CASE STUDY REPORT: CSUF READING CENTER

Name: Johnny Gillentine
Birthdate: 12/15/06

Age:

Sex: Male
7

Grade: 2nd
Date: Fall 2014

Parent/Guardian: Jamie and Debbie Gillentine

Examiner: Tamara Dixon

Address:
School child attends: Vineyard Christian School
*The findings in this report were concluded by CSU Fullerton graduate students for the purpose
of completing their final course in the Master’s Degree in Reading program. The conclusions
reached in this report should not be used to make placement decisions or for special education
evaluations.
Reading Levels
Based on the Qualitative Reading Inventory (QRI):
Independent (Narrative)

September 2010
Not Determined

Independent (Expository)

Not Determined

Instructional (Narrative)
Instructional (Expository)

Primer, “A Trip”
Primer, “Who Lives near
Lakes”
1st Grade, “The Surprise”
Not Determined

Frustration (Narrative)
Frustration (Expository)

December 2010
2nd Grade, “What
Can I Get for My
Toy”
2nd Grade, “Whales
and Fish”
Not Determined
Not Determined
Not Determined
Not Determined

Reason for Referral:
At the start of the school year, Johnny was reading two years below grade level as evidenced by
an informal reading inventory (IRI) administered by the examiner in September of 2014.
Additionally, his 1st grade teacher, Mrs. Patterson, stated on a Classroom Teacher Report that
Johnny is “below average” in fluency and writing. She also indicated that Johnny seems to
“struggle with fine motor skills” and “needs practice writing letters, words, and sentences in
appropriate sizes”. During the parent interview in September, Johnny’s mom also stated that
Johnny gets discouraged when reading on his own, and he loses focus easily. Johnny sees
himself as an “OK” reader, and he believes reading is important for adults, but he does not think
it is important for children, except to help them become good readers when they reach adulthood.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Development and Medical History:
According to the parent interview with Johnny’s mom before pre-assessment exams were given
in September, Johnny wears glasses with one bifocal lenses, due to a cataract he had removed
when he was eight weeks old. She also indicated that John’s fine motor skills developed very
slowly, which is in line with his first grade teacher’s observation that John needs help with the
fine motor skills that affect his writing.
School History:
Like his older siblings, Johnny attends Vineyard Christian School, a private school associate with
his family’s church. Johnny has been going to this school since Kindergarten, and his father is a
pastor on staff at the attached church, so he is usually in the building during the school day.
Johnny has close friendships at the school, and he has always liked his teachers.
Reading Center History:
Johnny has not been a part of CSUF reading center or any other reading center before this year.
This is Johnny’s first experience with any formal reading intervention.
Emotional Adjustment:
As stated earlier, Johnny’s mom mentioned in her parent interview in September that John can
get quickly discouraged when reading. While interviewing John in September, he said that his
closest friends are very strong readers, and he indicated that he views himself as a much weaker
reader. He is very confident in his skills in math and P.E., but he lacks confidence in his reading
and writing skills.
Family Life:
Johnny lives in a house with both of his parents and his older sister and brother. John is also
close with all four of his grandparents who live nearby. He also three cousins who live in his
neighborhood and attend his school. He has more cousins who live just a city away, and whom
he also sees often. He explained during his “All About Me” interview that he gets along best with
his cousins. He has grown up in a tightknit community within his church, and some of his friends
have been in his life since infancy. John’s family often goes camping together and takes
vacations that expose John to new places and cultures. John has most recently driven with his
family to Alaska. His older siblings have gone on mission trips to far off places like Turkey and
Uganda, and John shares in their experiences through their stories and pictures. Johnny is also
involved in his church and plays soccer for a club team.
Behavior and Observations during Diagnostic Sessions:
Because John’s sessions take place in his home, he is usually in the middle of another task when
his session is about to begin, and he is reluctant to give it up to move on to tutoring, though he
does not complain. Sometimes he appears very tired and needs reminding to keep his head up. At
other times, he is full of energy and needs to take a break to go for a quick run. His sessions are
usually scheduled on days he has soccer, so he often checks his watch and gives notice about
exactly how much time is left. When given a text to read, he always wants to look ahead to see

how long it is. However, when text is read to him to either begin or end a session, he is excited
and engaged. John is very conversational, and he will often want to pause and discuss what he is
reading. His mother had previously commented in her parent interview that John is motivated by
“tangible rewards such as candy”. This has proven to be true, and John generally shows more
enthusiasm towards the assessments when a reward was been offered.
TESTS ADMINISTERED
AFFECTIVE INVENTORY
1. Assessment: Motivation to Read Profile, Reading Survey - International Reading
Association (1996). The Reading Teacher, 49(7).
This survey is intended to give a measurement of a student’s affective outlook on reading. It
determines both the student’s level of self-efficacy as a reader and their value for reading.
Sample questions include:
1. I read_____________________.
___not as well as my friends
___About the same as my friends
___A little better than my friends
___A lot better than my friends
19. When I read out loud I am a ______________.
___poor reader
___OK reader
___good reader
___very good reader
Administered on 09/09/14
Results
December

