COMPARING FORMATIVE EVALUATION AND SUMMATIVE EVALUATION

Attributes Concepts • Formative Evaluation Scriven (1967) state that formative evaluation was intended to foster development and improvement within ongoing activity. Summative Evaluation • Scriven (1967) state that summative evaluation was used to assess whether the results of the object being • Scriven (1991) confirm that formative evaluation is typically conducted during the development or improvement of a product and it is conducted often more than once. • Bhola (1990) state that summative evaluation is a • Robert Stakes state that “when the cook tastes the soup, that’s formative, when the guests taste the soup, that’s summative” method of judging the worth of a program at the end of the program activities. The focus is on the outcome. Implementation • It’s happen during instructional process. • It’s happen in a given periodically to determine at a particular point in time. Duration Area • • • Take a short time. Test of specific skills, concepts and objective. Ideally test every concept which has been taught. • • • • • Take a long time. Test general/overall concepts, skills and/ or terminal objectives. The combination of all skills and concepts. Purpose To help the students during the instructional process because of the formative evaluation is implemented during the teaching and learning process. • Summative evaluation provides information on the product’s efficacy. Used to determine students’ grades and evaluated met stated goals.

Determine specific skills, concepts and objectives which students have not mastered. •

report them. Used as a basis for subsequent revision or redesign of a course or program • Determine program/ course effectiveness

Provides immediate feedback to students on their learning performance: often suggest learning activities.

Identifies specific weakness in ongoing instruction (material and teaching procedures) allowing the teacher to remedy the instructions.

Examples

Criteria and goal setting ○ Engages students in instruction and the learning process by creating clear expectations.

• • • •

State assessment End-of-unit or chapter tests End-of-term or semester exams Scores that are used for accountability for schools and student (report card grades)

Observations ○ ○ Teacher observes to identify the students that need clarification. Observation assist teacher in gathering evidence of student learning to inform instructional planning.

Questioning strategies ○ Elicit immediate information about students learning

Self and peer assessments ○ With peer evaluation, students see each other as resources for understanding and checking for quality work against previously established criteria.

Students record keeping ○ Helps students better understand their own learning as evidence of their classroom work (worksheet etc. )

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful