es[]. CjRLV AUlp GV L]fNWjRP
\kR CPjp AL AdL[ SdLUL TdLXm.

Ll UV L]fNWm
KW[ ALUL SdLUL TdLlThP AXd AUl
LlUV L]fNWm Bm. CkR YL TLjp AXd hu A]j
XLm AdLs AUks[]. Um L]fNWju B LeLm
AdLs Tks[]. CjRLV TL SeV TkR AUlT]
Ts UV L]fNWjR P AL APojPVRm.
AdLs ApX AVLs AjRjR AXd h]p Tokd
Ls[lTu\]. A ApX AVu hPUlj RuUk
GjR] AXd Ls Tokd Lsu\] GuTR AVXm. A
ApX AVV] Su YLV] hPUlj RuUV Tts[]
Ts UVm : Tokd Ls[lTYpX
Ll
: CWi AXd Ls Tokd Lsu\].
m
: Su AXd Ls Tok Lsu\].
X
: Gh AXd Ls Tok Lsu\].

191

NVm [W TLm
NVm [W TLd hPUlT] Ll UV L]fNW AUlT
NokR. As[ Na+ hPUlm AV hPUlp ZlThs[.
CRu AXd TPm 8.9p LhPlThs[. CkR AXd TLjp
Ym im im RPWd V GV AUl Bm. YiU \
L[eLs [W AVL[m, LU \ L[eLs NVm
AVL[m d\. hPUlu Ym AVLs ClTRp AVd
hPUl G]lTm. A]j AVf NoUeLm CjRLV hPUlT
Tts[].

JqY AX NWju Su NaCl AXLp Es[ AdLu


X uYU :
CI : 0 0 0 ;
0;
0;
0;
Na : ; 0 0 ;
00;
00;
TPjp Es[T NVm [W AXd hp 14 [W
AVLm, 13 NVm AVLm Es[]. JqY [W AVm
6 NVm AVL[p ZlThs[, CRTp, JqY NVm AVm,
6 [W AVL[p ZlThs[.
XLs, mLs Utm LlLp Es[ LsLs YUL AXd
hu Es[ AUVlTR LQXm. TXL CjLsLs Ut\ AXd
hPu Toks[], Xp Es[ J Ls Gh AXd h]m,
Llu Xp Es[ J Ls CWi AXd h]m Utm
mp Es[ J Ls Su AXd h]m \V Tokd
Ls[lTu\]. NVm [Wu J AXd hp 4 NVm
AVLm 4 [W AVLm uYU AUks[].
NVm AVLu GidL = 12 (m UVjp Es[Y)
+ (Ts UVjp
Es[Y)
= 12 1/4 + 1 1 = 3 + 1 = 4
192

N
N ec
N
N
+ 0 + F + C
1
2
4
8

[W AVLu GidL = 8 (Xp Es[Y) 1/8 + 6


(Ll UVjp Es[Y)
= 8 1/8 + 6 1/2 = 1 + 3 = 4
G]Y, NaClp J AXd hp Es[ NaCl AXLs 4 Bm.
NVm [W YYUlT] Lp - El YYUl G]m
AZdLlT\. NaCl YYUlTd Lis[ Ut\ TLeLs : LiH,
NaI, KCl, RbF, RbI, PbS Tu\Y.

Vm [W YYUl
Vm [W, CsCl, Ts UV L]fNW YYUl EPV.
CR] TPm 8.10p LQXm. AdLs Es[ TsUV L]fNW
AUlT] Se TkR AUl CpX, J AXd hp J
Xd UhU Es[. ARu GV L]fNW TLd hPUlp
XLp 000 Utm Ts UVjp Gu\ AUlm
AdLs AUks[].

1. Cl AVLs XLm, Cs+ AVLs L]fNWju UVjm


AUks[]. ApX Cs+ AVLs XLm, AVLs Cl
AVLs L]fNWju UVjm AUks[].
2. JqY Cs+ AVm Gh Cl AVLPm, JqY Cl AVm
Gh Cs+ AVLPm CQdLlThs[]. ARY 8 : 8 AQ
Bm. G]Y, L]fNWm Juu UVjs[ JqY Am,
Ut\ L]fNWm Juu UVjs[ APu YThs[,
193

Vm [W AXd hp J Cs+AVm J Cl AVm


uYU AUks[.
Cl AVLu GidL = 8 (Xp Es[Y) 1/8
= 8 1/8 = 1
+
Cs AVLu GidL = 1 (Ts UVjp Es[Y) 1
=11=1
G]Y, CsCl p J AXd hs[ CsCl AXLu GidL
1 Bm. CsCl AUlT Lis[ Ut\ TLeLs : CsBr, CsI, Tl Br, TlI,
NH4Cl Tu\Y.
8.3 pXo LhLs

J TLju YYjR ARu AfdLs Nkdm sk


(Bs) YWVdLXm. TLju Yhj iu Ul Utm
LQjR Blsk RX ApX CQV] Afk
RX BVYtk AVXm. Ls ApX Yhj i \No
lT, J TLjPV J Ll, TLVp, AfdLp HtTm Yhj
iLs (a, b, c) AX Yhj iLdf NUULY ApX AYtu
Gi UPeL[LY (la, mb, nc) Cdm. I, m, n GuT 1, 2, 3
Tu\ GV GiL[LY ApX GiLu u]ULY Cdm.

TPm 8,2

GjdLhPL, TPjs[ TLju LMN R[jR LYm.


CjR[U] x, y Utm z AfdLp \V OL, OM Utm ON
YhjiL[ Lis[. CYtu RXLs \V 2a, 4b
194

Utm 3c Bm. OA = a, Utm OC = c GuTY \V AfdLu


KWXj RXLs Bm. G]Y, Yhj iLu Rm
2a : 4b : 3c : Bm. 2, 4 Utm 3 GuTY GV GiL[m.
a, b Utm c-u QLeLs v LhLs G]lTm. B]p, v
LhLs GlTm GiQLY AUV. AY u]ULY,
UlTV TtdLXm. G]Y, v LhL[ SWVL
TVuTjR CVXRRp pXo LhLs TVuTjRlT\. v
LhLu RXr UlL[ V T GiQp Td Pdm
Gi ReL[ R[ju pXo LhLs G]lTm, J lhP
R R [ e L [ d L ( h, k, l) G u \ p X o L h L s
TVuTjRlT\, h, k Utm l B] So GiL[LY, God
GiL[LY ApX wVULY CdLXm.
2a : 4b : 3c BV v LhL[d LiP R[jR LYm,
a, b Utm c-u QLeLu RXr UlLu Rm : : 1/3
GiL[ T\ CYt\ 12Bp TdL 6 : 3 : 4 Pd\. CkR GiLs
R[ju pXo LhLs G]lTm. R[U] (634) R[m G]lTm
(634) R[jp h = 6, k = 3 Utm 1 = 4 Bm.
CRTp, a, 2b : c Gu\ v LhL[ LYm. a, b Utm
c-u QLeLu RXr UlLs 1/, 1/2, 1/1 ARY 0, 1/2, 1. CYt\
2Bp TdL 0, 1, 2 Pd\. R[U] (0 1 2) R[m Bm. h = 0, k = 1
Utm 1 = 2.
J TLjs[, JutLu CQV] C R[eLdPVV]
RX dhki G]lTm. J L]NW AdLYd
dhkl =

a
h + k2 + I 2
2

Ce a GuT L]fNWju TdLju [m. h, k Utm l GuT]


R[ju pXo LhLs.
195

lTUQjp pXo LhLdL] YWV\, (213) pXo


GiL[ LiP CWi R[eL[ LYm.
J TL Llu pXo dLhLs AYtu Llu YqY
AfLu Yhj iLu RXd SoRjdm. lhPj
R R[eLu pXo LhLs R[eLu Yhj iLu
RXd SoRjk (G-L) 1/2 a, 1 b, 1/3 c

J R[ju pXo LhL[ TYRtL] \ uYU:


1. u YN AhPYQu Up Tp AXd UlL[
GL.
2. JqY AhPYQm R[ju Yhj i UlL[ GL.
3. UlLu RXV GL.
4. V T GiQp Td h, k Utm l UlL[ TL.

