Chord Progressions

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Contents
Articles
List of chord progressions

1

50s progression

4

Andalusian cadence

6

Backdoor progression

11

Bird changes

12

Circle progression

13

Coltrane changes

16

Eight-bar blues

22

Folia

24

Ii-V-I turnaround

27

Irregular resolution

30

Montgomery-Ward bridge

31

Omnibus progression

32

Pachelbel's Canon

33

Passamezzo antico

37

Passamezzo moderno

38

I-V-vi-IV progression

42

Ragtime progression

44

Rhythm changes

47

Romanesca

50

Twelve-bar blues

51

Turnaround (music)

59

V-IV-I turnaround

61

References
Article Sources and Contributors

63

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

65

Article Licenses
License

67

List of chord progressions

1

List of chord progressions
The following is a list of commonly used chord progressions in music.
Code
M

Major.

m

Minor.

A

Atonal.

B

Bitonal.

I

Indeterminate.

P

Phrygian.

List of musical chord progressions
Name

Image

50s progression

Sound

# of
chords

Quality

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:50s progression
in C.mid

4

M

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Simple
Andalusian cadence.mid

4

P

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Backdoor
progression in C.mid

3

M

?

M

A 50s progression in C.
Andalusian cadence

Andalusian cadence.
Backdoor progression

Backdoor progression in C.
Bird changes

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Bird Blues in
Bb.mid

Bird Blues in Bb.

List of chord progressions

2

Circle progression

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Vi-ii-V-I in
C.mid

4

M

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Coltrane
changes.mid

6

M

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Eight bar
blues.mid

3

M

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Later Folia.mid

4

m

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Ii-V-I turnaround
in C.mid

3

M

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Irregular
resolution I.mid

2

M

4

M

?

M

Circle progression [excerpt] in
C.
Coltrane changes

Coltrane changes in C.
Eight-bar blues
Folia

Later Folia.
ii-V-I turnaround

ii-V-I turnaround in C.
Irregular resolution

Irregular resolution Type I: Two
common tones, two note moves
by half step motion.
Montgomery-Ward
bridge

 Play Wikipedia:Media
helpFile:Montgomery-Ward bridge in C.mid

Montgomery-Ward bridge in C.
Omnibus progression

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Omnibus
progression.mid

Omnibus progression.

List of chord progressions

3

Pachelbel's Canon

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Pachelbel Canon
bass line (quarter notes).mid

5

M

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Passamezzo
antico.mid

4

m

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Gregory Walker
progression in C.mid

3

M

4

M

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Ragtime
progression in C.mid

5

M

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Rhythm changes
in C.mid

?

M

3

M

Pachelbel's Canon.
Passamezzo antico

Passamezzo antico.
Passamezzo moderno

Passamezzo moderno in C.
Pop-punk chord
progression

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:I-V-vi-IV chord
progression in C.mid

Pop-punk chord progression in
C.
Ragtime progression

Ragtime progression in C.
Rhythm changes

Rhythm changes in C.
Romanesca

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Romanesca.mid

Romanesca.
Sixteen-bar blues

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Sixteen bar
boogie-woogie blues in C.mid

3

M

Twelve-bar blues

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Twelve bar
boogie-woogie blues in C.mid

3

M

Twelve-bar blues in C.

List of chord progressions

4

Turnaround (music)

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:I-vi-ii-V
turnaround in C.mid

4

M

3

M

I-vi7-ii-V7 turnaround in C.
V-IV-I turnaround

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:V-IV-I
turnaround in C.mid

V-IV-I turnaround in C.

50s progression
The 50s progression is a chord progression
and turnaround used in Western popular
music. As the name implies, it was common
in the 1950s and early '60s and is
particularly associated with doo-wop. It has
also been called the "Stand by Me"
changes, and the doo-wop progression.
The progression, represented in Roman
numeral analysis, is: I-vi-IV-V. For
example, in C major: C Am F G (macro
analysis).

50s progression in C, ending with C (  Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:50s
progression in C.mid)

Theory
In Western classical music during the common practice period, chord progressions are used to structure a musical
composition. The destination of a chord progression is known as a cadence, or two chords that signify the end or
prolongation of a musical phrase. The most conclusive and resolving cadences return to the tonic or I chord;
following the circle of fifths, the most suitable chord to precede the I chord is a V chord. This particular cadence,
V-I, is known as an authentic cadence. However, since a I-V-I progression is repetitive and skips most of the circle
of fifths, it is common practice to precede the dominant chord with a suitable predominant chord, such as a IV chord
or a ii chord (in major), in order to maintain interest. In this case, the 50s progression uses a IV chord, resulting in
the ubiquitous I-IV-V-I progression. The vi chord before the IV chord in this progression (creating I-vi-IV-V-I) is
used as a means to prolong the tonic chord, as the vi or submediant chord is commonly used as a substitute for the
tonic chord, and to ease the voice leading of the bass line: in a I-vi-IV-V-I progression (without any chordal
inversions) the bass voice descends in major or minor thirds from the I chord to the vi chord to the IV chord.

50s progression

5

Variations
As with any other chord progression, there
are many possible variations, for example
turning the dominant or V into a V7, or
repeated I vi progression followed by a
single IV V progression. A very common
variation is having ii substitute for the
subdominant, IV, creating the ii-V-I
turnaround.

50s progression in C variation, ending with C (  Play Wikipedia:Media
helpFile:50s progression in C variation.mid)

Variations include switching the vi and the
IV chord to create I IV vi V, as is used in "More Than a Feeling" by Boston and "She Drives Me Crazy" by Fine
Young Cannibals.[citation needed] This is also similar to the I V vi IV progression.
The harmonic rhythm, or the pace at which the chords occur, may be varied including two beats (half-measure) per
chord (
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:50s progression in C two beat harmonic rhythm.mid), four (
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:50s progression in C four beat harmonic rhythm.mid) (full measure or bar), eight (
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:50s progression in C eight beat harmonic rhythm.mid) (two measures), and eight
beats per chord except for IV and V(7) which get four each (  Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:50s progression in C
variable harmonic rhythm.mid).
"Sleep Walk" by Santo & Johnny uses a similar progression, with the IV replaced by its parallel minor iv for an
overall progression of I-vi-iv-V.[citation needed]

Examples
Well-known examples include the Penguins' "Earth Angel" (1954) and Gene Chandler's "Duke of Earl" (1962).[]
Other examples include Sam Cooke's "Lovable" and other doo-wop material of the era. A modern example can be
found in Green Day's "Jesus of Suburbia". Many more recent examples exist, such as Neutral Milk Hotel's "In the
Aeroplane over the Sea".[citation needed] . The progression is also the basis for the verses of The Bangles' 1989 hit
"Eternal Flame".[1] Madonna's 1986 single "True Blue" is written in the 50s progression.[2] More notable recent
examples are Daughtry's "What About Now", Sean Kingston's "Beautiful Girls", Justin Bieber's "Baby", and
Rebecca Black's "Friday".[3][4][5]
Walter Everett argues that, "despite the unusual surface harmonic progressions," in The Beatles' "Strawberry Fields
Forever" (1967), "the structural basis of the song is I-VI-IV-V-I [sic]." The chorus of The Beatles' "Happiness Is a
Warm Gun" is an example of the fifties progression.
In the musical Grease, the progression is invoked for the purpose of self-parody in the song "Those Magic Changes".
The chorus includes a backup vocal line with lyrics "C-C-C-C-C-C / A-A-A-A-minor / F-F-F-F-F-F /
G-G-G-G-seven" (repeat).
Hank Green of the Vlogbrothers created a song showing the number of songs featuring the progression, including
some of his own. It was featured in one of his videos and was also performed at the Evening of Awesome.[6]

50s progression

6

Sources
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]

" Eternal Flame (http:/ / www. musicnotes. com/ sheetmusic/ mtdFPE. asp?ppn=MN0053691& )", MusicNotes.com
" True Blue (http:/ / www. musicnotes. com/ sheetmusic/ mtd. asp?ppn=MN0060333& )", MusicNotes.com.
" What About Now (http:/ / www. musicnotes. com/ sheetmusic/ mtdFPE. asp?ppn=MN0064708& )", MusicNotes.com.
" Beautiful Girls (http:/ / www. musicnotes. com/ sheetmusic/ mtdVPE. asp?ppn=MN0059262& )", MusicNotes.com.
" Baby (http:/ / www. musicnotes. com/ sheetmusic/ mtdVPE. asp?ppn=MN0082601& )", MusicNotes.com.
" (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=F4ALd-Top2A)"

Andalusian cadence
The Andalusian cadence is a term adopted from
flamenco music for a chord progression
comprising four chords descending stepwise--a
vi-V-IV-III progression.[1] It is otherwise known
as the minor descending tetrachord. Traceable
back to the Renaissance, its effective sonorities
made it one of the most popular progressions in
classical music
 Play Wikipedia:Media
helpFile:Simple Andalusian cadence.mid.
Despite the name it is not a true cadence (i.e.,
occurring only once, when ending a phrase,
section, or piece of music[2]); it is most often used
as an ostinato (repeating over and over again). It
is heard in rock songs such as "Runaway" by Del
Shannon.[3]

Structure
For further
progression

explanation

see

Chord

The Andalusian cadence may be notated vi - V IV - III (if in a major key) or i – ♭VII – ♭VI – V
Andalusian cadences are common in Flamenco music.
in a minor key. This ♭VII note and chord is called
[4]
the subtonic.
In the final chord (III or V,
depending on key signature) the leading note replaces the subtonic in order to lead back into the minor chord that
begins the sequence.

Origins
A popular melodic pattern of Ancient
Greece[5] offers a possible starting
point for the Andalusian cadence.
Called the Dorian tetrachord, the
sequence resembles the bass line of the

A typical Andalusian cadence por arriba (i.e. in A minor). G is the subtonic and G♯ is the
leading tone.  (Listen) Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Figure_andalusian.ogg

Andalusian cadence
chord progression developed centuries later. Some theorists consider that the same structure may have occurred
earlier in Judah.[6] A sequence more or less close to the Greek tetrachord structure might have been known to the
Moors in Southern Spain and spread from there through Western Europe. The French troubadours were influenced
by the Spanish music.
The Andalusian cadence known today, using triad chords, may be no earlier than the Renaissance, though the use of
parallel thirds or sixths occurred from the 13th century.[7] Some sources state that the chord sequence was noted for
the first time by Claudio Monteverdi in a choral work, Lamento della Ninfa, first published in the Eighth Book of
Madrigals (1638) – other works in the same collection are known to have been played as soon as 1607.
The progression resembles the first four measures of the 15th century Passamezzo antico; i – ♭VII – i – V. The use
of the ♭VI chord may suggest a more recent origin than the Passamezzo antico since the cadences i – ♭VII and ♭VII
– i were popular in the late Middle Ages, (see also double tonic) while ♭VII – ♭VI arose as a result of advancement
in music theory.[citation needed] However, the absence of the leading tone from the ♭VII chord suggests that the
progression originated before the tonal system in the modal approach of the time of Palestrina, where the tonic must
be approached from chord V[8] whereas typical Baroque style would have avoided the flat VII and introduced
dominant chords (♮VII or V chords, to form cadences resolving upon a i chord).

Analysis
Regarding the melody
A minor seventh would be added to the dominant "V" chord to increase tension before resolution (V7-i). The roots of
the chords belong to a modern phrygian tetrachord (the equivalent of a Greek Dorian tetrachord,[9] the latter
mentioned above), that is to be found as the upper tetrachord of a natural minor scale (for A minor, they are: A G F
E).
A remarkable fact about tetrachords was noticed since the Ancient times and rediscovered in early Renaissance:
when a tetrachord features a semitone (half-step) between two of its tones, it is the semitone that will determine the
melodic tendency of the given tetrachord or mode (when combining tetrachords).[10] If the semitone falls between
the highest two steps, the melody tends to be ascending (e.g. major scales); a semitone between the lowest tones in
the tetrachord involves a melody "inclined" to descend. This said, the Phrygian tetrachord, borrowed from traditional
music of Eastern Europe and Anatolia, is to be found also in the Andalusian cadence and sets the mentioned
character (the semitone falls between [the roots of] V and ♭VI).

Modal vs. tonal
A rigorous analysis should note that
many chord progressions are likely to
date back from an epoch prior to early
Baroque (usually associated with birth
of tonality). In such cases (also, that of
[11]
Andalusian cadence in E Phrygian
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Simple
the Andalusian cadence), explanations
Andalusian
cadence.mid.
offered by tonality "neglect" the
history and evolution of the chord
progression in question. This is because harmonic analyses in tonal style use only two scales (major and minor)
when explaining origins of chord moves. In exchange, the luxuriant modal system (i.e., the entirety of musical modes
ever created and their specific harmonies – if existing) offers various plausible origins and explanations for every
chord move. However, most classical (Baroque or subsequent) and popular music which makes use of the given
chord progression might treat it itself in a tonal manner.

7

Andalusian cadence
A number of musicians and theorists (including renowned guitarist Manolo Sanlúcar) consider the Andalusian
cadence as a chord progression built upon the Phrygian mode.[12] Since tonality took the first chord in the
progression for a tonic ("i"), the Phrygian notation (modal) of the cadence writes as following: iv – ♭III – ♭II – I (or,
more commonly, but less correctly, iv – III – II – I). Though tonal functions have little in common with the Phrygian
mode, the four chords could be roughly equalized. (The Phrygian mode is like a natural minor with step two
lowered; however, step three switches between major and minor third, an equivalent to the subtonic/leading tone
conflict in the tonal acceptation.) Thus, the "iv" corresponds to a subdominant chord, while "♭III" is the mediant and
"I" is the tonic. The "♭II" chord has a dominant function, and may be thought of as a tritone substitution of "V", i.e.,
the Neapolitan sixth chord. (The only purpose for highlighting these "functions" is to compare between the modal
and tonal views of the cadence. The mode involved in the cadence is not a pure Phrygian, but one whose third step
occurs in both instances, minor and major third. This is unacceptable in tonality; hence, tonal functions cannot be
used. A common mistake occurs when the given mode is thought of as major, given that the tonic chord is major.
However, the Phrygian mode features a minor third and the "I" chord may be taken for a borrowed chord, i.e., a
Picardy third.)
When the VI chord, which may be added between III and ♭II (iv-III-IV-♭II-I) and cadenced upon, is the most
characteristic contrasting tonal area, similar by analogy to the relative major of a minor key.

Harmonic peculiarities
The tonal system sets three main functions for the diatonic tertian chords: tonic (T), dominant (D) and subdominant
(SD). Any sequence through different functions is allowed (e.g. T→D, SD→D), except for D→SD.[13] A tonal
scale's degrees are as following: "I" and "VI" are tonic chords (of which, "I" is stronger; all final cadences end in
"I"), "V" and "VII" are dominants (both feature the leading tone and "V" is more potent), "IV" and "II" are
subdominant chords ("IV" is stronger). ("III" isn't given a precise function, although it may replace a dominant in
some cases.) All sequences between same-function chords, from the weaker member to the stronger (e.g. VII – V),
are forbidden. When using the natural minor, dominant chords exchange their leading tone for a subtonic; as a result,
their dominant quality is strongly undermined.
A tonal insight on the Andalusian cadence leads to considering the "♭VII" a local exception: the subtonic it uses for a
root should be, however, re-replaced by the leading tone before returning to "i". (The leading tone is heard in the "V"
chord, as the chord's major third.) A "♭VII" would leave the dominant category (compare: "♮VII") and start acting to
the contrary. That is, a "♭VII" chord would now prefer moving to a subdominant rather than to a tonic chord. Yet, the
Andalusian cadence brings about a limit condition for tonal harmony, with a ♭VII – ♭VI chord move.
The Andalusian is an authentic cadence, because a dominant chord ("V") comes just before the tonic "i". (Using
modal harmonies, the third, and not the fourth chord – "♭II" – acts as the dominant, substituted to tritone. Even so,
the cadence stays authentic. The fourth chord itself is the tonic, so the cadence need not return to the tonal tonic, i.e.
modal "iv".)

8

Andalusian cadence

9

Denominations in Flamenco music
Basic keys
The standard tuning in guitars determines most Flamenco music to be played only in a few keys. Of those, the most
popular are the A minor and D minor (equivalent to E and A Phrygian, respectively). They are as following:
• por arriba, which corresponds to the A minor, where an Andalusian cadence consists of the following chord
progression: Am – G – F – E
• por medio names the D minor key, in which the Andalusian cadence is built of a Dm – C – B♭ – A progression

Derivative keys
Using a capotasto or scordature, other keys can be obtained, mainly derived from the two basic keys. Flamenco
guitarist Ramon Montoya and singer Antonio Chacón were among the first to use the new keys, and given distinctive
names:
Term used in Flamenco Tonal key Modal (Phrygian) key Chord progression

Construction

por granaína

E minor

B Phrygian

Em – D – C – B

por medio, capo on 2nd fret

por Levante

B minor

F♯ Phrygian

Bm – A – G – F♯

por arriba, capo on 2nd fret

por minera

C♯ minor

G♯ Phrygian

C♯m – B – A – G♯

por arriba, capo on 4th fret

por rondeña

F♯ minor

C♯ Phrygian

F♯m – E – D – C♯

scordature

Music examples featuring Andalusian cadences
Popular music
Songs of the early 1960s, such as the Ventures' 1960 hit "Walk, Don't Run", turned the Andalusian cadence iconic
for surf rock music.

Altered progressions
Reordered or repeated chords
• "California Dreamin'" (1965) by The Mamas & the Papas, where two chords have changed places: i (- i2) – ♭VI –
♭VII – V
. (Note: the "i2" notation represents a tonic chord whose seventh falls in the bass; a "
"
notation suggests a suspended chord resolving to triad)

Foreign chords, bassline unchanged
• Progression by fourths or the addition of VI between III and ♭II: Am-G7-C-F-E or iv-III7-VI-♭II-I.

Dominant chord substituted
• A most unusual way of altering the cadence can be heard in Pink Floyd's "Comfortably Numb" (1979)[citation
needed]
, where the "V" chord is skipped for a "iv". It is as follows: i – ♭VII – ♭VI (- ♭VI2) – iv (and back to "i").
The resulting progression is on the edge between tonal and modal, where the subtonic doesn't change back into a
leading-tone, but the obtained cadence is suitable for tonality (called plagal or backdoor).