September
Self Concept: 24/40 = 60%

Self Concept: 34/40 = 85%

Value: 28/40 = 70%

Value: 33/40 = 82%

Total: 52/80 = 65%

Total: 67/80 = 83.7
Summary of Performance

Pre-assessment: John does see some value in reading, and he has a high opinion of friends who
are avid readers. His confidence in his own reading abilities is fair. He considers himself an
“okay” reader. I would like to see John’s value for reading increase. While he does believe it is

important to be a good reader as an adult, he does not feel it is very important at his age. In
addition, John’s confidence in his own abilities could be stronger. His lowest scores are
consistently when questions asked him to compare himself to his friends.
Plan: I want to impress upon John the value of reading for both enjoyment and learning. It is
also important that John sees his reading skills growing and gains confidence in his abilities. To
accomplish these goals, I will
1)
2)
3)
4)

Bring in texts John enjoys and can laugh with
Provide expository texts that appeal to johns interests
Emphasize John’s strengths and point out his growth
Ask John to evaluate his own growth periodically
Goal: Move up to an 80% total score on MRP by December

2. Assessment: All About Me Interest Inventory - (CSUF READ 516 Course Materials)
This is a brief and informal survey that is intended to give basic insight into the students’ general
school life, home life, and interests. In addition to supplementing information received on the
MRP above, it also helps the examiner determine what materials of interest may be brought in
for later intervention to help with motivation.
Sample questions include:
When I have free time in school, I to _____________________
I hope my teacher will _____________________________
Administered on 09/09/14
Results:
John has close family relationships and especially loves spending time with his cousins. He has
been on several family trips, the most memorable being to Alaska, Mexico, and Kansas. He is
very athletic and especially loves soccer. His favorite subject in school is math. Though he only
likes reading “a little” he considers himself to be a fairly good reader. He does not like to read
aloud, and he does not see himself as a good writer.

Summary of Performance
John does see himself as a good reader as long as he does not have to read aloud. He does not
view himself as a good writer.

Overall Summary of Affective Performance

Though Johnny began the year lacking confidence as a reader, the re-assessment of the MRP
proves that his opinion of his own abilities has increased 25%. Even his outlook towards the
value of reading increased 12%. I noted in his pre-assessment that John’s lowest scores were
when comparing himself with his friends whom he acknowledges to be very good readers.
Though he still views his friends as stronger readers, John made one particular comment during
the post assessment that shows the new pride he takes in his reading skills. The question was
“My friends think I am ______________” and he chose “a good reader”. Then he said that his
friends actually said, “Wow! Your reading has improved a lot!” The goal set in September was
for Johnny’s total MRP score to raise to 80% by December, and he actually slightly surpassed the
goal with 83%.

WORD IDENTIFICATION – WORDS IN ISOLATION
1. Assessment: Qualitative Reading Inventory – 5: Word Lists. Leslie, L. & Caldwell, J. S.,
2011.
The QRI-5 is a popular informal reading inventory used to determine a students’ independent,
instructional, and frustration levels for reading both narrative and expository texts. The word
lists consist of words that are derived from the corresponding passages. The words lists are
comprised of words from the corresponding grade level passages, and are specifically designed
to help the examiner determine which level text to administer.
Administered on 09/11/14
Results:
September
Primer: 95% correct – Independent
First: 33% correct – Frustration
No Instructional level determined

December
Primer: 95% correct - Independent
First – 85 % correct - Instructional
Second- 75% correct - Instructional
(bordering on frustration

Summary of Performance
In September Johnny scored independent at the primer level. There was a large jump between his
primer score and his first grade score, taking him directly to the frustration level and leaving an
instructional level undetermined. John consistently missed words with vowel digraphs and words
containing –ough. Based on these assessments, I began administration of the QRI passages with
a primer level passage. At the end of the intervention, John scored instructional at the second

grade level. Though I once again began administering the QRI at the primer level to measure
growth in context, I continued to administer passages through the second grade level.
2. Assessment: San Diego Quick Assessment of Reading Ability: Ekwall, E., & Shanker, J.L.
(1988). Diagnosis and remediation of the disabled reader (3rd edition). Boston, MA: Allyn
and Bacon, Inc., pp. 102-103.
Administered on 9/11/14
Results
December
September
Independent – Primer
Independent – Grade 1
st
Instructional – 1
Instructional – Grade 2
Frustration – 2nd
Frustration – Grade 3
Summary of Performance
Originally, John tested one grade level behind on the San Diego quick, which was still stronger
than he had tested on the QRI. The post assessment here agreed with the QRI in measuring John
to have grown to a second grade instructional level, which is on target for John as a second
grader half way through his school year.
3. Assessment: CORE Graded High-Frequency Word Survey - Assessing Reading: Multiple
Measures for Kindergarten Through Twelfth Grade. (2008). Novato, Calif.: Arena Press.
Administered on 9/11/14
Results
September
3rd Grade – 17 correct (intensive)
2nd Grade – 21 correct (benchmark)
Strategic Not Determined

December
2nd grade – 24 Benchmark
3rd grade – 21 Benchmark
4th Grade – 23 Benchmark
(All benchmark)
Summary of Performance

In both the pre and post assessments, Johnny scored highest on the CORE High Frequency word
survey. This survey did not provide the best indication of John’s ability to read words in context,
as the reading assessments aligned most closely with the two previous surveys. However, as with
the other surveys, this assessment does show growth in John’s ability to identify words out of
context. By December John was measuring benchmark through the fourth grade list, which is as
high as this assessment will go. The few words John missed at each of the levels have no
common characteristics accept that they look similar to other words which John mistook them
for: i.e.: why for way, thank for think, and taught for thought.