UX TPjp Es[ sLs J TL hPUlp Es[ x, y, z


AfdLp Es[ AdL[ d\, pXo LhL[ T\ Yhj
iLu RXV GR Yim, Yhj iLs x = 4, y = 2
Utm z = 3 Bm, AYtu RXLs 1/4, 1/2 Utm 1/3 Bm. CkR
u]eL[ 12Bp Tdm T (3,6,4) Pd\. pXo LhLs
(364) Bm.
pXo LhLs : GjdLh.
*
*
*
*

Yhj iLs
RXLs
Tdm Gi
R[jtL] pXo LhLs

196

1, 2, 3
1, 1/2, 1/3
6
(6 3 2)

L]fNWju dVU] R[eL[ TPm 9.3p LQXm, uTs[


LlT] x Afp Yh\. y ApX z Afp YhPUp AYtt
CQVL Es[. G]Y u TL Ll JWV TL AfN Uhm
Yh\, CjR[jtL] pXo LhLs (100) Bm. TdLYhs[
R[jtL] YhjiLs x = , y =1 , z = Bm. R[U]
x Utm z AfLd CQVL Es[. CRtL] pXo LhLs
(0 1 0 ) Bm. Up Ts[ R[jtL] Yh iLs x = ,
y = , Utm z = 1. R[U] x Utm y AfLd CQVL Es[.
CRtL] pXo LhLs (0 0 1 ) Bm. (1 1 0) R[ju Yhj
iLs x = 1, y = 1 Utm z = Bm. R[U] z-AfLd CQVL
Es[. CR Tp Ut\ CWi R[eLs (1 0 1) Utm (0 1 1) Bm.
(1 1 1) R[U] A]j AfLm x = 1, y = 1 Utm z = 1 Yhj
i]l Tts[.

(100)

(010)

(001)

(110)

(101)

(011)

(111)
197

LQd - 1

TLm Juu R[j] TL AfLs rdLiP TLp Yh]p


pXo Lh] LQd. (i) (2a, 3b, c) (ii) (a, b, c) (iii) (6a, 3b, 3c)
Utm (iv) (2a, -3b, -3c)

o
(1) a
2

3
(2) a
1
1
1
(3) a
6
1/6
1
(4) a
2

b
3
1/3
2
b
1
1
1
b
3
1/3
2
b
3
1/3
2

c
1
1
6
c
1
1
1
c
3
1/3
2
c
3
1/3
2

Yhji
RX
Gi Ul

pXo LhLs (3 2 6)

Yhj i
RX
Gi Ul

pXo LhLs (1 1 1)

Yhj i
RX
Gi Ul

pXo LhLs (1 2 2)

Yhj i
RX
Gi Ul

pXo LhLs (3 2 2)

AhPYQ2 : L]fNW Ad LYu dV TiLs

GV

Ts
UVm

Ll
UVm

AXd hu L] A[
J AXd hp Es[
AdLY sLs
AjR Ad CPlThP
Wm

a3
1

a3
2

a3
4

a 3
2

a
2

ts[ AdLu Gid


CWiPY Ad
CPlThP Wm

6
a 2

8
a

12
a

12

ts[ CWiPY
AdLu GidL
198

LQd - 2
(100), (110) Utm (111) BV L]fNW AdLY R[eLp
CPY GqY UT\?
dhkl =

d(100) =

a
h2 + k 2 + l 2
a

=a

l +0+0
2

d(110) =

1 +1 + 0

d(111) =

1 +1 +1

a
2

a
2

a
3

G]Y, d(100) : d(110) : d(111) = 1: 1/ 2 : 1/ 3 = 1: 0.707 : 0.577

LQd -3
J EXLjp L]fNW AdLYp AUks[. AXd
hu [m 2.88 Bm. . EXLju APoj 7.20 .N..-3 100
EXLjp GjR] AXd Ls Es[]?
AXd hu L] A[ = (2.88A)3
= 23.9 10-24 cm3
m

100 g

100 EXLju L] A[ = = 7.2 gcm3 = 13.9cm3


13.9cm3
L] AXdLu GidL = 23.9 10-24 cm3

= 5.82 1023

199

LQd - 4
(i) GV L]fNWm (ii) Ts UV L]fNWm Utm (iii) Ll
UV L]fNWm BVYts[ AdLu GidLV LQd.
(i) GV L]fNWju JqY Xm JqY AYL Gh
AdLs Es[]. G]Y, JqY Am Gh AXd L[p
TWlTu\]. G]Y, n = 8 1/8 = 1
(ii) b.c.c AUlp 8 Xp Es[ AdLPu UVjp J A
Es[. UV AY JWV AXd Uhm TokdLs\.
G]Y, n = 1 + 1 = 2
(iii) f.c.c AUlp 8 XLs Es[ AdLPu 6 LlLm, 6
AdLs Es[]. Llp Es[]. Llp Es[ JqY AYm
CWi AXdLs Tok Lsu\]. G]Y, Ll UV
AdLs = 6 = 3 G]Y, n = 1 + 3 = 4 Bm.

LQd - 5
A\ YlT Xp, TXVm GV L]fNWUL TLU\,
ARu A\ 209 g mol1 Utm a = 3.3 Gp TXVju
APojV LQd,
GV L]fNWju 8 XLm 8 AdLs Es[]. G]Y,
n = 8 1/8 = 1 L]A[ V = a3 = (3.36 )3
(1) (209g mol1 )
nMm
APoj, =
=
1
8
23
N o V (6.023 10 mol ) (3.36 10 cm)

= 9.15 g mol-3cm-3
]dLs

A. NV] PV RokRdL
1. NVm [W TLju YYUl
(a) TsUV L]NWm
(b) Ll UV L]NWm
(c) Gi
(d) NWR[m
2. LlUV L]fNWju AXdhs[ GidL
(a) 4
(b) 3
(c) 2
(d) 1
200

3. 8:8 YL Tl AUks[ TLm


(a) CsCl
(b) KCl
(c) NaCl
(d) Mg F2
4. GV L]fNWjp, Xs[ AY Tokd Lsm
AXdLu GidL
(a) 2
(b) 1
(c) 8
(d) 4
5. TL YYUt\ PlTs
(c) LiQ (d) CsCl
(a) NaCl
(b) CaF2
6. NaCl-u AXdhp Es[Y 4 [W AVLs Utm
(a) 13 Na AVLs
(b) 4 Na AVLs
(c) 6 Na AVLs
(d) 8 Na AVLs
7. TsUV L]fNW AUlp, UVjs[ AY GjR] AXd
Ls Tokd Lsu\].
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 3
(d) 4
8. NaCl AUlp, J AXdht Es[ jWm
(a) 2
(b) 8
(c) 3
(d) 4
9. LlUV L]fNWjp, Llp Es[ AY Tokd Lsm
AXd Lu GidL
(a) 4
(b) 2
(c) 1
(d) 6

B. LhP CPeL[ WlL.


1. NaCl AV TLjp JqY Na+ AVm ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,. AVL[p
ZlThs[. ARTp JqY Cl AVm ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,. Na+ AVL[p
ZlThs[.
2. CsCl TLjs[ Cs+- u AQ Gi ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.
3. ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,. PlTsLs odLUt\ EXV TtlTRp AY
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,. oUeLs G]lTu\].
4. TsUV L]fNWjp JqY Xm J Am, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.
J Am Es[].
5. u YLV] L]fNW AXLs ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,. Utm ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.
6. J TLjp Jud UtThP R[ Utm Af oU ElLs Es[].
B]p JWV ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,. Uhm Es[.
7. TL YYUt\ PlTsLu CVtTiLs A]j NLm
NUUL ClT ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,. G]lTm.
8. TL PlTsLu CVtTiLs YqY NLp YqY\L
ClT ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,. G]lTm.
201

9. L]fNW Se TkR AUlp Es[ AdLu GidL


,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.
10. bcc AUlp, TsUVjs[ AY Tokd Lsm
AXdLu GidL ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.
11. J R[ju v LhLs , , Gp pXo LhLs ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.
R[U] ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,. Gu dLlTm.
12. x R[U] x Afdm z Afdm CQVLm, y Afp
YhjiPLm CkRp, ARu v LhLs ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,. ARu
pXo LhLs R[U] ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,. Gu ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,. dLlTm.