Andalusian cadence

References
[1] Mojácar Flamenco (http:/ / www. mojacarflamenco. com/ FB_For_Guitarists. html), a website about basics in Flamenco music
[2] Buciu, Dan (1989). Tonal Harmony, "Ciprian Porumbescu" Conservatory Publishing House, Bucharest
[3] Kelly, Casey and Hodge, David (2011). The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Art of Songwriting, . ISBN 978-1-61564-103-1. "i-VII-VI-V."
[4] Popp, Marius (1998). Applicatory Harmony in Jazz, Pop & Rock Improvisation, Nemira Publishing House, Bucharest. ISBN 973-569-228-7
[5] Dǎnceanu, Liviu (2005). Seasons in Music, vol. 1, Corgal Press, Bacǎu. ISBN 973-7922-37-9
[6] Gruber, R.I. (1960). History of Universal Music, State Musical Publishing House, Moscow
[7] Schulter, Margo (1997). Thirteenth-Century Polyphony, published on the medieval.org (http:/ / www. medieval. org) site
[8] Rotaru, Doina and Comes, Liviu (1987). Vocal and Instrumental Counterpoint Treatise, Musical Publishing School, Bucharest
[9] Oprea, Gheorghe (2002). Musical Folklore in Romania, Musical Publishing House, Bucharest. ISBN 973-42-0304-5
[10] Alexandrescu, Dragoş (1997). Music theory, vol. 2, Kitty Publishing House, Bucharest
[11] Tenzer, Michael (2006). Analytical studies in world music, p.97. ISBN 0-19-517789-4.
[12] Norberto Torres Cortés (2001). El compromiso y la generosidad de Manolo Sanlúcar, published in the El Olivo revue, No 88; also available
here (http:/ / www. tristeyazul. com/ cronicas/ ntc14. htm)
[13] Voda-Nuteanu, Diana (2006, 2007). Harmony, Musical Publishing House, Bucharest. ISBN 973-42-0438-6 (10), ISBN 978-973-42-0438-0
(13).

External links
Free scores
• Ciaconna (http://maitre.physik.uni-kl.de/~monerjan/chaconne.pdf) from Partita in D minor for solo violin by
J.S. Bach
• Chaconne in G minor (http://imslp.org/wiki/Chaconne_for_Violin_and_Piano_(Vitali,_Tomaso_Antonio))
attributed to T.A. Vitali

Analyses and essays
• Bach's Chaconne and the Guitar (http://www.cumpiano.com/Home/Articles/Transcriptions/Segovia/
Segtransc/Chaconne.html), English translation of a 1930 article published by Marc Pincherle, Secretary of the
French Society of Musicology in Paris

10

Backdoor progression

11

Backdoor progression
In jazz and jazz harmony, the chord progression from iv7 to ♭VII7 to I
has been nicknamed the backdoor progression or the backdoor ii-V.
This name derives from an assumption that the normal progression to
the tonic, the ii-V-I turnaround (ii-V7 to I, see also authentic cadence)
is, by inference, the front door. It can be considered a minor plagal
cadence in traditional theory (see minor scale and plagal cadence).
"Backdoor" also refers to the unexpected modulation created through
the substitution of the highly similar Imaj9 for iii7 (in C: CEGBD and
EGBD) at the end of the ii-V turnaround to iii (ii/iii=iv, V/iii=♭VII, iii),
thus arriving at 'home' (the tonic) through unexpected means, the 'back'
instead of the 'front door'(iii7, EGBD, being entirely contained within
Imaj9, CEGBD, and the seventh still resolving downward).[2] If the
ii-V-I turnaround is an applied dominant (V/V-V-I), then the backdoor
progression may be termed an "applied subdominant"
(IV-IV/IV-I).[citation needed]

"'Backdoor' ii-V" in C: ii-♭VII7-I
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Backdoor
progression in C.mid

"'Backdoor' ii-V" in C: IV7-♭VII7-I
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Backdoor
[1]
progression IV in C.mid.

Backdoor progression to iii, with I in place of iii:
♯ivø7-VII7(♭9)-Imaj9  Play Wikipedia:Media
helpFile:Backdoor progression to iii.mid.

Authentic cadence (ii-V-I)
ii-V-I progression with authentic cadence

Problems playing this file? See media help.

The backdoor ii-V is considered a "bluesy" cadence and IV-♭VII-I is used repeatedly as a chord substitution, along
with tritone substitution, in "Lazy Bird," John Coltrane's arrangement of Tadd Dameron's "Lady Bird."[3]
The backdoor progression can be found in popular jazz standards in such places as measures 7 and 8 of the A section
of "Cherokee," measures 9 and 11 of "My Romance" or measures 10 and 28 of "There Will Never Be Another You,"
as well as Beatles songs like "In My Life" and "If I Fell."
The ♭VII7 chord, a pivot chord borrowed from the parallel minor of the current key, is a dominant seventh. Therefore
it can resolve to I; it is commonly preceded by IV going to iv, then ♭VII7, then I. In C major the dominant would be
G7: GBDF, sharing two common tones with B♭7: B♭DFA♭. A♭ and F serve as upper leading-tones back to G and E,
respectively, rather than B♮ and F serving as the lower and upper leading-tones to C and E.

Backdoor progression

12

The use of ♯IIo7 (in C: D♯F♯AC) as a substitute for V7 is similar.

Sources
[1] Coker, Jerry (1997). Elements of the Jazz Language for the Developing Improvisor,
p.82. ISBN 1-57623-875-X. "Back Door Progression As A Substitute For V7[:] The I
chord, in a given progression, is often preceded by IV-7 to VII7, instead of the usual
V7 chord.".

♯IIo7 as dominant substitute
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Sharp IIdim7 as
dominant substitute.mid.

[2] Berg, Shelton (2005). Essentials Of Jazz Theory, p.105. ISBN 0-7390-3089-2.
[3] Lyon, Jason (2007). "Coltrane’s Substitution Tune",
www.opus28.co.uk/jazzarticles.html (http:/ / www. opus28. co. uk/ jazzarticles. html).

Bird changes
The Blues for Alice changes, Bird changes, Bird Blues, or New
York Blues changes, is a chord progression, often named after Charlie
Parker ("Bird"), which is a variation of the twelve-bar blues.
The progression uses a series of sequential II-V or secondary II-V
progressions, and has been used in pieces such as Parker's "Blues for
Alice" and Toots Thielemans's "Bluesette".[1] Also Parker's
"Confirmation".[2]
Bird Blues progression in B♭
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Bird Blues in
Bb.mid.

Structure
The blues progression, in C, is as follows:
| C
| F
| G

| C
| F
| F

| C
| C
| C

| C
| C
| C

| C7
| C7
| C7

| C7
| Em7
| D7

|
|
||

The jazz blues, in C, is as follows:[3]
| C7
| F7
| Dm7

| F7
| F7
| G7

A7

A7
G7

|
|
||

The Bird Blues progression, in C, is as follows:[4]
Popular music symbols
| CMaj7
| F7
| Dmin7

| Bmin7b5 / E7 | Amin7 / D7
| Fmin7
/ Bb7 | Emin7 / A7
| G7
| CMaj7 / A7

| Gmin7 / C7
| Ebmin7 / Ab7
| Dmin7 / G7

|
|
||

Roman numerals
| I
| IV7
| ii

| viiø / III7
| iv / bVII7
| V7

| vi / II7
| iii / VI7
| I
/ VI7

| v
| biii
| ii

/ I7
|
/ bVI7 |
/ V
||

This can be viewed as a cycle of ii-V progressions leading to the IV chord (E♭7 in the key of Bbmajor), and the
tritone substitution of the dominant chords leading by half-step to the V chord (F7 again in Bb).

Bird changes
C:
| I
F:
| I7
C:
| ii

13
Amin:
G(min):
F:
| ii
/ V
| ii
/ V
| ii
/ V
|
Eb:
D:
Db(min):
| subii / subV | subii / subV | subii / subV |
| V7

| I7

/ VI7

| ii

/ V

||

Different notations
Chord

Function Numerical

Roman
numeral

Tonic

T

1

I

Subdominant

S

4

IV

Dominant

D

5

V

Sources
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

Hatfield, Ken (2005). Jazz and the Classical Guitar Theory and Applications, p.182. ISBN 0-7866-7236-6.
Umble, Jay (2011). Mbgu Jazz Curriculum: Payin Your Dues with the Blues, p.62. ISBN 9781610653145.
Jacobs, Sid (2011). The Changes, p.12. ISBN 9781610651684.
Baerman, Noah (1998). Complete Jazz Keyboard Method: Intermediate Jazz Keyboard, p.63. ISBN 0-88284-911-5.

Circle progression
In music, the circle progression is a chord progression named for
the circle of fifths, along which it travels. It is "undoubtedly the
most common and the strongest of all harmonic progressions" and
consists of "adjacent roots in ascending fourth or descending fifth
relationship", with movement by ascending perfect fourth being
equivalent to movement by descending perfect fifth due to
inversion.[3]
The circle progression is commonly a circle through the diatonic
chords, chords of the diatonic scale, by fifths, including one
progression by diminished fifth (in C: between F and B♮) and one
diminished chord (in C: Bo):

[1]
Submediant in chain of fifths
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Submediant in
chain of fifths bass movement.mid.

vi-ii-V-I in C  Play Wikipedia:Media
helpFile:Vi-ii-V-I in C.mid.

Circle progression

14

[2]
vi-ii-V-I in Bach's WTC I, Prelude in F♯ Major.
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Bach - WTC I,
Prelude in F-sharp Major vi-ii-V-I.mid

[4]

Full circle progression in C major

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Progresión quintas.mid.

I-IV-viio-iii-vi-ii-V-I

 Circle progression in major: full Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Progression majeure en cercle.ogg

Shorter common progressions may be derived by selecting certain specific chords from the series completing a circle
from the tonic through all seven diatonic chords, such as the primary triads book-ending the progression:
I-

V-I = I-V-I

 Circle progression excerpt: I-V-I Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Progression en cercle I-V-I.ogg
I-IV-

V-I = I-IV-V-I

 Circle progression excerpt: I-IV-V-I Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Progression en cercle I IV V I.ogg

Circle progression

15

The ii-V-I turnaround lies at the end of the circle progression, as does
the vi-ii-V-I progression of root movement by descending fifths,
which establishes tonality and also strengthens the key through the
contrast of minor and major.
The circle progression may also contain dominant seventh chords.

I−vi−ii−V

vi-ii-V-I in Mozart's Sonata, K. 545
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Mozart - Sonata,
K.545.mid.

I−vi−ii−V is a very common "chord pattern" in jazz and popular styles of music. It is often used as a turnaround,
occurring as the last to two bars of a chorus or section. I−vi−ii−V typically occurs as a two bar pattern in the A
section of the rhythm changes.
In the jazz minor scale the diatonic progression
|: C-Δ7 / A-7♭5 | D-7 / G7♭13 :|
is possible[5] (I-Δ7—vi-7♭5—ii-7—V7♭13).
progression.mid

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Jazz minor scale diatonic chord

See: Tadd Dameron turnaround.

Sources
[1] William G Andrews and Molly Sclater (2000). Materials of Western Music Part 1, p.227. ISBN 1-55122-034-2.
[2] Jonas, Oswald (1982). Introduction to the Theory of Heinrich Schenker, p.26 (1934: Das Wesen des musikalischen Kunstwerks: Eine
Einführung in Die Lehre Heinrich Schenkers). Trans. John Rothgeb. ISBN 0-582-28227-6.
[3] Bruce Benward and Marilyn Nadine Saker, Music In Theory and Practice, seventh edition, 2 vols. + 2 sound discs (Boston: McGraw-Hill,
2003) 1:178. ISBN 978-0-07-294262-0.
[4] Caplin, William E. (2000). Classical Form, p.28. ISBN 0-19-514399-X.
[5] Arnold, Bruce E. (2001). Music Theory Workbook for Guitar: Scale Construction, p.12. ISBN 978-1-890944-53-7.

Coltrane changes

16

Coltrane changes
In jazz harmony, the Coltrane changes (Coltrane Matrix or cycle, also known as chromatic third relations and
multi-tonic changes) are a harmonic progression variation using substitute chords over common jazz chord
progressions. These substitution patterns were first demonstrated by jazz musician John Coltrane on the albums Bags
& Trane (on the track "Three Little Words") and Cannonball Adderley Quintet in Chicago (on "Limehouse Blues").
Coltrane continued his explorations on the 1960 album Giant Steps, and expanded upon the substitution cycle in his
compositions "Giant Steps" and "Countdown", the latter of which is a reharmonized version of Miles Davis's "Tune
Up." The Coltrane changes are a standard advanced harmonic substitution used in jazz improvisation.
The changes serve as a pattern of chord substitutions for the ii-V-I progression (supertonic-dominant-tonic)
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Ii-V-I without subV.ogg and are noted for the tonally unusual root movement down
by major thirds (as opposed to the usual minor or major seconds, see steps and skips, thus the "giant steps"[citation
needed]
), creating an augmented triad.

Influences
David Demsey, saxophonist and Coordinator of Jazz Studies at William Paterson University, cites a number of
influences leading toward's Coltrane's development of these changes. After Coltrane's death it was proposed that his
"preoccupation with... chromatic third-relations" was inspired by religion or spirituality, with three equal key areas
having numerological significance representing a "'magic triangle,'" or, "the trinity, God, or unity."[1] However, as
seen above, Demsey shows that though this meaning was of some importance, third relationships were much more
"earthly," or rather historical, in origin. Mention should be made of his interests in Indian ragas during the early
1960s, the Trimurti of Vishnu, Brahma and Shiva may well have been an inherent reference in his chromatic third
relations, tritone substitutes et al.
Miles Davis, who mentored Coltrane in many ways, was in the late 1950s moving toward the modal style
demonstrated on Kind of Blue[citation needed]. In playing that style, Coltrane found it "easy to apply the harmonic ideas
I had... I started experimenting because I was striving for more individual development."[2] He developed his sheets
of sound style while playing with Davis and with pianist Thelonious Monk during this period.[3]
Coltrane studied harmony at the Granoff School of Music in Philadelphia, exploring contemporary techniques and
theory. He also studied the Thesaurus of Scales and Melodic Patterns by Nicolas Slonimsky (1947), which
additionally served as practice material. The first half of Giant Steps (melody and harmony) is contained in the
Preface of Slonimsky's bookWikipedia:Citing sources.
The bridge of the Rodgers and Hart song and jazz standard "Have You
Met Miss Jones?" (1937) predated Tadd Dameron's "Lady Bird", after
which Coltrane named his "Lazy Bird", by incorporating modulation
by major third(s).[5] (shown by the * below) "Giant Steps" and
"Countdown" may both have taken the inspiration for their augmented
tonal cycles from "Have You Met Miss Jones".[6]
"Have You Met Miss Jones" B section chord progression
(Bridge):

SeeChord

[4]

chart

| *
|
| *
|
| *
|
| *
|
||
| BbM7 | Abm7 Db7 | GbM7 | Em7 A7 | DM7 | Abm7 Db7 | GbM7 | Gm7 C7 ||

Coltrane changes

17
Play the chord progression for the "Have You Met Miss Jones?" bridge section

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Coltrane substitution
The Coltrane substitution, Coltrane changes, or
"'Countdown' formula" is as follows. Given the ii-V-I
turnaround lasting four measures:

ii-V7-I progression in C lasting only two measures
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Ii-V-I turnaround in C.mid.

ii7 | V7 | I | I ||
Dm7 | G7 | C | C ||
with the dominant chord (V7) preceding the tonic (I).
One substitutes two chords for each of the first three:

SeeChord chart of a Coltrane substitution.

ii7
|
|
V7 | I
||
Dm7 Eb7 | Ab B7 | E G7 | C
||
[7]
m2
P4 m3 P4 m3 P4
Notice a dominant seventh chord preceding and thus tonicizing a major chord on C and also E and Ab, both a major
third from C.
(V7 | I)(V7 | I)(V7 | I)
Eb7 | Ab B7 | E G7 | C

Coltrane changes

18

This also may begin on C, as on "Giant
Steps", giving:

Four measure ii-V-I progression in C with Coltrane substitution
helpFile:Coltrane changes.mid.

C

Eb7 | Ab B7 | E G7 | C
P4 m3
P4 m3
P4

 Play Wikipedia:Media

||

m3

The major thirds cycle
The harmonic use of the chromatic third relation originated in the Romantic era and may occur on any structural
level, for example in chord progressions or through key changes.[8] The standard Western chromatic scale has twelve
equidistant semitones.[9] When arranged according to the circle of fifths, it looks like this:

Precisely because of this equidistancy, the roots of these three chords can produce a destabilizing effect; if C,
A-flat, and E appear as the tonic pitches of three key areas on a larger level, the identity of the composition's
tonal center can only be determined by the closure of the composition.
—Demsey (1991)
Looking above at the marked chords from "Have You Met Miss Jones?", B♭-G♭-D are spaced a major third apart. On
the circle of fifths it appears as an equilateral triangle:

By rotating the triangle, all of the thirds cycles can be shown. Note that there are only four unique thirds cycles. This
approach can be generalized; different interval cycles will appear as different polygons on the diagram.

Coltrane changes

19

"Tune Up" and "Countdown"

SeeChord chart of Tune Up.

Play this "Tune Up" excerpt chord progression

Problems playing this file? See media help.

"Tune Up"
These are the first eight bars of the Miles Davis composition "Tune Up." The chord changes are relatively simple, a
straightforward application of the ii-V-I progression, which is extremely common in jazz.
| ii
| Em7

| V
| A7

| I
| DM7

| I
| DM7

| ii
| Dm7

| V
| G7

| I
| CM7

| I
| CM7

||
||[citation

needed]

The chord progression is a standard ii7 V7 I progression in D Major and then in C Major. Assume that the time
signature is 4/4 and that each ii and V chord gets 4 beats and the I chord gets 8 beats.

"Countdown"
The Changes below show Coltrane's substitution of chord changes over "Tune Up". When writing jazz tunes that
substitute chords, it is very common to title the tune with a play on words of the name of the original composition,
hence "Tune Up" became "Countdown"[citation needed]. The ii V I progression from "Tune Up" still appears but is
enhanced with several transition chords that lead to a more complex harmonic progression.
| ii

| *

| *

V

| I*

| Em7 F7 | BbM7 Db7 | GbM7 A7 | DM7

SeeChord chart of "Countdown".

| ii

| *

| *

V

| I*

| Dm7 Eb7 | AbM7 B7 | EM7 G7 | CM7

||
||[citation

needed]

Coltrane changes

20
Play this "Countdown" excerpt chord progression

Problems playing this file? See media help.

In the standard Coltrane change cycle the ii V I is substituted with a progression of chords that cycle back to the V I
at the end. In a 4/4 piece, each chord gets 2 beats per change.
Coltrane developed this modified chord progression for "Countdown", which is much more complex. At its core,
"Countdown" is a variation of "Tune Up"[citation needed], but the harmonic substitutions occur rapidly and trick the
listener into thinking that they are listening to a completely unrelated tune. The ii, V and I remain, but in between are
other chords(*) from the major thirds cycle centered around each I . Preceding the first chord of each major thirds
cycle is its V chord.
An earlier Coltrane piece, "Lazy Bird", also features two tonal centers a major third apart in its A section.

