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Amref's year two Katine report annexes

Amref's year two Katine report annexes

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Annexes to Amref's year two report on the Katine project
Annexes to Amref's year two report on the Katine project

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6.0 ANNEXES 6 . 1 A C RO N Y M S............................................................................................................................2 6 . 2 B A C K G RO U N D I N F O R M A T I O N....................................................

......................................... 6 6.2.1 Development Uganda................................................................................6 6.2.2 Development context Soroti..............................................................7 6.2.3 Development context county................................................................7 6 . 3WRITE UP OF I N T E G R AT I O N..........................................................................7 in context in

the

district

of

in

Katine

sub-

DEGREE

OF

6.3.1 Background................................................................................................................8 6 . 3 . 2KCPP Integration – at planning and implementation level……………………………8 6 . 3 . 3KCPP Integration level…………………………………………………….10 at outcome

6 . 4 CASE STUDIES.......................................................................................................................13 6. 4 . 1 Education study...............................................................................................13 6. 4 . 2 Watsan study...................................................................................................13 6. 4 . 3 Health study.....................................................................................................14 6.4.4 Community study.....................................................................15 empowerment case

case

case

case

6 .5 TABLE OF EDUCATION SCHOOLS...........................................................17

FA C I L I T I E S

IN

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6.1 ACCRONYMS

AIDS AMREF ANC ARV CBAHW CAHW CBD CBMS CBO CE CMDs DDP DEO DIS DSC DTPC

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome African Medical and Research Foundation Antenatal Clinic Antiretroviral Community Based Animal Health Workers Community Animal Health Workers Community Based Development approach Community Based Management Structures Community Based Organisation Community empowerment Community Medicine Distributors District Development Plan D i s t r i c t E d u c a t i o n O ff i c e r / O ff i c e District Inspector of Schools District Steering Committee D i s t r i c t Te c h n i c a l a n d P l a n n i n g C o m m i t t e e

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DWD ECOSAN EU FGD FUFA GDP HBC HC HIV HMIS HPMs HUMC IDPs IEC IGAs ITNs IMCI LC LLITNs KCPP MDD MWE N A D I FA NGOs NUDIPU

D i r e c t o r a t e o f Wa t e r D e v e l o p m e n t Ecological Sanitation European Union Focus Group Discussion Federation of Uganda Football Association Gross Domestic Product Home Based Care Health Centre H u m a n I m m u n o d e f i c i e n c y Vi r u s Health Management Information System Hand Pump Mechanics Health Unit Management Committee I n t e r n a l l y D i s plac ed P e r s o n s Information, Education and Communication Income Generating Activities Insecticide Treated Nets Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses Local Council Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets Kati ne Community Partnership Project Music dance and drama M i n i s t r y o f Wa t e r a n d E n v i r o n m e n t Nakasongola District Farmers Forum Non – governmental organisations National Union of Disabled Persons in Uganda

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OVCs Paravets PDC PEAP PHASE PHAST

Orphans and vulnerable children Para – veterinarians Parish Development Committee Poverty Eradication Action Plan Personal Hygiene and Sanitation Education P a r t i c i p a t o r y H y g i e n e a n d S a n i t a t i o n Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n

PIASCY Presidential Initiative for Aids Strategy for C o m m u n i c a t i n g t o Yo u t h PLE PLWHAs PMC PMTCT PRA PREFA P/S PTAs PTCs RBA RING RWH Sanplats SCDP SCTPC SMCs SODIFA Primary Leaving Examinations People living with HIV and AIDS Project Management Committee Prevention of mother to child transmission Participatory Rural Appraisal Protecting Families against HIV/AIDS Primary school Parents Teachers Association Primary Teachers College Rights Based Approach Rural Innovation Group Rain Water Harvest Sanitation platforms Sub-county Development Plan Sub-county Technical and Planning Committee School Management Committee Soroti District Farmers Association

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TA U TB TBAs T/L TPO TOR UBOS UGX UWESO V H Ts VIPs VSLA WATSAN WHO WSCs

Tr a i n i n g a n d A d v i s o r y U n i t Tu b e r c u l o s i s Tr a d i t i o n a l B i r t h A t t e n d a n t s Te a c h i n g / L e a r n i n g Tr a n s - C u l t u r e P s y c h o s o c i a l O r g a n i s a t i o n Terms of Reference Uganda Bureau of Statistics Uganda Shillings Uganda Women’s Efforts to Save Orphans Village Health Teams Ve n t i l a t e d p i t l a t r i n e s Village Savings and Loans Association Wa t e r a n d S a n i t a t i o n World Health Organisation Water Source Committees