PLs
(1) 6, 6 (2) 8 (3) TL YYUt\Y, AWYdLlThP (4) UVm (5) GV
L]fNWm, bcc, fcc (6) UVm (7) NVl TiPVY, (8) NVl
TiTt\Y (9) 4 (10) 1, (11) 2, 2, 2. (222) R[m (12) , 1 ; 0, 1, 0 ; (010)
R[m

C. K YojRLp P GL.
1. TLeLp SdLU] Tks[ AUlL[ oQdm TLs
VY?
2. TL YYUlVp 'AXd ' Gu\p Gu]?
3. L]fNW AXd Lu GidL Gu]?
4. pXo LhLs Gu\p Gu] ?
5. NaCl TLjp Es[ JqY AXd Yhm Lm NVm Utm
[W AVLu GidLVd .
6. CsCl TLjp Es[ JqY AXd hm Es[ Vm Utm
[W AVLu GidLVd .

D. dLU] PV.
1. rdLm Nt\PoL[ YWVj [d. (a) TLj PlThLs
(b) TL YYUt\ PlTsLs (c) AXd
2. TLj PlThLdm TL YYUt\ PlThLdm Es[ dV
YTLs VY ?
3. NVl TiPVY Utm NVl TiTt\YL[ [d.
4. Ts UV L]NWjtm, Ll UV L]fNWjtm Es[
YTLs VY ?
202

5. NVm [W TLjR YWk ARu AUl] Y.


6. Vm [Wl TLjR YWk ARu AUl] Y.

LQdLs
1. JqY AXd hm Lm AdLu GidL Gu] ?
(i) GV L]fNW AUl
(ii) Ts UV L]fNW AUl
(iii) Ll UV L]fNW AUl.
[P: (i) 1 (ii) 2 Utm (iii) 4]
2. GV L]fNWd hp Lm u R[eLp (100), (101) Utm
(111) BVYtd CPV Es[ CPY Rm Gu] ?
[ P : 1 : 1/

2 : 1/ 3 ]

3. GqY Ts UV L]fNW hp Lm (001), (011) Utm (111)


R[eLu CPjWeLs Uu\].
[P 1/2 : 1/2

2 : 1/ 3 ]

4. GqY Ll UV L]fNW hp Lm (001), (011) Utm (111)


R[eLu CPjWeLs Uu\].
[P : 1/2,: 1/2

2 : 1/ 3 ]

5. (i) GV L]fNWm (ii) TWsUV L]fNWm Utm (iii) Ll UV


L]fNWm BVYtp J AXdhs[ AdLu GidLV
LQd.
6. GV L]NWjp (100), (101) Utm (111) BV R[eLu CPY
GqY YT\.
7. bcc L]NWjp (001), (011) Utm (111) BV R[eLu CPY
GqY YT\.
8. fcc L]NWjp (010), (110) Utm (111) BV R[eLu CPY
GqY YT\.

RlW
PlTsLs JeL] YYm Utm A[Pd Vl TiLPu
Pdm CuVUVR TsL[m. TL YYs[ PlTsLp
AdLs, AVLs ApX XdLs JeL] YYUlp
AUks[]. TL YYUt\ PlTsLp CjRLV JeL] YYUl
CpX. TL PlTp JeLL AUks[ im im
203

RPWdV LfV AUl AXd G]lTm TLjp AdLY


AUks[ AUlTm. GV L]fNWjp ARu A]j XLm
AdLs AUkdm. Ts UV L]fNWjp ARu Gh XLs
Utm UVjm AdLs AUkdm.
Ll UV L]fNWjp ARu Gh XLs Utm B LlLs
BVYtp AdLs AUkdm.
J TLju AfLs J lhP sp Nkdm Xk
ARu YYjR oQdLXm.
J TL Llu pXo LhLs AkR Llu AfdLu
Yhjit GoRjdm.
J TLju AUlTl Tt TlTRt TLVp Gu TVo.

UtToY pLs
1. L.V. Azaroff, Introduction to Solids, TMH edition, Tata MCGraw-Hill,
New Delhi.
2. C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, Third edition, John Wiley,
1966.
3. A.F. Wells, Structural Inorganic Chemistry, Oxford University Press,
1962.
4. Anthony R. West Solid State Chemistry John Wiley & Sons, New York,
1989.
*******

204

ALdm T AjRm RPok \YRd Lh\. AL


AjRm Utm \kR L]A[p CVp YY] SpVpj
RuUk XdLm APYRd LQXm.
XU YlTX (Tc)
J lhP YlT Xp AjRjR ALdmT
YY] WYUL U]p AkR YlTX XU YlTX
G]lTm. AqYlTXd Up AjRjR GqY[ EVoj]m
YY] WYUYpX. CO2 dL] Tc 31.1oC Bm. ARY 31.1oC
YlT Xd Up AjRjR EVoj]m, CO2 YY WYUdL
CVX.

XU AjRm (Tc)
XU YlT Xp J Up YY WYUdLj RYlTm
Ld \kR AjRm XU AjRm G]lTm.

XU L]A[ (Vc)
XU AjRm Utm XU YlT Xp J Up Y
BdWdm L]A[ XU L] A[ G]lTm.
J Yu AjRm, L]A[ Utm YlT X BVYLs
\V Pc, Vc Utm Tc Gp AqY XU Xp Es[
G]lTm.
10.8.1 LoTu - P - BdNtL] Bihv NU YlTX
LLs
J Yu XU YlT Xu dVjYjR Bihv
LoTu - P - BdN Y NR]p LiPkRo. YqY
YlTXLp CO2 -u NU YlT Xd LLs TPm p Es[].
******
TPm 10.6 CO2dL] Bihv NU YlTX LLs

13.1oC YlT Xp Es[ Rp NU YlT Xd LhP


LYm, s A-V] lhP L]A[ Utm AjRjp LoTu
205 d\. AjRjR ALdm
-P-BdN Y Xp Es[R
T L]A[ \YR YWL JW A[ AjRjp AB
Lh\, s Bp WYURp RPe\. ARu \ L] A[

9, Y XU - 1
Lt\u LhTLs

@ YdLu A[kRm TiL[], P,V,T Utm \ BVYt\


EQoRp.
@ TpY Y L[m, SpVp Y NUuThPm LtjRp.
@ 'R' Gu\ Y Uu TpY AXL[d LtjRp.
@ PpPu T AjR Vm, Wau TWRp Vm EQoRp.
@ SpVp Xk Xf NpYR BnkRRp Utm YiPo
Ypv NUuThP ARp.
@ XU RuUdm, YiPoYpv ULdm Es[ RPoT
YjRp.
@ _p RmNu [ Utm GoU YlTX BVYt\ LtjRp.
@ YdL[ WYUdm \Ls Utm YlTm U\ LkR dL \
BVYt\ LtjRp.
9.1 YdLu TiLs

TsLs A]jm P, oU Utm Y Gu\ u XULp


AUks[]. J NoUju YlTX Utm AjRm BV CWiPm
UtYRu Xm AfNoUjR HRY J XUp Ck Ut\
XUd Ut\Xm. G]Y, XdLu RPokR CVdLU] Y
Utm oU XULu AlTPV\. Y XdLs CVeYRp
CVdL Bt\X Tts[]. YdLu CVdLl TiL[l Tt [dm
LsL, Yu CVdLVt LsL G]lTm.
J Y XUV [dYRt RYlTm Su LWLs,
A[PdV TiLs G]lTm. L]A[ V, AjRm P, YlTX T.
Utm UpLu GidL n, BVY A[Pd V TiL[m.
205

AjRju [
YY] AL GidLp XdL[ LiP. CqY
XdLs JeLt\ \p LsLXjp CVeu\]. CjRLV
RPokR CVdLjRp, XdLs JuPu Ju AdL Ud
LsYpX. B]p, LsLXju Yp AdL UdLsu\].
URX] hj RuUPVRp, Bt\p CZl Gm HtTYpX.
KWX TWlp NVpTm N AjRm G]lTm. AjRU] Yu
KWX TWlp J Sp Lm URp DTm XdLu
GidLV TjRRm. AL GidLp XdLs Yu
KWX TWlp J Sp URX LrjmT Yu AjRm
ALdm. GjdLhPL, J Nds Zp Lt\ Njm T
Y XdLu GidL ALdm. AL URp LrYRp
AjRm ALdm.