"Giant Steps"
The Giant Steps cycle is the culmination of Coltrane's theories applied to a completely new chord progression:
Coltrane uses the Coltrane cycle in descending Major 3rd tonal transpositions in the opening bars and then ascending
ii V I progressions separated by a major 3rd in the second section of Giant Steps. The second section is basically the
inverse of the bridge section described in "Have You Met Miss Jones" above.
| I Coltrane Substitution Cycle| ii

V

| BM7* D7 | GM7* Bb7 | EbM7*

D7 | GM7* Bb7 | EbM7* F#7 | BM7*

| Am7

| I

Coltrane Substitution Cycle|
|[citation

needed]

Ascending/Descending ii V I progression separated by a Major 3rd (Tonal centers E♭ - G - B - E♭ - B)
| ii

V

| I

| ii

V

| I

| ii

V

| I

| ii

V

| I

| ii

V

:||[citation

| Fm7 Bb7 | EbM7* | Am7 D7 | GM7* | C#m7 F#7 | BM7* | Fm7 Bb7 | EbM7* | C#m7 F#7 :||

This diagram shows what scales are used for the different chords:
BMaj7
B Maj scale
D7 to GMaj7
G Maj scale

B♭7 to E♭Maj7
Eb Maj scale
Am7 to D7 to Gmaj7
G Maj scale
B♭7 to E♭Maj7
Eb Maj scale
F♯7 to BMaj7
B Maj scale
Fm7 to B♭7 to E♭Maj7

SeeChord chart of "Giant Steps".

needed]

Coltrane changes

21
Eb Maj scale

Am7 to D7 to GMaj7
G Maj scale
C♯m7 to F♯7 to BMaj7
B Maj scale
Fm7 to Bb7 to E♭Maj7
Eb Maj scale
C♯m7 to F♯7
B Maj scale

Sample
These variations were used to compose other Coltrane tunes based on other jazz standards:

The standard substitution
Although "Giant Steps" and "Countdown" are perhaps the most famous examples, both of these compositions use
slight variants of the standard Coltrane changes (The first eight bars of "Giant Steps" uses a shortened version that
doesn't return to the "I" chord, and in "Countdown" the progression begins on the IIm7 each time.). The standard
substitution can be found in several Coltrane compositions and arrangements all recorded around this time. These
include: "26-2" (a re-harmonization of Charlie Parker's "Confirmation"), "Satellite" (based on the standard "How
High the Moon"), the tune "Exotica" (loosely based on the harmonic form of "I Can't Get Started"), Coltrane's
arrangement of the standard "But Not for Me," and on the bridge of his arrangement of the famous ballad "Body and
Soul."[citation needed]
In addition, Coltrane's tune "Fifth House" (based on "What is This Thing Called Love") is particularly notable[citation
needed]
because the standard substitution is implied over an ostinato bass pattern, with nobody actually playing the
chord changes. When Coltrane's improvisation superimposes this progression over the ostinato bass, it is easy to hear
how he used this concept for his more free playing in later years.

Further reading
• Baker, David N. (1990). The Jazz Style of John Coltrane. Alfred Publishing. ISBN 0-7692-3326-0.
• Weiskopf, Walt; Ramon Ricker (1991). Coltrane - A Player's Guide to His Harmony. New Albany, Indiana:
Jamey Aebersold.
• Yamaguchi, Masaya (2002). "A Creative Approach to Multi-Tonic Changes: Beyond Coltrane's Harmonic
Formula", Annual Review of Jazz Studies 12. ISBN 0-8108-5005-2.
• Yamaguchi, Masaya (2003). John Coltrane Plays Coltrane Changes. Milwaukee: Hal Leonard Corp.
ISBN 0-634-03864-8.

Coltrane changes

22

References
[1] Demsey (1991), p.145.
[2] Demsey, David (1991). “Chromatic Third Relations in the Music of John Coltrane,”, p.158, Annual Review of Jazz Studies 5: 145-80. ISBN
0-8108-2478-7.
[3] Ruhlmann, William. [ "John Coltrane Biography", allmusic.com].
[4] http:/ / www. seechord. co. uk/
[5] Lyon, Jason (2007). "Coltrane's Substitution Tunes" (http:/ / www. opus28. co. uk/ tranesubtunes. pdf), in
www.opus28.co.uk/jazzarticles.html (http:/ / www. opus28. co. uk/ jazzarticles. html).
[6] Christiansen, Corey (2007). "Coltrane-Style II-V-Is", Guitar Player Jun; 41, 6.
[7] Baker, David (1990). Modern Concepts in Jazz Improvisation, p.92-93. ISBN 0-7390-2907-X.
[8] Demsey (1991), p.146-147.
[9] Proctor, Gregory (1978). Nineteenth-Century Chromatic Tonality: A Study in Chromaticism, p.150. Ph.D., Diss., Princeton. Cited in Demsey
(1991), p.148.

External links
• "The Giant Steps Progression and Cycle Diagrams" (http://danadler.com/misc/Cycles.pdf), DanAdler.com
(155 KB PDF) - Dan Adler
• "John Coltrane - Harmonic Substitutions" (http://www.lucaspickford.com/transsubs.htm), LucasPickford.com:
"Extending the Coltrane Changes" by David Baker
• "Giant Steps (in minute detail)" (http://www.songtrellis.com/GiantStepsInDetail), SongTrellis.
• Javier Arau. "Augmented Scale Theory" (http://www.javierarau.com/books-augmented.php), Javier Arau.
• Michael Leibson. "Giant Steps, Central Park West and Modulatory Cycles" (http://www.thinkingmusic.ca/
analyses/coltrane/), ThinkingMusic.ca.

Eight-bar blues
In music, an eight-bar blues is a
typical blues chord progression, "the
second most common blues form,"[1]
"common to folk, rock, and jazz forms
of the blues,"[2] taking eight 4/4 or
12/8 bars to the verse.

Typical boogie woogie bassline on 8 bar blues progression in C, chord roots in red.

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Eight bar boogie-woogie blues in C.mid
Examples include "Sitting on Top of
the World" and "Key to the
Highway",[3] "Trouble in Mind" and "Stagolee".[4] "Heartbreak Hotel", "How Long Blues", "Ain't Nobody's
Business", "Cherry Red", and "Get a Haircut" are all eight-bar blues standards.[citation needed]

One variant using this progression is to couple one eight-bar blues melody with a different eight-bar blues bridge to
create a blues variant of the standard 32-bar song. "Walking By Myself", "I Want a Little Girl" and "(Romancing) In
The Dark" are examples of this form.[citation needed] See also blues ballad.
Eight bar blues progressions have more variations than the more rigidly defined twelve bar format. The move to the
IV chord usually happens at bar 3 (as opposed to 5 in twelve bar). However, "the I chord moving to the V chord right
away, in the second measure, is a characteristic of the eight-bar blues."
In the following examples each box represents a 'bar' of music (the specific time signature is not relevant). The chord
in the box is played for the full bar. If two chords are in the box they are each played for half a bar, etc. The chords
are represented as scale degrees in Roman numeral analysis. Roman numerals are used so the musician may
understand the progression of the chords regardless of the key it is played in.

Eight-bar blues

23

Eight-bar blues[5]
I V7

IV7 IV7

I V7 IV7 I

V7

 Play eight bar blues in C Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Eight bar blues.mid
"Worried Life Blues" (probably the most common eight bar blues progression):
I I

IV

IV

I V I IV I V

 Play eight bar blues progression in C Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Eight bar blues progression in C.mid
"Heartbreak Hotel" (variation with the I on the first half):
I

I

I

I

IV IV V I

J. B. Lenoir's "Slow Down"[6] and "Key to the Highway" (variation with the V at bar 2):
I7 V7 IV7 IV7
I7 V7 I7

V7

[7]

"Get a Haircut" by George Thorogood (simple progression):
I

I

I

I

IV IV V V

Jimmy Rogers' "Walkin' By Myself" (somewhat unorthodox example of the form):
I7

I7

I7 I7

IV7 V7 I7 V7

Howlin Wolf's version of "Sitting on Top of the World" uses movement between major and dominant 7th and major
and minor fourth:
I

I7 IV

iv

I7 V I7 IV I7  V

The first four bar progression used by Wolf is also used in Nina Simone's 1965 version of Trouble in Mind, but with
a more uptempo beat than Sitting on Top of the World:
I

I7

IV

iv

I VI7 ii V I IV I V

The progression may be created by dropping the first four bars from the twelve-bar blues, as in the solo section of
Bonnie Raitt's "Love Me Like a Man" and Buddy Guy's "Mary Had a Little Lamb":[8]
IV7 IV7 I7 I7
V7

IV7 I7 V7

Eight-bar blues

24

(The same chord progression can also be called a sixteen-bar blues, if each symbol above is taken to be a half note in
2/2 or 4/4 time—blues has not traditionally been associated with notation, so its form becomes a bit slippery when
written down.) For example "Nine Pound Hammer". Ray Charles's original instrumental "Sweet Sixteen Bars" is
another example.

Sources
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]

Riker, Wayne (1994). Complete Blues Guitar Method: Mastering Blues Guitar, p.91. ISBN 978-0-7390-0408-1.
Barrett, David (2000). Blues Harmonica Jam Tracks & Soloing Concepts #1, p.8. ISBN 978-0-7866-5653-0.
James, Steve (2001). Inside Blues Guitar, p.18. ISBN 978-1-890490-36-2.
George Heaps-Nelson, Barbara Koehler (1989). You Can Teach Yourself Harmonica, p.87. ISBN 978-0-87166-264-4.
Alfred Publishing (2002). Beginning Delta Blues Guitar, p.41. ISBN 978-0-7390-3006-6.
David Barrett, John Garcia (2008). Improvising Blues Harmonica, p.50. ISBN 978-0-7866-7321-6.
Barrett, David (2006). Blues Harmonica Play-along Trax, p.16. ISBN 978-0-7866-7393-3.
Riker (1994), p.92.

Folia
La Folía (Spanish), also folies
d'Espagne (French), Follies of Spain
(English) or Follia (Italian), is one of
the oldest remembered[citation needed]
European musical themes, or primary
material, generally melodic, of a
composition, on record. The theme
exists in two versions, referred to as
early and late folias, the earlier being
faster.

"The 'later' folia", a harmonic-metric scheme consisting of two eight-bar phrases, was first
[1]
used in approximately 1670
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Later Folia 2.mid.

History
The epithet 'Folia'
meanings in music.

has

several

• Western classical music features
both an "early Folia," which can
take different shapes, and the
better-known "later Folia" (also
known as "Follia" with double l in
Italy, "Folies d'Espagne" in France,
and "Faronel's Ground" in
England).

[2]

Early folia

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Early Folia.mid.

• "Early Folia": Recent research
suggests that the origin of the
Early folia variant  Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Early Folia b.mid.
folia framework lies in the
application of a specific compositional and improvisational method to simple melodies in minor mode. Thus,
the essence of the "early Folia" was not a specific theme or a fixed sequence of chords but rather a
compositional-improvisational process which could generate these sequences of chords.[3]

Folia

25
• The "later Folia" is a standard chord progression (i-V-i-VII / III-VII-[i or VI]-V / i-V-i-VII / III-VII-[i or
VI7]-V[4-3sus]-i) and usually features a standard or "stock" melody line, a slow sarabande in triple meter, as
its initial theme. This theme generally appears at the start and end of a given "Folia" composition, serving as
"bookends" for a set of variations within which both the melodic line and even the meter may vary. In turn,
written variations on the "later Folia" may give way to sections consisting of partial or pure improvisation
similar to those frequently encountered in the twelve-bar blues that rose to prominence in the twentieth
century.
• Several sources report that Jean-Baptiste Lully was the first composer to formalize the standard chord
progression and melodic line.[4][5]
• Other sources note that the chord progression eventually associated with the "later Folia" appeared in
musical sources almost a century before the first documented use of the "Folia" name. The progression
emerged between the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th century in vocal repertory found
in both Italian (“Canzoniere di Montecassino”, “Canzoniere di Perugia” and in the frottola repertoire) and
Spanish sources (mainly in the “Cancionero Musical de Palacio” and, some years later, in the ensaladas
repertoire). Even though the folía framework appeared almost at the same time in different countries with
numerous variants that share similar structural features, it is not possible to establish in which country the
framework originated.

• There exists a folk tune with the name "Folía" in the Canary Islands.[citation needed]Wikipedia:Please clarify

Structure
The framework of the 'Later Folia', in
the key of D minor, the key that is
most often used for the 'later Folia';
one chord per bar except for bar 15.
The basic 16-bar chord progression:

[6][7]

Later folia variant.

Dm A7 Dm C F C Dm

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Later Folia b.mid

A7

Dm A7 Dm C F C Dm A7 Dm

Historical significance
Over the course of three centuries, more than 150 composers have used it in their works. The first publications of
this theme date from the middle of the 17th century, but it is probably much older. Plays of the renaissance theatre in
Portugal, including works by Gil Vicente, mention the folia as a dance performed by shepherds or peasants. The
Portuguese origin is recorded in the 1577 treatise De musica libri septem by Francisco de Salinas.
Jean-Baptiste Lully, along with Philidor l'aîné in 1672, Arcangelo Corelli in 1700, Marin Marais in 1701,
Alessandro Scarlatti in 1710, Antonio Vivaldi in his Opus 1 No. 12 of 1705, Francesco Geminiani in his Concerto
Grosso No. 12 (which was, in fact, part of a collection of direct transcriptions of Corelli's violin sonatas), George
Frederick Handel in the Sarabande of his Keyboard Suite in D minor HWV 437 of 1727, and Johann Sebastian Bach
in his Peasants' Cantata of 1742 are considered to highlight this 'later' folia repeating theme in a brilliant way.
Antonio Salieri's 26 variations, produced late in his career, are among his finest works.
In the 19th century, Franz Liszt included a version of the Folia in his Rhapsodie Espagnole, and Ludwig van
Beethoven quoted it briefly in the second movement of his Fifth Symphony.

Folia

26

La Folia once again regained composers' interest during the 1930s with Sergei Rachmaninov in his Variations on a
theme by Corelli in 1931 and Manuel María Ponce and his Variations on "Spanish Folia" and Fugue for guitar.
La Folia
Without variations (290KB)

Problems playing this file? See media help.

The folia melody has also influenced Scandinavian folk music. It is saidWikipedia:Avoid weasel words that around
half of the old Swedish tunes are based on la folia. It is possible to recognize a common structure in many Swedish
folk tunes, and it is similar to the folia structure. Old folk tunes (19th century or older) which do not have this
structure often come from parts of Sweden with little influences from upper classes or other countries.

References
[1] Hudson (1973). cited in Esses, Maurice (1993). History and Background, Music and Dance, p.572-73. ISBN 0-945193-08-4.
[2] Simpson, Christopher (1665) cited in Esses (1993), p.572.
[3] Giuseppe Fiorentino."Folía". El origen de los esquemas armónicos entre tradición oral y transmisión escrita. Kassel: Reichenberger. ISBN
978-3-937734-99-6.
[4] Paull, Jennifer (2007). Cathy Berberian and Music's Muses, p.263. ISBN 978-1-84753-889-5. "One of the earliest known instrumental
settings was Lully's ‘Air des Hautbois’, written in 1672 for the ‘Bande des Hautbois’."
[5] Betty Bang Mather, Dean M. Karns (1987). Dance rhythms of the French Baroque: a handbook for performance, p.239. ISBN
978-0-253-31606-6. "The earliest instrumental couplet with the standard form is the one that starts Lully's arrangement of 1670 for Louis
XIV's ..."
[6] Apel, Willi (1969). Harvard Dictionary of Music, p.323. ISBN 978-0-674-37501-7.
[7] Randel, Don Michael (1999). The Harvard concise dictionary of music and musicians, p.236. ISBN 978-0-674-00084-1.

External links
• La Folia - A Musical Cathedral (http://www.folias.nl/)
• La Folia (1490–1701) - Jordi Savall et al. - Alia Vox 9805 (http://www.classicalacarte.net/Fiches/9805.htm)
• Altre Follie (1500–1750), Hespèrion XXI, Jordi Savall - Alia Vox 9844 (http://www.classicalacarte.net/
Fiches/9844.htm)
• El Nuevo Mundo - Folias Criollas, Tembembe Ensamble Continuo, La Capella Reial de Catalunya, Hespèrion
XXI, dir. Jordi Savall - Alia Vox AVSA9876 (http://www.classicalacarte.net/Fiches/9876.htm)
• Possible origins of the Folía of the Canary Islands (in Spanish) (http://www.bienmesabe.org/noticia/2007/
Diciembre/la-folia-canaria-posibles-origenes-peculiaridades-en-su-forma-en-canarias-y-analisis-de-sus-caracter)
• A list of musical scores based on the Folia from the Petrucci Music Library (http://imslp.org/wiki/
List_of_compositions_with_the_theme_"La_Follia")

Ii-V-I turnaround

27

Ii-V-I turnaround
The ii-V-I turnaround, ii-V-I progression,
or ii V I, also known as the dominant
cadence, is a common cadential chord
progression used in a wide variety of music
genres, especially jazz harmony. It is a
succession of chords whose roots descend in
fifths from the second degree, or supertonic,
to the fifth degree, or dominant, and finally
to the tonic. In a major key, the supertonic
(ii) triad is minor, while in a minor key, this
triad is diminished. The dominant chord is,
in its most basic form, a major triad and,
commonly, a dominant seventh chord. With
the addition of chord alterations,
substitutions, and extensions (most often
sevenths), limitless variations exist on this
simple formula.
ii-V-I has been used for a hundred years and
is currently "a staple of virtually every type
of popular music," including jazz, R&B,
pop, rock, and country.[3] Examples include
"Honeysuckle Rose" (1928), which,
"features several bars in which the harmony
goes back and forth between the II and V
chords before finally resolving on the I
chord," and "Satin Doll" (1953),[4] and "If I
Fell".[5]

ii-V7-I progression in C

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Ii-V-I turnaround in
C.mid

Bach - Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I, Prelude I, opening: I-ii

-V

[1]

-I.