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6.2 BACKGROUND INFORMATION

6 . 2 . 1 D ev e l o p m e n t c o n t ex t i n U g a n d a Uganda is one of the poorest countries in the world, ranking 146th out of 177 in the 2004 Human Development Index. The population of Uganda is a n estimated 28 million and life expectancy is 49.3 years according to the Wo r l d H e a l t h O r g a n i s a t i o n . A c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o l o w l i f e e x p e c t a n c y i s the fact that 31% of the population currently lives below the poverty line (UBOS 2007). AMREF’s work in Katine is structured within the national framework, which is outlined in the PEAP soon to be the National Development Plan (NDP). 6 . 2 . 2 D eve l o p m e n t c o n t ex t i n t h e d i s t r i c t o f S o r o t i Soroti, located in eastern Uganda, consists of three rural counties (Kasilo, Serere and Soroti) and one municipality (Soroti municipality). There are 17 s u b - c o u n t i e s , i n c l u d i n g t h r e e d i v i s i o n s o f t h e S o r o t i m u n i c i p a l i t y. T h e t o t a l population of Soroti district is 371,986 according to the 2002 UBOS census. Now peaceful, the district is considered post-conflict with recent periods of i n s u r g e n c y a n d c a t t l e r u s t l i n g w h i c h l e d t o the loss of lives, displacement a n d d e p l e t i o n o f t h e n u m b e r o f a n i m a l s a n d o t h e r v a l u a b l e p r o p e r t y. Internally Displaced People (IDPs) have now returned to their communities. 76% of household main economic activity is subsistence farming, cattle rearing and petty trade (UBOS 2002 Census). Poverty prevalence in Soroti district is at 77%, compared to the national a v e r a g e o f 3 1 % . ( U B O S , M a p p i n g t h e P o o r, 2 0 0 4 . ) M a l a r i a i s t h e l e a d i n g disease burden in Soroti district, contributing to 96% of reported morbidity.

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Only 19% of the population lives within 5km of a health facility, far lower than the national average of 49%. HIV/AIDS remains a key challenge. In education at the beginning of the project, the pupil to teacher ratio stood at 1:59 while the desired minimum standard is 1:54. In addition, the pupil to classroom ratio is 1:83 where the minimum standard is 1:54. Soroti still needs an extra 200 trained teachers to meet the increasing number of children joining primary school every year. According to district records, safe water coverage in Soroti district at the start of the project stood at 76%, which is over the national average of 65%. Functionality rate of installed water facilities is at 89%. Results from the AMREF EU project survey in 2007 indicated that latrine coverage in the district was at 68%, also above the national average of 65%. As much as the government has strengthened decentralisation in Uganda - with the subcounty as the lowest unit of development planning and implementation this has almost exclusively emphasised the service delivery aspects of governance. Communities’ engagement in development and decisions that affect them remains weak. The KCCP is working to empower communities and to strengthen dialogue with the systems for service delivery so that they can demand their right to development.

6 . 2 . 3 D eve l o p m e n t C o n t ex t i n K a t i n e s u b - c o u n t y Out of the 17 sub-counties and three municipality divisions in Soroti district, Katine has one of the worst indicators for poverty and underdevelopment. A comparison of Katine indicators with that of the 2006 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey shows that overall baseline conditions for the Katine population are worse than average for rural areas of the country. 6.3 WRITE UP ON DEGREE OF INTEGRATION (see table below)

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INTEGRATION OF KCPP INTERVENTIONS TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 6.3.1 Background

AMREF is testing a model of integrated community based development, to improve the lives of people living in the rural sub-county of Katine, northeastern Uganda. The project is implemented in partnership with the Guardian and Barclays Bank. Other partners include FARM-Africa, CARE, UWESO, Soroti District Local Government and the K a t i n e c o m m u n i t y. I n t e r v e n t i o n s u n d e r t h e K C P P a r e a l i g n e d t o t h e U g a n d a n n a t i o n a l f r a m e w o r k f o r p o v e r t y eradication (PEAP)1 and the Millennium Development Goals.

