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OMEH KATE AKP/WRR/BMG/BUS/HND2006/0018
BEING A PROJECT WORK SUBMITED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, SCHOOL OF BUSINESS STUDIES, AKWA IBOM STATE POLYTECHNIC, IKOT OSURUA, IKOT EKPENE, IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT FOR THE AWARD OF HIGHER DIPLOMA (HND) IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION.
We hereby certify that this research project was carried out by OMEH KATE (AKP/WRR/BMG/BUS/HND/2006/0018) .......................................................................................................for the award of HIGHER NATIONAL DIPLOMA CERTIFICATE. Department of Business Administration, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic. Ikot Asurua.
This research project is dedicated to the Almighty God for His ever enduring love, kindness, mercy and grace all through the course of this programme. Father, I thank and worship you and give You all the Glory and Honour.
I thereby which to Acknowledged the following people that has made my dream and purpose in life to come through. First of all, thanks to Almighty God who gave me power and wisdom, and the grace to be educated and to my dear One and Only love that gives me Joy, MR
___________________________________________ and my dear mother Mrs.
___________________________________________ who is an encouragement to my life and my brothers and Sisters ________________ ________________________________________________________________ ___ for their love towards me in prayer, also my supervisor who has been a great help to me. _______________________________________ and my lovely Register of warri center MRS Stella Oyabugbe and my late Co-odinator of warri Centre late Dr Alex Obinala of blessed memorial for his fatherly love towards me and my father whose
Vision for my life was to be great and useful in life and those many love ones too numerous to name. My prayer to God Almighty is that HE should bless you richly in JESUS NAME.
Unemployment is a state of disequilibrium in the economy. In Nigeria unemployment has been recognized as economic problem, and solutions are being sought to wipe it out or at least reduce it to manageable levels.
In this research work, attempt was made to examine how unemployment generated in Nigeria with particular reference to our university and polytechnic graduates.
The research viewed this ugly trend (unemployment) in the country under the following headlines: involuntary unemployment, frictional unemployment, structural unemployment, classical unemployment and cyclical
It was discovered that the basic causes of unemployment are government made laws, individual, society, economic growth and insufficient effective demand for goods and service in the economy. At an individual level, the solution to unemployment may be as simple as getting a job, or getting more training, but the research has revealed that the following criteria could serve as solution:--- Philips curve, demand side, supply side and tax-related. CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Unemployment is viewed in this research work as a state in which an able-bodied individual is actively seeking, but is unable to secure, any gainful employment. Unemployed individuals are unable to earn money to meet financial obligations. Failure to pay mortgage payments or to pay rent may lead to homelessness through foreclosure or eviction. Unemployment increases susceptibility to malnutrition, illness, mental stress, and loss of selfesteem, leading to depression. Statistics of Nigerian unemployment seems to consist, not of uneducated, rural populations, who have been uprooted by failing agricultural production resulting from the absence of mechanization and decreasing incomes, but of some highly educated populations, as
well, who normally, would form the core of the productive vanguard in a developing country. In other words, many of Nigeria's unemployed and consequently poor, are well educated and skilled, even by European and American standards.
Extant literature refers to Nigeria's underemployment and low productivity, as constituting a vicious cycle that explains the endemic poverty in the country. Unless Obadan & Odusola of the National Center for Economic Management & Administration (NCEMA), Ibadan, are wrong, Nigeria will have no prospect of measurable development or
of improving the welfare of its people, unless it enhances the chances of employment for its university graduates.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM In looking at the unemployment syndrome among Nigerian graduates, causes, effects and solution, some of the questions easily come to mind are:
what are root causes of the unemployment in Nigeria? what are the major effects on individual and the society? what is the nature of relationship between poverty, unemployment and growth in Nigeria?
what steps should be taken to ensure that growth is such that brings about decrease in unemployment in Nigeria?
how unemployment is individual and social problem what are the possible cost of unemployment? how can the problem of unemployment be solved? HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE STUDY
Preliterate communities treat their members as parts of an extended family and thus do not allow unemployment. In precapitalist societies such as European feudalism, the serfs were never "unemployed" because they had direct access to the land, and the needed tools, and could thus work to produce crops. Just as on the American frontier during the nineteenth century, there were day laborers
and subsistence farmers on poor land, whose position in society was somewhat analogous to the unemployed of today. But they were not truly unemployed, since they could find work and support themselves on the land. Under both ancient and modern systems of slave-labor, slave-owners never let their property be unemployed for long. (If anything, they would sell the unneeded laborer.) Planned economies such as the old Soviet Union or today's Cuba typically provide occupation for everyone, using substantial overstaffing if necessary. (This is called "hidden unemployment," which is sometimes seen as a kind of underemployment,) Workers'
cooperatives—such as those producing plywood in the U.S. Pacific Northwest—do not let their members become unemployed unless the co-op itself goes bankrupt. Artificially increasing employment in this way however means employing workers beyond their worth: the workers are making a loss, and are from societies point of view not usefully employed. Nigeria is a nation that is endowed with multifarious and multitudinous resources-both human and material. However, due to gross mismanagement, profligate spending, kleptomania and adverse policies of various governments of Nigeria, these resources have not been optimally utilized; these resources have not been adequately channeled to profitable investments to bring about maximum economic benefits. As a result of the foregoing, Nigeria has been bedeviled with unemployment and poverty. Economic growth, which is
supposed to be a solution to the problems of unemployment and poverty, appears not to be so in Nigeria. Nigeria’s official statistics show that economic growth has not always been accompanied by decline in unemployment and poverty.
Statistics of Nigerian unemployment seems to consist, not of uneducated, rural populations, who have been uprooted by failing agricultural production resulting from the absence of mechanization and decreasing incomes, but of some highly educated populations, as well, who normally, would form the core of the productive vanguard in a developing country. In other words, many of Nigeria's unemployed and consequently poor, are well educated and skilled.
Youth and Graduate Unemployment A report by the World Bank (Andrew Dabalen and Olatunde A. Adekola, 2002) and another by Bankole Oni of the Nigerian Institute for Social Research (NISER) complains that Nigeria, with half the population of West Africa and a vast spread of natural resource endowments, the country has the potential to be the source of growth and prosperity for the whole region, instead of its current economic under-performance, which is erratic and short of expectations, such
that 66% of Nigeria’s citizens, educated youth especially, live below the international poverty line, at just $1.00 a day or $300.00 a year compared to Libya with $12,000.00 a year and Malaysia with $8,000.00 per capita annually. Bankole does not hesitate to assert that "the main causes of Nigeria's poor economic performance have been economic and social mismanagement and misguided policy choices. A key-note pronouncement by Dr. Akinola, Primate of All Nigeria Anglican Communion, at a Youth Conference in Abuja, in 2004, attended to the issue of "youth and graduate unemployment and its many attendant problems," alluding to "idle hands becoming Satan’s workshop." While conceding that no ready solutions availed him, he hinted at the fact that, unemployed graduates had been ensnared by crime, such as "419," armed robbery, and others.