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Bach - Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I, Prelude I,
opening.mid

Jazz
ii-V-I progressions are extremely common
in jazz. They serve two primary functions,
[2]
ii-V-I in Bach's WTC I, Prelude in D Major.
 Play Wikipedia:Media
which are often intertwined: to temporarily
helpFile:Bach - WTC I, Prelude in D Major ii-V-I.mid
imply passing tonalities, and to lead strongly
toward a goal (the "I" chord). One potential
situation where ii-V-I progressions can be put to use is in a blues, whose generic form has no such progressions. In
this example, a simple 12-bar F blues is shown followed by a similar one with some basic ii-V-I substitutions:
| F7 | Bb7 | F7 | F7
| Bb7 | Bb7 | F7 | F7
| C7 | Bb7 | F7 | C7
||
| F7 | Bb7 | F7 | Cm F7 | Bb7 | Bb7 | F7 | Am D7 | Gm | C7 | F7 | Gm C7 ||
In bar 4, instead of the simple V I root motion in the original blues, the ii chord of the B♭7 (Cm) is included so that
the measure is even more directed toward the following downbeat with the B♭7. In bars 8-10, instead of leading back
to the tonic with the standard V-IV-I (blues cadence), a series of applied ii-V-I progressions is used to first lead to
Gm, which then itself is reinterpreted as a ii and used to lead back to F7 through its own V, which is C7. In the last

Ii-V-I turnaround

28

bar (the "turnaround"), the same type of substitution is used as that in bar 4. In practice, musicians will often add
extensions to the basic chords shown here, especially 7ths, 9ths, and 13ths, as seen in this example:
iim9 V♯9♭13 Imaj9
In jazz, the ii is typically played as a minor 7th chord, and the I is typically played as a major 7th chord (though it
can also be played as a major 6th chord). The iim7-V7-Imaj7 progression provides smooth voice leading between the
thirds and sevenths of these chords; the third of one chord becomes the seventh of the next chord, and the seventh of
one chord moves down a half-step to become the third of the next chord. For example, in the key of C, the standard
jazz ii-V-I progression is Dm7-G7-Cmaj7, and the thirds and sevenths of these chords are F-C, B-F, E-B; inverted
for smoother voice leading, these become F-C, F-B, E-B.
The ii is sometimes replaced by the II7, giving it a more dissonant, bluesy feel; this is especially common in
turnarounds. Additionally, the ii can be treated like a temporary minor tonic, and preceded by its own "ii-V",
extending the basic progression to a iii-VI-ii-V-I; again, this is quite common in turnarounds (with the iii-VI
replacing the I in the second-to-last bar; in the example above, the last two bars would change from F7 | Gm-C7 to
Am-D7 | Gm-C7).
The ii-V7-I can be further modified by applying a tritone substitution to the V7 chord, replacing it with the ♭II7
chord. This is possible because the ♭II7 has the same third and seventh as the V7, but inverted; for example, the third
and seventh of G7 are B and F, while the third and seventh of D♭7 are F and C♭, which is enharmonic to B.
Performing this substitution (in this case, changing Dm7-G7-Cmaj7 to Dm7-D♭7-Cmaj7) creates smooth chromatic
movement in the chord roots—the root of the ii (D) moves down a half-step to become the root of the ♭II7 (D♭),
which moves down another half-step to become the root of the I (C).
The tritone substitution, the substitution of ♭II7 for V7, and the III-VI-II-V extension can be combined in different
permutations to produce many different variations on the same basic progression—e.g.
iii7-♭III7-iim7-♭II7-Imaj7-III7-♭III7-II7-♭II7-I7, etc.

Four-voice classical, three-voice and four-voice jazz "versions" [voicings] of the ii-V7-I progression. The
classical example features inversions to emphasize the bass line's independence while the jazz examples
feature root progression by fifths and "perfectly smooth voice leading" produced by the 7th of each chord
[6]
falling a semitone to become the 3rd while the 3rd becomes the 7th of that chord.
 Play Wikipedia:Media
helpFile:Ii-V-I classical and jazz.mid

The backdoor progression can be a substitution for ii-V-I using iv-♭VII-I.[citation needed]
The ii-V pair is also sometimes used without function (actually i-IV) in place of a minor tonic, to accommodate
be-bop improvisations.

Ii-V-I turnaround

29

Classical
ii-V-I is part of the vi-ii-V-I progression of root movement by
descending fifths, which establishes tonality and also strengthens the
key through the contrast of minor and major.[1]
In the tonal tradition, the ii-V-I progression is most often reserved for
cadences, and is one of many often used cadential progressions. The ii,
V, and I can all appear in inversion, although usually without
significant alteration beyond the addition of sevenths. One very
common implementation of ii-V-I in a classical piece would be this
progression, where the ii chord appears in first inversion:
ii6-V7-I.[citation

vi-ii-V-I in C  Play Wikipedia:Media
helpFile:Vi-ii-V-I in C.mid.

needed]

Minor key
In minor, a seventh chord built on the
supertonic yields a half-diminished seventh
chord, which is a very strong predominant
chord. Due to what is considered the harsh
nature of root position diminished chords,
the iiø chord most often appears in first
inversion.
The iiø chord appears in the natural minor
scale and may be considered a minor
seventh chord with a flatted fifth and is used
in the ii-V-I in minor[4]

[7]
ii-V7-I progression in C minor: Dm7♭5-G7-Cm
 Play Wikipedia:Media
helpFile:Ii-V-I turnaround in C minor.mid.

Sources
[1] Kostka, Stefan, and Dorothy Payne (1995). Tonal
Harmony, with an Introduction to
Twentieth-Century Music, p.227, third edition. New
York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-035874-5.
[2] Jonas, Oswald (1982). Introduction to the Theory
of Heinrich Schenker, p.26 (1934: Das Wesen des
musikalischen Kunstwerks: Eine Einführung in Die
Lehre Heinrich Schenkers). Trans. John Rothgeb.
ISBN 0-582-28227-6.

Four-voice ii-V-I turnaround in C minor: Dm7♭5-G♭9-CmM7
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Ii-V-I turnaround four-voice in C minor.mid.

[3] Workman, Josh. "Chops: II-V-I Survival Tips", Guitar Player 37:4 (April 2003), p. 90.
[4] Jazz Standards Songs and Instrumentals (Satin Doll) (http:/ / www. jazzstandards. com/ compositions-0/ satindoll. htm)
[5] Walter; The Beatles As Musicians: The Quarry Men Through Rubber Soul, p. 231. (http:/ / books. google. com/
books?id=dDEMiCQWPb8C& lpg=PA231& dq=beatles "ii V i"& pg=PA231#v=onepage& q& f=false|Everett,)
[6] Humphries, Carl (2002). The Piano Handbook, p.128. ISBN 0-87930-727-7.
[7] Boyd, Bill (1997). Jazz Chord Progressions, p.6. ISBN 0-7935-7038-7.

Irregular resolution

30

Irregular resolution
In music, an irregular resolution is resolution by a dominant seventh
chord or diminished seventh chord to a chord other than the tonic.
Regarding the dominant seventh, there are many irregular resolutions
including to a chord with which it has tones in common or if the parts
move only a whole or half step.[1] Consecutive fifths and octaves,
augmented intervals, and false relations should still be avoided. Voice
leading may cause the seventh to ascend, to be prolonged into the next
chord, or to be unresolved.[2]

Irregular resolution Type I
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Irregular
resolution I.mid. Two common tones, two note
moves by half step motion.

The following resolutions to a chord with tones in common have been
identified:
• Type I, in which the root motion descends by minor third. C, E, G,
B♭ would resolve to C♯, E, G, A; two tones are common, two voices
move by half-step in contrary motion.
• Type II, in which the root motion rises by minor third. C, E, G, B♭
would resolve to D♭, E♭, G, B♭; again, two tones are common, two
voices move by half-step in contrary motion.
• Type III, in which the root moves a tritone (two minor thirds) away.
C, E, G, B♭ would resolve to C♯, E, F♯, B♭ = A♯; again, two tones
are common (with enharmonic change), two voices move by
half-step in contrary motion.

Irregular resolution through augmented sixth
equivalence  Play Wikipedia:Media
helpFile:Irregular resolution through augmented
sixth equivalence.mid. One common tone, three
notes move by half step motion.

Type I is common from the 18th century; Type II may be found from
the second quarter of the 19th century; Type III may be found from the
mid-19th century. The composer Richard Edward Wilson is
responsible for the categorization.
The most important irregular resolution is the deceptive cadence, most
commonly V7-vi in major or V7-VI in minor.[] Irregular resolutions
also include V7 becoming A6 [specifically a German sixth] through
enharmonic equivalence or in other words (and the image to the right)
resolving to the I chord in the key the augmented sixth chord (FACD♯)
would be in (A) rather than the key the dominant seventh (FACE♭)
would be in (B♭).

Regular resolution  Play Wikipedia:Media
helpFile:Regular resolution.mid. One common
tone, two notes moves by half step motion, and
one note moves by whole step motion.

Sources
[1] Chadwick, George Whitefield (2008). Harmony, a Course of Study, p.160. ISBN 0-559-22020-0.
[2] Foote, Arthur (2007). Modern Harmony in its Theory and Practice, p.93ff. ISBN 1-4067-3814-X.

Montgomery-Ward bridge

31

Montgomery-Ward bridge
In jazz music, the Montgomery-Ward bridge is a standard chord
progression often used as the bridge, or 'B section,' of a jazz standard.
The progression consists, in its most basic form, of the chords I7 - IV7
- ii7 - V7. Oftentimes, some or all of the dominants are substituted with
ii-V progressions or otherwise altered. This is used in such standards as
"The Sunny Side of the Street", "When You're Smiling", "Satin Doll",
and "Honeysuckle Rose".

Montgomery-Ward bridge in C
 Play Wikipedia:Media
helpFile:Montgomery-Ward bridge in C.mid.

Eight bars:

Montgomery-Ward bridge with ii-V's in C
 Play Wikipedia:Media
helpFile:Montgomery-Ward bridge with ii-V's in
C.mid.

Vm7

| I7

| IV

| IV

| VIm7 | II7

| IIm7 | V7

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Montgomery-Ward bridge eight bar in C.mid

References

Omnibus progression

Omnibus progression
The omnibus progression in music is
a chord progression characterized by
chromatic lines moving in opposite
directions.[1] The progression has its
origins in the various Baroque
Four-part omnibus progression in G.  Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Omnibus
harmonizations of the descending
progression.mid Major chords are indicated by CAPITAL and minor chords by lower
chromatic fourth in the bass ostinato
case letters. The bass line descends chromatically for an octave, whereas the upper voices
pattern of passacaglia, known as the
are alternately oblique (maintaining a note) or move in ascending chromatic steps.
"lament bass".[2] However, in its fullest
form the omnibus progression involves a descent in the bass which traverses a whole octave and includes every note
of the chromatic scale. It may also include one or more chromatic ascending tetrachords in the soprano, tenor and
alto. They are also known as "chromatic wedge progressions", in reference to their wedge-like appearance in
score.[3] The origin of the term "omnibus" (Latin: "for all") to describe such a sequence is unclear, but it is of note
that the chord progression encompasses all of the notes in the chromatic scale.

A simple example
The following example is in C major. The lowest part is a "lament bass" that descends from the tonic to the dominant
using chromatic passing tones before returning at the end up to the tonic in a perfect cadence. The upper voice moves
in the opposite direction from the dominant note up to the tonic. The chord names are given, followed where
necessary by the inversion in figured bass. For example, 'Cm(6/4)' refers to a C minor triad in second inversion.

| C | G7(6/5) | Bb7 | Dm(6/4) | Bb7(4/2) | G7 | C |
A more extended treatment of this version of the omnibus could be:
| C | G7(6/5) | Bb7 | Dm(6/4)| Bb7(4/2)| G7 | Bm(6/4)| G7(4/2)| | E7 | G#m(6/4)| E7(4/2)| C#7 | Fm(6/4) | C#7(4/2)|
Bb7 | Dm(6/4)| Bb7(4/2) | G7 | C |
For the purposes of composition, the pattern may be halted at any point, and in so doing may facilitate modulation to
any desired key.

Dominant prolongation
Modern theorists such as Telesco explain how small sections of omnibus progression (signified in example 1 by
brackets around groups of chords) can be viewed as an instance of dominant prolongation achieved through voice
exchange. Example 2 (above) is effectively a prolongation of the dominant seventh chord G7 which utilises
chromatic voice movement. The bass voice descends chromatically while the upper voice ascends chromatically, and
the inner voices remain stationary on the notes of D and F. Eventually the chromatic movement results in a new

32

Omnibus progression

33

inversion of the dominant seventh chord G7, resolving to the tonic chord C.

Examples
Examples from the classical reportoire include Schubert's Piano Sonata in A minor, Op. 42, first movement, mm.
32-39, Brahms' Opus 116, No. 3, and many pieces by Tchaikovsky such as the first movement of the Pathetique
Symphony.[citation needed]

References
[1] Yellin, Victor Fell. The Omnibus Idea. Warren, MI: Harmonie Park Press, 1998.
[2] Telesco, Paula. "Enharmonicism and the Omnibus Progression in Classical-Era Music." Music Theory Spectrum, Vol. 20, No. 2. (Autumn,
1998), pp. 242-279.
[3] Gauldin, Robert. "The Theory and Practice of Chromatic Wedge Progressions in Romantic Music." Music Theory Spectrum, Vol. 26, No. 1.
(Spring, 2004), pp. 1-22.

Further reading
• Kostka, Stefan, and Dorothy Payne. Tonal Harmony. 6th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2009. (Pp. 476-480)
• Laitz, Steven G. The Complete Musician. 2nd edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. (Pp. 845-846)

External links
• Examples of the Omnibus, compiled by Prof. Timothy Cutler (http://musictheoryexamples.com/18VE.html)

Pachelbel's Canon
Canon and Gigue in D
Performed and realized on synthesizers by Jeffrey Hall.

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Pachelbel's Canon is the name commonly given to a canon by the German Baroque composer Johann Pachelbel in
his Canon and Gigue for 3 violins and basso continuo (German: Kanon und Gigue für 3 Violinen mit Generalbaß)
(PWC 37, T. 337, PC 358). It is his most famous composition. It was originally scored for three violins and basso
continuo and paired with a gigue. Both movements are in the key of D major.
Like most other works by Pachelbel and other pre-1700 composers, the Canon remained forgotten for centuries and
was rediscovered only in the 20th century. Several decades after it was first published in 1919 the piece became
extremely popular. The piece was particularly prevalent in the pop charts of the 1990s, being sampled and
appropriated in numerous commercial hits such as Coolio's "C U When U Get There" and Green Day's "Basket
Case".[1] It is frequently played at weddings and included on classical music compilations, along with other famous
Baroque pieces such as 'Air on the G String'.
Although a true canon at the unison in three parts, it also has elements of a chaconne. It has been frequently arranged
and transcribed for many different media.

Pachelbel's Canon

34

History
In his lifetime, Pachelbel was renowned for his chamber works,[citation needed] but most of them were lost. Only
Musikalische Ergötzung—a collection of partitas published during Pachelbel's lifetime—is known, apart from a few
isolated pieces in manuscripts. The Canon and Gigue in D major is one such piece. A single 19th-century manuscript
copy of them survives, Mus.MS 16481/8 in the Berlin State Library. It contains two more chamber suites. Another
copy, previously in Hochschule der Künste in Berlin, is now lost.[2] The circumstances of the piece's composition are
wholly unknown. One writer hypothesized that the Canon may have been composed for Johann Christoph Bach's
wedding, on 23 October 1694, which Pachelbel attended. Johann Ambrosius Bach, Pachelbel, and other friends and
family provided music for the occasion.[3] Johann Christoph Bach, the oldest brother of Johann Sebastian Bach, was
a former pupil of Pachelbel.
The Canon (without the accompanying gigue) was first published in 1919 by scholar Gustav Beckmann, who
included the score in his article on Pachelbel's chamber music.[4] His research was inspired and supported by
renowned early music scholar and editor Max Seiffert, who in 1929 published his arrangement of the Canon and
Gigue in his Organum series.[5] However, that edition contained numerous articulation marks and dynamics not in
the original score. Furthermore, Seiffert provided tempi he considered right for the piece, but that were not supported
by later research. The Canon was first recorded in 1940 by Arthur Fiedler,[6] and a popular recording of the piece
was made in 1968 by the Jean-François Paillard chamber orchestra.[7]

Analysis
Pachelbel's Canon combines the techniques of canon and ground bass. Canon is a polyphonic device in which
several voices play the same music, entering in sequence. In Pachelbel's piece, there are three voices engaged in
canon (see Example 1), but there is also a fourth voice, the basso continuo, which plays an independent part.

Example 1. The first 9 measures of the Canon in D. The violins play a three-voice canon over the ground bass to provide the harmonic structure.
Colors highlight the individual canonic entries.

The bass voice keeps repeating the same two-bar line throughout the piece.
The common musical term for this is ostinato, or ground bass (see the example below).

Example 2. Ground bass of Pachelbel's Canon made of two measures and eight
notes being the ground of the eight chords of the canon.

The eight chords suggested by the bass are represented in the table below:

Pachelbel's Canon

35

chord

scale degree roman numeral

1 D major

tonic

I

2 A major

dominant

V

3 B minor

submediant

vi

4 F♯ minor

mediant

iii

5 G major subdominant
6 D major

tonic

IV
I

7 G major subdominant

IV

8 A major

V

dominant

In Germany, Italy, and France of the 17th century, some pieces built on ground bass were called chaconnes or
passacaglias; such ground-bass works sometimes incorporate some form of variation in the upper voices. While
some writers consider each of the 28 statements of the ground bass a separate variation,[8] one scholar finds that
Pachelbel's canon is constructed of just 12 variations, each four bars long, and describes them as follows:
1. quarter notes
2. eighth notes
3. sixteenth notes
4. leaping quarter notes, rest
5. 32nd-note pattern on scalar melody
6. staccato, eighth notes and rests
7. sixteenth note extensions of melody with upper neighbor notes
8. repetitive sixteenth note patterns
9. dotted rhythms
10. dotted rhythms and 16th-note patterns on upper neighbor notes
11. syncopated quarter and eighth notes rhythm
12. eighth-note octave leaps
Pachelbel's Canon thus merges a strict polyphonic form (the canon) and a variation form (the chaconne, which itself
is a mixture of ground bass composition and variations). Pachelbel skillfully constructs the variations to make them
both pleasing and subtly undetectable.

Pop versions
During the years of Baroque Pop in the second half of the 1960s, two bands incorporated the melody of Pachelbel's
Canon in D in their songs, adding vocals and pop/rock arrangements. The first one was The Pop Tops in Spain with
their international (mostly European) minor hit "Oh Lord! Why Lord?" (1968), and the second one was the Paris
based band Aphrodite's Child (formed by later very popular Greek members like Demis Roussos or Vangelis) with
their European hit "Rain & Tears" (recorded in Paris, May 1968).[citation needed]
In 2002, pop music producer Pete Waterman described Canon in D as "almost the godfather of pop music because
we've all used that in our own ways for the past 30 years". He also said that Kylie Minogue's 1988 UK Number One
hit single "I Should Be So Lucky", which Waterman co-wrote and co-produced, was based on Canon in D.
Canon in D was rearranged neo-classical metal version "Canon Rock" by Taiwanese composer JerryC in 2005.

