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Conveying and distributing water

**Conveying and distributing water
**

By Dr. Eng. Eddy El Tabach

Page 1

Manning’s equation

In metric units:

R2 / 3 xS1/ 2

v

n

AxR2 / 3 xS1/ 2

Q

n

s KQ2

**A = cross-sectional area of the flow
**

in the channel (sq.m.)

R = hydraulic radius (cross sectional

area/wetted perimeter) (m)

v = velocity of flow (m/s)

Q = capacity of flow (cms)

s = slope of the hydraulic gradient

K = a geometric proportionality

coefficient

n = roughness coefficient

**Figure 6.1: Monograph based on Manning’s formula for circular pipes flowing full.
**

Conveying and distributing water

By Dr. Eng. Eddy El Tabach

Page 2

**Figure 6.1: Monograph based on Manning’s formula for circular pipes flowing full.
**

Conveying and distributing water

By Dr. Eng. Eddy El Tabach

Page 3

Eddy El Tabach Page 4 .1 Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eng.Table 6.

Eng.Figure 6.2 Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eddy El Tabach Page 5 .

05)(8fps) = 8.4fps. Figure 6.625 62. Eddy El Tabach Page 6 . Eng.2 Conveying and distributing water By Dr.2: Given a pipe discharge flowing full of 16 cfs and a velocity of 8 fps. Solution Q 10 0.5% Q full 16 From figure 6.5% of fullflow depth and a velocity of (1. find the velocity and depth of flow when Q=10cfs.2 we obtain the depth of flow of 57.Example 6.

Eng. Eddy El Tabach Page 7 .The depth at which uniform flow occurs in an open channel is termed the normal depth dn. Critical depth occurs when the specific energy is at a minimum. Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Specific energy is defined as: V2 Es d 2g Where: d= depth of flow V= Mean velocity The critical velocity for a channel of any cross section can be shown to be: A Vc g B Where: Vc= critical velocity. B= width of the channel at the water surface. A= cross-sectional area of the channel.

Eddy El Tabach Page 8 .Figure 6.3 Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eng.

Numerous procedures have been proposed for computing backwater curves. Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eddy El Tabach Page 9 . E1 = values of specific energy at section 1 and 2.There are 12 classifications of water surface profiles. The direct-step method is discussed here. Eng. Sc = slope of the channel bottom. V12 V22 Z d1 d2 Hf 2g 2g ' 1 A rearrangement of this equation yields: V22 V12 d 2 d1 Z1' H f 2g 2g Or: E2 E1 Sc L Se L L E2 E1 Sc Se Where: E2. or backwater curves. Se = slope of the energy gradient.

Eng. Eddy El Tabach Page 10 .4 Conveying and distributing water By Dr.Figure 6.

3) after rearranging and substituting byc for A and b for B. Find the distance upstream to a point where normal depth prevails and determine the surface profile. the normal depth is found to be 4 ft.3 Water flows in a rectangular concrete channel 10ft wide. Critical depth yc is determined by solving equation (6.5 ft. The channel carries a flow of 245cfs and has a roughness coefficient n of 0. 8ft deep.Example 6.10%. and inclined at a grade of 0.013. Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eng. Eddy El Tabach Page 11 . Solution: Using Manning’s equation and the given value of discharge. the depth of flow is 7. At the intersection of this channel with a canal. where b equals the width of the rectangular channel.

Eng. Eddy El Tabach Page 12 .Table 6.2 Conveying and distributing water By Dr.

and whenever possible velocities of 10fps or less should be used. velocities of excess of 20 fps or less should be avoided in concrete or tile sewers. while maximum velocities are set to prevent erosion of the channel. Using Chezy equation for velocity: Minimum velocity: Vm C K s d s is the specific weight of the particle. Eng. Eddy El Tabach Page 13 .49R1/6 /n The value of K must be found experimentally and appears to range from 0. Minimum velocities are set to ensure that suspended matter does not settle out in the conduit. is the specific weight of water. C is the Chezy coefficient = 1. d is the particle diameter. Conveying and distributing water By Dr.8 for effective cleansing.Velocity Maximum and minimum velocities are both prescribed for water transportation systems.04 for the initiation of scour to more than 0. Normally.

633 Page 14 . d s Vm 25.3 10 3 g Conveying and distributing water By Dr.816 D m m 0. Eng. Eddy El Tabach 0.

5 Conveying and distributing water By Dr.Figure 6. Eng. Eddy El Tabach Page 15 .

Eddy El Tabach Page 16 . Eng.Table 6.3 Conveying and distributing water By Dr.