The national unemployment rate, estimated by the Office of Statistics as 4.3 percent of the labor force in 1985, increased to 5.3 percent in 1986 and 7.0 percent in 1987, before falling to 5.1 percent in 1988 as a result of measures taken under the SAP. Most of the unemployed were city dwellers, as indicated by urban jobless rates of 8.7 percent in 1985, 9.1 percent in 1986, 9.8 percent in 1987, and 7.3 percent in 1988. Underemployed farm labor, often referred to as disguised unemployed, continued to be supported by the family or village, and
therefore rural unemployment figures were less accurate than those for urban unemployment.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The main objective of the study is to determine the Unemployment syndrome among Nigerian graduates. The subsidiary objective includes: i. to determine the causes of unemployment among Nigerian graduates
unemployment on individual and the society iii. to show how politics could be one of the causes of unemployment iv. v. to determine various types of unemployment available to determine the possible means of reducing the
unemployment rate or eradicate it totally. vi. To fine a long standing solution to unemployment problem among graduates.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study is significant because it will produce data on the unemployment syndrome among Nigerian graduates that will be useful to: 1. federal ministry of labour and productivity 2. national union of local government employees 3. state civil service commission
4. federal civil service commission .
5. managers and top executives in organized private sector 6. united nation commission on employment 7. students carry a research work in this same issue.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The survey research method has the limitation that it was ‘once shot’ or at most ‘two shot’ and that diminishes its capability to generate data with which to determine the causal relationships of variables. There was also the limitation of the reluctance of the respondents to give answers to survey probes. The Questionnaire method of primary data collection was limited to the verbal responses of subjects to pre-arrange questions. It also had limitation that its usefulness depended on the level of education of the subjects. There was the limitation of the problem of memory in remembering past facts. The structured nature of the questionnaire may compel the respondents to give answers that they do not fully endorse, There was the limitation of the rigidity of the research instrument, which diminishes the amount of information that could be gathered. There was the limitation that the cost of administering the questionnaire was very high due to high administrative, personnel and traveling costs especially when some of the respondents were initially not on their seats. There was the limitation that the researcher and the field data collectors were not policemen and so they could not force some of the respondents if they refuse to give answers. There was also the limitation of the scarcity of time and money resources.
STRUCTURE OF WORK This research work is to be organized in five chapters as follows: 1. Introduction 2. Review of Related Literature 3. Research Methods and Producers 4. Data presentation and Analysis and 5. Summary, Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation.
1. International Labour Organization: Resolution concerning
adopted by the Thirteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians (October 1982); see page 4; accessed November 26, 2007 (PDF).
2. Edmond Malinvaud, "The theory of unemployment reconsidered",
Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1977, ISBN 0631144757
4. America's Great Depression p. 45 5. Schweickart, David (2002). After Capitalism. Rowman & Littlefield
Publishers, Inc., 97. 6. F. A. Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty
7. Alain Anderson, Economics. Fourth edition, 2006
CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
THE SPECTRUM OF UNEMPLOYMENT Unemployment is not the result of any one cause. It makes its appearance in a great variety of circumstances, some in personal factors, some in economic changes, and some in legislative and regulatory conditions. Throughout the year some workers may appear in the labor market and then withdraw. Students work during the summer and return to school in September. Building and construction activities, logging and lumbering, slaughtering and meat packing are very seasonal and give rise to a considerable amount of temporary unemployment. Similarly, industrial and technological changes may force workers to readjust and relocate. Jobs, wages, and working conditions always point the way. The Bureau of Labor Statistics of the United States Department of Labor keeps careful watch of unemployment and diligently counts the numbers. But in its long history the Bureau has never prepared a systematic collection, organization, and analysis of the unemployment created by labor laws and regulations. Yet this kind of unemployment is more important by far than seasonality or industrial and technological change to which labour markets readily adjust. It is chronic and lamentable as it creates large armies of unemployed, impoverishes many people, breeds discontent, indignation, anger, and, worst of all, being interpreted erroneously, may turn public opinion against the enterprise order itself. In
the end, it may even deliver the economy into the very hands that cause the unemployment. Whenever government forcibly raises employment costs, it causes marginal labour, that is, labor that barely covers its costs, to become submarginal. It does not matter whether government orders wage rates to rise or benefits to be improved, the workday to be shortened, overtime pay to be raised, funds to be set aside for sickness and old age, or any other benefit to be granted. A small boost renders few workers submarginal, a large boost affects many. In matters of employment they now are “unproductive” and cannot be used economically. Chronic unemployment obviously is a political disease that springs from the primitive notion that government can improve everyone’s income and working conditions by legislation and regulation. It is an affliction that stems from misinterpretation and misinformation about work and income and from an undaunted faith in collective force and coercion. It clearly reflects the spirit and mentality of our age. Unless they soon will give way to the spirit of individual freedom and enterprise the rate of unemployment is likely to rise. There is no ready escape from the consequences of labour laws. Surely, most young workers are willing and ready to accept employment at
honest market rates; they are even prepared to ignore the labour laws and work under market conditions. But most employers do not dare to violate the laws. The penalties leveled at them always are onerous and degrading no matter what their motives may be. Nevertheless economists estimate that some 30 percent of unskilled youths find ready employment in the “underground economy” where wages are paid according to productivity. Many small family enterprises employ and train millions of young people. 2.2 NIGERIA PERSPECTIVES Population issues have once more re-surfaced in the front burner of public discourse. The edition of the Patito's gang which dealt with the issues on Minaj TV on August, 3l, 2002. Prior to this, the honourable Minister of Health, professor A.B.C Nwosu was quoted as saying that over population was responsible for the poor quality of life and standard of living in Nigeria ( THISDAY, July 12, 2002 P.4). First, anybody who is conversant with what Rev. Fr. George Ehusani dubbed in his book as the complex politics of population control in Africa and the Third World which reached its crescendo in the 80s will understand that Nwosu was neither speaking for himself nor for the federal government. Certainly, he was speaking for the neo-colonialists
and powerful international agencies like the IMF, World Bank, United States Agency for International Development (USAID) etc which have been ceaselessly labouring to reduce the population of Third World countries. They have been achieving this goal through powerful, advocacy and by making population reduction a pre-condition for granting developmental aids to developing countries. Their popular hype goes this way; "Nigeria is over-populated. Consequently, quality of life in Nigeria is low. Therefore, if Nigeria needs any loan or other assistance from the IMF or the World Bank, the pre-condition is that she must be ready to reduce her population through compulsory mass sterilization of men and women, infanticide, abortion, euphemistically referred to as family planning etc". Part of the strategy is to put something in women to make them impotent, unable to bear children in the future. Nigeria is economically underproductive, relative to its potential for significant development. Similarly, Nigeria's capacity to employ its own population seems to diminish progressively, despite the country's quantifiable fiscal ability resulting from the production and disposal of oil. The third arm of this tripartite conjecture is that the level of unemployment in Nigeria appears to grow arithmetically every year, in contrast to its regional neighbors, most of which have far less resources.
Much of the unemployment is recorded in the urban cities, such as Lagos, Abuja, Ibadan, etc.
