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**Body-fat Calculator using Bio-electrical
**

Impedance

Christopher Beck

David Abrahams

December 18, 2014

Instructors:

Brian Storey

Brad Minch

Contents

1 Introduction

2

2 The Circuit

2

3 Current Pump Analysis

3

4 Receiver Circuit Analysis

5

**5 Calculating Body Fat Percentage
**

5.1 Test Subject 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.2 Test Subject 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

7

8

6 Conclusion

8

1

1

Introduction

**For our final project we decided to make a body fat percentage tester using the
**

bio-electrical impedance method. We ran a fixed current through the body and

then measured the voltage difference across them in order to determine their

body’s impedance. By inputting these numbers into an equation based on other

research we are able to calculate the body fat percentage of the individual.

2

The Circuit

Figure 1: The entire circuit schematic

**Our circuit starts with a voltage source which alternates between 1.5 and 3.5
**

volts at a frequency of 10 Hz. We use a current pump to convert this voltage

difference into a current, which is then sent through the body of our test subject.

The voltage at the two ends of the subjects body is sent into an instrumentation

amplifier, which acts as a subtractor. We then send the resulting voltage through

filters and amplifiers. The filter system consists of two filters and two amplifiers.

The first filter is a low-pass followed by an amplifier with a gain of 3. Following

the amplifier is a high-pass filter and another amplifier with a gain of 3. This

filters out noise and amplifies the output signal by a factor of nine.

2

3

Current Pump Analysis

Figure 2: The current pump used

**The following is an analysis of our current pump, shown in Figure 2.
**

3

As shown in the analysis, the current running through the person is independent of their impedance. We can then use Ohm’s Law: V = IR, to calculate

impedance.

4

**Current Pump Across a 1M Resistor
**

4

Input Voltage

Output Voltage

3.5

Voltage

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

−0.2 −0.15 −0.1 −0.05

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

Time (s)

Figure 3: Using the current pump on a 1M Ω resistor

**We input a sine wave with an amplitude of 1 V and use an R2 value of 1M Ω,
**

1V

= 1µA. Using

based on our analysis we should produce a current of i = 1000000Ω

Ohm’s Law, we can calculate the expected output voltage as a function of input

voltage.

**Vmeasured = ipump Rperson
**

Vin

ipump =

R2

Rperson

Vmeasured = Vin ×

R2

In this case, because both Rperson and R2 are 1M Ω, we can expect the

amplitude of Vmeasured to equal Vin , which it does.

4

Receiver Circuit Analysis

The following equations can be used to predict the output of our receiver circuit.

5

Vin

1

=

Vout

1 + jωRC

Vin

jωRC

=

Vout

1 + jωRC

Rf

Vin

=1+

Vout

Rg

**(Low Pass Filter)
**

(High Pass Filter)

(Non Inverting Amplifier)

Substituting in the values used, we can plot actual vs measured amplitude.

**Output of Receiver Circuit
**

20

Input Voltage

Output Voltage

Expected Output

15

10

Amplitude (dB)

5

0

−5

−10

−15

−20

−25

−30

0

10

1

2

10

10

3

10

Frequency (Hz)

Figure 4: A bode plot of the receiver circuit

5

Calculating Body Fat Percentage

**Using Ohm’s Law, we can calculate the bio electrical impedance of our test
**

subjects by inputting a sine wave voltage across them and then analysing the

result using the following equation:

6

Rperson =

Vperson

iperson

Rperson =

Vmeasured

gain

Vin

1000000Ω

Rperson =

Vmeasured × 1000000Ω

Vin × 7.4861

**The value for gain was obtained from the value of gain in the bode plot at
**

10Hz.

We can then calculate body fat percentage using the following formula:

BodyF at% = 1 −

5.1

**0.0005 ∗ Cm2 + 0.392 ∗ Kg − 0.0684 ∗ Age − 5.1841 ∗ Gender + 24.678 − 0.00000224 ∗ Imped
**

Kg

Test Subject 1

Body Fat Calculator on Subject 1

Bioelectrical Impedence =405365.9386Ω

4.5

Input Voltage

Voltage Across Person

4

3.5

Voltage

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

−0.2 −0.15 −0.1 −0.05

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

Time (s)

Figure 5: The output of our circuit on subject 1

**For subject 1, plugging these numbers into our equation, we get:
**

7

0.25

**0.0005 ∗ 1752 + 0.392 ∗ 73 − 0.0684 ∗ 19 − 5.1841 ∗ 1 + 24.678 − 0.00000224 ∗ 405366
**

73

BodyF at% = 16.14%

BodyF at% = 1 −

5.2

Test Subject 2

Body Fat Calculator on Subject 2

Bioelectrical Impedence =125249.0487Ω

4

Input Voltage

Voltage Across Person

3.5

Voltage

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

−0.2 −0.15 −0.1 −0.05

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

Time (s)

Figure 6: The output of our circuit on subject 2

For subject 2:

0.0005 ∗ 1932 + 0.392 ∗ 84 − 0.0684 ∗ 19 − 5.1841 ∗ 1 + 24.678 − 0.00000224 ∗ 125249

84

BodyF at% = 17.30%

BodyF at% = 1 −

6

Conclusion

**This circuit uses a current pump to send a constant alternating current across
**

the test subject, the amplitude of which is independent of the resistance of the

8

test subject. The output voltage can then be analysed to find the subject’s bioelectrical impedance, which can be used to calculate body fat %. However, when

calculating body fat, the most important values to know are the subject’s height

and weight; theirbio-electricall impedance merely serves to tune this number

closer to its true value.

9

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