YlTju [
Yu CVdL Bt\p 1/2 mv2 Bm. m GuT Xdu \
Utm v GuT NYLm Bm. YY TjmT, ARu YlTX
EVm. Xdu \ U\UkRm, ARu NYLm ALdm.
G]Y, CVdL Bt\m ALdm. BLVp, LsLXju Yp Lm
URpLs ALdm. Xdu GidL EVYpX. B]p,
lhP SWjp Yp Lm URpLu GidL ALd\.
Yu L]A[ U\Udm T YlTXV EVoj]p AjRm
ALdm.

L]A[u [
J Yu L]A[ GuT A Gjd Ls[lThP LsLXju
L] A[tf NUUm. YdLu CVdLVt LsLk CR]
AVXm. LsLXju L] A[Pu JlmT Y XdLu
L]A[ Rs[jRdLRm. Yu L]A[Y ARu AjRm, YlT X
Utm UpLu GidL BVYtk oQdLXm.

UpLu GidL [ ( n )
Yu R] AjRm Utm L] A[u [Ls UpLu
GidLd SoRjdm. 'n' u Ul EVmT LsLXju
Yp Um XdLu GidLm ALdm. Cq[]p
206

Yu AjRm EV\. Yu UpLu GidL EVmT


AYtu L] A[m ALdm.
9.2 Y Ls

Tp
1662-Bm Bip WToh Tp, U\R YlTXp lhP
\s[ Yu L]A[u R] AjRju [Yl Tt
BWnkRo. Tp lT, U\R YlTXp, J lhP \s[
Yu AjRm (P), ARu L]A[m (V), Go Rj RPoTl
Tts[].
P

1
(U\R YlT Xp) (ApX)
V

PV = U
YlTX T-BLm, Yu L]A[ V1- BLm Es[T AjRm
P1 BLm, AR YlT Xp Yu L] A[ V2 BLm, ARu
AjRm P2 BLm CkRp, CquT,
P1V1 = P2V2 = U

NoXv
U\R AZjRjp, YlT XVl Tj Yu L]A[
UTYRp NoXv [d\.
CqlT, U\R AZjRjp J lhP \s[ Yu L]A[
(V), ARu R YlT Xd(T) So Rjdm.
V T ApX

V
= U
T

NoXv Xm AjRm - YlTX RPoTm YdLXm.


U\R L]A[p, J lhP \s[ Yu AjRm (P) ARu
R YlTXd (T) So Rjdm.
P T ApX

P
= U
T

T - GuT Lpu AXp YlTXVm.


207

SpVp Yf NUuT
Tp dm, NoXv dm EhTh NVpTm YdLs SpVp
YdLs G]lTm. CkR Ls CWiPm CQj, Yf NUuThP
RdLXm.
Tp lT, U\R YlTXp P 1/V
NoXv lT, U\R L] A[p P T
CqWiPm CQdmT,
P

T
V

ApX PV T

PV = RT.

CfNUuThs[ R U R GuT Y U G]lTm.


TYL, SpVp Yf NUuT,
PV = nRT
G] GRlT\. n GuT Ys[ UpLu GidL.
UpLu GidL =

=
PV =

Yu \ (Wp)
Yu Xd \
m
(Wm/ Up)
M
m
RT
M

U\R \s[ YLdL] SpVp Yf NUuT


P1 V1
P2 V2
=
T1
T2

hPYlTX Utm AjRm (STP)


J Y AUl, hP YlTX Utm hP AjRjp CkRp,
ARu YlTX 273K Utm AjRm 1.013 105 Nm2 (1 atm) Bm.
208

Y U R-u Ul AjRm Utm L] A[u AXL[l Tj


UT\.
9.3 TpY AXLu Y Uu (R) Ul

Y U R-u Ul AjRm Utm L] A[u AXL[l Tj


AU\.
J Up Yt R =
R=

PV
T

AjRm L] A[

YlTX

N
TWl

L]A[
YlTX

L]A[ = TWl [m Gp,


R=
R=

N TWl [m
TWl YlTX
N [m
YlTX

YX
YlTX

G]Y, R-u AX Bt\p / YlTX / Up Bm.

(a) hPo - YUiPX AXp


STP-p J Up Y 22.4 hPo L] A[Y Lis[.
P = 1 YUiPXm R =

PV
T

V = 22.4 hPo
T = 273 K, R =

122 4
= 0.0821 hPo YUiPXm K1mol1
273

= 0.0821 dm3 atm. K1 mol1

(b) C. G. S AXp
STP p J Up Yu
209

P = 1 atm = 1 76 13.6 980 Pu N..-2


= 1.013 x 106 Pu N..-2
V = 22400 N.3
R=

PV
T

T = 273 K

1.013 106 22400


273

= 8.314 107 God K1 Up1

(c) M.K.S. AXp


MKS (A) SI AXp, R-u AX _p Bm,
107 God = 1 _p
R = 8.314 _p K1 Up1
1 LX = 4.184 _p
R = 1.987 LX K1 Up1

9.4

PpPu T AjR

Ju\Pu ]VR CWi ApX ARt UtThP YdL[


LXdmT AYtu UjR AjRjR PpPu T AjR
[d\. PpPu V],
Ju\Pu ]VR YdLs LXkR YdLXYu UjR
AjRm, As[ RlThP YdLu T AjReLu
hjRLdf NUm''. Yu T AjRm GuT Yd LXYp
Es[T AR L] A[ Utm YlTXp AqYu RlThP
AjRUm.
p1, p2, p3 ..... GuTY Yd LXY Jup Es[ YqY YdLu
T AjReLs Gp, YdLXYu UjR AjRm P GuT,
P = p1 + p2 + p3 + .....
YdLXY Utm RlThP YdLu L]A[ Utm YlT X
NUUL CdL Yim.

210

ShW_u

ShW_u
Utm
Bd_u

Bd_u

TPm 9,1 ShW_u Utm Bd_u YdLu T AjReLu


h RL UjR AjRjt NUm

YdLXYdL] Yf NUuT
U\R T Utm V-p, YdLXY Jus[ SpVp YdLs
A,B Utm C-u UpLs \V nA, nB Utm nC Gp, SpVp Y
NUuThuT
pA =

nA RT
; pB = nB RT
V
V

Utm pC = nc RT

pA, pB Utm pC GuTY \V SpVp YdLs A, B Utm Cu T AjReL[m, YdLXYu UjR AjRm,
P = pA + pB + pC
P =

n RT
nA RT
n RT
+ B
+ C
V
V
V

PV = (nA + nB + nC ) RT

CfNUuT YdLXYdL] Yf NUuTPm.

T AjRjR LQdPp
YdLXY Jus[ Y A Utm B u T AjReLs \V
pA Utm pB Gu\p Y XLXYf NUuThuT
P = ( nA + nB )
B]p
211

RT
V

pA =

nA
n
RT Utm pB = B RT
V
V

RU],
pA
P

nA

RT

= (n + n ) .
.
RT
V
A
B

X A = A- u Up u]m ApX pA = XAP


T AjRm pA = A-u Up u]m UjR AjRm AR Tp
pB = XBP
LXYs[ Y Juu T AjRU] ARu Up u]m
Utm UjR AjRm BVYtu Tdj RLk
LQdPlT\,

LQd - 1
CWi UpLs N2 Utm CWi UpLs H2 Es[ Yd LXYp
STP-p N2 Utm H2-u T AjReL[ LQd.
pN

pH

N2 u UpLu GidL

RT

V
=

H2 u UpLu GidL

RT

V
2

N2-u Up u]m = XN = 2 + 2 = = 0.5


2
4
2

H2 -u Up u]m = XH = 2 + 2 = = 0.5
2
4
XN + X H = 1
2

B]p P =

RT
V
212

1 Ud V = 22.4 hPo Gp
4 UpLd, V = 4 x 22.4 hPo
R = 0.0821 hPo YUiPXm K1 Up1
P =
pN

pH

0.0821 273
= 0.2501 YUiPXm
4 22.4

= 0.2501 x 0.5 = 0.1251 YUiPXm


= 0.2501 x 0.5 = 0.1251 YUiPXm

VRo
3 UpLs O2 Utm 1 Up H2 Es[ Yd LXYp O2 Utm
H2 -u T AjReL[ S.T.P p LQdL. (P: pO = 0.1876 atm
2
Utm pH = 0.0625 atm)
2

9.5 Wau Y WRp

CWi YdLs JuPu Ju Nkdm T AY RufNVL


LXdu\], Y Juu Xd\] Ut\ Yp NpYR CRtd
LWQUm. CqY Y XdLs JeLt\ \p LXlT WRp
G]lTm.
1829-m Bip Wam GuTYo YdLu WRp V ]o.
JW YlT Utm AjR XLp YdLu WRp RU]
AYtu Xd \u YodL Xjt Go Rjdm.''
LR \lT, CqV],
r1
r2 =

M2
M1

r1 Utm r2 GuT Y 1 Utm Y 2-u WRp RUm. M1 Utm


M2 GuTY AYtu Xd \L[m.
J Y [ YVL \kR AjRm ApX YtPm Sd
Npm \d TnRp (Effusion) Gu TVo. WRp RU] Xd
213

\V TjRRm. Wam V TnRd EhTj]p Wam


TnRp G]lTm. LR \lT,
Y -1-u TnRp Rm
Y -2u TnRp Rm

M2
M1

TnRp RU] WRp RjR P Gp LQdPXm. G]Y,


PpPu TnRp V] Yu Xd \V LiPV TmTm
TVuTjRlT\.