Statistics of Nigerian unemployment seems to consist, not of uneducated, rural populations, who have been uprooted by failing agricultural production resulting from the absence of echanization and decreasing incomes, but of some highly educated populations, as well, who normally, would form the core of the productive vanguard in a developing country. In other words, many of Nigeria's unemployed and consequently poor, are well educated and skilled. UNEMPLOYMENT: CAUSES The purpose of the discussion below is to point out the overall effects and inherent trade-offs of policies affecting unemployment. Knowledge of the effects and trade-offs of policies makes possible reasoned discussion and choices among various policy options. Because a healthy economy providing jobs for all who want to work is the best unemployment antidote, the discussion begins with an analysis of economic growth. Other unemployment policies can be best studied by examining incentives -- those of employers to provide jobs and those of
potential employees to look for jobs. Finally, it is important to study the overall effects of policies designed specifically to reduce unemployment. 2.3.1 Economic Growth Other things being equal, the greater the amount of goods and services produced, the greater the labor required for production. Because economic growth and employment go hand in hand, regulation and taxation that discourage the operation of business will also reduce the demand for labour. Many entrepreneurs are faced with regulations that force allocation of resources away from production. 2.3.2 Employer Incentives Employers will hire workers if the revenue resulting from the workers' labour exceeds the costs of hiring and employing that labour. These costs are not limited to wages and salaries plus fringe benefits; they include contributions to programs such as social security and unemployment insurance as well as the costs of employee selection and training. A reduction in employer-mandated social security and unemployment insurance contributions per worker clearly would encourage employment and thus is a possible anti-unemployment policy. Because reductions in these contributions would lower program funding, the trade-off between two policy goals (expanded employment opportunities and Treasury
revenue adequate to fund existing programs) is clear, and again the policy maker's assessment of the value of such programs is important. Work-sharing programs, in which more workers are employed and hours per worker are reduced, tend to increase employer costs because of the selection and training costs incurred for new employees and because the employer is not free to choose the number of workers and hours per worker that minimize costs. Rather than simply redistributing income from old to new workers, the increased costs and decreased profits accompanying work-sharing induce employers to raise prices and/or curtail production. Increased prices discourage consumer demand and, like reduced production, lead to decreased demand for labor, an effect contrary to that intended by advocates of work-sharing. 2.3.3 Employee Incentives Individuals will be more interested in working as their take-home pay increases and their income from other sources decreases. Accordingly, the incentive for people to work will be increased if their income taxes and social security contributions are reduced. Again, a trade-off between employment and Treasury revenue exists in this policy decision, although, as noted above, supply-siders have argued that the reduction in tax rates will engender a higher offsetting increase in output and employment, so that Treasury revenue will actually increase.
In addition to increasing take-home pay by reducing taxes, the government could attempt to increase the gross pay to workers by increasing the minimum wage. Unfortunately, rather than increasing the pay for a given job, mandated wage floors such as the minimum wage may simply cause certain jobs to disappear, or indeed, never come into existence. Income sources that are reduced when people work, such as unemployment compensation and welfare, affect work incen- tives. Many of these programs have implicit tax rates in that their payments are reduced as labor earnings increase, so that the overall increase in income resulting from work is less than earnings, being reduced by the decrease or total loss of program support. These implicit tax rates, like those of the explicit income tax, can discourage work. Accordingly, the following trade-offs present themselves in unemployment insurance, welfare, and other transfer program policy options: (1) cutting program payments, thus encouraging people to look for jobs, but also reducing income to those who fail to find jobs, and (2) granting income to eligible persons independently of their work experience, thus removing the disincentive effect of the programs on work effort (although also possibly supporting people who don't need the income). A sample "independent payment" program would be to give a lump-sum unemployment insurance payment
to a person when he becomes unemployed rather than paying him an amount for each week of unemployment. Under this arrangement, there is no incentive for an individual to remain unemployed, since he receives no additional payments to compensate for lengthy unemployment. However, because an individual would receive the same amount if the duration of his unemployment were brief or lengthy, individuals with short periods of unemployment might he "over-subsidized " 2.4 TYPES OF UNEMPLOYMENT According to economist
the type of unemployment
that occurs depends on the situation at the goods market, rather than that they belong to opposing economic theories. If the market for goods is a buyers' market (i.e.: sales are restricted by demand), Keynesian unemployment may ensue while a limiting production capacity is more consistent with classical unemployment. 2.4.1 Frictional unemployment Frictional unemployment occurs when a worker moves from one job to another. While he searches for a job he is experiencing frictional unemployment. This is a productive part of the economy, increasing both the worker's long term welfare and economic efficiency.
2.4.2 Classical unemployment Classical or real-wage unemployment occurs when real wages for a job are set above the market-clearing level. This is often ascribed to government intervention, as with the minimum wage, or labour unions. Some, such as Murray Rothbard, suggest that even social taboos can prevent wages from falling to the market clearing level. 2.4.3 Structural unemployment Structural unemployment is caused by a mismatch between jobs offered by employers and potential workers. This may pertain to geographical location, skills, and many other factors. If such a mismatch exists, frictional unemployment is likely to be more significant as well. 2.4.4 Seasonal unemployment occurs when an occupation is not in demand at certain seasons. 2.4.5 Keynesian unemployment Cyclical or Keynesian unemployment, also known as demand deficient unemployment, occurs when there is not enough aggregate demand for the labour. This is caused by a business cycle recession, and wages not falling to meet the equilibrium rate. 2.4.6 Involuntary unemployment
Involuntary unemployment does not exist in agrarian societies nor is it formally recognized to exist in underdeveloped but urban societies such as the mega-cities of Africa and of India/Pakistan, given that, in such societies, the suddenly unemployed person must meet his survival needs, by getting a new job quickly at any strike price, entrepreneurship, or joining the invisible economy of the hustler. 2.4.7 Politics Causes Unemployment Chronic unemployment is obviously a political disease that springs from the primitive notion that government can improve everyone's income and working conditions by legislation and regulation. It is an affliction that stems from misinterpretation and misinformation about work and income and from an undaunted faith in collective force and coercion. It clearly reflects the spirit and mentality of our age. Unless they soon give way to the spirit of individual freedom and enterprise the rate of unemployment is likely to rise. 2.5
COST/EFFECTS OF UNEMPLOYEMENT Individual: Unemployed individuals are unable to earn money to meet financial obligations. Failure to pay mortgage payments or to pay rent may lead to homelessness through foreclosure or eviction.