Overall Summary
Three separate word identification surveys were used and compared to determine Johnny’s initial
reading level as well as consistent feature problems with words. In December Johnny specifically
struggled with vowel digraphs, -ough words, diphthongs, and multisyllabic words, even when
they were compound words made up of smaller words he would otherwise recognize. He was
also quick to substitute a less familiar word for another that might look similar (like and for an,
or on for one). Two of the three surveys placed him at below grade level. By December all three
surveys agreed that he had at least reached a second grade instructional level, if not higher. By
the end of the intervention, his most common mistake was substituting words for other similar
looking words.

WORD IDENTIFICATION – WORDS IN CONTEXT
Assessment: Qualitative Reading Inventory – 5: Word Lists. Leslie, L. & Caldwell, J. S.,
2011.
Along with comprehension and fluency rate, which is discussed below, the QRI reading
assessments help determine a student’s ability to identify words in context. When students make
an error in reading, it is counted as a miscue. This test gives measurements for total accuracy for
counting every miscue, and for total acceptability for counting only miscues known as meaning
changing (MC) miscues which disrupt the meaning or syntax of the text. Based on their number
of miscues, students can measure at independent, instructional, or frustration. The instructional
level is the best starting point to begin intervention. In Johnny’s case the examiner is primarily
looking for MC miscues to determine his reading level.

Pre-Assessment Results:

1. Primmer Narrative Passage, “A Trip”
Administered on 09/16/14
119 Words
Number of Meaning-Change Miscues: 3
Level:
Instructional

2. Primer Expository Passage “Who Lives Near Lakes?”
Administered on 09/16/14
62 Words
Number of Meaning-Change Miscues: 3
Level:
Instructional

3. First Grade Narrative Passage “The Surprise”
Administered on 09/16/14
216 Words
Number of Meaning-Change Miscues: 12
Level:
Frustration
4. First Grade Expository Passage “The Brain and the Five Senses”
Administered on 9/18/14
76 words
Number of Meaning-Change Miscues: 2
Level:
Instructional

Post Assessment Results:
1.

Primer Narrative Passage “The Pig Who Learned to Read”
Administered on 12/04/14
176 Words
Number of Meaning-Change Miscues: 4
Level:
Independent

2.

Primer Expository Passage “The Pig Who Learned to Read”
Administered on 12/04/14
64 Words
Number of Meaning-Change Miscues: 0
Level:
Independent

3.

Grade 1 Narrative Passage “The Bear and the Rabbit”

Administered on 12/08/14
181 Words
Number of Meaning-Change Miscues: 2
Level:
Independent
4. Grade 1 Expository Passage “Air”
Administered on 12/08/14
85 Words
Number of Meaning-Change Miscues: 5
Level:
Instructional
5. Grade 2 Narrative Passage “What can I Get for My Toy?”
Administered on 12/08/14
171 Words
Number of Meaning-Change Miscues: 1
Level:
Independent
6. Grade21 Expository Passage “Whales and Fish”
Administered on 12/08/14
197 Words
Number of Meaning-Change Miscues: 2
Level:
Independent

Overall Summary:
In the pre-assessments, Johnny only reached Frustration level with the first grade narrative,
which was a large jump from the number of miscues in the other three assessments. This might
have been contributed to sleepiness. However, I did not attempt to go beyond the first grade level
because of the results of his word identification assessments, and because the other three
readings on which he scored instructional we so very slow and labored that I expected Johnny to
get very frustrated with harder level text if we continued. In context he can usually self correct
when he realizes a word he said does not make sense, but it seems that tiredness and the desire to
be done with the assessment would even inhibit this at times. Even with context, he still could
not usually get -ough words on his own. He also often substituted words for similar ones without

really paying attention to the word on the page. The goal for was for Jonny to read both
expository and narrative texts with no more than two meaning changing miscues by December.
In December there was a noticeable improvement. Johnny was given six assessments covering
one narrative and one expository text from primer through second grade. He scored independent
on all but one assessment, and the one on which he scored instructional is overridden by scoring
independent on the next level. The only mistakes John was continuing to make in the postassessment were mistakes of substitutions from guessing at a glance rather than reading the
words on the paper. Though Johnny had five MC miscues on one first grade assessment, the
second grade assessments (which I was not sure I could administer when I created the goal)
prove that he met and surpassed the original goal.

COMPREHENSION
1. Assessment: Qualitative Reading Inventory – 5 (QRI-5). Leslie, L. & Caldwell, J. S.,
2011).
The QRI-5, which was previously discusses for assessing word identification in context, is also
used as a tool to measure student comprehension. Each reading is followed by a retelling of the
story. Students are given points based on how many details they can recall. This is followed by a
series of six to eight questions. First grade passages and lower include 4 explicit question with
answers directly stated in the passage, and two implicit questions with answers that were not
directly stated but can nonetheless be determined by thinking critically about the information in
the story. The second grade passages and above four explicit questions and 4 implicit questions.
If students answer all questions correctly, the passage is determined to be at the independent
level. If students miss up to two questions, the passage is considered to be at their instructional
level. Students who miss more than two questions are determined to be at their frustration level
for comprehending texts.
While assessing Johnny’s ability to comprehend, it quickly became clear that his story retelling
was not indicative of his actual comprehension. Johnny had difficulty giving more than a very
basic summary of each text, but when asked specific questions, he could recall details 95% of the
time. Therefore, Johnny’s retelling scores were not considered when determining his level of
comprehension.