AMREF’s key development goal is to close the gap between communities and basic service delivery systems through its Community-based development (CBD) approach. The integrated nature of the project addresses the underlying social determinants of health and poverty. We build the capacity of communities, strengthen the government systems of service delivery and carry out operations research to document best practices, and lessons learnt to inform policy and improve practice. The development approach also ensures that the project components of health, water and sanitation, education, livelihoods and community empowerment work to complement each other to achieve sustainable community development. Integration has been demonstrated at planning, implementation, and outcome levels of the project. 6 . 3 . 2 K C P P I n t e g r a t i o n – a t p l a n n i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n l eve l Health Water/sanitati o n  Use of VHT in the promotion of h e a l t h , s a n i tEducation  S u p p o r ting Health Clubs in schools Livelihoods  VHTs using farmers groups as a platform for spreading health messages Promoting food security

Community Empowerment

Health

 E n c o u r a g i n g c o mmunity to seek quality health services espec i a l l y p r e g n a n t m o t h-

1

The PEAP has of late been replaced by the National Plan

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ation and;  Provision of water to health units

 C o n d u c ting Reproductive h e a l t h p r ogrammes

t o minimise m a l n u t r i t i o n  Farmers contribute a social fund in the VSLA which they can borrow for medical services

ers  E n c o u r a g i n g w omen to take part in H e a l t h C e n t r e C o m m i ttees  C o m m u n i t y m o b i li s a t i o n during immunization outreaches  Dissemination of health related messages through drama groups , radio talk shows and IEC CORPs  VHTs using farmers groups as platform for s p r e a d i n g s a n i t a t i o n a n d h ygiene messages  Providing safe water for farmers – home consumption, and livestock production, and  Encouraging farmers to use VSLA to support O&M of water sources

Water/ Sanitatio n

 Provision of safe water in schools  C o n s t r u ct i o n o f l a trines in schools

 P r o m o t i n g o w n e rship for the water/sanitation facilities by the users through WUCs  Using drama groups for promotion of sanitation and household hygiene  F a c i l i t a t i n g c o mmunity structures to develop bylaws governing O&M of water/sanitation facilities  P r o m o t i o n o f p a rticipatory monitoring and supervision of wat e r / s a n i t a t i o n f a c i l i ties

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 R e v i t a l is a t i o n of Parish Sanitation Committees
Education  Supporting farmers to produce enough food to support school feeding  Encouraging parents to participate in VSLAs to support the education of their pupils  Promoting teaching of agriculture in schools

 Supporting School m a n a g e m e n t s t r u ctures by reactivating the SMC, PTA , etc  Provision of IEC materials with key messages e.g. talking compound  P r o m o t i n g p a r t icipatory monitoring of school programs such a s t e a c h i n g , c o n s t r u ction

Livelihoo ds

 M o b i l i s i n g farmers to participate in groups activities  Dissemination of farming information t h r o u g h I E C m a t e r ials  Gender consideration in farmers groups

Communit y

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Empower ment

6.3.3 KCPP Integration at outcome level Healt h Health Reduced cases of preventable diseases; Reduction in water-borne diseases WAT S A N Education Increased awareness about adolescent Reproductive health in schools Reduced cases of early marriages Improved clean school environment Livelihoods Improved community health for productive work Increased efficiency and effectiveness in delivery of community health messages VSLA’s social fund enabled farmers access to timely/quality health services

Community Empowerment

Increased awareness about the role of VHTs and related health issues through the VHT radio programs

Improved health service delivery due to increased demand for quality health services

Increased attendance o f immunisation outreaches supported

Water/ Sanitatio n

Increased latrine coverage has improved sanitation in schools – better

Improvement in hygiene amongst the farmers homesteads – some farmers have model homesteads

Behavior change communication through drama, radio, and IECs messages

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learning environment Increased water coverage allows girl child enough time to attend classes

Improved access to water for domestic use and livestock production VSLA has empowered farmers to raise monthly water user fees for O&M of water sources Recent increment in food production has sustained daily attendance in schools Farmers have borrowed from their VSLAs to support their children in school

General improvement hygiene and sanitation practices at community level and in schools

Education

Greater participation of local community in school activities e.g. school constructions

PTA and SMC working hand in hand for e ff e c t i v e s c h o o l management

School compound messages have improved pupils awareness about their rights

Livelihoo ds

Improved peace and harmony among families participating in farming/VSLA activities