Unemployment increases susceptibility to malnutrition, illness, mental
stress, and loss of self-esteem, leading to depression. Another cost for the unemployed is that the combination of unemployment, lack of financial resources, and social responsibilities may push unemployed workers to take jobs that do not fit their skills or allow them to use their talents. Unemployment can cause underemployment. 2.5.2 Society: An economy with high unemployment is not using all of the
resources, i.e. labour, available to it. Since it is operating below its production possibility frontier, it could have higher output if all the workforce were usefully employed. However, there is a tradeoff between economic efficiency and unemployment: if the frictionally unemployed accepted the first job they were offered, they would be likely to be operating at below their skill level, reducing the economy's efficiency. It is estimated that, during the Great Depression, unemployment due to sticky wages cost the US economy about $4,000 billion. This is many times larger than losses due to monopolies, cartels and tariffs. During a long period of unemployment, workers can lose their skills, causing a loss of human capital. Being unemployed can also reduce the life expectancy of workers by about 7 years. High unemployment can encourage xenophobia and protectionism as workers fear that foreigners are stealing their jobs. Efforts to preserve existing jobs of domestic and native workers include legal barriers against "outsiders" who want jobs,
obstacles to immigration, and/or tariffs and similar trade barriers against foreign competitors. Finally, a rising unemployment rate concentrates the oligopoly power of employers by increasing competition amongst workers for scarce employment opportunities. Above those mentioned, there are many social and economic effects they include: -A loss of production and output because those who are unemployed are not able to add towards GDP. -A misallocation of resources this occurs because those who are employed will have the burden of paying for the unemployed. This in time will result in a fall in living standards. -A decline in labour market skills because those who are persistently unemployed will lose valuable skills. -A cost to the government for the simple reason that the government must fund the unemployed increasing its budget deficit. -High unemployment means there is an excess supply of jobs. This means that employers can more easily find labour and are less likely to increase wages to attract workers. -High unemployment often results in increased domestic violence, crime, health problems and negative psychological effects.
2.6 AIDING THE UNEMPLOYED (CURE/SOLUTION TO UNEMPLOYMENT) The most developed countries have aids for the unemployed as part of the welfare state. These unemployment benefits include unemployment insurance, welfare, unemployment compensation and subsidies to aid in retraining. The main goal of these programs is to alleviate short-term hardships and, more importantly, to allow workers more time to search for a good job. At an individual level, the solution to unemployment may be as simple as getting a job, or getting more training. Societies try a number of different measures to get as many people as possible into work. However, attempts to reduce the level of unemployment beyond the Natural rate of unemployment generally fail, resulting only in less output and more inflation.
2.7 MEASUREMENT OF UNEMPLOYMENT Though many people care about the number of unemployed, economists typically focus on the unemployment rate. This corrects for the normal increase in the number of people employed due to increases in population and increases in the labor force relative to the population. The
unemployment rate is expressed as a percentage, and is calculated as follows: The ILO (INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION) describes 4 different methods to calculate the unemployment rate.
Labour Force Sample Surveys are the most preferred method of unemployment rate calculation since they give the most comprehensive results and enables calculation of unemployment by different group categories such as race and gender. This method is the most internationally comparable.
Official Estimates are determined by a combination of information from one or more of the other three methods. The use of this method has been declining in favour of Labour Surveys.
Social Insurance Statistics such as unemployment benefits, are computed base on the number of persons insured representing the total labour force and the number of persons who are insured that are collecting benefits. This method has been heavily criticized due to the expiration of benefits before the person finds work.
Employment Office Statistics are the least effective being that they only include a monthly tally of unemployed persons who enter employment offices.
These percentages represent the usual rough ranking of these different groups' unemployment rates. The absolute numbers change over time and with the business cycle. 2.8 CONSEQUENCES OF UNEMPLOYMENT Unemployment has obvious and well-documented links to economic disadvantage and has also been connected in some discussion to higher crime rates (Cantor and Land 1985; Ottosen and Thompson 1996), especially among the young (Britt 1994), suicide, and homicide (Yang and Lester 1994; Ottosen and Thompson 1996). Garry Ottosen and Douglas Thompson (1996) broaden the consequences of unemployment, relating it to increases in the incidences of alcoholism, child abuse, family breakdown, psychiatric hospitalization, and a variety of physical complaints and illnesses. Some researchers have emphasized the importance of preventing youth from falling into unemployment traps. Robert Gitter and Markus Scheuer (1997) suggest that unemployment among youth not only causes current hardship, but may also hinder future economic success. This is because unemployed youths are not able to gain experience and on-the-job training and because a history of joblessness signals that the individual may not have the qualities that are valued in the labor market.
Unemployment may impair the functioning of families (see, for example, Liker and Elder 1983; Barling 1990) by affecting the parents' interactions with their children and the interactions between partners. Although it has been shown that unemployed parents spend more time with their children, the quality of these interactions suffers in comparison with those of employed parents. Unemployment, particularly among male partners, is also likely to lead to major role changes in the home. For example, whether it is because they have more time or they feel that they have to
undertake additional household duties when they are no longer the financial provider for the family, unemployed husbands are more likely to increase their participation in domestic activities (e.g., household tasks, shopping, meal preparation). In some circumstances, the loss of financial responsibility among husbands may lead to discontent within the marriage: unemployed husbands are more likely to have disagreements and arguments with their spouses than are employed husbands, and this has the potential to lead to spouse abuse and marriage dissolution.
How unemployment is individual and social problem Unemployment is caused by many factors in a modern market economy. It can be caused by rapid technological change, business cycle or recessions, seasonal factors in some industries particularly such as changes in tastes and climatic conditions which affects demand for
certain products and services, individual perceptions and willingness to work and search for jobs, their values and attitudes towards some jobs and about employers, accessibility for retraining and acquisition of work skills, willingness and perception of unemployed of the benefits of training and the possibility for them to get a job after the training even though they have a chance to get a job, discrimination in the workplace based on race, color. religion, ethnicity, age and class. It can be seen from the above causes unemployment in a particular period can be a combination of caused by social factors and how the economy as a whole works and also due to the subjective individual factors. In a sociological point of view according to functionalist and conflict theorists the unemployment is caused primarily by the social factors than by the individual factors. However according to Max Weber and symbolic interaction theories individuals construct their own social constructs and perception and they can be subjective in their behavior and there fore can become unemployed even though the actual condition they can get a job in the job market.
Among the openly unemployed rural population, almost two-thirds were secondary-school graduates.