Results:

Pre-Assessments:

1. Primmer Narrative Passage, “A Trip”
(No Look-backs)
Administered on 09/16/14
Explicit Questions = 4/4
Implicit Questions= 2/2
Total= 6/6 Independent
2. Primer Expository Passage “Who Lives Near Lakes?”
(No Look-backs)
Administered on 09/16/14
Explicit Questions = 4/4
Implicit Questions = 1/2
Total = 5/6 Instructional

3. First Grade Narrative Passage “The Surprise”
(No Look-backs)
Administered on 09/16/14
Explicit Questions = 4/4
Implicit Questions = 1/2
Total = 5/6 Instructional
4. First Grade Expository Passage “The Brain and the Five Senses”
(No Look-backs)
Administered on 9/18/14
Explicit Questions = 4/4
Implicit Questions = 2/2
Total 6/6 Independent

Post Assessments:

1. Grade 2 Narrative Passage “What can I Get for My Toy?”
(No Look-backs)
Administered on 12/08/14
Explicit = 4/4
Implicit = 3/4
Total = 7/8 Instructional
2. Grade21 Expository Passage “Whales and Fish”
(No Look-backs)
Administered on 12/08/14
Explicit = 3/4
Total 6/8 Instructional
Implicit =3/4

Assessment Summary
During the pre-assessments, John never measured below instructional. Because John had hit his
frustration level with fluency, we were not able to continue testing comprehension at a higher
level at the time. On all four of the pre-assessment tests, John only missed 2 out of 24 questions,
both of which were implicit. There was no correlation between the missed questions or the type
of text. One missed question was from a primer expository text; the other was a first grade
narrative text. Because John was able to answer both implicit questions on the 1st grade
expository, though he missed a one on the primer, I concluded that John would probably continue
to score at least instructional at the second grade level if given the opportunity. In December,
with an improved fluency rate, he was given the opportunity to read second grade level texts, and
he did score instructional on each. John did continue to miss one implicit question on each text,
which makes implicit questioning an area in need or further practice. However, he is not on
target for his grade level, and intensive intervention is probably not necessary.

2. Assessment: CORE Reading Maze Comprehension - Assessing Reading: Multiple
Measures for Kindergarten Through Twelfth Grade. (2008). Novato, Calif.: Arena Press.
The Maze diagnostic is a tool that measures how well a student can comprehend the text as they
read, and use the context and information presented in the text to determine missing words. In
these passages, every seventh word is replaced with three options that the student must choose
from. The two distractors do not maintain the meaning of the passage. One will fit

grammatically, and one will look similar to the correct answer. Students who rush through the
assessment without monitoring their own reading as they go will likely choose incorrectly. This
assessment can be done orally or silently. In the case below, the assessment was performed
orally.
Administered on 9/10/13
Results:
Level Two (Second Grade)
Number Correct
16/21
Number of Errors
5
Level
Advanced
Summary of Performance
According to the Maze Comprehension Interpretation chart given on page 153 of the CORE
assessment text, a score of 13 would be considered benchmark for Grade 2 in the spring. As
Johnny scored a 16 in the fall of his second grade year, his score would be considered advanced.
Though Johnny’s comprehension skills were already determined not to be a weakness for him, it
was nonetheless surprising that he would score advanced on this assessment, considering it is a
weakness for him to guess at words he is trying to identify. Still, this strong score indicates there
is no need to continue with further maze assessments.
Overall Summary:
Generally, a student with a low fluency rate as Johnny began with in September would also
measure poorly in comprehension. Studies have shown that students who labor with decoding a
text expend so much energy deciphering words that there is little left to give to the more complex
task of comprehension, and they often spend so much time working through the words that they
cannot recall what they read once they have moved on. This is somehow not the case with
Johnny. Though Johnny’s initial assessments indicated that was up to two grade levels behind in
word identification, and though his fluency rate was very low even at a grade level beneath him,
his comprehension scores are consistently on target. This might be contributed to his wealth of
background knowledge developed by his travels and experiences, especially for a child who is
not yet eight-years-old. As noted above, Johnny does struggle somewhat with implicit
questioning, and he will need to develop this skill by practicing drawing conclusions based on
evidence. As Johnny is an excellent conversationalist, I recommend that his teacher and parents
engage him in conversation that challenges him to draw conclusions about a text, and to defend
his conclusions with evidence from the text. Though this area should be given some priority at
home and school, Johnny is on track with his peers, and individualized intensive intervention is
probably not needed to develop his comprehension skills.

FLUENCY

1. Assessment: Qualitative Reading Inventory-5(QRI-5). Leslie, L. & Caldwell, J. S., 2011).
This assessment, which was also used above to measure word identification in context and
comprehension, is also used to measure fluency. As students read, the examiner notes the number
of miscues. For the assessments given below, only meaning changing (MC) miscues were taken
into account to measure fluency rate. The examiner keeps time while the student reads. At the
end of the reading, the number of miscues is subtracted from the total number of words in the
passage. The words are then multiplied by 60 and divided by the number of words in the passage
to determine how many correct words per minute the student can read.
Pre-Assessment Results:

1. Primmer Narrative Passage, “A Trip”
Administered on 09/16/14
119 Words
Number of Meaning-Change Miscues: 3
35 CWPM

2. Primer Expository Passage “Who Lives Near Lakes?”
Administered on 09/16/14
62 Words
Number of Meaning-Change Miscues: 3
46 CWPM
3. First Grade Narrative Passage “The Surprise”
Administered on 09/16/14
216 Words
Number of Meaning-Change Miscues: 12
42 CWPM
4. First Grade Expository Passage “The Brain and the Five Senses”
Administered on 9/18/14
76 words
Number of Meaning-Change Miscues: 2
25 CWPM

Post Assessment Results:
1.