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Communit y Empower ment

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6.4 CASE STUDIES

6.4.1 Education Case study A M R E F i m p r ov e s l e a r n i n g e nv i r o n m e n t fo r c o m m u n i t y s c h o o l s Richard Elasu is the head teacher of Ogwolo primary school. Ogwolo is a community school that started in 2006. It currently has more than 400 pupils in primary one to primary five. The school has grass-thatched structures, one of them a church building. At the beginning of the year A f r i c a n M e d i c a l a n d R e s e a r c h c l a s s r o o m b l o c k w i t h a n o ff i c e a n d a s t o r e for the school. Richard who was posted to the school at the beginning of the second term is grateful of the support from AMREF, the Guardian and Barclays. “These classrooms will go a long way in reducing our construction burden. This s c h o o l i s d o i n g w e l l . B y P. 4 ( p r i m a r y f o u r ) t h e c h i l d r e n c a n r e a d E n g l i s h books well, unlike my previous school, but even so, the school didn’t have books for the children, therefore the support in terms of textbooks came at the right time.” The school also received 39 desks for the new classrooms and textbooks. The head teacher adds: “Even as we were given books, we had problems with storage. Therefore, the new structure won’t only influence academics but will also mean that our books will last longer because of proper storage. We have been keeping things in the grass-thatched structure but we are always worried especially for things like books; it can easily burn and be lost.” R i ch a rd sa i d th a t the co mmu n i ty w a s p la n n i n g to co n stru ct a n o th e r g ra ssthatched classroom to accommodate primary six class due to start next year. “The parents are very happy with the support the school is getting from AMREF because they started with grass-thatched structures but now we have a permanent structure. They are now planning to start constructing teachers’ houses,” he said. The project rehabilitated 16 classrooms and started on the construction of four other classrooms, two stores and two offices. Over 290 desks and over 2,000 textbooks have been distributed to a number of schools in the second year of the project.

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Above: New permanent structure at Ogwolo primary school 6 . 4 . 2 Wa t s a n c a s e s t u d y K a t i n e s t e a d i l y i m p r ov i n g i n s a n i t a t i o n a n d h y g i e n e Katine has some of the poorest development indicators in the district. For instance, latrine coverage in the sub-county was at 7%, leading to poor sanitation and worsening the disease burden. To mitigate the impact of this, t h r o u g h t h e w a t e r a n d s a n i t a t i o n c o m p o n e n t, A M R E F i n t r o d u c e d a n e w approach to sanitation and the creation of ideal homesteads.

This was done through supporting the community – based management structures, whose members on a regular basis move through the villages conducting awareness campaigns on the importance of sanitation and hygiene, and the benefits of a decent latrine in disease prevention. “Katine was one of the sub-counties that lagged behind as far as sanitation is concerned in the district but through this project, sanitation has improved more than two fold and this is not a small coverage,” Ediau Ewadu, Soroti District Chairman noted. Emmanuel Olege, in Kalela village in Olwelai parish lives with his family of four children and his sister who has five children. Stella Acam, his wife, says that there has been a transformation since heeding the message of ideal homes. They have constructed a latrine and erected a tippy tap, a dry rack for utensils, have a kitchen and a separate animal house among others, and keep their compound clean. These were done more than a year back and have seen significant improvements. “The children no longer have diarrhoea since we constructed a latrine and started promoting hygiene in our home,” Stella says. She says that for more than a year they have not had any diarrhoea cases compared to before when diarrhoea was a frequent occurrence. “The latrine has also helped us because we no longer have to fear going to the bush where you get insect bites,” she adds. The project has worked with village health team members (VHTs) and parish sub-county committee (PSCs) to improve hygiene and sanitation in homesteads. By the end of September latrine coverage had improved from 7% at project inception, to 39%. More than 2,000 households in Katine have a decent latrine in their h o m e s t e a d s o u t o f a t o t a l o f 5 , 2 2 1 h o u s e h o l d s i n t h e s u b – c o u n t y. I n addition, through the project interventions more than 300 ideal homesteads have been established. Ideal homesteads are based on a community-led total sanitation and social marketing approach.