Eng.4 Conveying and distributing water By Dr.Minor losses are usually expressed under the form: V2 hK 2g V: flow velocity (length/time). Table 6. Eddy El Tabach Page 17 . g: acceleration of gravity (length/tme2).

Eddy El Tabach Page 18 . Usually placed at street corners where lines intersect. Globe valve: generally used in household plumbing. Check valves: Permit water to flow in one only one direction. Pressure regulating valve: reduce pressure on the downstream side.Valves Control valves regulate the flow or pressure. usually used on lines entering low areas of a city to avoid excessively high pressures. The most common are: Gate valve: needed to isolate some components of the network. Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Air release valve: Prevents accumulation of air at high points. high headloss. Eng.

Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Displacement pumps have pistons that draws water into a closed chamber and then expels it under pressure (usually use for sludge). Centrifugal pumps have a rotating element (impeller) that imparts energy to the water. Eng.Pumps Pumps are used to increase the hydraulic head of water. The primary types of pumps are centrifugal and displacement. Eddy El Tabach Page 19 .

Type of Pumps Low lift pumps: lift water from a source to a treatment plant. Well pumps: used to lift water from wells. Eng. Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Recirculation pumps: used within a treatment plant. Booster-pumps: used to increase pressure in the distribution system. High-service pumps: used to discharge water under pressure to the distribution system. Eddy El Tabach Page 20 .

lb/sec = 0. Horsepower = p In SI units.745700kW In BG units. N/m3. Water power required is the work per time unit: P=γQ H P: Theoretical power. γ: Specific weight of water. m Note that 1hp=550 ft. Total dynamic head: Total static head + Friction head + Velocity head. Watts. Total static head: the difference in elevation between the level of the suction pool and the elevation to which the water is to be raised. Kilowatts = p Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Work done by a pump: W= mass flow x total head. Eddy El Tabach Q h 550 Q h 1000 Page 21 . Q: flow rate. Eng. m3/s H: Total dynamic head.

Eddy El Tabach Page 22 . Eng.30: Total static head: (a) Intake below the pump centerline and (b) intake above the pump centerline.Transformation and distribution of water Figure 6. Conveying and distributing water By Dr.

113QH hp cfs ft 1hp = 0. Eng.789QH kW m3/s m P=0.525x10-4 QH hp gpm ft P=0.7457 KW Conveying and distributing water By Dr.163QH kW m3/min m P=2.For water at 20 °C: Equation P Q H P=9789QH W m3/s m P=9. Eddy El Tabach Page 23 .

and b is a flow exponent. Conveying and distributing water By Dr. a is a resistance coefficient.Pumps: Pump curves can be represented with a function of the form: hG ho aQ b Where: HG is the head gain imparted by the pump in ft. Eddy El Tabach Page 24 . Eng. ho is the shutoff head (head at no flow). q is the flow through the pump. Pumps may be run at constant or variable speed.

Figure 6.6: Typical pump characteristic curve Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eddy El Tabach Page 25 . Eng.

Distribution system configurations Distribution system may be classified as : Branching systems Grid systems A combination of the above two systems The configuration of the system is dictated by Topography Degree and type of development of the area Location of treatment and storage facilities Street patterns Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eng. Eddy El Tabach Page 26 .

(b) Grid. Conveying and distributing water By Dr.flow Branch line Main supply line flow flow Figure 6.7: Type of water distribution systems: (a) Branching. (c) Combination. Eddy El Tabach Page 27 . Eng.

Eng. A branching system has dead ends. Eddy El Tabach Page 28 . (not recommended) In locations where sharp changes in topography occur (hilly or mountainous areas) it is common practice to divide the distribution system into two or more service areas. Conveying and distributing water By Dr.Branching vs grid systems A grid system is usually preferred over a branching system. it does not supply from more than one direction. since it can provide a supply for any point from at least two directions.

85 Q h 7.329kCD S 1.63S 0.867 kC 1.54 K = 0. Eddy El Tabach Page 29 .85 V h 5. Eng.Hydraulic consideration Hazen William equation: V kCR0.849 for m/s and m 1.318 for ft/s and ft C= equivalent friction factor R= hydraulic radius = A/P S= Slope of the energy grade line (h/L) 2.63 0.04 LD 1.167 kC Conveying and distributing water By Dr.54 For a circular conduit flowing full: Q 0.88 LD 4.