LQd - 2
J YY] Bd_u WRp Rjp TV TtkRp,
ARu Xd \V LQd.

o
Wau WRp lT,
r1
r2 =

M 2 1/ 2 32
; 1 M
M1
1

CTdLm YodLlTjR,
2
32
32
1
1
= M
= M (or)
4
2
1
1

M1 = 128

G]Y, Yu Xd \ 128 Bm.

VRo
J Yu WRp RU] N2 u WRp Rjp Sup J
Te Es[ Gp ARu Xd \V LQd. (P: 448)

LQd - 3
50 LiP Y A B] 146 SLp [ YV Tn\.
AR Xp AR L] A[ LiP CO2 Y TnYRt SLs
Gjd LiPp Y A-u Xd \Vd LQd.
214

CO2 TnRu Rm

Y A-u TnRu Rm
50 /115
=
50 /146

MA
MCO 2

MA
(1.27)2 =
44

MA
44

MA = 71. Y A-u Xd \ 71 Bm.

VRo
75 LiP Y A B] 73 SLp [ YV Tn\
AR\p AR L] A[ LiP SO2 Y TnYRt 75 SLs
Gjd LiPp Y A-u Xd \Vd LQd. (P : 60.6)
9.6 CVp YY] SpVp RuUk XdLm
APYRtL] LWQeLs

SpVp YtL] Yf NUuT, PV = nRT


CfNUuTht EhTh NVpTm YdLs SpVp YdLs
G]lTm. CVp YdLs SpVp Y NUuThd EhTh NVpTP.
Y XdLdPlThP LYof Nu LWQUL CVp YdLs
XdLm APu\]. Xd Nu LWQUL YY] YP\.
Dol Nu LWQUL L]A[ \\. \kR AjRm Utm
AL YlT XLp Y XdLdPlThP LYof N \kd
LiP Yk SpVp YYL NVpT\.

L]A[p XdLm
YdLu CVdLVt LsLuT Y XdLu L[
A[Y], Yu UjR L] A[Y Jl SdmT Rs[jRdLRm.
CdLsL SpVp YdLdm NRWQ YlT X Utm AjRjp,
CVp YdLdm TkRdV.
YlT XV \dmT, CVp Yu UjR L] A[ Lm
\kd LiP Yk Y Xd Lu L]A[Y AP\.
CjRLV Xp, Yu UjR L] A[Y JlLp, Y
XdLs APjs[ L] A[Yj Rs[ V.
215

G]Y, AL AjRm Utm \kR YlTXp L] A[ XdLm


HtTh CVp YdLs SpVpj RuUk XdLm APu\].

YUiPXm

CVp

SpVp

TPm 9,2 SpVp Utm CVp YdLu AjRm - L]A[ No

AjRju XdLm
J SpVp Yt A]j YlTX Utm AjRjp
XddPlThP LYof NV] wVUm. Cdt\] J
CVp Yt \kR AjRm ApX AL YlTXp TjRd
VRm. G]Y, XdLdPlThP LYof NV] Rs[j
RdLR\.
B]p, AL AjRm ApX \kR YlT Xp, Yu L]A[
Lm \k, XdLs JuPu Ju Se AUu\].
CkXp XdLdPlThP LYof ClTRp, AR]j Rs[
V. G]Y, Yf NUuThp, CVp YtL] AjRj jRm
CuVUVRR\.
9.7

YiPo Ypv NUuT

SpVp YtL] Yf NUuT PV = nRT Bm. J.O


YiPoYpv GuTYo (1) XdLu L] A[ (V) Utm (2)
XddLdPlThP LYof N BVYtu [L[d Ljp
Li SpVp Yf NUuThPj j AUj V CVp Yf
NUuThP YjRo.
216

(1) CVp YtL] L] A[ jRm


XdLs ReRPu CVeYRt Pdm CPU, Yu
EiUV] L] A[Ym. J SpVp Yt ARu L] A[m (V)
LsLXju L]A[m NUUL Cdm.
G]Y, CVp Yu L] A[Y] SpVp L] A[k
Y XdLs APjs[ L] A[Y LlTRp Pdm. Vm GuT
JWV Xdu L] A[ Gp, JdLlTP YiV L] A[ b
uYU oQdLlT\.
L]A[ Vb

JdLlThP
L] A[
CVp Y

TPm 9,3 CVp Yu RPX L] A[ Utm JdLlThP L]


A[Ls
JdLlThP
L] A[

TPm 9,4 CVp Y XdLu URp hPm (2r) Utm


JdLlThP L] A[

B W m r L iP CWi
Xd L s Ju Pu Ju
UdLsu\] G]Xm. sVp YWVlThP L[ju BWm (2r)-p
Ut\ XdLs CVeL V. sVp YWVlThP BWjRd LiP
L[ju L] A[ Ko CQ XdLu JdLlThP L] A[Ym.
217

G]Y, C XdLdL] JdLlThP L] A[ =


4

4
3
( 2r )
3

3
= 8 r
3

J XddL] JdLlThP L]A[,


Vc =

14
4
8. r 3 = 4Vm
23
3

Vm GuT J Xdu NV] L]A[Ym.


n XddLL] JdLlThP L]A[,

b = 4nVm , ARY, 4Vm GuT J Xdu JdLlThP L]


A[Ym.
CVp

YtL] jRlThP L]A[ = (V-b)


= XdLs ReRPu CVeYRtL] CPm.

(ii) AjRjtL] jRm


Y XddLdPlThP LYof Nu LWQU] CjjRm
AUk Es[. YdLu CVdLVt LsLu T Yu AjRm,
ARu XdLs LsLXju YoLu RPok UYRp
[u\. Xd Ju LsLXju EhTp ClTRLd
LYm. CkR Xd\f t GpXjNLm Y XdLs
Lhm LYof N D NnVlTh, Sdm Xd GqR Y]
Dol NVm TtlTpX.
B]p, LXju YWVhs[ Xd H]V XdL[p
GpXj NLm NUULf ZlTPpX. CRu [YLd LXju
YW Jhs[ Xd\ H]V XdLs EhTdLUL Cdu\].
BRXp CmXd Yu Um N YLm \u\. G]Y,
Yu AjRjPu AjRjtL] jRm hPlTh SpVp Y
AjRm T\lT\. jRlThP AjRm P + p' Bm. p' GuT
AjRjtL] jRd LWVm.
218

NUuNnVlThP
Xd LYof
N
EsTdL
CN

TPm 9,5

LXju YW Jhs[ Xdu LYof NV] KWX L]


A[s[ XdLu GidLVl Tj AU\.
NR]lT p' B] Yu APoju YodLjt So
Rjdm, APojV] XddLdPlThP LYofV
A[dLd VRm.