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6.4.3. Health case study Katine mother is grateful for the work of VHTs Uganda has one of the highest population growth rates in the world at 3.2%, with a 6.7% fertility rate. Statistics show that this has exerted significant pressure on the country’s food, water and energy resources. AMREF has put a lot of focus on family planning, to mitigate the effects of uncontrolled child births. Of the 272 village health team members (VHTs) in Katine Sub-county supported by AMREF, 85 were trained on family planning. The trained VHTs are responsible for s e n s i t i s i n g communities on the benefits of family planning, dispel myths and misconception, promote family planning uptake and make referrals to the health facilities. As a result, the new contraceptive acceptor rate has increased from 1.0% in the first year of the project to 4.3% in the second year. In the first year of the project only 63 women of child bearing age accessed family planning services out of 5,909 of women of reproductive age. In the second year 251 women of child bearing age accessed family planning services out of 5,909 of women of reproductive age. Annieno Loyce, 26, a mother of five children is one of the beneficiaries of t h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n . To g e t h e r w i t h h e r h u s b a n d C h a r l e s O t i m , 2 7 , t h e y h a v e decided to stop at five children. Loyce’s first born – Denis, is twelve years old. She cannot believe that she started giving birth when she was 14 years old. The second born - Harriet is seven years old, the third – Isaac is four and the fourth – Ronald, is two years old. She gave birth to her fifth child, a girl, o n 1 3t h of October. Loyce says that she heard about family planning through the VHTs, but she received more details when she started going for antenatal care sessions at Tiriri HC. When asked if she would have another child she replies, “That’s enough! Even this baby I did not want to have but I just found myself pregnant.” Loyce adds: “It is difficult to keep them; a big family is difficult. Now I know. One of the benefits of family planning is that it reduces the burden of keeping many children, especially when they fall sick it’s hard to take them to the hospital.” Charles, her husband, who was with her at the Tiriri HC IV in Katine agrees, and says they are going to use family planning methods to stop at five children.

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Loyce, who lost one of her babies as a result of pregnancy related complications, appreciates the idea of antenatal care and giving birth at a health centre. Though her home is about 4km from Tiriri HC she attended three sessions when she was pregnant with the two year old child and she a t t e n d e d f o u r a n t e n a t a l c a r e s e s s i o n s d u r i n g t h e p r e g n a n c y o f t h i s b a b y. She started going for antenatal care when she was five months pregnant (when she found out about her pregnancy) and says “I have been walking that distance because now I know that it’s good to come for antenatal care and it is safer to d e li v e r un d e r t h e s u p e rvi s i o n o f a h e a l t h worker than at home.” The other thing Loyce and her husband have learnt is to control malaria. “We thank AMREF for the VHTs. It’s from them that we have learnt that if you want to protect your child from malaria then you use a mosquito net, destroy the breeding ground for mosquitoes by keeping the compound clear and clean,” she says, before adding, “malaria is still a big problem, but it’s not as it used to be.” Loyces comments on how the children can go for months without suffering from malaria because they have been keen to control it. To Loyce it has been a learning experience and she believes that life will get even better because of the knowledge she has gained from the health workers and VHTs.

Above: Loyce and her new born in Tiriri HC IV 6 . 4 . 4 . C o m m u n i t y e m pow e r m e n t c a s e s t u d y P a r i s h d eve l o p m e n t c o m m i t t e e r e k i n d l e t h e i r c o m m i t m e n t t o s e r ve Barely a month after the training, the Ojama parish development committee (PDC) member swung into action and wrote to the sub-county listing the needs of the parish that the sub-county needed to consider. To s t r e n g t h e n l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t b o t t o m - u p p a r t i c i p a t o r y better service delivery, the Katine Partnerships Project (KCPP) from two parishes, Ojama and Merok, in Katine sub-county, in in eastern Uganda, mid – year . The training focused on budgeting. planning for trained PDCs Soroti district planning and