Eng.8: Nomograph for the Hazen-Williams formula with C=100 Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eddy El Tabach Page 30 .Figure 6.

Eddy El Tabach Page 31 . ft L = pipe length. Eng. ft f = friction factor V = flow velocity. fps Figure 6.9: relative roughness of pipe materials and friction factors for complete turbulence. ft D = pipe diameter.Head loss (Darcy-Weisbach equation): hL fLV 2 / 2Dg Where: hL = head loss. Conveying and distributing water By Dr.

Eddy El Tabach Page 32 . Conveying and distributing water By Dr.Flow in branching pipe Q1=Q2 + Q3 if the flow is into reservoir B. Q1 + Q2= Q3 if the flow is out of reservoir B.10: Branching pipe system with single junction. Eng. Figure 6.

**Series pipe systems
**

Continuity equation: Q = Q1 = Q2 = Q3

Energy equation: h = h1 + h2 + h3

**Figure 6.11: Flow in pipes in series
**

Conveying and distributing water

By Dr. Eng. Eddy El Tabach

Page 33

**Flow in parallel pipes
**

QA = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = QB

HL = H1 = H2 = H3

Figure 6.12

Conveying and distributing water

By Dr. Eng. Eddy El Tabach

Page 34

Figure 6.13

Conveying and distributing water

By Dr. Eng. Eddy El Tabach

Page 35

Table 6.5

Conveying and distributing water

By Dr. Eng. Eddy El Tabach

Page 36

**Pipe networks are composed of a number of constant diameter
**

pipe sections that might contain pumps and fittings.

1

2

Figure 6.14: Pipe network showing pipe and fixed-grade nodes.

**Conveying and distributing water
**

By Dr. Eng. Eddy El Tabach

Page 37

Pump node: represents the location of a pump. 1 and 2. C. E.Node: end of each pipe system A. F. Junction node: points where pipes meet and where flow may be introduced or withdrawn B. B. Fixed grade node: points where constant grade is maintained. E. D. Eng. Loops: closed pipe circuits. D. 1 Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eddy El Tabach 2 Page 38 . A and H. F and G. C. G and H.

Eng. Eddy El Tabach B A + C D Page 39 .Node equation: Continuity equations for any node: Qin ∑Q=0 Qin= Qout + Qe Qout Qe Loop equation: Energy equations for any loop ∑h=0 -(hAB+hBD) + (hCD+hAC) = 0 Conveying and distributing water By Dr.

Eddy El Tabach Page 40 . Frictional losses in pipes are expressed in terms of h = KQx Minor losses in fittings are expressed in terms of h = KmQ2 A pump node corresponds to a head change across the pump hc – hb = P P is the head developed by the pump. Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eng.

The method of Hardy cross consists of assuming a distribution of flow in the network and then balancing the resulting head losses. Head loss formulas could be expressed in general terms as h=KQx For any pipe it can be said Q = Q1+Δ Where: Q= actual flow Q1 = assumed flow Δ= flow correction h KQ K Q1 K Q xQ1 x x x 1 x 1 Within a loop h KQ KQ xQ x Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eng. Eddy El Tabach x 1 x 1 1 0 Page 41 .

Eddy El Tabach Page 42 . Lines common to two loops receive both corrections with due attention to sign. for the same circuit. the sum KxQ x 1 1 x KQ1x1 x h / Q1 5) Compute the correction KQ1x / KQ1 x 1 h / x h / Q1 6) Apply the corrections obtained to the flow in each line. Eng. 7) Repeat the same iteration until Δ could be neglected.1) Assume any internally distribution of flow respecting the node equation ∑Q1=0 2) Compute the headloss in each pipe: h KQ1x 3) With due attention to sign compute the total headloss around each loop h KQ x 1 4) Compute without regard to sign. Conveying and distributing water By Dr.

4) Assume initial pipe diameters by assuming initial velocities.Design steps 1) Review maps. 2) Define the design period and forecast the future situation (demography and water use). population figures. Eddy El Tabach Page 43 . construction plans. 3) Propose a schematic distribution network. Conveying and distributing water By Dr. planning studies. run the computing model and find residual pressures. 5) Apply the projected water demands (including fire flow) to the network.5m/s) 8) Replace with larger pipes where necessary 9) Rerun the computing model. Eng. water use studies. It is common to simplify by eliminating non essential small lines and assuming water use to be concentrated at takeoff points (nodes). 7) Check head losses in individual pipes (probable if V>1. 6) Compare calculated pressures to standards and identify the less-than-adequate service areas.