Primer Narrative Passage “The Pig Who Learned to Read”
Administered on 12/04/14
176 Words
Number of Meaning-Change Miscues: 4
40 CWPM

2.

Primer Expository Passage “The Pig Who Learned to Read”
Administered on 12/04/14
64 Words
Number of Meaning-Change Miscues: 0
57 CWPM

3.

Grade 1 Narrative Passage “The Bear and the Rabbit”
Administered on 12/08/14
181 Words
Number of Meaning-Change Miscues: 2
49 CWPM

4. Grade 1 Expository Passage “Air”
Administered on 12/08/14
85 Words
Number of Meaning-Change Miscues: 5
32 CWPM
5. Grade 2 Narrative Passage “What can I Get for My Toy?”
Administered on 12/08/14
171 Words
Number of Meaning-Change Miscues: 1
48 CWPM
6. Grade21 Expository Passage “Whales and Fish”
Administered on 12/08/14
197 Words
Number of Meaning-Change Miscues: 2
47 CWPM

Results:
It is a strength of John’s that he does not feel the need to rush through a reading, and he does not
consider speed the most important aspect of reading as some children do. In fact, it was
somewhat difficult to get an accurate WPM because he would stop in the middle of reading to
ask questions when something did not make sense to him. Even accounting for these lapses in
time, John’s reading, even at the primer level which is 2 grades below his own, was very slow
and laborious in September. He often made mistakes that he had to go back and self-correct.
While the fact that he does self-correct is a strength, the constant need for self correction makes
his task longer to accomplish, which makes reading more chore-like and less enjoyable for John.
His decoding skills were slow. He regularly sounded out words as he read. John lacked
automaticity even while reading texts well below grade level.
The area of fluency became a primary focus during intervention. As a result, John
consistently improved his reading rate at all levels, and was even able to attempt a grade level
text. He no longer sounds out most of his words, but he still makes numerous mistakes as he
reads which he then has to go back and self-correct.
2. Assessment – MASI-R Oral Reading Fluency Measures - Assessing Reading: Multiple
Measures for Kindergarten Through Twelfth Grade. (2008). Novato, Calif.: Arena Press.
This assessment is intended to obtain multiple samples of a student’s oral reading fluency by
grade level. Each level contains three separate readings. The examiner is meant to administer all
three passages and find a median score. Much like the QRI, incorrect words are subtracted from
the total number of words read in a minute. If a student hesitates for longer than 3 seconds, it is
counted as an error. In the pre-assessments in September, Johnny was only given 2 passages at
each grade level. It was necessary to limit the assessments at that time to not exasperate the
student. Therefore, an average score, rather than a median, was calculated.
Administered 9/23/14
Results
September
Passage 1-A: 28 CWPM
Passage 1-C: 37 CWPM
Average = 32.5 CWPM
December
Passage 1-A: 63 CWPM
Passage 1-B: 73 CWPM
Passage 1-C: 78 CWPM
Average = 71 CWPM
Median = 73 CWPM
Passage 2-A: 34 CWPM
Passage 2-B: 57 CWPM
Passage 2-C: 44 CWPM
Average = 45 CWPM
Median = 44 CWPM

Summary of Performance
In September, Johnny’s fluency rate was very low. Even when reading a 1st grade text, his
average score of 32 WCPM would place him at the 30th percentile for a first grade student in the
spring. Clearly, John made great strides over the intervention period, more than doubling his
scores on the first grade level assessments. He was now able to be assessed at his own grade
level, which could not be done in September. However, John’s score of 44 CWPM places him
just above the 25th percentile for second grade students in winter. Therefore, though John has
shown significant growth, fluency rate is still an area of concern, requiring further intervention.
Overall Summary:
The QRI-5 and MASI-R fluency assessments both show John’s current rate of fluency at around
45 CWPM at a second grade level. Both assessments do show growth, especially the MASI-R.
However, this is still an area of significant need for John. His tendency to guess at words rather
than read the words on the page causes him to make numerous errors which, though he is usually
able to catch and self correct these, significantly decreases his speed. Though his rate does not
seem to interfere with comprehension, as is evident in the comprehension diagnostics, he is
nonetheless held back from progressing to higher level texts because of the time put into simpler
texts. It is recommended that John continue to receive intervention in the area of fluency through
both wide and repeated oral readings to an adult in either a one-to-one or small group setting.
VOCABULARY
1. Assessment: CORE Vocabulary - Assessing Reading: Multiple Measures for
Kindergarten Through Twelfth Grade. (2008). Novato, Calif.: Arena Press.
This assessment measures how well students understand grade level words. Students are given a
word to the left with three choices to the right. They must choose the word that means the same
as the word to the left. A score above 60% is considered benchmark for the grade.
Administered on 09/23/14
Results:
First Grade – 30/30 = 100%
Second Grade – 28/30 = 93%
Third Grade – 27/30 = 90%
Advanced
Summary of Performance
Johnny has advanced vocabulary skills for his age. When he scored 90% at the grade level above
his own, I ceased testing him because it was clear that vocabulary is not an area of need. There is
no intervention needed for this area.