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In mid July the Ojama PDC wrote to the sub-county to look into the p r o v i s i o n o f s a f e w a t e r, p o s t i n g o f a p a r i s h c h i e f , p r o v i s i o n o f t r a i n i n g handouts and more refresher trainings to the PDC. They requested the subcounty to regularly facilitate PDC meetings, follow up on PDC action plans and to promote transparency and accountability in the sub-county. Patrick Okodo is the chairperson of Ojama PDC. He has been a PDC member since 1999, though he became the chairperson of Ojama parish in 2006. The parish has five executive committee members, the chairperson – Patrick, the secretary (female), a treasurer (female), the vice chairperson (female) and a member (male). In total, the PDC has 21 members, which include two representatives (female and male) from each of the eight villages in Ojama. Patrick says that some of the challenges the committee is facing include the lack of transport to facilitate their movements. The other issue, Patrick says, i s t h a t “ w h e n w e p l a n a c t i v i t i e s a n d f o r w a r d t h e m t o t h e s u b - c o u n t y, w e don’t get feedback; another challenge is the failure to conduct meetings because members rarely attend if there is no lunch and transport facilitation.” Though the training conducted by AMREF didn’t solve these challenges it was an eye-opener on how to improve on their work. Patrick says that the PDC members know how to go about the many challenges that the PDCs face. “The people now know how to analyse data and interpret it, for example, the number of households with pit latrines we have in the parish, and this information helps us in planning.” He adds that the training “helped us in that we now know how to indentify resources we have in the parish, and easily mobilise them and also to know resource persons to work with, such as NGOs, politicians and government officials.” Patrick says that on the issue of meetings they have convinced members to come for regular meetings. “We are supposed to meet monthly but we have decided to meet quarterly reducing the frequency of meetings - one of the reasons why attendance was poor.” The training was also aimed at strengthening the capacity of PDCs to facilitate the community participatory planning process, thereby empowering their communities to identify needs and priorities through the bottom up participatory approach.

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4.4.5 VSLAs in Katine complete the first cycle In 2008 the Katine Community Partnerships Project (KCPP) supported and facilitated 18 famer groups to start the first village savings and loans associations (VSLA) in Katine Sub-county, Soroti district in Eastern Uganda. Some of the first groups to form VSLAs have completed the first cycle of their transactions of 52 weeks. The Olwelai Farmers Group VSLA, supported by KCPP completed the first 52 week at the end of July. KCPP is implemented by the African Medical and Research Foundation, funded by the Guardian and Barclays. Farm-Africa partners with AMREF on the livelihoods component. The KCPP livelihoods component works in partnership with UWESO (Uganda Women Effort to Save Orphans) and Care to support the VSLAs. A VSLA is a self-selected group of people (usually unregistered) who pool their money into a fund from which members can borrow. The money is paid b a c k w i t h i n t e r e s t , c a u s i n g t h e f u n d t o g r o w. T h e s a v i n g s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the association are deposited with an end date (usually between 8 – 12 months ) in mind for distribution of all or part of the total funds ( including interest earning) to the individual members, usually on the basis of a formula that links payout to the amount saved. This lump sum distribution provides a large amount of money that members can then use as they want, without restriction. Members of the group meet on a weekly basis. With this particular VSLA members were buying shares, each costing Ush500. Each member can buy between one to five shares per sitting. By the end of the 52 weeks the share value had risen to 618 at the Olwelai Farmers Group VSLA. Immaculate Auma at the end of the day had accumulated the highest number of shares- 260, earning her over Ush160,000 (about £50). Their share value has been 618, the reason being, “The money was kept in the safe box instead of borrowing. That’s why the share value remained at 618,” says David Ogwang, the KCPP project assistant- livelihoods. This group has 28 members, 16 women and 12 men. Twelve of the female members accumulated more than 200 shares compared to their counterparts who had only seven male members accumulating more than 200 shares. However, the member with the smallest shares was a woman, with 93 shares. She was the only one who had less than 100 shares.

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“She was sceptical of the idea. She thought that UWESO would collect their money and run away with it at the end of the cycle; that is why she was not so eager to buy shares.” Charles Otto the group chairperson says. Angella Alubo, 68, was among the top three members with the highest shares. She had 258 shares, amounting to almost Ush160,000 ( a b o u t £ 5 0 ). She plans to buy second hand clothes to sell in the Katine market. Like majority of the members she also wants to buy goats. Immaculate like many of her colleagues, is looking forward for the next cycle to save more money and expand her income generating activities. For the moment she wants to use the money to buy a bull. Since she joined VSLA she is been involved in a number of small transactions including buying and selling of cereals and selling fish. Out of this she has saved more than U s h 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 (about £30) “I am going to add this money to what I have been saving and buy at least one bull,” Immaculate says. Immaculate, though not sure of how old she is, she thinks she is above 30 years. Her husband is 31 years and runs a lock-up in one of the small trading centres in Katine. She says that the husband, though not a member of the VSLA, has been supportive at times contributing to the weekly buying of shares when Immaculate would not have money. T h e d r o u g h t h a s a f f e c t e d h e r a l o t . T h e f a m i l y, w i t h s i x c h i l d r e n , h a d planted groundnuts, sorghum, beans, millet and cassava. But most of these crops have been destroyed by the heat. The drought has also affected the husband’s business as his usual customers have not got money to spend. The family on two occasions had gone without a meal in 2 4 h o u r s . H o w e v e r, o n b o t h o c c a s i o n s t h e youngest children were given porridge. Surprisingly on these two occasions Immaculate had more than USh100,000 lying under her bed. “The focus was to buy at least a bull so I couldn’t touch that m o n e y, ” s h e s a y s . T h e g r o u p c h a i r p e r s o n , Charles says that the VSLA has benefited them a lot. He says: “It has helped us in our families and as a group. The welfare savings have rescued members on several occasions. When you don’t have food at home, instead of the family sleeping on empty stomachs a member borrows from this money and buys food. You can also borrow money to treat the children or pay schools fees.”