2) For high value districts. Conveying and distributing water By Dr.General guidelines 1) Distribution mains will not be less than 150 mm (6in) where fire protection will be considered. 3) Where fire protection is not considered the minimum diameter will be: 1) 50-75 mm (3-4in) for distance < 100m (if dead end) 200m (if connected at ends) 2) 100mm (4in) for distance < 400m (if dead end) 600m (if connected at ends) 4) Provide an air release valve at each high point 5) Provide a washout valve at each low point. 200mm (8in) is the minimum size. Eddy El Tabach Page 44 . Eng.

Eng. Eddy El Tabach Page 45 . showing -roads. streets -buildings -other utilities -topography -soil type -lowest elevation of all buildings Conveying and distributing water By Dr.The first step in designing a sewerage system is to establish an overall system layout that includes a plan of the area to be sewered.

Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eddy El Tabach Page 46 .Typical layout for the design of a sewerage system. Eng.

Eng. 2. Obtain or develop a topographic map of the area to be served. Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Basic steps include the following: 1. Eddy El Tabach Page 47 . Locate the drainage outlet: This is usually near the lowest point in the area and is often along a stream or drainage way.A general guideline for sewer for sewer system layout and design has been proposed by Thackston.

Conveying and distributing water By Dr.3. Eng. Pipe must also be located to provide access for maintenance. Sketch in a preliminary pipe system to serve all of the contributors 4. Eddy El Tabach Page 48 . Pipe must be located so that users or future users can readily connect. This is usually accomplished by placing them in streets or other rights of way.

sewers should follow natural drainage ways to minimize excavation and pumping requirements. Eight inches (usually the minimum allowable) can serve several hundred residences even at minimal grades. Establish preliminary pipe sizes.5. Insofar as practical. Large truck sewers are usually constructed in low-lying areas closely paralleling streams or channels. Eng. 6. In general. Eddy El Tabach Page 49 . pipes should cross contours at right angles. Conveying and distributing water By Dr.

Eng. Pipe lengths and sizes should be kept as small as possible. pipe slopes should be maximized within tolerances for velocity. and the number of appurtenances should be kept as small as possible.Revise the layout to optimize flow-carrying capacity at minimum cost. excavation depth should be minimized. Eddy El Tabach Page 50 . Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Traditional hydraulic design procedures combined with the use of optimization techniques can be utilized in the process.7.

Eng. Pumping stations are costly and add maintenance problems. Eddy El Tabach Page 51 . Furthermore. Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Try to avoid pumping across drainage boundaries. pumping should be considered only when excavations exceeding about 20-40 ft are contemplated. energy costs for pumping can be significant. While no hard and fast rule can be given. A balance must be made between excavation and pumping.8.

Peak design flows should be carried by pipes at velocities great enough to prevent sedimentation.The hydraulic design of a sanitary sewer can be carried out in a systematic manner. Conveying and distributing water By Dr. yet small enough to prevent erosion. Eddy El Tabach Page 52 . Eng.

Eng.Materials Collecting and intercepting sewers are constructed of -asbestos cement sewer pipe (ACP) -Ductile iron pipe (DI) -vitrified clay pipe -plastic or PVC -Reinforced concrete pressure pipe (RCPP) Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eddy El Tabach Page 53 .

Eddy El Tabach Page 54 .Factors to be considered to select pipe materials Service conditions Pressure (service. surges) Soil loads. Availability Local availability and experienced personnel Sizes and thicknesses Compatibility with available fittings Properties Strength Ductility Corrosion resistance Fluid friction resistance Economics Cost (procurement and installation) Required life Cost of maintenance and repairs. settlement Corrosion potential of soil Corrosive nature of some waters. soil characteristics. Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eng.

16 Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eddy El Tabach Page 55 .Figure 6. Eng.

C. Figure 6. and the outflows at B.Example 6. Conveying and distributing water By Dr. The flows are the initial assumed and final corrected values). Eng. Assume that the Hazen-Williams coefficient C is 100. (The clockwise direction is considered positive. and D in Figure 6.7: Given the inflow at A. Carry out a Hardy Cross analysis using a spreadsheet to find the flows in the individual pipes comprising the network. Eddy El Tabach Page 56 .17: Pipe network analyzed by the Hardy Cross method.17.