Pachelbel's Canon

Use in cinema
In Werner Herzog's 1974 film, Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle—Kaspar Hauser, the Canon in D plays during the
opening sequence.[9] Robert Redford's Oscar-winning 1980 film Ordinary People used Pachelbel's Canon as
thematic and background music.[citation needed]

References
[1] Chamings, Andrew Wallace. 2013. Canon in the 1990s: From Spiritualized to Coolio, Regurgitating Pachelbel's Canon (http:/ /
drownedinsound. com/ in_depth/ 4146352-canon-in-the-1990s--from-spiritualized-to-coolio-regurgitating-pachelbels-canon)
[2] Welter, Kathryn J. 1998. Johann Pachelbel: Organist, Teacher, Composer, A Critical Reexamination of His Life, Works, and Historical
Significance, p. 363. Diss., Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
[3] Schulze, Hans-Joachim. Johann Christoph Bach (1671–1721) Organist and Schul Collega in Ohrdruf, Johann Sebastian Bachs erster Lehrer,
in Bach Jahrbuch 71 (1985): 70 and footnote 79.
[4] Gustav Beckmann, Johann Pachelbel als Kammerkomponist, Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 1 (1918–19): 267–74. The Canon is found on p.
271.
[5] Perreault, Jean M. 2004. The Thematic Catalogue of the Musical Works of Johann Pachelbel, p. 32. Scarecrow Press, Lanham, Md. ISBN
0-8108-4970-4.
[6] Daniel Guss, CD booklet to Pachelbel's Greatest Hit: The Ultimate Canon, BMG Classics (RCA Red Seal)
[7] http:/ / www. discogs. com/ artist/ Orchestre+ De+ Chambre+ Jean-Fran%C3%A7ois+ Paillard
[8] Ewald V. Nolte and John Butt, "Pachelbel: (1) Johann Pachelbel", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited
by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001). ISBN 1-56159-239-0.
[9] http:/ / oldrockinchair. wordpress. com/ 2013/ 07/ 21/ jeder-fur-sich-und-gott-gegen-alle-kaspar-hauser-werner-herzog-1974/

External links
• Pachelbel's Canon: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project
• Free typeset arrangements of Canon in D (http://cantorion.org/musicsearch/title/Canon in D/), from
Cantorion.
• Midi-files, videos, sheet resources, a discussion board and a collection of modern songs inspired by Pachelbel's
Canon, from Johann Pachelbel's Canon (http://www.pachelbelcanon.com).
• Video (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ipoyCQ5vHZM) of Pachelbel's Canon in D-major with sheet music,
by TheGreatRepertoire.
• Video (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JvNQLJ1_HQ0&fmt=18) of a historical performance of the Canon
on original instruments by the ensemble Voices of Music using baroque instruments, bows, and playing
techniques.
• Video (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vx5TmP6WhZI) of Canon in D as played by the Apollo Symphony
Orchestra.
• Harmony and voice leading of the ›Pachelbelsequenz‹ (http://www.musiktheorie-aktuell.de/tutorials/
parallelismus.aspx). (German tutorial) www.musiktheorie-aktuell.de (http://www.musiktheorie-aktuell.de/).
• Rock/neo-classical arrangement video (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=by8oyJztzwo) of Pachelbel's Canon
in D-major by Taiwanese musician and composer JerryC.

36

Passamezzo antico

37

Passamezzo antico
The passamezzo antico was a ground
bass or chord progression popular
during the Italian Renaissance and
known throughout Europe in the 16th
century.[2] The progression is a variant
of the double tonic: its major mode
variant is known as the passamezzo
moderno.
The sequence consists of two phrases
as follows: (For an explanation of this
notation see Chord progression)

Passamezzo antico

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Passamezzo antico.mid

[1]
Passamezzo and Romanesca melodic formula
 Play Wikipedia:Media
helpFile:Passamezzo and Romanesca.mid.

i

VII i

V

III VII i V i

In the key of A minor this gives:
Am G Am
C

E

G Am E Am

The romanesca is a variant of the passamezzo antico where the first chord is III (e.g., a C major chord in A minor).
A famous example is "Greensleeves".
The passamezzo antico chord changes are found, knowingly or not, in modern popular music culture: Carrie
Underwood's debut album Some Hearts has two examples, "Before He Cheats" (a big U.S. hit in 2006) and "Starts
with Goodbye". "Stairway to Heaven" by Led Zeppelin is essentially a variant of the progression.

Sources
[1] Apel, Willi (1997). The History of Keyboard Music to 1700, p.263. Trans. Tischler, Hans. ISBN 0-253-21141-7.
[2] van der Merwe, Peter. 1989. Origins of the Popular Style: The Antecedents of Twentieth-Century Popular Music, p.207. Oxford: Clarendon
Press. ISBN 0-19-316121-4.

Passamezzo moderno

38

Passamezzo moderno
The Gregory Walker or passamezzo moderno ("modern half step"; also quadran, quadrant, or quadro pavan)
was "one of the most popular harmonic formulae in the Renaissance period, divid[ing] into two complementary
strains thus:"
1) I IV

I

V

2) I IV I-V I

(Middleton 1990, 117).
For example, in C major the progression is as follows:
C F C G C F C-G C

Gregory Walker root progression  Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Gregory Walker progression in C.mid.
(Caution: Keeping all chords in root position produces parallel fifths (see parallel harmony), which are
prohibited by traditional voice-leading rules. The following files may be more suitable for use in composition:
 progression with tonic (I) chord in root position Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Gwroot.mid,  tonic in first
inversion Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Gw1stinv.mid,  tonic in second inversion Wikipedia:Media
helpFile:Gw2ndinv.mid.)

The progression or ground bass, the major mode variation of the passamezzo antico, originated in Italian and French
dance music during the first half of the 16th century, where it was often used with a contrasting progression or
section known as ripresi. Though one of Thomas Morley's characters in Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall
Musicke denigrates the Gregory Walker, comparing unskilled singing to its sound (Morley 1597, 120), it was popular
in both pop/popular/folk and classical musics through 1700. Its popularity was revived in the mid 19th century, and
the American variant (below) evolved into the twelve bar blues (van der Merwe 1989, 198–201).

Passamezzo moderno

39

Examples
Listed in van der Merwe (1989, 198–201):
• several in The Fitzwilliam Virginal Book
• "Up and Ware Them A Willie"
• "Jimmie Rose"
• "Darling Nelly Gray"  Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Darling
Nelly Gray page 1.mid
• "Wreck of the Old 97"
• Woody Guthrie's "There is a House in This Old Town"
• Irving Berlin's "Alexander's Ragtime Band"
• The Rolling Stones' "Honky Tonk Women" (1969)
• Carole King's "You've Got a Friend" (1971)
Listed in Helms, Ilmbrecht, and Dieckelmann (1954, Wikipedia:Citing
sources):
• Hans Neusidler's "Gassenhawer" (Nuremberg, 1536)
• "Oxstedter Mühle" (folk dance from Lower Saxony) (B section)

"Darling Nelly Gray", page one
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Darling Nelly
Gray page 1.mid.

• Diego Ortiz' Recercada Prima / Segunda / Tercera sobre el
Passamezzo Moderno (three-part didactic composition in Tratado de Glosas sobre cláusulas y Otros Generos de
Puntos en la Música de Violones, 1553). (Readers of Spanish may benefit from the Spanish-language Wikipedia's
more extensive treatment of Diego Ortiz and of the Tratado de Glosas.)
Others:
• Iron & Wine's "A History of Lovers" (Iron e Wine 2005, Wikipedia:Citing sources) (verses; chorus and interludes
follow ripresi IV-I-IV-V progression)

American Gregory Walker
The American Gregory Walker, popular in parlour music, is a variation in which the subdominant (IV) chords
become the progression IV-I (van der Merwe 1989, 201-202).
1) I IV-I

I

V

2) I IV-I I-V I

(Middleton 1990, 117).
For example, in C major this variation is as follows:
C F-C C G C F-C C-G C

American Gregory Walker root progression  Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:American Gregory Walker
progression in C.mid.

Passamezzo moderno

Examples
Listed in van der Merwe (1989, 201–202):




"Jesse James"
"The Titanic"
"My Little Old Sod Shanty"
"Cottonfields"
Gus Cannon's "Walk Right In" (1929)

Other variations
On original progression
• Second strain's first I becomes I-I7 (for a stronger "lead-in" to the upcoming IV):
• "Gathering Flowers From the Hillside" (Carter Family, 1935)
• Second strain progresses from IV directly to a full measure of V, displacing its second (half-measure) I:
• "Kiss The Girl" (Alan Menken and Howard Ashman, 1989) from Disney's The Little Mermaid  (chorus; verses
follow standard twelve-bar pattern)
• "Three Little Speckled Frogs" (traditional children's song)
• Bluegrass variation: First strain's change from I to IV and back is omitted:
• "She'll Be Comin' 'Round the Mountain" (traditional) text at Anon [n.d.] [1]; melody at http://www.ingeb.
org/songs/cominrou.mid [2] (file composed specifically for dissemination via ingeb.org website pursuant to
site's policy imposing non-commercial and share-alike restrictions but not attribution requirement)[citation
needed]

The Bluegrass variation frequently occurs in conjunction with the I-I7 "lead-in" and/or the direct IV-to-V
transition listed above.
The resulting progression is  ||| I | I | I | V || I(-I7) | IV | (I-)V | I ||| ; examples include:
• "Free Little Bird" (David Holt and Doc and Merle Watson; not to be confused with Lynyrd Skynyrd's "Free
Bird") (Holt Watson and Watson 2009).
• "Yakety Sax" (The Benny Hill Show  theme) by Boots Randolph and James Q. "Spider" Rich
• Vamp/ostinato of first strain until closing line of song:
• "Mbube" (Solomon Linda, 1939), imported into English as "Wimoweh [uyimbube]"/"The Lion Sleeps
Tonight"

On American variant
• IV-I is reversed, becoming I-IV or I7-IV:
• "Tennessee Waltz" (Stewart and King 1947)Wikipedia:Citing sources#What information to include (verse and
second strain of chorus)
• Second I in second strain becomes II7, yielding second-strain progression of  || I | IV-II7 | I-V | I ||| :
• "Truck Drivin' Song" ("Weird Al" Yankovic, released 1999) (A section; also shifts rhythm of two final bars
from | I-V | I |||   to  | I | V-I ||| )

40

Passamezzo moderno

Sources
• Anon. [n.d.]. “Coming 'round the Mountain [1]”. Song text, at Leader in Lieder mit Midi Melodies [3] website.
(Accessed 22 May 2010)
• Carter Family. 1935. "Gathering Flowers From The Hillside [4]" or [5]. Columbia 37636. Recorded May 7, 1935.
• Helms, Anna, Otto Ilmbrecht, and Heinrich Dieckelmann (1954). Die Tanzkette, Frankfurt am Main: Hoffmeister
Verlag.
• Holt, David, Doc Watson, and Merle Watson. 2009. "Free Little Bird [6]". Piney Grove Ramblers: Bluegrass for
the People website. (Accessed 22 May 2010)
• Iron e Wine ([2005]). A History of Lovers [7] CifrasFX website. (Accessed 22 May 2010).
• Middleton, Richard (1990). Studying Popular Music. Milton Keynes and Philadelphia: Open University Press.
ISBN 0-335-15276-7 (cloth); ISBN 0-335-15275-9 (pbk). Reprinted 2002.
• Morley, Thomas (1597). A Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall Musicke [8]. London: Peter Short.
• van der Merwe, Peter (1989). Origins of the Popular Style: The Antecedents of Twentieth-Century Popular Music.
Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-316121-4.

External links
• Musica Viva: The Encyclopedia of music: Passamezzo [9]

References
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]

http:/ / www. ingeb. org/ songs/ cominrou. html
http:/ / www. ingeb. org/ songs/ cominrou. mid
http:/ / www. ingeb. org/
http:/ / honkingduck. com/ 78s/ listen. php?s=20202B
http:/ / www. traditionalmusic. co. uk/ carter-family-songs/ Gathering-flowers-from-the-hillside. htm
http:/ / www. pgramblers. com/ Jam%20Tunes/ Jam%20Tunes%20-%20D%20to%20G/ files/ Free%20Little%20Bird. pdf
http:/ / www. cifrasfx. com. br/ iron-e-wine/ cifras/ history-of-lovers/
http:/ / www. chmtl. indiana. edu/ tme/ 16th/ MOR1597C_TEXT. html
http:/ / www. musicaviva. com/ encyclopedia/ display. tpl?phrase=passamezzo

41

I-V-vi-IV progression

42

I-V-vi-IV progression
The I-V-vi-IV progression is a common chord progression popular
across several genres of music. It involves the I, V, vi, and IV chords;
for example, in the key of C major, this would be: C-G-Am-F.[1]
The V is often replaced by iii ("Price Tag"), III ("If We Ever Meet
Again" chorus), ii ("Halo"), I ("Doesn't Mean Anything"), bVII
("Firework" first verse), II ("Try Too Hard" by P!nk), IV ("I Gotta
Feeling").

I-V-vi-IV chord progression in C major
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:I-V-vi-IV chord
progression in C.mid.

A 2009 recording by the comedy group The Axis of Awesome, their "Four Chord Song", in E major (thus using the
chords E major, B major, C# minor, and A major), is a widely viewed clip on YouTube.

Variations
It can also be used in the form vi-IV-I-V, which was dubbed the sensitive female chord progression by Boston
Globe Columnist Marc Hirsh.[2] In C major this would be Am-F-C-G (Am-F-C-G/B voicing is very common in
modern pop music). Hirsh first noticed the chord progression in the song "One of Us" by Joan Osborne.[3] He claims
he then began to notice the chord progression in many other songs. He named the progression because he claimed it
was used by many members of the Lilith Fair in the late 1990s.
It's also used as IV-I-V-vi in songs such as "Umbrella" by Rihanna,
and "Down" by Jay Sean[4] or as V-vi-IV-I as in "Wannabe" or
"Angels".
Both are a variant of the "doo-wop" I-vi-IV-V progression, familiar
from songs such as "Earth Angel" and "Donna".

Examples
Examples of use of the I-V-vi-IV progression include:
• Alphaville – "Forever Young"
• Green Day – "When I Come Around"
• The Rolling Stones – "Beast of Burden"
• The Beatles – "Let It Be"
• Blink 182 – "Dammit" and "Feeling This"
• The All-American Rejects – "Night Drive" from Move Along
• Adele – "Someone Like You" (chorus)[5]
• James Blunt – "You're Beautiful"




Axis of Awesome – "Four Chord Song"
Kelly Clarkson and Jason Aldean – "Don't You Wanna Stay"[6]
P!nk – "Perfect"[7]
Jay Sean – "Down"
Mika – "Happy Ending"[8]

Songs using the vi-IV-I-V progression:
• Kelly Clarkson – "Stronger (What Doesn't Kill You)"[9]
• Lady Gaga – "Poker Face"
• The Offspring – "Self Esteem"

"Sensitive female chord progression" in C major
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Vi-IV-I-V
chord progression in C.mid.

I-V-vi-IV progression
















The Offspring – "The Kids Aren't Alright"
Train – "Drive By"
Eagle Eye Cherry – "Save Tonight"[10]
Nelly – "Just a Dream"[11]
Flo-Rida – "Whistle"
Beyonce – "If I Were a Boy"
Eminem – "Not Afraid"
Justin Bieber and Sean Kingston – "Eenie Meenie"
Bon Jovi – "It's My Life"
Jason Derulo – "In My Head"
Bruno Mars – "Grenade"
Eminem and Rihanna – "Love the Way You Lie"
Jessie J – "Nobody's Perfect"
Guy Sebastian and Lupe Fiasco – "Battle Scars"
The Cranberries – "Zombie"
Rednex – "Wish You Were Here"
Toto – "Africa"




Akon and The Lonely Island – "I Just Had Sex"
Justin Bieber – "Love Me"
Nicki Minaj – "Marilyn Monroe"[12]
Don Omar – "Danza Kuduro"

References
[1] Bennett, Dan (2008). The Total Rock Bassist, p. 63. ISBN 978-0739052693
[2] Hirsh, Marc. "Striking a Chord" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20100113080032/ http:/ / www. boston. com/ ae/ music/ articles/ 2008/ 12/
31/ striking_a_chord/ ), The Boston Globe, December 31, 2008.
[3] Rundown 3/4: "Sensitive Female Chord Progression" (http:/ / wayback. archive. org/ web/ 20100715000000*/ http:/ / www. hereandnow. org/
shows/ 2009/ 03/ rundown-34/ ), Here and Now, March 4, 2009, wbur.org.
[4] " Down (http:/ / www. musicnotes. com/ sheetmusic/ mtdFPE. asp?ppn=MN0106385& )", MusicNotes.com.
[5] " Someone Like You (http:/ / www. musicnotes. com/ sheetmusic/ mtdVPE. asp?ppn=MN0090054& )", MusicNotes.com.
[6] " Don't You Wanna Stay (http:/ / www. musicnotes. com/ sheetmusic/ mtd. asp?ppn=MN0090209)", MusicNotes.com.
[7] " Perfect (http:/ / www. musicnotes. com/ sheetmusic/ mtdVPE. asp?ppn=MN0090210)", MusicNotes.com.
[8] " Happy Ending (http:/ / www. musicnotes. com/ sheetmusic/ mtdFPE. asp?ppn=MN0086896)", MusicNotes.com. Chords marked.
[9] " Stronger (What Doesn't Kill You) (http:/ / www. musicnotes. com/ sheetmusic/ mtdFPE. asp?ppn=MN0099948& )", MusicNotes.com.
Chords marked.
[10] " Save Tonight (http:/ / www. musicnotes. com/ sheetmusic/ scorchVPE. asp?ppn=SC0252676)", MusicNotes.com.
[11] " Just a Dream (http:/ / www. musicnotes. com/ sheetmusic/ mtdVPE. asp?ppn=MN0086614)", MusicNotes.com.
[12] " Marilyn Monroe (http:/ / www. musicnotes. com/ sheetmusic/ mtdVPE. asp?ppn=MN0104413& )", MusicNotes.com.

Further reading
• Scott, Richard J. (2003). Chord Progressions for Songwriters. iUniverse. pp. 216–218. ISBN 0-595-26384-4.

External links
• Axis of Awesome - 4 Four Chord Song (with song titles) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5pidokakU4I)
on YouTube

43

Ragtime progression

44

Ragtime progression
The ragtime progression[3] is a chord
progression characterized by a chain of
secondary dominants, named for its
popularity in the ragtime genre, despite
being much older.[4] Also typical of
parlour music, its use originated in
classical music and later spread to
American folk music.[5] Growing, "by
a process of gradual accretion. First the
dominant chord acquired its own
dominant...This then acquired its
dominant, which in turn acquired yet
another dominant, giving":[6]

Ragtime progression includes chains of secondary dominants  Play Wikipedia:Media
helpFile:Ragtime progression in C.mid.