REFFERENCES http://www.google.ca/search? hl=en&q=CAUSES+OF+UNEMPLOYMENT&meta= http://www.google.ca/search? hl=en&q=CAUSES+OF+UNEMPLOYMENT&meta= http://www.bizcovering.com/Business-and-Society/Causes-ofUnemployment.42495 <a href="http://family.jrank.org/pages/1724/UnemploymentConsequences-Unemployment.html">Unemployment - Consequences Of Unemployment</a>
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES 3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN The research method selected for the study is a combination of a survey and an industrial study. The survey research method is described hereunder that: (i) It is a design in which primary data is gathered from members of
the sample that represents a specific population; (ii) It is a design in which a structure and systematic research
instrument like a questionnaire or an interview schedule is utilized together with the primary data;
It is a method in which the researcher manipulates no explanatory
variables because they have already occurred and so they cannot be manipulated; (iv) (v) (vi) Data are got directly from the subjects; The subjects give the data the natural settings of their workplaces; The answers of the respondents are assumed to be largely
unaffected of the Context in which they are brought; (vii) The impacts of the confounding factors are “controlled” statistically; and (viii) The aim of the research may span from the exploration phenomena to hypotheses testing (stone 1995). The survey research method has some merit, which are to be articulated hereunder: In the survey research method, the sample of the respondents is selected in such a way as to make for the generally low due to the utilization of big sample sizes, which results in generally low sample errors. Also the probability sampling techniques utilized in selecting the samples of the respondents in a survey especially, the selecting the samples of the respondents in a survey especially, the random sampling techniques makes it possible to give every element in the population a known and chance of belonging to the sample and by so doing, sample bias is either minimised or completely eliminated (Stone 1995). Sampling
even as a compromise has a lot of strength. The survey research method also has the merit that data collection takes place in the “natural” settings of the workplace rather than an activated laboratory. Data is collected directly from the respondents. The advantage that the survey yields data that suggests new hypothesis is very illuminating. There is also the merit that a set of systematic data collection instruments such as questionnaire interview schedules and observation gadgets can either be used alone or in conjunction with other instruments (Stone, 1995). The survey research method also has some demerits. There is the demerit that there is a decreased willingness of the subjects to give responses to survey probes. There is the demerit that most surveys are “one shot” or at most “two short” as opposed to the panel type of research design, in which repeated measures are taken on the same sample using questionnaires. The result of this shortcoming is that the ability of the survey research method to yield data with which to test the causal relationships of variables is minimized (stone, 1995). There is also the demerit of the survey that in terms of total expenditure, the survey research methods is a highly costly research method due to a large administrative, and/or personnel and travel expenses especially when the research and the field data collectors have to do several trips to get at some subjects that were not originally available. There is also the
demerit that the structured and pre-arranged response formats of many survey measures e.g. questionnaires and structure interview schedules many compel the subjects to give response which they do not really accept (stone, 1995 ). Apart from the choice of the survey research design, the industry is also chosen for the study. The study on the internal control in the aviation industry is for only industry and there was the need to deliver questionnaires to the managers in at least two firing investigation in some depth.
SAMPLING Spiegel (1992) observes that sampling theory is a study of the relationship existing between a population or universe and the samples drawn from it. The population in this study is the entire staff of the firm. In order to make conclusions of sample theory and statistical references to be valid, a sample must be selected as to be representative of the population (Spiegel, 1992 ). One way in which a representative sample
may be got, is by the process of stratified random sampling. In this research work, the technique of simple random sampling is used to select the sample of 100 respondents from a total sample size of 200.
The list of all the senior staff in the two firms in the aviation industry is got from the personnel department of the firms in the industry. The numbers are written on a piece of paper, put in a basket and the papers are folded to cover the numbers and one of the pieces of paper is selected at a time without replacing it and any name corresponding to the number becomes a number of the sample. This method of sampling without replacement is done until the sample of 100 respondents per firm is got.
DATA COLLECTION As earlier stated, the primary data collection instrument in this study was the questionnaire. In the questionnaire method of primary data collection, a heavy dependence was placed on verbal reports from the subjects to get information on the role of packaging as a management strategy. The questionnaire had a lot of merits. It needed less skill to administer. Further, Questionnaire can be administered to a big number of individuals at the same time. Also with a specific research budget, it was usually possible to cover a brooder area and to get information from more subjects by a questionnaire. The impersonal nature of a questionnaire, its structure and standardized wording, its order of question, its standardized instructions for recording answers might make one to conclude that if
offers some uniformity from one measurement occasion to another (Selltiz et al, 1976).
Another merit of questionnaire was that subjects may have a bigger confidence in their anonymity, and thus feel freer to express views they feel might be disapproved-Another attribute of the questionnaire that is sometimes, through not always desirable is that it might place less pressure on the subjects for immediate response (Selltiz et al, 1976).The questionnaire also has some demerits. It has been estimated that for purpose of giving dependable responses to a questionnaire, one respondents must be considerable educated, Thus one of the demerits of the usual questionnaire is that it is appropriate only for with a considerable amount of education. There is also the demerit that subject may be reluctant and unable to report on the particular subject matter. Also, if a subject misinterprets a question or give his or her answer in a batting manner, there is often a little that can be done to ameliorate the situation. In a questionnaire, the information the researcher gets is limited to the fixed alternative answer format, when a specific answer is not available, it can lead to errors (Selltiz, 1976). There is also limitation of memory in reporting on past facts. There is also a problem beyond memory. Usually, the cause of a failure to report
past facts is not forgetting in the usual sense of the word but rather, it may be motivational. Also the researcher is not a policeman that can compel answers. That is, the information may not be readily accessible to the subject and thus the subject may be reluctant to put forth enough alternative information that he or she is only barely conscious of (Selltiz et al, 1996). In this research project a structured and undisguised questionnaire is utilised which is made up of two parts namely, the personal data section and the section on the data on the actual subject matter of the work. The questionnaire is undisguised in the sense that the purpose of the data collection which is to collect primary data for writing up the researcher’s HND project is made known to the 200 respondents. The questionnaire is structured in the sense that the questions are logically sequenced and are to be asked to the respondents in the same manner and no follow up questions are to be allow. Some of the questions are of the fixed alternative answer format type. Ten (10) of the questions have yes or no answers, Ten (10) of the questions have alternative answers for the respondents to tick. The structured questionnaire has the merit that it yields data that is easier to analyse than data produced by an unstructured questionnaire. Also the structured nature diminishes both researchers and research instrument
biases. It however has the demerit that the rigidity of the research instrument diminishes the amount of information that could be got. The method of communication of the research instrument is by means of the personal interview. The method has the merit that it produces a better sample of the population than either mail or the telephone methods. It also has the merit that it gives a very high completion and response rates. It has the merit that the interview has a bigger sensitivity misunderstandings by the respondents and gives a chance for clarification of misunderstood questions. It has the merit that it is a very feasible method (Selltiz et al, 1976). The personal interview method has the demerit that it is more costly than the mail or the telephone methods of communication of a questionnaire.
FIELD WORK The researcher and three other field data collectors did the fieldwork. The field data collectors were other classmates also offering the part-time HND program, who have also offered Research Methodology and are staff of the firm’s studies and so they had no problem gaining entrance in the firms. They were to be trained by the researchers on how to gain entry , greet the respondents and , how to tick the questionnaire correctly, and honestly.
DESCRIPTION OF DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS TOOLS The data presentation tools were simple bar charts, histograms, and pictorial tables. The most important parts of a table include; (a) (b) (c) Table numbers Title of the table Caption
Stub or the designation of the rows and columns The body of the table. The head note or prefatory note or explanatory just before the title; Foot note, which is an explanation not at the end of the page (h) source note, which refers to the literally or scientific source of the table(Mills and Walter 1995) Anyiwe (1994) has observed that a table has the following merits over a prose information that; A table ensure an easy location of the required figures; Comparisons are easily made utilizing a table than a prose information;
Patterns or trends within the figures which cannot be visualised in the prose information can be revealed and better depicted by a table; and A table is more concise and takes up a less space than a prose formation:
The data is to be analysed by means of percentage, cross tabulation and the z test of population proportions for testing the three hypotheses. Percentages express the ration of two sets of data to a common base of 100. Percentages facilitate comparison and address the problem of the misleading tendency of absolute in which 8 over 10 is greater than 12 over 15 as the first ratio gives a percentages of 80 while the later gives a percentages of 75 . Cross tabulation involves utilising a table to display two or more variables. The z test of population of the respondents who said yes to a particular yes or no question is given at 5% level of significance to a particular (Spiegel, 1992)
It is in this respect that this study finds it worthwhile to address the following questions using time series data for a 31-year period, 1970-2000: (a) what is the
nature of relationship between poverty, unemployment and growth in Nigeria? (b) what steps should be taken to ensure that growth is such that brings about decrease in unemployment and poverty in Nigeria?