6.7 Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eddy El Tabach Page 57 .f L V 2 and using figure 6.85 in the Hazen-Williams equation.6: Spreadsheet solution for example 6. Table 6. Pipes 3 and 4 appear in two loops.9 in order to calculate the friction factor f. Eng. (7) H L 2D g (9) Denominator of: Q H H n Q (Eq. (12) Computes the ΔQ value for each pipe in the loop.53) With n=1.

6 Continued Conveying and distributing water By Dr.Table 6. Eng. Eddy El Tabach Page 58 .

Table 6. Eddy El Tabach Page 59 .6 Continued Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eng.

Eng. Eddy El Tabach Page 60 .Table 6.6 Continued Conveying and distributing water By Dr.

0051/2) = 4.43 m/sec Q = AV = 3x4. 3m Solution 1m Using the given channel geometry. Conveying and distributing water By Dr.5m.2 A trapezoidal channel measures 3m across the top.012)(0.1 (metric units): V= (1/n)(R2/3S1/2) = (1/0.652 From Equation 6.5m B 1m C R = A/P = [(2 x 0.3 cubic meters/sec. Eng. For S=0.Problem 6. the side channel length (AB) is found to be: AB 1 1.5)] / [(2 x 1. 1m across the bottom.005 and n=0.5 1.012.43 = 13. The depth of flow is 1.5) + (1 x 1. Eddy El Tabach Page 61 .5 x 1 x 1.8) + 1] = 0.6522/3)(0.8m 2 2 1m A D 1. determine the velocity and rate of flow.

S=0. what diameter pipe is required to triple the capacity? Solution Want capacity of 45cfs.3 Given an 18-in.1 (see slide page 63) to find a diameter of 30 inches.Problem 6.013.02. use Figure 6. and a discharge capacity of 15cfs. concrete conduit with a roughness coefficient of n=0. Eng. Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eddy El Tabach Page 62 .

1: Nomograph based on Manning’s formula for circular pipes flowing full.Figure 6. Eddy El Tabach Page 63 . Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eng.

Eng.0151/2)]3/2 = 1.0 m Let Y = depth of channel.015 and a mean velocity of 10.13m A = Q/V = 150/10.7/1.2 x 0.2 = 14. X = width of channel Set up two simultaneous equations for wetted perimeter and area 2Y +X = 13 XY = 14.2m/s. Eddy El Tabach Page 64 .7 m R = A/P.13 = 13.7 X = 14. Solution V = (1/n)(R2/3S1/2) → R = (Vn/S1/2)3/2 = [(10. P = A/R = 14.Problem 6.013) to carry a flow of 150m3/s.7/Y Y X Conveying and distributing water By Dr. with a bottom slope of 0.4 Find the dimensions of a rectangular concrete channel (n=0.013)/(0.

04.9 m depth = 1.5) 2 (4 1 7.1 m Conveying and distributing water By Dr.46 m. Eng.1 There are two possible solutions: depth = 5m.9.35 0 Y [(6. 1. width = 10.46 X = 14.5) ((6.7/Y = 2.7 / Y 13 2Y 2 13Y 14. 10.7 0 Y 2 6.35))1 / 2 ] /( 2 1) Y = 5.5Y 7.2Y 14. Eddy El Tabach Page 65 . width = 2.

036 S 0.012 0.Problem 6.023 40 0.1 (rearranged) V = (1/n)(R2/3S1/2) S ( V *n 2 ) .93m Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eddy El Tabach Page 66 .46 4 H L S L 0.46m) with an average velocity of flow of 3m/s and a length of 40m.5 Determine the head loss (HL) in a 46cm concrete pipe (Diameter = 0. 236 0. choose n = 0.023 2 3 . Eng.012 2 3 R 2 2 3 * 0. Solution Using Equation 6.

004. Eng. diameter and a slope of 0.63 * S 0.432 120 12 Q 16.6 Find the discharge from a full-flowing concrete lined galvanized iron pipe with a 24-in.15 in the second form: Q 0.54 From table 6.54 Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Solution Use Equation 6.3 cfs 2.1: Choose C=120 24 Q 0.0040.Problem 6.432 * C * D 2. Eddy El Tabach Page 67 .63 0.

and C have water surface elevations of 150ft. Eddy El Tabach Page 68 . L2=1500ft. and 21 in. Eng. Conveying and distributing water By Dr. 90ft. and L3=5500ft with respective diameters of 8. and 40ft. respectively.Problem 6. Find the discharge in each pipe and the elevation of the hydraulic gradient at P. 12. and are connected by a system of concrete pipes of lengths L1=2400ft.7 Refer to the figure below and assume that reservoirs A. B.