(i.e.) p' 2 = =

APojV] L] A[t (V) Go Rjdm, G]Y, J


Up Yt p' GuT
p'

1
(or) p' =
V2

a
V2

a GuT Rf NU U, Yu RuUV TjRRm.


a

jRlThP L] A[ = P + p' = P + V 2

J Up SpVp Yf NUuThp AjRm Utm L] A[tL]


jReL[ j Pdm CVp Yf NUuT
a

P + 2 (V b) = RT a Utm b GuTY YiPoYpv


V

UL[m.
CfNUuT YiPoYpv NUuT G]lTm.
n UpLs LiP CVp YtL] YiPoYpv NUuT,

n2 a
P + 2 (V nb) = nRT
V

219

YiPoYpv ULu AXLs


YiPYpv ULs a Utm b u AXL[ oQlT
AjRm Utm L]A[ BVYtu AXL[ Bm.
a =

AjRm. (L] A[)2

(Up)2
L] A[Y] hPp CkRp,
a =
atm dm6 mol2
=
YUiPXm hPo2 Up2
b =

hPo
V
=
= hPo Up-1
n
Up

YiPoYpv ULs (a) Utm (b)u dVjYm


1.

a
V2

GuT Y XdLdPlThP LYof NV

[d\. CR] Q AjRm Gum AZdLXm.


2. YiPoYpv ULs a Utm bu Xm GoU YlTX
Ti-I LQdPXm.
Ti =

2a
Rb

3. YiPoYpv ULs a Utm bu UlLk Yu


XU ULu UlTd LQdPXm.

LQd - 4
J Up CO2 Y 48oC Utm 16.4 atm AjRjp 1.32 lit L]A[Y
Lis[, YY] SpVp Utm CVp XLp NVpThPp
Yu AjRjRd LQd.
[a = 3.59 atm dm6 mol2, b = 4.27 102 dm3 mol1
Utm R = 0.082 dm3 atm deg1 mol1]
V = 1.32 lit. ; T = 48 + 273 = 321 K ; n = 1 mole.
SpVp RuUd, PV = RT
220

RT

0.082 321
; Pideal = 19.94 atm
P =
=
V
1.32

RT

0.082 32 3.59

CVp RuUd P = (V b ) 2 =

2
1.32 0.0427 (1.32)
V
PCVp = 20.6 2.06 = 18.54 atm

YiPo Ypv NUuThu YWmLs


1. SpVp RuUk XdLm APYR GiUlp [dL
VpX. U\L P Utm V XdLeL[ [d\.
2. a Utm b UlLs P Utm T-I Tj UT\.
YiPoYpv NUuThP YdmT CmUt\eLs LQdp
Gjd Ls[lTPpX.
3. YiPoYpv NUuThu Xm T\lThP XU ULu
UlLs Ut\ NR]Ls Xm T\lThP UlLk
YThs[].
9.8

XU CVtT

YdL[ WYUUdYRt XU YlTX, XU AjRm


Utm XU L] A[ Utm AYttPVV] RPoLs
TVuTu\].
J YY WYUdmT ARu L]A[ TU[ \\.
YlT XV \jRp ApX AjRjR ALjRp ApX CWiPm
NnmT L]A[ \\. Cq [Lu LWQUL Y
XdLs Ju\Pu Se Yk WYUu\]. GkRY U\R
YlT Xm, Yu AjRjR ALdm T L] A[ \m.
CR Tp U\R YlTXp Yu L] A[Y ALdmT
AjRm \m. CR]d Lhm YWLLs NU YlTXd LLs
G]lTm. CY TPm 9.2p Es[Tp AUm.
TPm 9.2 CVp Utm SpVp YdLd L] A[Y ALdm
T AjRm RPok \YRd Lh\. AL AjRm Utm
\kR L]A[p CVp YY] SpVpj RuUk XdLm
APYRd LQXm.
221

XU YlTX (Tc)

J lhP YlT Xp, AjRjR ALdmT YY]


WYUL U]p, AkR YlTX XU YlTX G]lTm.
AqYlTXd Up AjRjR GqY[ EVoj]m YY]
WYUYpX. CO2 dL] Tc 31.1oC Bm. ARY 31.1oC YlT Xd
Up AjRjR EVoj]m, CO2 YY WYUdL CVX.

XU AjRm (Tc)

XU YlT Xp, J Up YY WYUdLj RYlTm


Ld \kR AjRm XU AjRm G]lTm.

XU L]A[ (Vc)

XU AjRm Utm XU YlT Xp, J Up Y


BdWdm L]A[ XU L] A[ G]lTm.
J Yu AjRm, L]A[ Utm YlT X BVYLs \V
Pc, Vc Utm Tc Gp, AqY XU Xp Es[ G]lTm.

9.8.1 LoTu-P-BdNtL] Bihv NU YlTX LLs

AjRm (YUiPXjp)

J Yu XU YlT Xu dVjYjR Bihv


LoTu-P-BdN Y NR]p LiPkRo. YqY
YlTXLp CO2 -u NU YlT Xd LLs TPm 9.6 p Es[].

L]A[

TPm 9,6 CO2dL] Bihv NU YlTX LLs


222

13.1oC YlT Xp Es[ Rp NU YlT Xd LhP LYm,


s A-V] lhP L]A[ Utm AjRjp LoTu -P-BdN
Y Xp Es[R d\. AjRjR ALdm T L]A[
\YR YWL JW A[ AjRjp AB Lh\. s B-p
WYURp RPe\. ARu \ L] A[ Lm \k LiP
YYRp, AL A[ YY] WYUdLlT\. s C-p Y
Ym oUUdLlT\. s C-d \ AjRjR EVoj]p
L]A[ Lf R[Y \\. CR] YWL CD d\.
ARY YWL ABp CO2 YYL Es[. BC Y Utm oU
XULds[ NUXV d\. YWL CD-p WYm UhU
Es[. 21.5oC- Es[ NU YlT Xd LP], EVo AjRj]p
Um L] A[ \YRd Lh\. G]Y, L]A[Yd \lTRt
AjRjR ALdL Yim. Cq[u Xm WYURp AL
AjRjp LrYR NUYlT XdL Lh\.
YlT XV Um EVojm T, P UhPl T \\.
31.1oC YlT Xp sV\. 31.1oC-p YlT XV] CO2u XU YlT X G]lTm. CkR YlT Xp, YY]
WYU\. 31.1oC YlT Xd Up AjRjR GqY[ EVoj]m,
WYUdL CVX. YWL H Utm zyx T AUks[ TWl CO2
Y Xp Es[R d\.

9.8.2 RPm X
RmNu Bn
1871-p RmNu, Bihu CO2 dL] NU YlTXd LL[
BWnkRo. XU YlTXdd r Es[ NUYlTXd LLp
GjRLV V sLm CpX Gu ]o. CfNU YlT Xd
LLs Yk WY Xdf Npj RPo XV
[du\]. TPm 9.7 Es[ YWL MLB-V] Y AjRlThP
X p E s [ R d d \ . Y W L MNC-V ] A L
YlTlTjRlThP WYjRd d\. H]p, TC d Up AjRlTm
T YlT X EV\. CkR YLV] RPm XV YiPoYpv
NUuT [d\. YiPoYpv NUuT uYU :
a

P + 2 (V b) = RT
V

223

TjR,

PV Pb +

ab
a
2 RT = 0
V
V

V2 Bp TdL, PV3 (RT + Pb) V2 + aV ab = 0

AjRm

XU s
XU
NUYlTd
LLs

L]A[

TPm 9.7 CO2 YdL] RmNu NUYlT Xd LLs

G]Y, LdLlThP P Utm T UlLd u V UlLs


Pdm. AX YW Lhp Es[ B, M Utm C BV sLs u
V UlL[j Ru\]. NU YlTXd Lhu PUhPl T \k
V-u u UlLs Se Yu\]. XU sp V-u u
UlLm NUUL Es[Rp Y Utm oU XUL[ YTjR
CVXUp Cdm. ClT YY] XU Xp Es[RL
LRlTm. CR]p, Tc, Pc Utm Vc-u UlL[ YiPoYpv ULu
XUL LQdPXm.

9.8.3 YiPoYpv ULu Xm XU UL[


YjRp
XU ULs Tc (XU YlTX), Vc (XU L] A[)
Utm Pc (XU AjRm) BVYtu UlL[ YiPpYpv
ULs a Utm b Xm YdLXm.

YiPoYpv NUuT P + 2 (V b) = RT
V
CfNUuThP TjR PV +

ab
a
Pb 2 RT = 0
V
V

224

...(1)
...(2)

V2
V2
Bp TdL,
P
P

a
ab

PV + P b 2 RT = 0
V
V

V3

ab
aV
RTV 2
2
+
bV

=0
P
P
P

... (3)

V-u AdL[L CfNUuThP GR


RT 2 a V
ab
+b V +
V3

=0
P
P
P

... (4)

V-u mU AdL[L Es[ CfNUuThd u UlLs Es[].