Progression (E7-A7-D7-G7)  Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Jazz standard bridge.mid
[1]
which often appears in the bridge of jazz standards. The V7/V/V/V - V7/V/V - V7/V V7 [or V7/vi - V7/ii - V7/V - V7] leads back to C major (I)  Play Wikipedia:Media
helpFile:Ragtime progression in C.mid but is itself indefinite in key.

Ragtime progression's origin in voice leading: II itself is the product of a 5-6 replacement
over IV in IV-V-I. "Such a replacement originates purely in voice-leading, but," the
[2]
chord above IV (in C: F-A-D) is a first inversion II chord.
 Play Wikipedia:Media
helpFile:Ragtime progression voice leading.mid

Ragtime progression

45

Movement in the ragtime progression. Note that
the third and seventh descend to the seventh and
third of the next chord by descending half-step,
creating two chromatic lines.

III7/♯ VI7/♯ II7/♯ V7 I

Or:
(V7/V/V/V) V7/V/V V7/V V7 I

Or:[7][8]
(III7) VI7 II7 V7 I

In C major this is:
(E7) A7 D7 G7 C

Most commonly found in its four chord version (thus the parentheses).  Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Ragtime
progression in C four chords.mid This may be perceived as a, "harder, bouncier sounding progression," than the
diatonic vi-ii-V7-I, in C: Am-Dm-G7-C.[9][10]  Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Standard progression in C.mid The
three chord version (II-V-I) is, "related to the cadential progression IV-V-I...in which the V is tonicized and
stabilized by means of II with a raised third."
The progression is an example of centripetal harmony, harmony which leads to the tonic and an example of the circle
progression, a progression along the circle of fifths. Though creating or featuring chromaticism, the bass (if the roots
of the chords), and often the melody, are pentatonic. (Major pentatonic on C: CDEGA) Contrastingly, Averill argues
that the progression was used because of the potential if offered for chromatic pitch areas.[11]
Variations include the addition of minor seventh chords before the dominant seventh chords, creating overlapping
temporary ii-V-I relationships[12] through ii-V-I substitution:
Bm7-E7 Em7-A7 Am7-D7 Dm7-G7 C

since Bm7-E7-A is a ii-V-I progression, as is Em7-A7-D and so on.
progression in C ii-V-I substitution.mid

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Ragtime

Ragtime progression

46
Liebestraum No. 3
Performed by Martha Goldstein on an 1851 Erard piano

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Examples of the use of the ragtime progression include the chorus of Howard & Emerson's "Hello! Ma Baby"
(1899), the traditional "Keep On Truckin' Mama", Robert Johnson's "They're Red Hot" (1936), Arlo Guthrie's
"Alice's Restaurant" (1967),[13] Bruce Channel's "Hey! Baby" (1962), The Rooftop Singers' "Walk Right In" (1963),
James P. Johnson's "Charleston" (1923), Ray Henderson's "Five Foot Two, Eyes of Blue" (1925), Rev. Gary Davis's
"Salty Dog",[14] Bernie and Pinkard's "Sweet Georgia Brown" (1925), the "Cujus animam" (mm.9-18) in Rossini's
Stabat Mater, the beginning of Liszt's Liebesträume (1850), Bob Carleton's "Ja-Da" (1918),[15] and Sonny Rollins's
"Doxy" (1954).

Sources
[1] Boyd, Bill (1997). Jazz Chord Progressions, p.56. ISBN 0-7935-7038-7.
[2] Jonas, Oswald (1982) Introduction to the Theory of Heinrich Schenker (1934: Das Wesen des musikalischen Kunstwerks: Eine Einführung in
Die Lehre Heinrich Schenkers), p.116. Trans. John Rothgeb. ISBN 0-582-28227-6.
[3] Fahey, John (1970). Charley Patton, p.45. London: Studio Vista. Cited in van der Merwe (1989).
[4] Van der Merwe, Peter (2005). Roots of the Classical, p.496. ISBN 978-0-19-816647-4.
[5] van der Merwe, Peter (1989). Origins of the Popular Style: The Antecedents of Twentieth-Century Popular Music, p.321. Oxford: Clarendon
Press. ISBN 0-19-316121-4.
[6] Van der Merwe (2005), p.299.
[7] Averill, Gage (2003). Four Parts, No Waiting, p.162. ISBN 978-0-19-511672-4.
[8] Weissman, Dick (2005). Blues: The Basics, p.50. ISBN 978-0-415-97067-9.
[9] Scott, Richard J. (2003). Chord Progressions for Songwriters, p.428. ISBN 978-0-595-26384-4.
[10] Davis, Kenneth (2006). The Piano Professor Easy Piano Study, p.105. ISBN 978-1-4303-0334-3. Same quote but gives the progression in E
instead of C.
[11] Averill, Gage (2003). Four Parts, No Waiting: A Social History of American Barbershop Harmony, p.162. ISBN 978-0-19-511672-4.
[12] Boyd (1997), p.60.
[13] Scott (2003), p.429
[14] Grossman, Stefan (1998). Rev. Gary Davis/Blues Guitar, p.71. ISBN 978-0-8256-0152-1.
[15] Weissman, Dick (2001). Songwriting: The Words, the Music and the Money, p.59. ISBN 9780634011603. and Weissman, Dick (1085).
Basic Chord Progressions: Handy Guide, p.28. ISBN 9780882844008.

Further reading
• Averill, Gage (2003). Four Parts, No Waiting, p. 32. ISBN 978-0-19-511672-4.

External links
• MoneyChords: "Ragtime Progressions" (http://www.angelfire.com/fl4/moneychords/ragtime.html) History

Rhythm changes

Rhythm changes
In jazz and jazz harmony, "rhythm changes" refers to the chord progression occurring in George Gershwin's song "I
Got Rhythm". This pattern, "one of the most common vehicles for improvisation,"[1] forms the basis of countless
(usually uptempo) jazz compositions, was popular with swing-era musicians: It is found in "Shoeshine Boy" (Lester
Young's 1936 breakout recording with Count Basie) and "Cotton Tail"[2] written by Duke Ellington in 1940, as well
as Charlie Christian's "Seven Come Eleven",[3] Charlie Parker's "Salt Peanuts", and Thelonious Monk's
"Rhythm-a-Ning", for instance. The earliest known use of rhythm changes was by Sidney Bechet in his September
15, 1932[4] recording of "Shag" with his "New Orleans Feetwarmers" group.[5]

History
This progression's endurance in popularity is largely due to its extensive use by early bebop musicians. The chord
changes began to be used in the 1930s, became extremely common in the '40s and '50s, and are now ubiquitous.[6]
First, "I Got Rhythm" was by then already a popular jazz standard; second, by listening to the song and writing a
new melody over its chord changes, thereby creating a composition of a type known as a contrafact, a jazz musician
could claim copyright to the new melody rather than acknowledge Gershwin's inspiration and pay royalties to his
estate.
Today, mastery of the blues and rhythm changes are "critical elements for building a jazz repertoire".[7]

Application

Rhythm changes in B♭, as commonly used for improvisation (slashes indicate comping).[8]

47

Rhythm changes

48

Rhythm changes in B♭.[9]

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Rhythm changes complete in B-flat Ellis.mid

The "rhythm changes" is a thirty-two-bar AABA form containing four eight measure sections.[10] In roman numeral
shorthand, the original chords used in the "A" section are
| I

vi | ii V

| I

vi | ii V

|

a two bar phrase (I−vi−ii−V) played twice, then
| I

I7 | IV iv7 | I

V

| I

|

In a jazz setting the changes are usually played in the key of B♭ with various chord substitutions. Here is a typical
form for the A section with various common substitutions:
| Bbmaj7 G7 | Cm7
F7 | Bbmaj7 G7 | Cm7 F7 |
| Fm7
Bb7 | Ebmaj7 Ab7 | Dm7
G7 | Cm7 F7 |
| Bbmaj7 G7 | Cm7
F7 | Bbmaj7 G7 | Cm7 F7 |
| Fm7
Bb7 | Ebmaj7 Ab7 | Cm7
F7 | Bbmaj7 |[11]
The "bridge" consists of a series of dominant sevenths that follow the circle of fifths (ragtime progression), sustained
for two bars each and thus conveying the sense of a shifting key center:
| III7
| II7

|
|

+
+

| VI7
| V7

|
|

+
+

|
|

| D7
| C7

|
|

+
+

| G7
| F7

|
|

+
+

|
|

This is known as the Sears Roebuck bridge.[12]
The B section is then followed by the second 8 bars of A section
| Bbmaj7 G7 | Cm7
F7 | Bbmaj7 G7 | Cm7 F7 |
| Fm7
Bb7 | Ebmaj7 Ab7 | Cm7
F7 | Bbmaj7 |

Rhythm changes

49

Variant versions of changes are legion due to substitutions: often the beboppers, for instance, would superimpose
series of "two-fives" (passing sequences of minor-7th and dominant-7th chords) or other substitutions for interest or
in order to discourage lesser musicians from sitting in on the bandstand. The B section may appear as follows:
| Am7
| Gm7

| D7
| C7

| Dm7
| Cm7

| G7
| F7

|
|

or it may be lifted out of this progression and used in the middle of another piece as follows:
| vii7 | III7
| vi7 | II7

| iii7 | VI7
| ii7 | V7

|
|

The component A and B sections of rhythm changes were also sometimes used for other tunes. For instance, Charlie
Parker's "Scrapple from the Apple" and Duke Ellington's "Perdido" both use a different progression for the A section
while using the Rhythm changes B section.[13] "Scrapple from the Apple" uses the chord changes of "Honeysuckle
Rose" for the A section, but replaces the B section with "Rhythm"'s III7-VI7-II7-V7 bridge. Other tunes, such as
Sonny Stitt's "The Eternal Triangle" and the theme from "The Muppet Show", use the A section of "Rhythm" but
have a different bridge.[citation needed] Tadd Dameron's "Good Bait" uses the A section of the Rhythm changes but a
different progression for the bridge.[14] Often in rhythm changes tunes, the B section is left free for improvisation
even during the head (e.g. in Sonny Rollins' "Oleo").[citation needed]

Examples
The following is a partial list of songs based on the rhythm changes:















"Anthropology" (Charlie Parker/Dizzy Gillespie)
"Cotton Tail" (Duke Ellington)
"Dexterity" (Charlie Parker)
"Fingers" (Thad Jones)[citation needed]
"Five Guys Named Mo" (Louis Jordan and His Tympany Five)[citation needed]
"Lester Leaps In" (Lester Young)
"Little Pixie II" (Thad Jones)[citation needed]
"Meet the Flintstones" (Hoyt Curtin)[citation needed]
"Moose the Mooche" (Charlie Parker)
"Oleo" (Sonny Rollins)
"Rhythm-A-Ning" (Thelonious Monk)
"Steeplechase" (Charlie Parker)
"Straighten Up and Fly Right" (Nat King Cole)
"Tip Toe" (Thad Jones)
"You, Me, and the Bottle Makes Three Tonight (Baby)" (Big Bad Voodoo Daddy)[citation needed]
"Race To The Bridge" (Gordon Goodwin)[citation needed]

Rhythm changes

References
[1] Dziuba, Mark (2003). The Big Book of Jazz Guitar Improvisation, p.140. ISBN 9780739031728.
[2] "Duke Ellington the Man and His Music", p.20. Luvenia A. George. Music Educators Journal, Vol. 85, No. 6 (May, 1999), pp. 15-21.
Published by: MENC: The National Association for Music Education.
[3] Yaffe, David (2005). Fascinating Rhythm: Reading Jazz in American Writing, p.17. ISBN 0-691-12357-8.
[4] Rust, Brian, Jazz and Ragtime Records, 1897-1942 (http:/ / www. mainspringpress. com/ book_rust. html), Mainspring Press (http:/ / www.
mainspringpress. com/ ), 2008.
[5] " Rhythm Changes (http:/ / www. angelfire. com/ fl4/ moneychords/ rhythmchanges. html)", MoneyChords (angelfire.com). Includes an
extensive listing of tunes utilizing these chord changes.
[6] Spitzer, Peter (2001). Jazz Theory Handbook, p.67. ISBN 0-7866-5328-0.
[7] Thomas, John (2002). Voice Leading for Guitar: Moving Through the Changes, p.85. ISBN 0-634-01655-5.
[8] Spitzer (2001), p.68.
[9] Ellis, Herb and Holmes, Terry (1996). The Herb Ellis Jazz Guitar Method: Rhythm Shapes, p.4-5. ISBN 9781576233412.
[10] Spitzer (2001), p.81.
[11] Rawlins, Robert and Bahha, Nor Eddine (2005). Jazzology: The Encyclopedia of Jazz Theory for All Musicians, p.128. ISBN
9780634086786.
[12] Holbrook, Morris B. (2008). Playing the Changes on the Jazz Metaphor, p.104. ISBN 9781601981721.
[13] Spitzer (2001), p.71.
[14] Spitzer (2001), p.72.

Romanesca
Romanesca was a song form popular
from the mid 16th to early 17th
centuries. It was most popular with
Italian composers of the early Baroque
period. It was also used by vihuelistas
including Luis de Narváez, Alonso
Mudarra, Enríquez de Valderrábano,
and Diego Pisador.
Originating in Spain as O guárdame
las vacas ("O let us put the cows to
pasture" or, "look after the cows for
Romanesca.  Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Romanesca.mid.
me",[]
occasionally
known
as
Seculorum del primer tono in reference
to the similarity between the a g f e d
melody line and that of the chief
termination, "Seculorum, Amen," of the
first psalm tone), a romanesca is
Passamezzo and Romanesca melodic formula on D  Play Wikipedia:Media
composed of a sequence of four chords
helpFile:Passamezzo and Romanesca.mid.
with a simple, repeating bass, which
provide the groundwork for variations
and improvisation. A famous example is the refrain of "Greensleeves" (whose verses follow the progression of the
passamezzo antico, of which the romanesca is an alteration). The romanesca is usually in triple meter and its soprano
formula (melody) resembles that of the passamezzo antico but a third higher.[1] The harmonic bass pattern of the
romanesca is:
III—VII—i—V—III—VII—i-V—i

50

Romanesca

51

Romanesca is also the name of two early music ensembles: one, La Romanesca, founded in 1978 in Australia by
John Griffiths; and the other, Romanesca, founded in 1988 in England by Nigel North. Both specialize in the
performance of early plucked string instruments.

Sources
Further reading
• Gerbino, Giuseppe. 2001. "Romanesca". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition,
edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers.

Twelve-bar blues
The 12-bar blues or blues changes is
one of the most popular chord
progressions in popular music. The
blues progression has a distinctive
form in lyrics and phrase and chord
structure and duration. It is, at its most
basic, based on the I-IV-V chords of a
key.

Typical boogie woogie bassline on 12 bar blues progression in C, chord roots in red.

A 24-bar blues follows the same changes but each chord lasts for twice as many measures.
The blues can be run in any key. Mastery of the blues and rhythm changes are "critical elements for building a jazz
repertoire".[1]

Structure

The most common or standard 12-bar blues progressions variations, in C.(Benward & Saker 2003, 186)
 Play A Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Standard 12-bar blues progression variations A.mid,  B Wikipedia:Media
helpFile:Twelve bar boogie-woogie blues in C.mid,  C Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Standard 12-bar blues
progression variations C.mid,  D Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Standard 12-bar blues progression variations
D.mid, and  E Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Standard 12-bar blues progression variations E.mid as boogie
woogie basslines. For example, Robert Johnson's "Sweet Home Chicago"(1936) uses A.

In the key of C, one basic blues progression, E from above, is as follows.[2]

Twelve-bar blues

52

Popular music symbols
C C C C
F F C C
G G C C

or
or
or

C7 C7 C7 C7
F7 F7 C7 C7
G7 G7 C7 C7

Different notations
Chord

Function Numerical

Roman
numeral

Tonic

T

1

I

Subdominant

S

4

IV

Dominant

D

5

V

Chords may be also represented with a few different notation systems. A basic example of the progression would
look like this, using T to indicate the tonic, S for the subdominant, and D for the dominant, and representing one
chord. In Roman numeral analysis the tonic is called the I, the sub-dominant the IV, and the dominant the V. (These
three chords are the basis of thousands more pop songs which thus often have a blues sound even without using the
classical 12-bar form.)
Using said notations, the chord progression outlined above can be represented as follows.[3]

T T T T

I

I

I I

S S T T

IV IV I I

D D T T

V

V I I

The first line takes four bars, as do the remaining two lines, for a total of twelve bars. However, the vocal or lead
phrases, though they often come in threes, do not coincide with the above three lines or sections. This overlap
between the grouping of the accompaniment and the vocal is part of what creates interest in the twelve bar blues.

Variations
"W.C. Handy, 'the Father of the Blues,' codified this blues form to help musicians communicate chord changes."[4]
However, many variations are possible. The length of sections may be varied to create eight-bar blues or sixteen-bar
blues.
In the original form, the dominant chord continued through the tenth bar; later on the V-IV-I-I "shuffle blues" pattern
became standard in the third set of four bars:[5]

Twelve-bar blues

53

I

I

I I

IV IV I I
V IV I I

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Twelve bar boogie-woogie blues in C.mid
The common quick to four or quick-change (quick four[6]) variation uses the subdominant chord in the second
bar:
I

IV I I

IV IV I I
V IV I I

These variations are not mutually exclusive; the rules for generating them may be combined with one another (and/or
with others not listed) to generate more complex variations.
Seventh chords are often used just before a change, and more changes can be added. A more complicated example
might look like this, where "7" indicates a seventh chord:

Using a seventh chord
I

IV

I I7

IV IV7 I I7
V

IV

I V7

When the last bar contains the dominant, that bar may be called a turnaround, otherwise the last four measures is the
blues turnaround.

Basic jazz blues progression
I7

IV7 IVdim

I7

Vm7 I7

IV7

IVdim

I7

III7 VI7

IIm7

V7

III7 VI7

II7 V7

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Basic jazz blues progression.mid
In jazz, 12 bar blues progressions are expanded with moving substitutions and chordal variations. The cadence (or
last four measures) uniquely leads to the root by perfect intervals of fourths.
The Bebop blues:[7]

Bop V/ii cliche arpeggio, in second measure,
upwards from third (C♯) to ninth (B♭):
A7♭9(Spitzer 2001, 62) the dominant of Dm (ii in
C major)  Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Bop
V of II cliche arpeggio.mid.