REFERECES Anyiiwe, E. M. A. EXOSTAT! Statistical Handbook of Economist, Social Scientists, (Yaba, Lagos: Ama Resources Nigeria Limited, 1994) Mills, G. Ho, and Wallter, J. A. Technical Writing, (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1995) Selltiiiz, C. Wrightsman, L. S., and cook, S. W. Research Methods in Social
Relations,(New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winstons, 1976). Spiegel, M. R. Schaun’s outline of theory and problems of statistics in S. I. Units, (New York: Mcgraw-hill book company 1992)
Stone, E. Research method in organisational behaviour (Santa, Monica, California:Good Year incorporated, 1995). publishing company
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
INTRODUCTION In the previous chapter, the research methods and procedures have been handled. In this chapter the data presentation and analysis are to be done. The data is to be presented by means of tables, two simple bar charts, one histogram and one pie chart to make it amenable for further analysis. By analysis, it meant the act of noting relationship and aggregating the set of variables with similar attributes and also breaking the unit of their components (Mills and Walters 1995).
In this research work, the researcher accepts the contention of Podsakoff and Dalton (1995) that the factual information from the data can be used as a basis for reasoning, calculation and discussion. Apart from the heading above, the other headings in this chapter includes: 1. Data presentation, 2. Percentage analysis 3. Cross- tabulated analysis 4. Hypothesis testing 4.2 DATA PRESENTATION
TABLE 1 THE SUMMARY OF THE PERSONAL DATA OF THE RESPONDENTS 1 SEX Male Female Total 2 Marital status Married Single Total 3 AGE 21-30 years 31-40 years 41-50 years 51-60 years Total 4 HIGHER EDUCATIONAL QUAIFICATION 90 90 10 10 200 130 70 200 FREQUENCY 150 50 200 Angles suspended in degree
DIPLOMA OND HND FIRST DEGREE SECOND DEGREE ACA TOTAL 10 30 80 20 40 20 200 18 54 144 36 32 36 360
The marital statuses of the 200 respondents, it is found that 130 of them are married while 70 of them are single. For the ages of the 200 respondents they are 21-30 years, 31-40 years, 15-60 years with frequencies of 90 and 10 respectively. For the highest educational qualification of the 200 respondents they are diploma, OND, HND, First Degree, Second Degree, A.C.A. and they have frequencies of 10, 30, 80, 20, 40 and 20 respectively. Figure 4.1 below shows the simple bar chart of the data on the sex of the respondents
FIGURE 4.1: THE SIMPLE BAR CHART OF THE DATA ON THE SEX OF THE 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 M F Sex of the respondents 49 50 RESPONDENTS 150 FEMALE MALE
Source: from data in table 1 From figure 4.1 above, it is shown that male respondents have the modal frequency of 150 of the 200 respondents while the female respondents have the frequency of 50 of them. Figure 4.2 below shows the simple bar chart of the data on the marital statuses of the respondents.
FIGURE 4.2: THE SIMPLE BAR CHART OF THE DATA ON THE MARITAL STATUSES OF THE RESPONDENTS
MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS
140 120 100 80 60 40
MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS Percent
MARRIED SINGLE Total
130 70 200
65.0 35.0 100.0
65.0 35.0 100.0
From figure 4.2 above, it is shown that the married respondents have the modal frequency of 130 out of the 200 respondents while the single respondents have the frequency of 70 of them.
FIGURE 4.3: THE HISTOGRAM OF THE DATA ON THE AGES OF THE RESPONDENTS.
AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS
Std. Dev = .78 Mean = 1.7 N = 200.00 1.0
AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS 2.0 3.0 4.0 Frequency Percent Valid Percent 45.0 45.0 5.0 5.0 100.0
Valid 21 - 30 YEARS 31 -40 YEARS 41 - 50 YEARS 51 - 60 YEARS Total
AGE OF T HE RESPONDENT S 45.0 90
90 10 10 200 45.0 5.0 5.0 100.0
Cumulative Percent 45.0 90.0 95.0 100.0
SOURCE: From the data in Table 1.
From figure 4.3 above, it is shown that the age classes are 20.5-30.5 years, 30.5-40.5 years, 40.5-50.5 years and 50.5-60.5 years with frequencies of 90, 10, and 10 out of 200 respectively. This shows that this is a bi-modal distribution as the age classes of 20.5-30.5 years and 30.5-40.5 years have a frequency of 10. Figure 4.4 below shows the pie chart of the data on the highest educational qualifications of the 200 respondents.
EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative FIG.4.4 THE PIE CHART OF THE DATA ON THE HIGHEST Percent Valid DIPLOMA 10 4.8 5.0 5.0 OND 30 14.3 20.1 EDUCATION QUALIFICATIONS OF THE 200 15.1 RESPONDENTS HND 80 38.1 40.2 60.3 FIRST DEGREE 19 9.0 9.5 69.8 SECOND DEGREE ACA Total System 40 20 199 11 210 19.0 9.5 94.8 5.2 100.0 20.1 10.1 100.0 89.9 100.0
EDU CATION QU AL ALIFICATION OF TH RESPON E DEN TS
M issing AC A D LOM IP A ON D
SE ON D GR E C D E E
FIR D GR ST E EE
H D N
SOURCE: From the data in table 1. From figure 4.4 above, the Highest Educational Qualifications are Diploma, O.N.D, First Degree, Second Degree and A.C.A and the
subtend angles equal to 180, 540, 1440, 360, 720 and 360 and respectively at the center of the circle.
PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS Table 2 below shows the percentage analysis of the responses to the yes or no Questions.
S/N QUESTIONS YES % NO % TOTAL IN NUM.
1 2 Can unemployment be caused by an individual? Is there any relationship between poverty, unemployment and growth? 190 200 95 100 10 0 5 0 200 200
TOTAL IN %
Does government regulation cause unemployment?
Can unemployment leads to sickness and mental disorder? Does unemployment leads to homelessness and loss of selfesteem? Can we say that unemployment is one of the causes of youth
disturbances in the community?
Is unemployment a social problem? Can government do something to reduce the rate of unemployment in the country?
Does politics contribute to the cause of unemployment? Is it possible eradicate unemployment totally from the society?