6. g = 32. Q is determined for pipes 1 and 3.5 / 12) 2 ]2 Q3 19.2 cfs (0.Solution Initially assume that the elevation of the hydraulic grade line at P is 90 ft and therefore there is no flow in pipe 2. Then using the Darcy-Weisbach equation (Eq.2ft/s2. D1 = 8in (150 90)(8in / 12)(2 32.2ft/s2.86 cfs (0. Eddy El Tabach Page 69 . D3 = 21in (90 40)(21 / 12)(64.016)(2400) For Pipe 3: L3=5500 ft. the Darcy-Weisbach equation can be restated as HL = fLQ2/D2gA2 . g = 32.016)(5500) Conveying and distributing water By Dr.2)[( )(4 / 12) 2 ]2 Q1 2. Eng.4)[( )(10. Q = (HLD2gA2/fL)1/2 For Pipe 1: L1=2400 ft.17) for head loss. Since V2 = Q2/A2.

Q2 = 0. assume flow is out of reservoir B. In performing a trial and error solution. assume that Q1 + Q2 = Q3 or Q3 – (Q1 + Q2) = 0 The objective of the trial and error solution is to determine P such that Q3 – (Q1 + Q2) = 0. Conveying and distributing water By Dr. For trial 1. Eng. it is helpful to plot trials of elevation at P versus Q3 – (Q1 + Q2). P = 90. Eddy El Tabach Page 70 .Since Q3 > Q1.3 cfs. and Q3 – (Q1 + Q2) = 16. By continuity.

016)(5500) Q3 – (Q1 + Q2) = 8. Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eddy El Tabach Page 71 .3.5 / 12) 2 ]2 Q3 8.016)(2400) (90 50)(12 / 12)(64.016)(1500) (50 40)(21 / 12)(64.4)[( )(10.14) = .14 cfs (0.69cfs (0.4)[( )(6 / 12) 2 ]2 Q2 8.4)[( )(4 / 12) 2 ]2 Q1 3.61cfs (0.61 – (3. This line intersects the P axis at approximately P = 56. (150 50)(8 / 12)(64. Eng. choose P = 50.For trial 2.69 + 8.22 cfs This point is plotted and joined by a straight line with the point from trial 1.

For trial 3.5 cfs (0.57 + 7.17 cfs Conveying and distributing water By Dr.4)[( )(6 / 12) 2 ]2 Q2 7.57 cfs (0. Eddy El Tabach Page 72 .4)[( )(4 / 12) 2 ]2 Q1 3.0.50) = .9 cfs (0. try P = 56 (150 56)(8 / 12)(64. Eng.9 – (3.5 / 12) 2 ]2 Q3 10.4)[( )(10.016)(5500) Q3 – (Q1 + Q2) = 10.016)(2400) (90 56)(12 / 12)(64.016)(1500) (60 40)(21 / 12)(64.

016)(1500) (56. chose P = 56.5 / 12) 2 ]2 Q3 11. and Q3 = 11. Eddy El Tabach Page 73 .4)[( )(10.016)(5500) Q3 – (Q1 + Q2) = 11.57 + 7.06 – (3. Q1 = 3.016)(2400) (90 56. Eng.45 cfs (0.45 cfs.57 cfs.45) = 0.06 cfs.4)[( )(6 / 12) 2 ]2 Q2 7.6 40)(21 / 12)(64. Q2 = 7. Conveying and distributing water By Dr.04 cfs ≈ 0 Therefore P = 56.5)(8 / 12)(64.5 (150 56.57 cfs (0.4)[( )(4 / 12) 2 ]2 Q1 3.For trial 4.5)(12 / 12)(64.06 cfs (0.5 ft.

Eddy El Tabach Page 74 . Eng.Conveying and distributing water By Dr.

0125. with the flow through the system being 1.Problem 6. and L3=750m.5 m3/s. Eng. D2=40cm. Eddy El Tabach Page 75 . L1=400m. D3=54cm. Solution Choose f = 0. Assume the friction factor f =0. Find the total head loss if the pipe diameters and lengths are D1=60cm. Writing the head loss equation in terms of total flow: H L fLQ 2 / D2 gA 2 Since the total head loss of the system is the sum of the head losses for each section. L2=450m.0125.10 Three riveted steel pipes are connected in series. H L H L1 H L 2 H L3 Conveying and distributing water By Dr.