Twelve-bar blues

54

I7

IV7

IV7 ♯IVo7
ii7

V7

I7

v7 I7

I7

V/ii♭9

I7 V/ii♭9 ii7 V7

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Bebop blues progression.mid
This progression is similar to Charlie Parker's "Now's the Time", "Billie's Bounce", Sonny Rollins's "Tenor
Madness", and many other bop tunes.[8] "It is a bop soloist's cliche to arpeggiate this chord [A7♭9 (V/ii = VI7♭9)] from
the 3 up to the ♭9."[9]

Minor blues (Spitzer 2001, p. 63)
i7

i7

i7 i7

iv7

iv7 i7 i7

♭VI7 V7 i7 i7

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Minor blues progression.mid
There are also minor 12-bar blues, such as John Coltrane's "Equinox" and "Mr. P.C.",[10] and "Why Don't You Do
Right?", made famous by Lil Green with Big Bill Broonzy and then Peggy Lee with the Benny Goodman
Orchestra.[citation needed] The chord on the fifth scale degree may be major, V7, or minor, v7, in which case it fits a
dorian scale along with the minor i7 and iv7 chords, creating a modal feeling.[11] Major and minor can also be mixed
together, a signature characteristic of the music of Charles Brown.[citation needed]
While the blues is most often considered to be in sectional strophic form with a verse-chorus pattern, it may also be
considered as an extension of the variational chaconne procedure. Van der Merwe (1989) considers it developed in
part specifically from the American Gregory Walker though the conventional account would consider hymns as the
provider of the blues repeating chord progression or harmonic formulae.[12]

Lyrical patterns
Most commonly, lyrics are in three lines, with the first two lines almost the same with slight differences in phrasing
and interjections.
I hate to see the evening sun go down,
Yes, I hate to see that evening sun go down
'Cause it makes me think I'm on my last go 'round
W. C. Handy's "St. Louis Blues"
However, many songs exist that are written in the blues chord progression do not use the three-line form of lyrics.
For instance, "I'm Moving On" has a verse in the first four bars and a chorus in the final eight bars:
That big eight-wheeler rollin' down the track
Means your true lovin' daddy ain't comin' back.
I'm movin' on, I'll soon be gone
You were flyin' too high for my little old sky
So I'm movin' on.
Hank Snow's "I'm Moving On"
Here is an example showing the 12 bar blues pattern and how it fits with the lyrics of a given verse. One chord
symbol is used per beat, with "-" representing the continuation of the previous chord:

Twelve-bar blues

55

I - - - IV - - - I - - - I7 - - Woke up this morning with an awful aching head
IV - - - IV7 - - - I - - - I7 - - Woke up this morning with an awful aching head
V - - V7 IV - - IV7 I - - - I - V V7
My new man had left me, just a room and an empty bed.
From Bessie Smith's "Empty Bed Blues".
Another example, "Johnny B. Goode" (written and first recorded by Chuck Berry), applies a "shuffle" or "light
'swing'" rhythm to one of the more common twelve-bar progressions:[citation needed]
Line Pickup Measure 1

Measure 2

Measure 3

Measure 4

1

Deep

A (I)

down in Lou'siana, close
to

A (I)

A
(I)

back up in the woods
among the

A
(I)

evergreens,

2

There

D
(IV)

stood a log cabin, made
from

D (IV) earth and wood, where

A
(I)

lived a country boy named

A
(I)

Johnny B.
Goode.

3

He

E (V)

never really learned to
read or

E7
(V7)

A
(I)

play a guitar just like a-

A
(I)

-ringin' a bell.

New Orleans, way

write too well, but he
could

Another progression, D-D7-G7-A7, appears in this collection (Axelsson & Strängliden 2007, 55).Wikipedia:Please
clarify

"Twelve-bar" examples
The 12-bar blues chord progression is the basis of thousands of songs, not only formally identified blues songs. The
vast majority of boogie-woogie compositions are 12-bar blues, as are many early rock songs.[13]











Ray Charles' "What'd I Say" (1959) opens with the twelve bar blues. Other examples of twelve bar blues include:
Muddy Waters' "Train Fare Blues" (1948)
Howlin' Wolf's "Evil" (1954)
Big Joe Turner's "Shake, Rattle, and Roll" (1954).[14]
Duffy also uses the twelve bar blues progression in her song "Mercy" [citation needed]
Gene Vincent's "Be Bop A Lula"
Elvis Presley's "Hound Dog"
Louis Prima's "Jump, Jive and Wail"
Johnny Cash's "Folsom Prison Blues"
Mungo Jerry's "In the Summertime"
Little Richard's "Tutti Fruttii"
White Stripes' "Ball and Biscuit"

Examples of altered or extended progressions include Herbie Hancock's "Watermelon Man".[15]
You may also find many improvised versions of this piece, often seen in piano practise books, and as simple tunes to
try out a musical instrument, such as this one, played in the C key.  Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Improvised
Twelve Bar Blues.mid

Twelve-bar blues

Analysis
The twelve-bar blues, a chromatic chord progression, is a logical formula for blues music: without the dominant's
major minor seventh chord (in C: G7), the sequence does not accord with the tonal "V-I" relationship. Instead, it
would be based mostly on a plagal cadence—an IV-I change (in C: F-C). The key is fully verified with the V7 (G7)
chord,[citation needed] but only after going over the subdominant (F) and tonic (C).
Additionally, the chord progression meshes elements of major and minor. The major-minor (dominant) seventh
chords used on each degree alone seem to fall in some grey area between the strong, content major chord and the
somber, conflicted minor chord.[citation needed] The subdominant's seventh chord is of note here, because of its odd
relationship with the tonic.
In classical music, the dominant (major-minor) seventh chord on the tonic would almost certainly resolve elsewhere
(rather than being resolved to), especially its subdominant (from C7: to F). While, at first it seems to resolve well to
the subdominant, this is merely a tonicization (brief leave to another key), because of the earlier emphasis on the
dominant seventh (C7), and because of the dominant seventh that appears on the subdominant, an element found in
the Dorian mode. Traditionally, the seventh of the subdominant chord would not be flattened, as it would contradict
the third of the tonic chord. This undermines the expected resolution and also questions whether the actual tonic is
major or minor in quality: this seventh chord (F-A-C-E♭) resolves back to the tonic by resolving both up a step to
(E♭-->E) (mediant), and down a step to from (F-->E) (leading tone); and down harmonically to I.
When returning to the I7 chord, the major third sounds like a Picardy third resolution, and the minor seventh no
longer seems to resolve to the sixth (B♭-->A, the third of IV; instead it seems like a blue note that adds a tense,
funky, thick color to the tonic.

In jazz
Jazz is considered to have some of its roots in the blues,[16] and the blues progression is one of several blues
elements found in jazz such as blue notes, blues-like phrasing of melodies, and blues riffs. Tunes that utilize the
jazz-blues harmony are fairly common in the jazz repertoire, especially from the bebop era.
A twelve-bar jazz blues will usually feature a more sophisticated—or at any rate a different—treatment of the
harmony than a traditional blues would, but the underlying features of the standard 12-bar blues progression remain
discernible. One of the main ways the jazz musician accomplishes this is through the use of chord substitutions—a
chord in the original progression is replaced by one or more chords which have the same general "sense" or function;
in this case occurring especially in the turnaround (i.e., the last four bars). One well-known artist that sang this form
of jazz was Billie Holiday, and almost all well known instrumental jazz musicians will have recorded at least one
variation on this theme.
The 12-bar blues form, in the commonly played key of B♭, often becomes:
Bb7 / Eb7
/ Bb7
/ Bb7
/
Eb7 / Edim7 / Bb7
/ Dm7 - G7 /
Cm7 / F7
/ Dm7 - G7 / Cm7 - F7 //
Transposed to the key of C:
C7 / F7
/ C7
/ C7
/
F7 / F♯dim7 / C7
/ Em7 - A7 /
Dm7 / G7
/ Em7 - A7 / Dm7 - G7 //
where each slash represents a new measure, in the jazz-blues. The significant changes include the Edim7, which
creates movement, and the III-VI-II-V or I-VI-II-V turnaround, a jazz staple.

56

Twelve-bar blues

57

There is however no standard form of jazz blues, and several common variations. For example, the diminished chord
in bar 6 is often omitted, and many turnarounds are possible. An example turnaround using chromatic chord
movement could be:
Dm7 / G7 / C7 - Eb7 / D7 - Db7
Another variation has the cycle concluding on the dominant chord as in a standard blues. This feature introduces a
tension that propels the listener's expectation toward the next chord change cycle. Here is an example:
C7 - A7 / Dm7 - G7
Count Basie's version of the blues progression, which came into wide use, demonstrates several of these variations
(shown here in the key of F):
F7 / Bb7 Bdim / F7
Bb7 / Bdim
/ F7
Gm7 / C7
/ F7

/ Cm7
/ D7
/ Gm7

F7 /
/
C7 /

Alto sax great Charlie Parker introduced a fluid chord sequence for jazz blues, using tritone substitution and
chromatic chord changes typical of the be-bop era. It has come to be known as Bird Blues, after his nickname,
"Yardbird," or more simply, "Bird."

Bird blues progression[17]
IM7 VIIm7♭5 III7♭9 VIm7 II7
IV7

IVm7 ♭VII7

IIm7

V7

Vm7 I7

IIIm7 VI7 ♭III7 ♭VI7
I7 VI7♭9

IIm7 V7

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Bird blues progression.mid
For example, similar progressions may be found in, Parker's "Blues for Alice", Wes Montgomery's "West Coast
Blues", and the non-jazz Toots Thielemans' "Bluesette", Parker's "Confirmation", and Harry Warren's "There Will
Never Be Another You".[18] Below is a common version of the Bird Blues chord sequence, shown here in F:
Fmaj7 / Em7b5
Bb7
/ Bbm7
Gm7
/ C7

A7b9 /
Eb7 /
/

Dm7
Am7
F

Db7 /
D7 /
D7 /

Cm7
Abm7
Gm7

F7 /
Db7 /
C7 //

A more modern example is the A-section of Pat Metheny's "Missouri Uncompromised". The first 4 bars and the last
4 bars are taken from the classic blues (albeit without the dominant quality); the middle 4 bars, although completely
altered, still follow the functional pattern of the blues:
• B♭/A is a suspended subdominant, which serves as a pivot point modulating to B♭ major, where it becomes an
unstable form of the tonic;
• D♭/A♭ serves as a more stable version of a (now minor) tonic substitute (tonic of the subdominant is subdominant
by association to the original key);
• E♭/G serves as a pivot point modulating back to A major, where it becomes the triton substitute of the tonic;
• D/F♯ and Dm/F are both subdominant, creating a natural movement from the tonic substitute above to the
dominant chord in bar 9.
A
Bb/A
E

/ A
/ A
/ Db/Ab / Eb/G
/ D
/ A

/ A
/
/ D/F# Dm/F /
/ A
//

Twelve-bar blues

References
[1] Thomas 2002, p. 85.
[2] Benward & Saker 2003, p. 186.
[3] Kernfeld 2007
[4] Alfred Publishing, p. 18
[5] Tanner and Gerow 1984, p. 37 cited in Baker 2004: "This alteration [V-IV-I rather than V-V-I] is now considered standard."
[6] Alfred 2003, p. 4
[7] Spitzer 2001, p. 62
[8] Spitzer 2001, p. 62.
[9] Spitzer 2001, p. 62.
[10] Spitzer 2001, p. 63.
[11] Spitzer 2001, p. 63.
[12] Middleton 1990, pp. 117–8).
[13] Doll 2009, p. 22.
[14] Covach 2005, p. 67.
[15] Spitzer 2001, p. 64.
[16] Shipton 2007, pp. 4–5.
[17] Spitzer 2001, p. 64.
[18] Spitzer 2001, p. 64.

Works cited
• Alfred Publishing (2002). Beginning Delta Blues Guitar. ISBN 978-0-7390-3006-6.
• Alfred Publishing (2003). Electric Bass for Guitarists. ISBN 0-7390-3335-2.
• Anonymous (8-14-08). " Blues Chord Progressions and Variations (http://how-to-play-blues-guitar.com/
blues-concepts/blues-chord-progressions-and-variations/): Common variations in the twelve bar form", How to
Play Blues Guitar.com.
• Axelsson, Lars; Strängliden, Eddie, eds. (2007). "Johnny B. Goode" (http://www.ehrlingforlagen.se/
100lattalatargitarr1.htm). 100 Lätta Låtar: Gitarr [100 Easy Songs: Guitar]. 100 Lätta Låtar 1. Erhrlingförlagen
AB. ISBN 978-91-85662-11-1.
• Benward, Bruce, and Marilyn Nadine Saker (2003). Music: In Theory and Practice, Vol. I, seventh edition.
Boston: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-294262-0.
• Covach, John. "Form in Rock Music: A Primer", in Stein, Deborah (2005). Engaging Music: Essays in Music
Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517010-5.
• Doll, Christopher (2009). "Transformation in Rock Harmony: An Explanatory Strategy" (http://trace.tennessee.
edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1000&context=gamut). Gamut (2): 1–44.
• Gerow, Maurice and Tanner, Paul (1984). A Study of Jazz, Dubuque, Iowa: William C. Brown Publishers, p. 37,
cited in Baker, Robert M. (2005). A Brief History of the Blues (http://web.archive.org/web/20071014055652/
http://thebluehighway.com/history.html)".
• Kernfeld, Barry, ed. (2007). "Blues progression". The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz;. 2nd Edition. Oxford, UK:
Oxford University Press.
• Middleton, Richard (1990/2002). Studying Popular Music. Philadelphia: Open University Press. ISBN
0-335-15275-9.
• Shipton, Alyn (2007). A New History of Jazz, 2nd. ed., Continuum, pp. 4–5.
• Spitzer, Peter (2001). Jazz Theory Handbook. ISBN 978-0-7866-5328-7.
• Thomas, John (2002). Voice Leading for Guitar: Moving Through the Changes. ISBN 0-634-01655-5.
• Van der Merwe, P. (1989). Origins of the Popular Style. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-316121-4. Cited in
Middleton (1990).

58

Twelve-bar blues

59

External links
• 12 Bar Blues and Variations (http://betweenthelicks.com/blues-guitar/12-bar-blues-and-variations).
• Marc Sabatella's Jazz Improvisation Primer (http://www.outsideshore.com/primer/primer/ms-primer-5-2.
html#Blues).
• 12-Bar-Blues guitar lesson (http://www.blueslessons.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&
id=25&Itemid=33).
• Collection of Recordings of 12-Bar-Blues Examples (http://www.bluesimprov.com/recordings/all.php).

Turnaround (music)
In jazz, a turnaround is a passage at the
end of a section which leads to the next
section. This next section is most often the
repetition of the previous section or the
entire piece or song.[1]
The turnaround may lead back to this
section either harmonically, as a chord
progression, or melodically.
ii-V7-I turnaround in C

 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Ii-V-I turnaround in
C.mid

Typical turnarounds
Typical turnarounds in jazz include:
• I-vi-ii-V (ii-V-I turnaround, circle progression)
• I-VI-II-V[4] (I-V/ii-V/V-V)
• I-♭iiio-ii7-V7[5]
• I-vi-♭VI7♯11-V
• V-IV-I (blues turnaround)
• I-♭III-♭VI-♭II7 (Tadd Dameron turnaround)
Turnarounds typically begin with the tonic (I) and end on the dominant
(V7), the next section starting on the tonic (I). They may also end on
♭II7 (dominant substitute).[6] Thus when used in a twelve bar blues
pattern, the twelfth bar may end on the dominant. All of the chords in a
turnaround may be seventh chords.

Harmonic alternatives

[2]
I-vi7-ii-V7 turnaround in C
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:I-vi-ii-V
turnaround in C.mid.

III-VI-II-V turnaround often appears in the bridge
[3]
of jazz standards.
 Play Wikipedia:Media
helpFile:Ragtime progression in C.mid

Sometimes, especially in blues music, musicians will take chords which are normally minor chords and make them
major. The most popular example is the I - VI - ii - V - (I) progression; normally, the vi

Turnaround (music)

chord would be a minor chord (min, -7, -6, -(♭6), etc.) but here the
major third allows for a more interesting modulation. Take the example
in C major: C - A - d min - G (dom) . The third of the VI chord (in this
case, C♯) allows for chromatic movement from C (the root of I) to C♯
(the third of VI) to D (the root of ii).

60

Tadd Dameron turnaround with resolution.
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Tadd Dameron
turnaround with resolution.mid

Similar chromaticism and harmonic interest can be achieved by the use
of a secondary dominant, which are also useful for turnarounds. The
simplest example is V7/V - V7 - I, instead of ii - V - I. Another popular turnaround which may be considered as a
secondary dominant analysis is ii - ♭V/V (or ♭II) - I, which is a variation on the standard ii - V - I turnaround. In jazz
parlance, use of the bII instead of the V is known as Tritone Substitution. Using bV/V instead of V allows for a
smooth chromatic descent. Again, let's examine C major; the original turnaround would be d min - G (dom) - C,
while the modified would be d min - D♭ - C . The obvious chromatic movement is thorough; it is apparent in the
roots (D - D♭ - C), thirds (F - F - E; F is often used as a pedal tone), and fifths (A - A♭ - G).
While in that particular example the ♭V/V can be considered a Neapolitan chord, the more typical functional analysis
in the context of the jazz idiom is that it is not a "secondary dominant" (♭V7/V) at all, but ♭II7, a substitute
dominant[7] (tritone substitution). Harmonically, ♭II7 functions exactly as V7/I does, because the two chords
enharmonically contain the same tritone, which is the critical harmonic element in the resolution from dominant to
tonic. The half-step-wise downward motion of the roots of those chords, as seen in ii - ♭II7 - I, forms the familiar
"line cliché", arriving satisfyingly at the tonic.
NB: "Secondary dominant" = the functional dominant of the key's dominant or another non-tonic chord, while
"substitute dominant" = an alternative functional dominant of the key's tonic. The extending of dominants to
secondaries (or beyond) is a practice which remains firmly inside the circle of fifths, while the substitution of
dominants replaces that cycle with one of minor-second intervals.
I-vi-ii-V may be transformed through various chord substitutions. For example, the vi and ii chords may be
substituted with dominant chords, giving I-VI7-II7-V or C-A7-D7-G,[8] the Ragtime progression. The tritone
substitution may be applied to the vi and V chords, giving C-E♭7-D7-D♭7, or to every chord but the I, giving
C-E♭7-A♭M7-D♭7.[9]

References
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]

Randel, Don Michael (2002). The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians. ISBN 0-674-00978-9. p.693
Boyd, Bill (1997). Jazz Chord Progressions, p.43. ISBN 0-7935-7038-7.
Boyd, Bill (1997). Jazz Chord Progressions, p.56. ISBN 0-7935-7038-7.
Boyd (1997), p.86.
Boyd (1997), p.90.
Coker, et al (1982). Patterns for Jazz: A Theory Text for Jazz Composition and Improvisation, p.118. ISBN 0-89898-703-2.
, . Harmony 4 course book, . Berklee College of Music.
Boyd (1997), p.44.
Boyd (1997), p.46-47.