SOURCE: From the questionnaires administered Table 2 above shows the answers to the yes or no questions in both absolute numbers and percentages. The 200 respondents were asked if the unemployment be caused by an individual. 190 of them making 95% said yes and 10 of them making 5% of them said no. The 200 respondents were asked whether there is any relationship between poverty, unemployment and growth. 100 respondents making 50% of them said yes. The respondents were asked if government regulation can cause unemployment, 190 of them making 95% of them said yes while 10 of them making 5% of them said no. The 200 respondents are asked whether unemployment can lead to sickness and mental disorder, 180 of them making 90% said yes and 20 of them making 10% of them said no. The 200 respondents were asked if unemployment can lead to homelessness and loss of self-esteem 100 of them making 50% said yes. The 200 respondents were asked whether
unemployment is one of the causes of youth disturbances in the community. 160 of them making 80% of them said yes and 40 of them making 20% of them said no. The 200 respondents are asked if unemployment is a social problem. 100% of them said yes. The 200 respondents are asked if government can do something to reduce the rate of unemployment in the country. 170 of them making 85% of them said yes and 30 of them making 15% of them said no. The 200 respondents are asked if politics contribute to the cause of unemployment 100% of them said yes. They were asked if it is possible to eradicate unemployment totally from the society.100 of them said yes.
`4.4 CROSS – TABULATED ANALYSIS Table: 3 below shows the analysis of the statuses of the 200 respondents TABLE: 3 THE ANALYSIS OF THE STATUSES OF THE 200 RESPONDENTS. STATUS SENIOR FREQUENCY 80 PROPORTION 0.4
STAFF JUNIOR STAFF 120 0.6 TOTAL 200 1 SOURCES: From the questionnaires administered.
From the table 3 above, it is shown that the 200 respondents has the proportion of 0.4 for senior staff and 0.6 for the junior staff making a proportion of 1 in all .
COST OF UNEMPLOYMENT i. individual ii. society TOTAL F. Stands for frequency, p for proportion.
F 110 90 200
P(%) 0.55 0.45 1
SOURCE: from the questionnaires administered. From table 4 above it is shown that the cost of unemployment are: 1. cost to individual 2. cost to the society
They have frequencies of 110and 90 respectively out of 200 making proportions of the total of 0.55, and 0.45 respectively.
TABLE 5: THE ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSES OF UNEMPLOYMENT CAUSES OF UNEMPLOYMENT i. Economic growth ii. Technological advancement iii. Politics iv. Government regulation v. Individual Total FREQUENCY 40 35 30 55 40 200 PROPORTION 20 17.5 15 27.5 20 100
SOURCE: From the questionnaires administered.
From Table 5 above, it is shown that the major causes of unemployment by the respondents are economic growth, technological advancement, politics, government regulation and individual. They have frequencies of 40, 35, 30, 55 and 40 respectively out of 200 making proportions of the total of 20, 17.5, 15, 27.5 and 20 respectively. Table 6 below shows the analysis of the components of their internal control system TABLE. 6: THE ANALYSIS OF THE COMPONENTS OF THEIR
PACKAGING SYSTEM. COMPONENT I: inputs Ii: units FREQUENCY 75 PROPORTION 0.375 0.425 0.20 1.000
processing 85 40 200
Iii: outputs TOTAL
Source: From the questionnaire administered From table 6 above it is shown that the components of their packaging system are processing units, Inputs and output in a descending order of magnitude. They have frequencies of 85. 75 and 40 respectively
TABLE:7 THE MEASUREMENT MEASUREMENT 1: Official Estimates
UNEMPLOYMENT PROPORTION 29 30 8.5 32.5 100
FREQUENCY 58 Sample 60 17 200
2: Labour Force Surveys materials
3: Social Insurance Statistics
4. Employment Office Statistics 65
SOURCE: From the questionnaires administered. From table 7 above, the constraints on packaging system are lack of knowledge of materials, choice of packaging materials and cost of packaging. They have frequencies of 82,60,and 58 out of 200 respectively giving proportions of 0.41, 0.30, and 0.29 respectively.
HYPOTHESES TESTING Three hypotheses are to be tested as follows, that the proportion of the respondents that said yes is 90% when asked:
1. 2. 3.
If UNEMPLOYMENT IS CAUSE BY INDIVIDUAL; If UNEMPLOYMENT IS CAUSE BY GOVERNMENT REGULATION If UNEMPLOYMENT ADVANCEMENT IS CAUSE BY TECHNOLOGICAL
The alternative hypotheses in each case are that the proportion is greater than 90% at 5% level of significance. The z test of the population proportions is used. TABLE 8: THE COMPUTATIONAL DETAILS OF THE THREE HYPOTHESES HYPOTHESES NO. 1 2 3 HO: P = 0.9 HA: P > 0.9 SOURCE: From the data in table 2 and from the statistical table From table 8 above it is shown that for each of the three hypotheses, the calculated value is greater than the table value and so the null hypotheses in each case is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted. So in each case the proportion of the respondents who said yes is greater than 90% CALCULATED VALUES 2.357 4.714 4.714 TABLE VALUE 1.045 1.645 1.645 DECISION Reject Ho Reject Ho Reject Ho
Mills. G .A AND Walter, J.A.C. 1995) Technical writing New York: holt. Rinehart and Winston. Podsakoff, p.m and Dalton, P.R. (research methodology in organisational studies. Journal of management. Volume 13, number 2, 419 – 441
CHAPTER FIVE FINDINGS, SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
FINDINGS Through this research, the researcher has been able to discover and established the fact that: 1. The unemployed are those who want and are able to work but who
have no work at present. They might alternatively be described as having no work, being available for work, and looking for a job or waiting for their work to resume or begin in the near future 2. 3.
Unemployment levels are increasing dramatically in many parts of the world.
Unemployment has obvious and well-documented links to economic disadvantage and has also been connected in some discussion to higher crime rates this our country.
According to Adrian Sinfield, when there is high unemployment (1) the employed feel less secure; (2) workers are less willing to leave unsatisfactory jobs; (3) divisions in society increase; (4) the prospect of equality of opportunity decreases. Some local areas can develop a culture of despair. Lea and Young argue that this occurred in some inner cities of Britain and helped cause the riots of the 1980s. Various attempts have been made to link unemployment to many social ills such as ill-health, premature death, attempted and actual suicide, marriage breakdown, child battering, racial conflicts and football hooliganism. There is evidence to link unemployment to poor health. For example, (1) some unemployed graduates in this nation had poorer mental health than employed ones; (2) in 1971 a study based on the British census found a 20% higher mortality rate among the unemployed than among the employed; (3) a 1982 study of Edinburgh found the suicide and attempted suicide rate of unemployed men was 20 times higher than that of employed men; (4) studies indicate that children of the unemployed are not as tall as those of the employed. Such studies do not actually show that unemployment causes ill health, but they establish a statistical correlation. Chas Critcher, Bella Dicks and Dave Waddington in the early 1990s studied the effect of unemployment on two pit villages in
Yorkshire using a questionnaire method. In both villages pit closure resulted in significant long-term unemployment, and there were high stress levels throughout the community. Women suffered as much as men; wives of miners had to bear the brunt of family poverty and cope with male despair. There were social and economic problems for the community as a whole, and the fabric of the villages started to decay. Crime increased. Both villages were communities that had experienced total disorientation. Unemployment costs the taxpayer. Between 1979 and 1985 unemployment benefits amounted to 33 billion. There is also a loss of tax revenue, since people who are out of work do not pay taxes. In Nigeria, the national unemployment rate, estimated by the Office of Statistics as 4.3 percent of the labour force in 1985, increased to 5.3 percent in 1986 and 7.0 percent in 1987, before falling to 5.1 percent in 1988 as a result of measures taken under the SAP. Most of the unemployed were city dwellers, as indicated by urban jobless rates of 8.7 percent in 1985, 9.1 percent in 1986, 9.8 percent in 1987, and 7.3 percent in 1988. Underemployed farm labour, often referred to as disguised unemployed, continued to be supported by the family or village, and therefore rural unemployment figures were less accurate than those for urban unemployment.