XU sp V-u u UlLm NUUL Es[]. Um Vc- d
NUUL Es[.
BLY,

V = Vc (Tc p)
(V Vc) = 0

... (5)

(V Vc)3 = 0

...(6)

CfNUuThP TjR
V3 3Vc V2 + 3Vc2 V Vc3 = 0

...(7)

AfNUuT YiPoYpv NUuThu Xm T\lThP mU


NUuThd NUUL Es[. NUuT (4)p T Utm P UlLd TXL
Tc Utm Pc GR
RT

aV

ab

c
V3 P + b V2 + P P = 0
c
c
c

V-u AdL[ NUuT (7)-Pu NUuTjR

RT

...(8)

c
3VcV2 = P + b V2
c

RTc

3Vc = b + P
c
225

...(9)

3Vc2 = P
c

...(10)

ab

Vc3 = P
c
(11)
Vc3
(10) = 3Vc2

Vc
3

...(11)

ab

= P . c
a
c
= b (or) Vc = 3b

...(12)

NUuT (11)p Vc = 3b G] TjR


ab

(3b)3 = P
c

ab

27b3 = P
c
Pc =

a
27b2

...(13)

Vc Utm Pc- u UlL[ NUuT (9) p TjR


3 3b = b +
9b b =

RTc
27b2
a

RTc
27b2
a

8b =

RTc .27b 2
a

Tc =

8a
27 R b

...(14)

G]Y, J Yu YiPoYpv ULs a, b- u UlLs


RkkRp AYt\l TVuTj, Yu XU ULu UlTd
LQdPXm. Pc Utm Tc UlL[ NR] Xm Gp LiPV
226

YRp, CmUlL[ TVuTj a Utm bu UlL[ LQdPXm.


a = 3Vc2 Pc ;

b=

Vc
3

XU YlT X UlLk YdL[ ""XV]'' Utm


""XVt\'' YdLs G] YLlTjRXm. H2, N2, He ... BV YdLs
\kR XU YlT XV TtlTRp XV] YLVf
NokRRm. NH3, CO2, SO2, HCl Tu\Y NRWQ XU YlT
XVl TtlTRp XVt\YLVf NokRRm.

LQd - 5
ahW_u [W YtL] YiPo Ypv ULs a = 3.67
atm lit2 Utm b = 40.8 ml mol1 Bm. XU YlT X Utm
XU AjRm BVYt\d LQd.

o
Tc =

8 3.67
8a
= 27 0.0821 0.0408 = 324.7 K
27 R b

Pc =

3.67
a
=
27 (0.0408) 2
27b 2

= 51.7oC

= 81.6 atm.

LQd - 6
ahW_u YtL] XU YlT X 33.2oC Utm XU
AjRm 12.4 atm Bm. Yu a Utm b- u UlL[ LQdL.

o
Tc =

8a
..(i)
27 R b

Pc =

a
27b2

...(ii)

(i)-I (ii)-Bp YdL


Tc
8a
8b
27b 2
=

=
Pc
27 R b
R
a

Tc = 33.2oC = (33.2 + 273)K = 306.2 K


Pc = 12.4 atm. R = 0.082 atm. litre K1 mol1
NUuT (iii)-p CmUlL[ TjR
227

...(iii)

306.2
8b
=
12.4
0.082

b=

306.2 0.082
1
12.4 8 = 0.253 litre mol

b-u UlT NUuT (i)- p TjR


Tc =

8a
27 R b
8a

306.2 = 27 0.082 0.253


a = 21.439 atm litre2 mol1

9.9 _p RmNu [
AjRlThP Y Ju] \kR AjRl Td J [ YVL
NjmT ARu YlT X \YR _p - RmNu LiPkRo.
J YY AL AjRl Tk \kR AjRl Td
YPVf Nnm T ARu YlT X \Y _p-RmNu [
G]lTm.
J YY \kR AjRl Td NjmT ARu XdLs
EP]VL XddPlThP Nd GWL Xf Npu\].
YPm T AL Bt\X CZk YXVf Nnu\]. G]Y,
YPm T YlTX \\. CqY YlTX \Y _p
RmNu [ G]lTm. Cq[ YdL[ WYUdLl TVuT\.

9.10 GoU YlTX (Ti )


J Yu YlTXV] J lhP Uld Z Es[T
UhU _p-RmNu [d EhT\. J lhP YlT Xdd
r J YY YlT U\f NVp\p \kR AjRl Td
[ YVL YPVf Nnm T YlTX \Y GoU
YlT X (Ti ) G]lTm.
J Yt Ti Ul odLU]Rm. Ti - dm YiPo Ypv
ULdm Es[ RPo
228

Ti =

2a
Rb

GoU YlT Xp _p-RmNu [ HtTYpX. ARY,


YlT X \YR ApX ALlTR CpX. Yu
YlTXV] GoU YlTXV P \YL Cdm T
YlT U\f Nn\p YPVf Nnm T YlT X \m.
Yu YlTX Ti- I P ALUL CkRp, YPmT
YlTX EVm. H2 Utm He BV YdLu GoU YlT Xu
\V - 80oC Utm 240oC Tu\ Ld \kR UlL[ Tts[].
G]Y, CYt\ _p RmNu [t EhTjmT YlTX
\YRt TXL EV\. BLY, CqYdL[ Ti Ult \YL
W Yj _p-RmNu [d EhTjR Yim.
9.11

YdL[ WYUdL RYV] TkR]Ls

TmTuUV] RtNXLp TU[p WY Lt, WY


AmUV, WY LoTu-P-Bd^ Tu\Y RYlTu\]. G]Y.
YdLk WYeL[ RVlT CuVUVRR\.
YdL[ WYUdm TpY \Ls TVuTu\]. AYLs
uYU :(i) GoU YlT Xd EhTj dRp (ii) _p RmNu
[d EhTjRp. (iii) YlT U\f NVp\p LkRj RuUV
CZjRp.
NH3, Cl2, SO2 Utm CO2 YdLu Tc UlLs A\ YlT Xd
Jj ClTRp, AjRjR Tc Ulp ALlTRu Xm WYUdLXm.
H2, O 2, N 2 Utm He YdLs Ld \kR Tc UlL[l
TtlTRp, _p - RmNu [d EhTjmT YlTX
\m.
VjR, _p-RmNu [dh TjmT YlT X
\\, YlT U\ NVp \p, LkRj RuUV CZjRp Nnm
T YlTX Um \\.
iP \

Cm\p _p - RmNu [u Xm Lt ApX Ut\ YdLs


WYUdLlTu\]. V Lt ApX YY Rp 200 Y UiPX
229

AjRjt AjRlTh TPm 9.8p Es[T s YY Zs


NjRlT\.

WYLt

TPm 9,8 YY WYUdm iP ETLWQm

AUl Jp Es[ Yp V \dLlTh YY] ALX AUl


Cp W] YPU NnVlT\. Y YPYRp
oYPk ARu AjRU] 50 YUiPX AjRjt \\.
ClT YY] YdZn oYV NjRlT\. CkXp
Es[Ym YY] YV Npm Y]p odLlT\.
AUl Cp YYm Y YPYRp Um o\. okR
Y Um AjRlTh Zn YV NjRlT\. ojRp.
AjRp Utm YPRp BV NVp\L[ im im
LrjYRu Xm YY] WYU L[L AUl C NLWU\.

[ \
Cm\p AjRlThP YY] YPRp YXV NnV
YdLlT\. CVdL Bt\X CZk YXVf NnYRp YlT X
\\. CdLsLV] _p-RmNu [Pu CQk [
\p Lt\ odLl TVuT\. Lt\] 200 YUiPXjt
AjRlTh ABC Zn YVL NjRlT\. s C-p J T
s Zn YV [ J YV Np\. Ltu Ut\ T TdL
Zn YV Nu EkjRiPu V E[l TV AP\.
230

Lt\] Ekj RiP YV RsYRp YPk oYP\.


okR Lt WYdm TV APk Es[ Ym Lt\ W
Yd\. Lt\] _p-RmNu [t EhTjRlTh Zn J YVL
YPYRp im o\. Cf NVp\V im im Lrj
Lt\] WYUdLlT\.