Substitution the head loss equation for each section: fL3Q32 fL1Q12 fL2 Q22 HL 2 2 D1 2 gA1 D2 2 gA21 D3 2 gA32 And since by continuity Q = Q1 = Q2 = Q3.30) ) (0.40)( (0.0125)(1.60)( (0.3m Conveying and distributing water By Dr.27) ) HL = 97.20) ) (0.2) 2 (400) (450) (750) H L 2 2 2 2 2 2 19.54)( (0. the equation for head loss can be rewritten as: fQ 2 L1 L3 L2 HL 2 2 2 2 g D1 A1 D2 A2 D3 A3 (0.6 (0. Eng. Eddy El Tabach Page 76 .

and 45cm and lengths of 30. Page 77 .13 A flow of 1. Assume f=0. Eng. Therefore.3m3/s is divided into three parallel pipes of diameters 30. 20.015 Solution Writing the head loss equation in terms of Q and solving for Q: Q H L D 2 gA 2 fL And since Q Q1 Q2 Q3 2 2 Q H L 3 D3 2 gA3 H L1 D1 2 gA1 H L 2 D2 2 gA2 fL1 fL2 fL3 But H L H L1 H L 2 H L3 Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eddy El Tabach 2 in a parallel pipe system.Problem 6. respectively. Find the head loss and distribution of flow. 40. and 25m.

015) 2 2 2 2 (0.Q H L 2g * f DA 1 2 1 D2 A22 D3 A32 And in terms of HL this becomes: HL Q2 f (2 g ) D1 A12 D2 A22 D3 A32 2 (1.15) 2 ) 2 ( 0 .99m H L1 H L 2 H L3 Conveying and distributing water By Dr.8) 30 40 25 2 H L 0. 225 ) ) (2 * 9.1) 2 (0. 2 )( ( 0 . 1 ) ) ( 0 . Eng. Eddy El Tabach Page 78 . 45 )( ( 0 .3)( (0.

15)(25) 3 Check: Q1 Q2 Q3 1.8)( (0.11m / s Conveying and distributing water By Dr.8)( (1.99)(0.1) 2 ) 2 Q2 0. Eddy El Tabach (0.(0.5) 2 ) 2 Q1 0.08 m3 / s (0.99)(0.3)(2)(9.77 m3 / s (0.3)(2)(9.225) 2 ) 2 Q3 0.99)(0.26 m3 / s (0.15)(40) (0.8)( (0.15)(30) (0. Eng.3)(2)(9.01 m error due to rounding) Page 79 .

8. Assume f=0.024 DA 1 2 1 D2 A22 D3 A32 (18 / 12)( (9 / 12) 2 ) 2 (8 / 12)( (4 / 12) 2 ) 2 (21 / 12)( (10. Eng.Problem 6.4) 0.5 / 12) 2 ) 2 * 50 95 60 Q = 259 cfs Conveying and distributing water By Dr.024 and the total head loss is 45ft. respectively. find the total flow in the system. 95. and 21in and lengths of 50. Eddy El Tabach Page 80 .13: Q H L 2g * f (45)(64.14 If a system of parallel pipes has diameters of 18. Solution Using the formula developed for problem 6. and 60ft.

9 in 24 cm = 9.8. A 600m 10cm B 1200m 5cm C 550m D 6cm Solution In order to use Figure 6.Problem 6.4 in 550 m = 1800 ft Assume flow rate of 0.64 ft HLBC = (300/1000)(3940 ft) = 1182 ft HLCD = (110/1000)(1800 ft) = 198 ft Conveying and distributing water By Dr. determine the length of an equivalent 24-cm pipe.15 From the given layout. Eng.0 in 6 cm = 2. Eddy El Tabach Page 81 . Then QAB QBC QCD from Figure 6. one must convert metric units to FPS units: 600 m = 1970 ft 10 cm = 3.2 cfs.5 in 1200 m = 3940 ft 5 cm = 2.8: HLAB = (12/1000)(1970 ft) = 23.

Eddy El Tabach Page 82 .Figure 6.8: Nomograph for the Hazen-Williams formula with C=100 Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eng.

HL = 0. Eng.Total head loss = 23.00015 = 9.85 x 106 m Page 83 .5 in. Eddy El Tabach or 2.15 per 1000 ft Therefore the equivalent pipe length is: L = 1404 ft / 0.36 x 106 ft Conveying and distributing water By Dr.64 + 1182 + 198 = 1404 ft For 9. (24 cm) pipe.