SPELLING
1. Assessment: Words their Way, Spelling Inventory (CSUF READ 516 Course Materials)
This assessment contains 26 words that increase in difficulty. Each word is broken down by its
features (such as blends, long vowels, etc.), and points are assigned based on features correct as
well as if the entire word was spelled correctly. Students can then be identified as being in certain
categories which loosely correspond to a grade level.
Administered on 09/25/14 and then sections were administered as a post assessment on
12/15/1114. Note that the test was stopped early due to the number of errors, causing some
categories to be cut short as well.
Results:
Initial Consonants
Final Consonants
Short Vowels
Digraphs (ch, sh, th)
Blends
Long Vowel Patterns
Other vowels
Inflected Endings
Spelling Stage:

Sept.
7/7
7/7
7/7
3/6
7/7
2/5
1/6
2/5
Early-Within Word

Dec.

7/7
6/6
3/7
1/7
6/7
Early-Within Word

Summary of Performance
Pre-Assessment Results: John has a very good grasp of the basics, moving him beyond the
alphabetic stage. Consonants and short vowels seem easy for him. Though he seemed to struggle
with digraphs, it was really only the same mistake each time, making this a fairly simple fix.
John begins to struggle at long vowels, specifically when he encounters vowel digraphs. The
struggle becomes more pronounced with other vowels like r-controlled vowels and diphthongs.
Post-Assessment Results: John made one clear improvement from September to December, and
that was in his ability the consistent use the digraph “sh” correctly. In September, John consistent
left off the “h” in this assessment and in informal writing assessments. However, after one brief
mention of this during intervention, he never made that mistake again. Other than in this
category, John has not shown much growth in this area. He is still Early Within Word Pattern,
which is where he was when we began. He did manage to spell on word containing a long vowel
digraph correctly, which is more than he could do initially. Nonetheless, this remains an area that
still needs focus.
Overall Summary: After the intervention, John still struggles with words containing long vowel
digraphs, diphthongs, and r controlled vowels. It is recommended that John receives further
intervention with these particular word features. John seems to excel most with direct instruction.

These features could be directly taught to him one at a time, with a list of words containing the
feature for him to practice.

WRITING
Pre-Assessment: Teacher Created Informal Writing Prompt.
Administered 9/25/14
Prompt: Using at least three sentences, tell about an exciting trip you took this summer.
Student Response:

Results:
John knows to begin his paper (though not each sentence) with a capital letter. He is also able to
stay within the lines as he writes when he focuses on this. John does not know when he needs a
period to end a sentence. He forgets words and changes his tense when writing, which he needs
to proof read for. His spelling currently makes it difficult for even him to decipher. He needs
tools to help him spell with more accuracy. He also needs to be able to expand on his ideas.
Though he went on a long and exciting trip to Alaska, when asked to write about it, he had
difficulty recalling enough to write about. Though John is generally loquacious and articulate in
conversation, this does not come across in writing. During intervention, we worked on the
following specific goal: John will write a 3 sentence paragraph without help. Each sentence will
contain an independent clause. All sentences will be on topic, and will not repeat ideas.
Paragraph will contain no more than 4 spelling errors.

Overall Summary
John’s post-assessment writing sample showed very little growth. He seems to be improving his
fine motor skills, making his writing more decipherable. He also has some idea where to pet a

period. However, unless reminded, John is not writing in complete sentences. He often begins
with his verb and forgets his subject. He also does not remember to begin his sent3ences with
capital letter (except for the first sentence), and he capitalizes other words at random. In addition,
John has a habit of beginning every sentence with “and”. These are all errors that were discussed
several times during intervention. I recommend that John’s teacher and parents provide him with
a checklist for each writing assignment so that he can self-monitor his writing behaviors.
Furthermore, they can help John learn consistency with positive writing habits by checking all
writing assignments and requiring him to fix any errors he might have missed in his checklist.

ANALYSIS AND DIAGNOSIS
SPECIFIC AREAS OF READING STRENGTHS AND CHALLENGES

Affective

Strengths

Challenges

September: John has a lot of
confidence. He also has a very
supportive family. He has been
given a wealth of experiences in
travel for a boy who is not yet
eight, which has likely built a lot of
background knowledge. John does
see some value in reading, and he
has a high opinion of friends who
are avid readers. His confidence in
his own reading abilities is fair. He
considers himself an “okay” reader.

September: The two areas he needs to
build confidence in are reading aloud
and writing. I would like to see John’s
value for reading increase. While he
does believe it is important to be a
good reader as an adult, he does not
feel it is very important at his age. In
addition, John’s confidence in his own
abilities could be stronger. His lowest
scores are consistently when questions
asked him to compare himself to his
friends.
December: Both John’s value for
reading and his self-concept has risen.
He now feels he is a pretty good
reader overall.

Sight Words

September: John is usually able to
recognize single syllable words,
and he is good at early level sight

September: John has trouble with
vowel digraphs, -ough words,
diphthongs, and multisyllabic words,

words. He can usually recognize
long vowels on words with an e at
the end.

Vocabulary

Fluency

September: John can easily
understand words at his own grade
level, and even rated independent
at a third grade level, though he
only just began 2nd grade.