V-IV-I turnaround

61

V-IV-I turnaround
In music, the V-IV-I turnaround, or blues turnaround,[3] is one of
several cadential patterns traditionally found in the twelve-bar blues,
and commonly found in rock and roll.
The cadence moves from the tonic to dominant, to subdominant, and
back to the tonic. "In a blues in A, the turnaround will consist of the
chords E7, D7, A7, E7 [V-IV-I-V[4]]."[5] V may be used in the last
measure rather than I since, "nearly all blues tunes have more than one
chorus (occurrence of the 12-bar progression), the turnaround (last four
bars) usually ends on V, which makes us feel like we need to hear I
again, thus bringing us around to the top (beginning) of the form
again.".

Harmonized blues turnaround (blue colored
[1]
notes) in open G tuning containing "How Dry I
Am"  Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Blues
turnaround open G tuning.mid.

V-IV-I progression in C
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:V-IV-I
turnaround in C.mid

Perfect authentic cadence: IV-V-I progression in
C  Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:IV-V-I in
C.mid. Considered the strongest ending during
the common practice period.

"The stock jazz-blues turnaround [V7
I7-VI7-ii7-V7]. More specifically...the I-VI-ii-V7
turnaround that can be found in jazz and many
non-jazz styles. If there is one turnaround...that
[2]
has to become second nature, this is it."
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Jazz-blues
turnaround.mid.

V-IV-I turnaround

The blues turnaround may be "dress[ed] up" by using Vaug
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Augmented triad on C.mid ("an
uptown V7") instead of V7
 Play Wikipedia:Media
helpFile:Dominant seventh chord on C.mid, "adding a touch of jazzy
sophistication."[6] An important variation is the jazz influenced
turnaround ii-V-I-V.

History
"It seems likely that the blues turnaround evolved from ragtime-type
Blues turnaround containing "How Dry I Am"
 Play Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Blues
music", the earliest example being I-I7-IV-iv-I (in C: C-C7-F-Fm-C),
[7]
turnaround.mid.
"The Japanese Grand March". This is a plagal cadence featuring a
dominant seventh tonic (I or V/IV) chord. However, Baker cites a
turnaround containing "How Dry I Am" as the "absolutely most commonly used blues turnaround". Fischer describes
the turnaround as the last two measures of the blues form, or I7 and V7, with variations including I7-IV7-I7-V7-[8]

Analysis
The root movement of the V−IV−I cadential formula found in the blues is considered nontraditional from the
standpoint of Western harmony. The motion of the V−IV−I cadence has been considered "backward," as, in
traditional harmony, the subdominant normally prepares for the dominant which then has a strong tendency to
resolve to the tonic. However, an alternative analysis has been proposed in which the IV acts to intensify the seventh
of V, which is then resolved to the third of the tonic.
The V-IV-I movement has also been characterized as "unwinding" the V-I cadence with the addition of the passing
IV.[9]

Sources
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]

Brozman, Bob (1996). Bob Brozman's Bottleneck Blues Guitar, p.7. ISBN 1-57623-727-3.
Manus, Ron (2003). Jazz Lead Guitar Solos: The Ultimate Guide to Playing Great Leads, Book & CD, p.16. ISBN 0739031589.
Gress, Jesse (2006). Guitar Licks of the Texas Blues-Rock Heroes, p.16. ISBN 0-87930-876-1.
Alfred Publishing (2003). Electric Bass for Guitarists, p.34. ISBN 0-7390-3335-2.
Tony Skinner, Andy Drudy (2006). Guitar Lessons Blues and Rock: 10 Easy-to-follow Guitar Lessons, p.18. ISBN 1-898466-76-9.
Johnston, Richard (2007). How to Play Blues Guitar: The Basics and Beyond, p.19. ISBN 0-87930-910-5.
Baker, Duck (2004). Duck Baker's Fingerstyle Blues Guitar 101, p.17. ISBN 0-7866-7210-2.
Fischer, Peter (2000). Blues Guitar Rules, p.31. ISBN 3-927190-64-0.
Pedlar, Dominic (2003). The Songwriting Secrets of the Beatles, p.30. ISBN 0-7119-8167-1 and (http:/ / www. torvund. net/ guitar/ index.
php?page=prog& prid=3).

62

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Backfromquadrangle, Backslash Forwardslash, Balabiot, Bald Zebra, BassHistory, Bearcat, Billstewart, Bitbut, Boleyn, Brian Crawford, Brianreading, Brunton, BurnDownBabylon, CPGACoast,
Calabe1992, Camembert, Charles Matthews, Cielomobile, Conversion script, Curps, David Levy, Dbarclaymoore, Deon Steyn, DerHexer, Dirk Hagemann, Dissolve, Dlohcierekim, Dmr2,
Drsmoo, Dylfre47, Eleuther, ErkinBatu, Face, Finlay McWalter, Fratrep, Frvernchanezzz, Furrykef, Gene Fellner, Geniac, Graham87, Grumpyyoungman01, Gurry, Gus, Hache Ele, Hazzles98,
Hearfourmewesique, Hkwikip, Hu12, Hyacinth, IRP, Ikeshut, Isamit, JHP, JadeOwl, Jafar13, Jafeluv, Jcardinal, Jimmy Pitt, JohnCD, Jph, Jprg1966, Juantxorena, Kansas Sam, Kiefer.Wolfowitz,
Klundarr, Krawi, L Kensington, LGF1992UK, LaurelESH, Lordofthesheep, Luk, Marek69, Maunus, MegX, Merlync70, Mike Rosoft, MikeLynch, Monkeycheesecake, Niklas R, NoJoy,
Nookstery, Ohnoitsjamie, One Of Seven Billion, OriginalJay, Ortolan88, Ozzykhan, Peter Pants, Petrb, Pladask, PrachtAl, RadioBroadcast, Radon210, Random contributor, Redheylin, Rich
Farmbrough, Rigadoun, Rjanag, Rjwilmsi, Sabrebd, Salsa Shark, Sam Hocevar, Saxmansignguy, Seancron, SerenadeOp24, Sixteen Left, Sketchee, Slimandslam, Sluzzelin, SlyEcho,
SonOfNothing, Special-T, Sriharsh1234, Sssoul, StaticGull, StephenBuxton, Stephenb, StuTheSheep, Sunnan, Tassedethe, Tcncv, Teejaydub, Tgeairn, Thatguyflint, The Person Who Is Strange,
The Thing That Should Not Be, Theopolisme, Theshowmecanuck, Timd12345, Tommy2010, Tone, Tranchis, Tryingtomakeadifference, TunaSunrise, Txomin, Universalcosmos, Vanished user
ikijeirw34iuaeolaseriffic, Wahoofive, Watergoose, We hope, WikHead, William Avery, Wiltroon, Wrolf, X!, Xtifr, Zaf, Zazaban, Zenlax, Zimbricchio, Zundark, 260 anonymous edits
Turnaround (music)  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=544033928  Contributors: AllyD, BassHistory, Download, DutchDevil, Editor437, Ehjort, EngineerScotty, Fauban,
Furrykef, Grafen, Gyrofrog, Hyacinth, MithrandirAgain, Pre10s, R'n'B, RaffleFour, Redheylin, Rigadoun, ShelfSkewed, 24 anonymous edits
V-IV-I turnaround  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=532469445  Contributors: BassHistory, CPGACoast, Hyacinth, LilHelpa, 1 anonymous edits

64

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:50s progression in C.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:50s_progression_in_C.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Hyacinth
File:Loudspeaker.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Loudspeaker.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bayo, Frank C. Müller, Gmaxwell, Gnosygnu, Husky,
Iamunknown, Mirithing, Myself488, Nethac DIU, Nixón, Omegatron, Rocket000, Shanmugamp7, Snow Blizzard, The Evil IP address, Túrelio, Wouterhagens, 28 anonymous edits
Image:Phrygian Andalusian cadence.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Phrygian_Andalusian_cadence.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Hyacinth (talk)
Image:Backdoor progression in C.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Backdoor_progression_in_C.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors:
Created by Hyacinth (talk) 12:09, 12 December 2010 using Sibelius and Preview.
Image:Bird Blues in Bb.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bird_Blues_in_Bb.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Hyacinth
Image:Vi-ii-V-I in C.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vi-ii-V-I_in_C.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Hyacinth
Image:Coltrane changes.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Coltrane_changes.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Hyacinth
Image:Later Folia.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Later_Folia.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Hyacinth
Image:Ii-V-I turnaround in C.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ii-V-I_turnaround_in_C.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Hyacinth
Image:Irregular resolution I.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Irregular_resolution_I.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Created by
Hyacinth (talk) 04:19, 2 May 2010 using Sibelius 5.
Image:Montgomery-Ward bridge in C.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Montgomery-Ward_bridge_in_C.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License
 Contributors: User:Hyacinth
Image:Omnibus progression.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Omnibus_progression.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Hyacinth
Image:Pachelbel Canon bass line (quarter notes).svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pachelbel_Canon_bass_line_(quarter_notes).svg  License: Public Domain
 Contributors: User:Bdesham
Image:Passamezzo antico.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Passamezzo_antico.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Hyacinth
Image:Gregory Walker root progression.PNG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gregory_Walker_root_progression.PNG  License: GNU Free Documentation License
 Contributors: Hyacinth at en.wikipedia
Image:I-V-vi-IV chord progression in C.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:I-V-vi-IV_chord_progression_in_C.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License
 Contributors: User:Hyacinth
Image:Ragtime progression in C.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ragtime_progression_in_C.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors:
User:Gobonobo
Image:Rhythm changes in C.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rhythm_changes_in_C.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Hyacinth
Image:Romanesca.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Romanesca.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Hyacinth
Image:Twelve bar boogie-woogie blues in C.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Twelve_bar_boogie-woogie_blues_in_C.png  License: GNU Free Documentation
License  Contributors: User:Linfocito B
Image:I-vi-ii-V turnaround in C.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:I-vi-ii-V_turnaround_in_C.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Original
uploader was Hyacinth at en.wikipedia
Image:V-IV-I turnaround in C.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:V-IV-I_turnaround_in_C.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Created by
Hyacinth (talk) 08:56, 6 December 2010 using Sibelius 5.
Image:50s progression in C variation.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:50s_progression_in_C_variation.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License
 Contributors: User:Hyacinth
File:Porrina de Badajoz.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Porrina_de_Badajoz.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Balbo, Gianni86, Judithcomm, Kilom691, 3
anonymous edits
File:Andalusian.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Andalusian.png  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Impy4ever
File:Phrygian Andalusian cadence.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Phrygian_Andalusian_cadence.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Hyacinth (talk)
File:Backdoor progression in C.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Backdoor_progression_in_C.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors:
Created by Hyacinth (talk) 12:09, 12 December 2010 using Sibelius and Preview.
File:Backdoor progression IV in C.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Backdoor_progression_IV_in_C.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors:
Hyacinth (talk). Original uploader was Hyacinth at en.wikipedia
File:Backdoor progression to iii.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Backdoor_progression_to_iii.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors:
User:Hyacinth
Image:Gnome-mime-sound-openclipart.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gnome-mime-sound-openclipart.svg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Eubulides
File:Sharp IIdim7 as dominant substitute.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sharp_IIdim7_as_dominant_substitute.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License
 Contributors: Hyacinth (talk)
File:Bird Blues in Bb.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bird_Blues_in_Bb.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Hyacinth
File:Submediant in chain of fifths.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Submediant_in_chain_of_fifths.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors:
User:Hyacinth
File:Vi-ii-V-I in C.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vi-ii-V-I_in_C.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Hyacinth
File:Bach - WTC I, Prelude in F-sharp Major vi-ii-V-I.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bach_-_WTC_I,_Prelude_in_F-sharp_Major_vi-ii-V-I.png  License: Public
Domain  Contributors: Hyacinth
File:Progresión quintas.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Progresión_quintas.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Hyacinth
File:Mozart - Sonata, K.545.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mozart_-_Sonata,_K.545.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Hyacinth
Image:Have you met miss jones-seechord chart.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Have_you_met_miss_jones-seechord_chart.jpg  License: Creative Commons
Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Seechord1
Image:coltrane substitution-SeeChord chart.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Coltrane_substitution-SeeChord_chart.jpg  License: Creative Commons
Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Seechord1
Image:Fifths.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fifths.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Hyacinth, Jtir, Tó campos1, Wst, 1 anonymous
edits
Image:Thirds cycle.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Thirds_cycle.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Hyacinth, Mako098765
Image:Tune up-SeeChord chart.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tune_up-SeeChord_chart.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors:
Seechord1
Image:Countdown-Seechord chart.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Countdown-Seechord_chart.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
 Contributors: Seechord1
Image:Giant Steps-SeeChord chart.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Giant_Steps-SeeChord_chart.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
 Contributors: Seechord
Image:Eight bar boogie-woogie blues in C.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Eight_bar_boogie-woogie_blues_in_C.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License
 Contributors: Created by Hyacinth (talk) 00:02, 18 July 2011 (UTC) using Sibelius 5.
File:Later Folia.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Later_Folia.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Hyacinth
File:Early Folia.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Early_Folia.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Hyacinth
File:Early Folia b.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Early_Folia_b.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Hyacinth

65

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:Later Folia b.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Later_Folia_b.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Hyacinth
File:Ii-V-I turnaround in C.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ii-V-I_turnaround_in_C.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Hyacinth
File:Bach - Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I, Prelude I, opening.png  Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bach_-_Well-Tempered_Clavier,_Book_I,_Prelude_I,_opening.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:SreeBot
File:Bach - WTC I, Prelude in D Major ii-V-I.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bach_-_WTC_I,_Prelude_in_D_Major_ii-V-I.png  License: Public Domain
 Contributors: Hyacinth
File:Ii-V-I classical and jazz.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ii-V-I_classical_and_jazz.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Created by
Hyacinth (talk) 05:16, 7 December 2010 using Sibelius 5.
File:Ii-V-I turnaround in C minor.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ii-V-I_turnaround_in_C_minor.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors:
Created by Hyacinth (talk) 18:01, 16 July 2010 using Sibelius 5.
File:Ii-V-I turnaround four-voice in C minor.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ii-V-I_turnaround_four-voice_in_C_minor.png  License: GNU Free Documentation
License  Contributors: Created by Hyacinth (talk) 18:59, 16 July 2010 using Sibelius 5.
File:Irregular resolution I.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Irregular_resolution_I.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Created by
Hyacinth (talk) 04:19, 2 May 2010 using Sibelius 5.
File:Irregular resolution through augmented sixth equivalence.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Irregular_resolution_through_augmented_sixth_equivalence.png
 License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Created by Hyacinth (talk) using Sibelius 5.
File:Regular resolution.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Regular_resolution.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Created by Hyacinth
(talk) 22:50, 9 May 2010 using Sibelius 5.
Image:Montgomery-Ward bridge with ii-V's in C.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Montgomery-Ward_bridge_with_ii-V's_in_C.png  License: GNU Free
Documentation License  Contributors: User:Hyacinth
Image:Omnibus 1.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Omnibus_1.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Drcastro (talk)
File:Pachelbel-canon-colors.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pachelbel-canon-colors.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Alton, BenFrantzDale, Bensin,
CyclePat, Finnrind, Gohnarch, Jashiin, Meno25, 9 anonymous edits
File:Pachelbel Canon bass line (quarter notes).svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pachelbel_Canon_bass_line_(quarter_notes).svg  License: Public Domain
 Contributors: User:Bdesham
File:Passamezzo antico.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Passamezzo_antico.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Hyacinth
File:Passamezzo and Romanesca.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Passamezzo_and_Romanesca.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors:
User:Hyacinth
Image:Darling Nelly Gray page 1.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Darling_Nelly_Gray_page_1.png  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Hyacinth
Image:American Gregory Walker root progression.PNG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:American_Gregory_Walker_root_progression.PNG  License: GNU Free
Documentation License  Contributors: Hyacinth (talk). Original uploader was Hyacinth at en.wikipedia
File:I-V-vi-IV chord progression in C.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:I-V-vi-IV_chord_progression_in_C.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License
 Contributors: User:Hyacinth
File:vi-IV-I-V chord progression in C.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vi-IV-I-V_chord_progression_in_C.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License
 Contributors: User:Hyacinth
File:Ragtime progression in C.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ragtime_progression_in_C.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors:
User:Gobonobo
File:Jazz standard bridge.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jazz_standard_bridge.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Hyacinth
File:Ragtime progression voice leading.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ragtime_progression_voice_leading.png  License: Creative Commons
Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Hyacinth
File:VofVofV-VofV-V-I.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:VofVofV-VofV-V-I.png  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors:
User:Hyacinth
Image:Rhythm_changes_complete_in_B-flat_Spitzer.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rhythm_changes_complete_in_B-flat_Spitzer.png  License: Creative
Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Hyacinth
File:Magnify-clip.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Magnify-clip.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Erasoft24
Image:Rhythm changes complete in B-flat Ellis.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rhythm_changes_complete_in_B-flat_Ellis.png  License: Creative Commons
Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Hyacinth
File:Romanesca.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Romanesca.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Hyacinth
Image:Standard 12-bar blues progression variations.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Standard_12-bar_blues_progression_variations.png  License: GNU Free
Documentation License  Contributors: User:Hyacinth
Image:Bop V of II cliche arpeggio.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bop_V_of_II_cliche_arpeggio.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors:
User:Hyacinth
File:Scale_deg_3.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Scale_deg_3.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Mscuthbert
File:Scale_deg_4.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Scale_deg_4.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Mscuthbert
Image:Jazz standard bridge.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jazz_standard_bridge.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Hyacinth
Image:Tadd Dameron turnaround with resolution.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tadd_Dameron_turnaround_with_resolution.png  License: GNU Free
Documentation License  Contributors: User:Hyacinth
File:Blues turnaround open G tuning.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Blues_turnaround_open_G_tuning.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License
 Contributors: User:Hyacinth
File:V-IV-I turnaround in C.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:V-IV-I_turnaround_in_C.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Created by
Hyacinth (talk) 08:56, 6 December 2010 using Sibelius 5.
File:IV-V-I in C.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:IV-V-I_in_C.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Hyacinth
File:Jazz-blues turnaround.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jazz-blues_turnaround.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Created by
Hyacinth (talk) 14:22, 16 December 2010 using Sibelius 5.
File:Blues turnaround.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Blues_turnaround.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Created by Hyacinth (talk)
15:34, 16 December 2010 using Sibelius 5.

66

License

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
//creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

67