It is concrete and has an absolute roughness (ε) of 0.003. Conveying and distributing water By Dr. including pipe friction and minor losses. HL = total head lost between A and B. Eddy El Tabach Page 84 .Problem 6. and noting that PA =PB is equal to the atmospheric pressure and that VA =VB = 0 for a large reservoir. one obtains: PA VA2 PB VB2 ZA HP ZB HL W 2g W 2g Letting ZA = 0. The pipeline connecting the reservoirs has a 54-in diameter.19 Water is pumped 9mi from a reservoir (Reservoir A) at elevation 100ft to a second reservoir (Reservoir B) at elevation 210ft. If the flow is 25mgd and pumping station efficiency is 80%. one can reduce the equation to: Hp = ZB + HL Where : HP = head developed by the pump. Eng. what will be the monthly power bill if electricity costs 3cents/kwh? Solution Writing the energy equation between a point on the water surface of Reservoir A and a point on the water surface of Reservoir B.

5 ft HP = (210-100) + 17.0182 x (9 x 5280) x (2.55 = 38. Q = 25 mgd x 1.5 = 127.0182.75 cfs V = Q/π x 4.5 = 307.42)2/ 4. L V2 HL f D 2g HL = 0.5 ft lb/s Conveying and distributing water By Dr.42 fps Use Figure 6. Eng.4 = 17.52 = 2.75 x 62. Eddy El Tabach Page 85 .The following conversion factors are used in the calculations: mgd x 1.5 ft The power requirement may be computed as: P = QγHp = 38.5 x 64.102 ft-lb/sec For 80% efficiency.766x10-7) = kiowatt hours (kwh).55 =cfs.9 to obtain the value of as 0. and ft-lb x (3.4 x127.8 = 383877. the power requirement is: 307.102/0.

254/mo.144 kwh/s x 30 x 86400 = 373248 kwh/mo Power cost: 375. Conveying and distributing water By Dr. Eddy El Tabach Page 86 .144 kwh/s The number of kilowatt-hours per 30 day month is then: 0.766 x 10-7 = 0. Eng.03 = $11.118 x 0.383877.5 ft lb/s x 3.

Eng.16 s1/2 = nV/1. The mean velocity must be greater than 2. Solution A = Q/V = 200/2.5)/(1. Find the channel cross section and the required channel slope.013 x 2.31 ft b = 12. ft.24 = 3.28 A rectangular channel is to carry 200 cfs.5 = 80 sq.62 ft R = A/P = 80/25.001 Conveying and distributing water By Dr.16) = 0.49 x 2.5 fps.Problem 6. d2 = 40.17 R2/3 = 2. The channel bottom width should be about twice the channel depth. d = 6. A = 80 = 2d x d where b = 2d 2d2 = 80.49R2/3 = (0. Eddy El Tabach Page 87 .

Problem 6. Eng. Eddy El Tabach Page 88 .30 Determine an equivalent pipe for the system shown below: Q1 A 5000 ft 12in B 1000 ft 16in 2000 ft 8 in D 3000 ft 10in C Q0 Solution Conveying and distributing water By Dr.

7 *1000 1.3 74. 12 inches.7/7 )*1000 = 5. Eng.1 * 3000 24.230 ft.3/49)*1000 = 1520 feet.7 ft 1000 hL ( A B ) hL ( B C ) 5000 ft 12in B 1000 ft 16in 2000 ft 8 in D hL ( ABC ) 35 1. Eddy El Tabach Page 89 .8 7 * 5000 35 ft 1000 1.Assume Q1-2 = 3 cfs Q1 A From Figure 6.7 ft 3000 ft 10in C Q0 Equivalent pipe = ( 36.3 ft 1000 hLADC 50 24.7 36. Assume Q2 = 2 cfs hLAD 25 * 2000 50 ft 1000 hLDC 8. 7 inches Conveying and distributing water By Dr.3 ft Equivalent pipe = (74.

Eng. 14 inches Conveying and distributing water By Dr.0 cfs Q2 = 2.7 ft/1000 Q1 = 5.4 cfs Total: Q = 7.4 cfs Equivalent pipe = (100/7)*1000 = 5880 feet. Eddy El Tabach Page 90 .Assume head loss across new system = 100 feet S1 = 19.1 ft/1000 S2 = 65.

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