September: It is a strength of
John’s that he does not feel the
need to rush through a reading, and
he does not consider speed the
most important aspect of reading as
some children do. In fact, it was
somewhat difficult to get an
accurate WPM because he would
stop in the middle of reading to ask
questions when something did not
make sense to him. While this does
not improve his reading rate, it is
certainly helpful for
comprehension.

even when they are compound words
made up of smaller words he would
otherwise recognize. He is also quick
to substitute a less familiar word for
another that might look similar (like
and for an, or on for one).
December: John has moved from
Primer to a second grade level on both
the QRI-5 and the San Diego Quick
word lists. Though he still has trouble
spelling vowel digraphs and
diphthongs, he no longer has
consistent trouble recognizing these
words by sight. He sometimes
continues to have trouble with
diphthongs and multisyllabic words.
September: While John did very well
on this assessment, he could only do
so if the words were read aloud to him.
His vocabulary is strong, but his
decoding skills to recognize the words
on his own are still weak, and even
when he can decode the word, he lacks
the confidence to believe he is reading
it right when he is not given context.
December: John’s decoding skills and
self-confidence have increased to the
point that he no longer needs help
reading the vocabulary.
September: John’s reading, even at the
primer level which is 2 grades below
his own, is very slow and laborious.
He often makes mistakes that he has to
go back and self-correct. While the
fact that he does self-correct is a
strength, the constant need for self
correction makes his task longer to
accomplish, which makes reading
more chore-like and less enjoyable for
John. His decoding skills are slow. He
regularly sounds out words as he
reads. He currently lacks automaticity
even below his grade level.

December: John is now ratable at his
own grade level. He no longer spends
the majority of his time sounding out
words, though he does spend much of
his time self-correcting his mistakes.
This is still an area of focus for John in
the future.
Spelling
September: John has a very good
September: John begins to struggle at
grasp of the basics, moving him
long vowels, specifically when he
beyond the alphabetic stage.
encounters vowel digraphs. The
Consonants and short vowels seem struggle becomes more pronounced
easy for him. Though he seemed to with other vowels like r-controlled
struggle with digraphs, it was really vowels and diphthongs.
only the same mistake each time,
December: Little improvement has
making this a fairly simple fix.
been made. These are all still areas in
need of direct instruction and practice.
Comprehension September: In spite of John’s low
September: Even at the lower grade
fluency rates, he is usually able to
level, he sometimes rates instructional
comprehend what he reads. I
for missing just one implicit question,
believe this is because he does have which may mean his slow reading
a good amount of background
does hold him back from
knowledge, having been on many
comprehending to some extent.
trips with his family in his short
His recall score is sometimes very low,
life, or learning vicariously from
but I do not believe this accurately
the experiences of his older siblings reflects what he takes in. He seems to
who have travelled to places like
get lazy and only report the gist of the
Uganda and Turkey on mission
reading, but when asked direct
trips. He always answers the
questions, he can easily recall the
explicit questions accurately, and
facts.
he usually is able to answer the
implicit questions.
December: Now that John was able to
test on the QRI-5 at his own grade
level, he continued to measure
“instructional”. On both the narrative
and expository, he missed 1/4 implicit
questions.
Writing
September: John knows to begin
September: John does not know when
his paper (if not each sentence)
he needs a period to end a sentence.
with a capital letter. He is also able He forgets words and changes his
to stay within the lines as he writes tense when writing, which he needs to
when he focuses on this.
proof read for. His spelling currently
makes it difficult for even him to
decipher. He needs tools to help him
spell with more accuracy. He also
needs to be able to expand on his
ideas. Though he went on a long and

exciting trip to Alaska, when asked to
write about it, he had difficulty
recalling enough to write about.
December: John’s fine motor skills
have shown some improvement, and it
is somewhat easier to decipher his
writing. However, when he writes
without help, he is still not making
complete sentences, nor is he using
proper capitalization. He does have
some idea of where to put a period, but
this is marred by his tendency to begin
every sentence with “and”. John will
still need intervention in this area.

SPECIFIC GOALS OF INTERVENTION SESSIONS
Affective: John will understand that reading can be valuable even for children for
entertainment and learning. John will also gain confidence in his own reading skills. This
will result in an overall MRP score of 80% by December.
Word recognition:
1. John will be able to identify words out at an instructional 2nd grade level on the San Diego
Quick assessment by December
2. John will reach independent first grade reading level reading words in context on the QRI
by December
Fluency: John will improve his reading rate to 45 WPM on first grade texts CORE
assessments by December
Spelling: John will improve in spelling vowel digraphs and igh/ough word teams, reflected
by a move to “late within word pattern” on the Words Their Way spelling inventory.
Writing John will write a 3 sentence paragraph without help. Each sentence will contain an
independent clause. All sentences will be on topic, and will not repeat ideas. The paragraph
will be legible.

PROGRESS MADE DURING INTERVENTION
Affective: Goal achieved

Both John’s value for reading and his self-concept have risen. He now feels he is a pretty good
reader overall. His total MRP score raised to an 83%.