Lt

WY Lt

TPm 9,9 YY WYUdm [ ETLWQm

YlTU\ NVp\p LkRj RuUV CZjRp


Lm \kR YlT XV] 10-4K-I APYRt Cm\
TVuTjRlT\. LPVm NpTh Tu\ TW LkRj RuUPV
T[ YYf t YdLlTh 1K YlTXd HRY J \p
W YdLlT\. YUV] LkR XjR TW LkRl Tu
W] Nj LkRj RuUVdLlT\. LkRj RuUV]
YYf ts[ NR]l Tp Lr\. LkRl XjR W]
XdmT LkRj RuU CZk Xd LkReLs JeLt\ Xd
Nuu\]. CkXV APYRt RYV] YlT Bt\X
HtL]Y WYdLlThP Yk Gjd LsYRp Yu
YlTX Um o\. Cm\p wV Lp] P \kR
YlT XVm APVXm.
231

]dLs

A. NV] PV RokRdL
1. U\R YlTXp YWVlTm YWL NUYlTXd L
G]lTm, CdL Lhm RPo
(a) P Utm 1/V
(b) PV Utm V
(c) P Utm V
(d) V Utm 1/P
2. J Y rdLiP XLp SpVp RuUk XdLm
AP\.
(a) AL YlTX Utm \kR AjRm
(b) \kR AjRm
(c) \kR YlTX Utm AL AjRm
(d) AL YlTX
3. J Yu XU YlTX GuT
(a) lhP YlTXd Up YY] WYUm
(b) lhP YlTXd Up AjRjR ALlTRp WYUdL
CVX.
(c) lhP YlTXp iUUm
(d) lhP YlTXp Yu L]A[ wVUm.
4. J YY U\R YlTXp YPVf NnmT
(a) Y XdLu GidL \\
(b) Y XdLu CVdL Bt\p U\Up Cdm.
(c) Y XdLu CVdL Bt\p \\.
(d) Y XdLu CVdL Bt\p ALdm.
5. Y A u XdLs Y B u XdL[ P Su UPe
AL YLjp JW YlTXp CVe\ Gp, AYtu Xd
GPLu (MA/MB) Rm
(a) 1/16
(b) 4
(c) 1/4
(d) 16

B. LhP CPeL[ WlL.


6. YiPo Ypv NUuThp AjRjtL] jRm ....................
7. GoU YlTXdm, YiPoYpv ULdm Es[ RPo
.......................
232

8. VjR WYUdYRt TmTuUVLl TVuTjm \


.....................
9. J CVp YY YlTU\f NVp\p YPVf Nnm T
...................
10. J Yu WRp RU] ARu .................... Utm Xd \d
..................... Cdm.

C. TjL.
1. SpVp Yl Ti
2. YlT U\ NVp\p
LkRj RuUV CZjRp
3. 31.1oC p CO2
4. _p - RmNu NR]
5. T AjRm Utm
UjR AjRm
BVYttPVV]
Rm

(a) X U YlTX
(b) WY Bd_u
(c) Yu Up u]m
(d) Yu UpLu
GidL
(e) \kR AjRm Utm AL
YlTX
(f) WY Vm

D. dLU] PV
1. Tp u LR [dLjR GL.
2. 3 UpLs A Y Utm 5 UpLs B Y BVY LXdLlT\.
25oC Utm 1 atm AjRjp AYtu T AjReL[ Jl.
3. YiPoYpv NUuThs[ AjRj jRm Utm L]A[ jRm
BVYt\ GL,
4. J SpVp Y YtPjtf Npm T ARu CVdL Bt\p
UYpX. [dL.
5. AjRlThP CVp Y Ju] YWm YVL YlT U\f
NVp\p YPVf Nnm T YlTXp HtTm Ut\m
Gu] ?
6. NoXv Utm Tp BVYt\ YWVdL.
7. Yu A[Pd V TiLs VY ?
8. SpVp Y lT 500K Utm 600 atm p ShW_u UXo L]
A[ Gu] ?
9. WLu WRp V YWV.
233

10. YU R u UlL[ LX Utm _p AXLp G.


11. YiPoYpv ULp a Utm bBVYtu AXL[ GL.
12. YiPoYpv ULu dVjYjRj RL.
13. YiPoYpv NUuThu YWmL[ GL.
14. _p-RmNu [Y [dL.
15. GoU YlTX Gu\p Gu] ?.

E. YL PV
1. 27oCp H2 YY] LXk [ YVL 20 PeLp
YV\. AR YlT AjR Xp Ut\ Y 20 PeLp
YV\. WRp LrkR \ LXYu UjR AjRm 6 atm
Bm. LXYs[ ahW_u A[ 0.7 UpLs LXu L]A[
3 hPo Gp AqYu Xd GPV LQd.
2. 5 UpLs CO2 B] 47oC J hPo L]A[ LiP LXp
Es[T YiPoYpv NUuThP TVuTj ARu AjRjRd
LQd. SpVpj RuUp Es[T ARu AjRjR LQd.
(a = 3.592 atm lit2 mol2 , b = 0.0427 lit mol1)
(P: P CVp = 77.2 atm, PSpVp = 131.36 atm)
3. J 10 Ls[[ LiP E[p 0.4g He, 1.6g O2 Utm 1.4g
N2 BVY 27oCp Es[T UjR AjRjR LQd. YdLs
SpVpj RuUp Es[T He Yu T AjRjR LQd.
(R = 0.082 lit atm K1 mol1)
P UjRm = 0.4926 atm PHe = 0.2463 atm
PO = 0.1232 atm PH = 0.1230 atm
2

4. u XU ULs 374oC, 218 atm Utm 0.0566 lit mol1 Gp


a Utm b I LQd.
(a = 2.095 lit2 atm mol1; b = 0.0189 lit mol1)
5. LoTu-P-BdN Yu YiPoYpv ULs a = 3.6 Utm
b = 4.28 102 Bm. Yu XU YlTX Utm XU
L] A[ BVYt\ LQd. (R = 0.0820 lit atm K1 mol1 )
6. CVp YdLs SpVpj RuUk Xf NpYRtL]
LWQeL[ [dL.
7. XU ULdm, YiPoYpv ULds[ RPoT
Y.
234

8. iP \p YdLs WYUdYR TPjPu [dL.


9. [ \p YdL[ WYUdYR TPjPu [dL.
10. YlTU\R LkRj RuU CZjRp Gu\p Gu]? A GqY
YdL[ WYUdLl TVuT\?
RlW

P, V, T Utm \ BVY Yu A[PdV TiL[m.


AY Tp Utm NoXv Ld EhT\, SpVp YtL]
NUuT PV = nRT

U\R \ LiP J Yt,


P1 V1
P2 V2
=
T1
T2

R-u YqY UlLs


0.821 lit atm K1 mol1
8.314 107 erg. K1 mol1
8.314 Joule K1 mol1
1.987 cal K1 mol1

Yd LXYdL] NUuT
PV = (nA + nB + bC) RT

WLu lT,
M 2 1/2
(WRp Rm 1/ WRp Rm 2) = M ApX
1
M 2 1/2
(TnRp Rm 1/ TnRp Rm 2) = M
1

CVp YdLs V SpVp Utm P SpVp BVYtk XdL


UP\. CVp YtL] NUuT - YiPoYpv NUuT
a

P + 2 (V b) = RT
V

XU YlT X, XU AjRm Utm XU L]A[


BVY Yu XU XVd dm. Bihv NU
235

YlTXd L LoTu-P-BdNu XU YlT XV


[d\.
Pc, Vc Utm Tc BVY YiPoYpv ULs a Utm bPu
Lis[ RPo Vc = 3b, Pc = a/27b2, Tc = 8a/27Rb
_p - RmNu [u T AjRlThP YY [ YVL
YlTU\f NVp\p YPVf NnmT YlTX
\\. GoU YlTX =

2a
. ClYlTXd r _pRb

RmNu [dhTm.
_p - RmNu [u Xm iP Utm [ \Lp
YdL[ WYUdLXm. VjR WYUdRp Utm
wVLpu BVYt\ YlTU\ LkRj RuU \ Xm
T\Xm.

UtToY pLs
1. Physical Chemistry by Lewis and Glassstone.

236