The International Labor Organization (ILO) is trying to do something about unemployment in Nigeria. The ILO says that 6.4-million Nigerians are looking for work, which would make the unemployment rate there 4.7 percent. 5.3 CONCLUSION The unemployed can be distinguished from the much larger number who are employed, on their own account or by an employer, or who, unlike the employed and the unemployed, are not in the labour force. The employed have jobs, although some may be temporarily absent from work because of illness, strikes, bad weather, etc. Those not in the labour force do not want to or cannot participate in the LABOUR MARKET. They include housewives, students, retirees, etc.
Because of the unemployment problem and all the evils that it brings about, the large youth population is often considered more a burden than a boon for the nation by the general people, but not so by the policy makers who continue to remain optimistic and inspire others into believing that it is this youth who will change the future of the nation for the better.
The trust for modernization in African countries has produced a variety of unintended consequences which created in-coherences in the social and psychological worlds of large number of citizens. Cyclical unemployment is caused by the economic downturns. When the economy improves the unemployment rate falls. In this case, is it recommended that government should be more concern about the improvement of nation’s economy. -Structural unemployment is caused by changes in the structure of the economy. I.e. a technological shift can replace jobs that used to be held by often low skilled or unskilled workers. It recommended that people should engage themselves constantly in training and retraining in order to meet the ever-changing need/demand in the labour market. -Frictional unemployment is caused by those who are temporarily unemployed moving from one job to another. At any one time there will be some who are frictionally unemployed. The researcher hereby recommend that people should be satisfied with their current employment to avoid move about. -Seasonal unemployed are those such as grape pickers who are unemployed for half the season because there is a lack of demand for
them in a particular season. When the season of the job elapses, people should not relax but move to a different job. -Long term unemployed are those who have been out of work for 18 months or longer. It is usually extremely hard for those people to gain employment. It is recommended that such people should learn a particular trade to later become self-employed.
REFFERENCES When persons e number of citizens. When persons experience extreme social dislocations and anxieties with regard to legitimate expectations and values, they often are in APPENDIX 1 COVERING LETTER
Department Administration Polytechnic of Business Akwa Ibom State
Continuing Education Centre Km 3 Refinery Road, Effurun-Warri Dear sir/ madam, QUESTIONNAIRE You will no doubt share with me the conviction that a Higher National Diploma student in the above department is researching on unemployment syndrome among Nigerian graduates: effects and solution Please take the little time required to complete the attached questionnaire. Your responses are to be kept in the strictest confidence and share under no circumstances to be divulged. They are to be combined with those of other subjects to get composites and averages for writing up the researcher’s HND project. Yours sincerely, KATE OMEH.
APPENDIX II: QUESTIONNAIRRE Unemployment Syndrome among Nigerian graduates: Causes, effects and solution. PERSONAL DATA 1 2 SEX: MALE Marital status Divorced 3 FEMALE Married Widowed Single Separated 21-30 years Above 60 years
Age : Less than 20 years 41-50 years
31-40 years 4
Highest Education Qualifications
Senior School Certificate H.N.D. First Degree
O.N.D Second Degree _______________
Professionals Qualification (state which) (5) Status: Senior Staff Junior Staff
DATA ON UNEMPLOYMENT SYNDROME (4) Unemployment is a state in which an able-bodied individual is actively seeking, but is unable to secure, any gainful employment.
(6) Is it possible eradicate unemployment totally from the society? Yes Yes No NO (7) Does politics contribute to the cause of unemployment?
(8) Can government do something to reduce the rate of unemployment in the country? Yes (9) Is unemployment a social problem? expectation Yes No (10) What are the steps to control unemployment in the country? Steps i. Establish goals and standard for al the unemployed graduates No
Implementing the plan
Measuring performance against goals
Taking action if things are okay
Taking corrective action if things are not okay
Is Official Estimates, one of the means of measuring unemployment? YES
Can we say that unemployment is one of the causes of youth disturbances in the community?
What are the different types of unemployment that is prevalence in the country ?
TYPES i. unemployment ii Employee Incentives (14) (15) Can Economic Growth cause unemployment? Frictional
Does unemployment leads to homelessness and loss of self-esteem? YES NO
Can unemployment leads to sickness and mental disorder? NO YES
Does government regulation cause unemployment? YES NO Is there any relationship between poverty, unemployment and growth? YES NO Can unemployment be caused by an individual? NO YES 71
Unemployment may impair the functioning of families NO YES
BIBLIOGRAPHY Agbadudu, A.B. (1994). Statistics for Business and the Social Science Benin City. Uri Publishing Limited.
Agenlejika, G. (1990). “Auditors and section 359 (2) of the companies and Allied Matters Decree (1990)”, The Nigerian Accountant, Volume xxiii, number 4, p-15.
Alabi, S.A. (1990).”Auditing and Appraisal of oil and Gas Reserves.”
Paper presented in the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria Silver Jubilee Seminar on Accounting in the oil industry, November 8 & 9, pp 1-10.
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) (1981). Statement on Auditing Standards (SAS), no. 39: Audit Sampling New York: AICPA
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AICPA (1988). Statement of Auditing Standards, no. 55: Consideration of the Internal Control Structure in Financial Statement Audit. New York; AICPA
Anthony, R.N. (1991). Planning and Control Systems: a Framework for Analysis. Harvard: Division of research, Harvard Business School.
Ouchi, W.G. (1978).” The Transmission of control through Organizational Hierarchy”, Academy off Management of Management Journal, Volume
Paula, F.C. and Attwood, F.A. (1993). Auditing Principle and Practices. London: Pitman
Podsakoff, P.M., and Dalton, D.R. (1987). “Research mythology in Organizational Studies”, Journal of Management. Volume 13, Number 2,419-441.
Selltiz, C., and Wrightsman, L.S., and Croh, S.W. (1976). Research Methods on small Relations New Yok: Rinehart and Winston. Spiegel, M.R. (1992) Schaums Outline of theory and problems of Statistics in S.R. Units. New York: McGraw-Hill book company Stone, E,. (1995(. Research Mathology on organizational Behavior Santa Monca, California: Good Year Publishing Company Incorporated. Yomere, GO., and Algbonifoh, B.A. (1999). Research Methology in social sciences and Education. Benin City; Uniben press.
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