Word Recognition: Goal achieved
John has moved from Primer to a second grade level on both the QRI-5 and the San Diego Quick
word lists. Though he still has trouble spelling vowel digraphs and diphthongs, he no longer has
consistent trouble recognizing these words by sight. He sometimes continues to have trouble
with diphthongs and multisyllabic words.
Fluency: Goal achieved (but still not at benchmark)
John surpassed the goal of a 45 CWPM at the first grade level. He now reads above 70 CWPM at
the first grade level, and is now ratable at his own grade level. He no longer spends the majority
of his time sounding out words, though he does spend much of his time self-correcting his
mistakes. This is still an area of focus for John in the future.
Spelling: Goal not achieved
John showed a little progress. He now consistently remembers the “h” in the digraph “sh”, which
he previously always forgot. He can also spell words with vowel digraphs about 10% of the time.
In addition, he remembers to the “e” in the inflected ending “-ed” about 60% of the time. Other
than these small changes, no other noticeable progress was made.
Writing: Goal not achieved
John’s fine motor skills have shown some improvement, and it is somewhat easier to decipher his
writing. He also has a better idea of where to put a period. However, most aspects of the goal
were not met.
A.

RECOMMENDATIONS

B. Overall Recommendations:
John is now capable of reading texts at his grade level. However, his fluency level still
needs to increase to catch up to his peers. John should continue to practice reading aloud,
and he should be encouraged to take his time and read the words on the page to avoid
mistakes. John also needs reminding to monitor his writing. In addition, John needs direct
instruction and repeated practice in spelling words containing vowel digraphs and
diphthongs.
C. Classroom Accommodations:
 John may need reminding to wear his glasses while reading.




John needs to preview texts with unfamiliar words and hear those words read
aloud to him before being asked to read aloud himself.
John needs opportunities 3-4 times a week to read aloud to an adult or small
group and gain feedback.
John should be given a tool, such as a checklist, to remind him to use proper
mechanics and conventions when writing.
When asked to read aloud, John should be given only portions of a text no more
than 150 words long.

D. Specific Instructional Activities:
Fluency:
 Preview difficult words before reading
 The teacher or a more advances partner can model the reading before Johnny
reads
 Have Johnny take part in choral readings
 Give Johnny opportunities 3-4 times a week to read portions of a text aloud to the
teacher in a one-on-one or small group setting to receive feedback.
 Have Johnny engage in re-reads of a text two to three times whenever possible.
Spelling:
 John should be given direct instruction in spelling words with vowel digraphs,
diphthongs, r-controlled vowels, and –gh words.
 John could work in a small group with others with like needs to practice one
specific sound pattern each week with a list of 4-6 words containing the pattern.
 John would be motivated to use the words from his list in his writing assignments
if he was given a reward (such as class points) each time he did so correctly.
 Some patterns to focus could come from, but are not limited to, the list below:
o /ai/
o /ow/
o /ea/
o /oi/
o /ee/
o /ar/
o /ie/
o /ir/
o /ao/
o /or/
o /ew/
o /-ough/
o /oo/
o /-aught/
o /ou/
o /-igh/
Writing:

John would benefit from having a checklist for each writing assignment to remind
him to check for the following before submitting the assignment:
 I have proof read my paper to make sure I did not leave out any words.
 I have a period between each sentence.
 I begin every sentence with a capital letter.
 There are no capital letters that don’t belong.
 I do not begin any sentence with “and”.
 Every sentence says who or what is doing the action.
John understands the above rules of writing conventions, but he needs
accountability to form the habit of using them. Any paper that is turned in without
observing the rules should be given back to John for a chance to correct the errors,
or the teacher might briefly scan John’s writing before accepting the paper.

E. Instructional Activities to do at home:
Fluency:
 Partner read (taking turns reading every other page) with John 2-3 times a week.
 Stick with the same book for the week so that John has the opportunity to engage
in repeated practice with new words.
 Find silly poems and riddles that John likes, and display a copy where John can
see (i.e. on the refrigerator, in the front cover of his binder, on the wall by his bed,
etc).
Spelling:
 Help John find creative ways to practice his spelling list at home.
 Making words out of playdough
 Painting them
 Spelling them out in alphabet magnets
 Make a game out of each weeks sound pattern that gets the family involved.
When out of the house, see who can find the most words on signs containing the
spelling pattern John’s teacher sends home that week.
Writing:
 Consistently look over John’s writing assignments he brings home for homework.
 If he did everything on the checklist the first time, have a reward ready. If he did
not complete everything on the checklist, make sure he sits down to fix it right
away so he does not reinforce bad writing habits.
F. Fun (and funny) books to read at home:
 Almost Super by Marion Jensen
 The Hero’s Guide to Saving Your Kingdom by Christopher Healy




Nuts to You by Lynne Rae Perkins
The Year of Billy Miller By Kevin Henkes
The Tempelton Twins Series by Ellis Weiner
Bunnicula by Deborah Howe




Books of Silly Poetry
Poem Depot: Aisles of Smiles By Douglas Florian
Revolting Rhymes by Roald Dahl
Dirty Beasts by Roald Dahl
Something Big Has Been Here By Jack Prelutsky and James Stevenson

G. Fun Websites:
Softschools.com
This website has games that specifically practice spelling words with diphthongs.
Extreme Sentence Surgeons
In the game, you are the surgeon who must save the life of a paragraph by fixing
it errors.
Spelling Central
Turn any spelling list into an online game or a printable activity. You can make a
word search, word scramble, missing letter games, and more.
Grilled Cheese Please
This spelling game lets you race against other characters. When you spell words
right, your character gets faster, helping you to win the race.
Paralaughs
Similar to madlibs, these games let you create a silly story while practicing your
parts of speech.
www.storylineonline.net
This site is full of wonderfully engaging videos of famous actors reading
children’s books.