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When members meet each contributes Ush100 toward the welfare fund. This money is borrowed my members when they have an emergency at home that requires finances, but they don’t pay back with interest. Above: Immaculate and her savings in her VSLA

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6.5 TABLE OF EDUCATION FACILITIES IN SCHOOL

A n a n a l y s i s t a bl e fo r s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s i n O c t o b e r 2 0 0 9

SCHOOL OBYARAI P/S 9 10 8 440 600 60:1 55:1 779 86:1 AJONYI P/S OJAGO P/S ADAMASIK O P/S 8 2 OJOM OCHULOI P/S

NO. OF CLASS ROOM S ENROLL MENT 0 0 0

CLASS ROOM PUPIL R AT I O

CLASS ROOM BUILT BY AMREF

CLASS ROOMS REHABILITA TED BY AMREF 0 4 0

OFFICES REHABILITA TED/CONSTR UCTED 0 1 0

STORES REHABILITATE D OR CONSTRUCTED

L I B R A RY CONSTRUCTED/ REHABILITATED

0

0

1

0

0

0

864 393

108:1 196:1

0 2

0 0

0 1

0

0

1

0

11

724

65:1

0

8

1

1

0

Page 23 of 27

OLWELAI P/S 8 719 89:1 0 0 K A D I N YA P/S 7 359 51:1 5 0 AMORIKOT P/S 7 358 51:1 7 KATINE TIRIRI 14 9 8 8 8 2 362 181:1 563 70:1 764 95:1 754 94:1 700 77:1 0 0 0 0 2 910 65:1 0 KATINE OJAMA OIMAI P/S MEROK P/S OGWOLO

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

0 5 1 4 0 0

0 1 0 1 0 1

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

Red – still under construction

Page 24 of 27

Below is an analysis table for school supplies recorded in the period of July 09– September 09

SCHOO L OBYARA I P/S 779 37 56

ENROLL MENT TERM 2 OF2009 93

DESKS AT BASELINE

DESKS SUPPLIE D BY AMREF

T O TA L DESKS

DESK PUPIL R AT I O 8:1

TEXT BOOKS AT BASE LINE 10:1 N o textboo ks

TEXT BOOKS DISTRI -BUTE D BY AMRE F 153

CHARTS DISTRIBUTED BY AMREF 47

TEACHERS GUIDES DISTRI -BUITED BY AMREF

TEXT

T O TA L TEXT BOOKS

BOOK PUPIL R AT I O

21

82

5:1

AJONYI P/S 600

89

72

161

4:1

328 N o textboo ks

28

14

99

1:1

OJAGO P/S ADAMA SIKO P/S

440

68

0

68

6:1

500

106

46

500

1:1 864 160 54 214 4:1 10:1 199 30

20

93

4:1

Page 25 of 27

OJOM OCHUL OI P/S 724 166 126 292 2:1 10:1 OLWELA I P/S 719 75 18 93 7:1 KADINY A P/S 359 36 94 130 2:1 AMORI KOT P/S 358 0 126 126 KATINE TIRIRI 910 700 754 105 100 170 74 54 18 KATINE OJAMA OIMAI P/S 764 MEROK P/S OGWOL O

393

0

36

36

10:1

n o textboo ks

245

8

31

6:1 500 106

94

500

1:1 84 12

10:1

20

8:1 10:1 No text books 644 45

30

86

1:1 2:1 920 34

32

105

1:1 3:1 20:1 350 18

244 154 123

17 4:1 6:1 10:1 10:1 170 696 42 106

137

2:1

22

11 6

4:1

46

500

1:1 54 153 4:1 No info 502 106

99

46

500

1:1 157 0 157 3:1 10:1 No text books 241 27

563

14

86

2:1 362 0 36 36 10:1 245 12

31

0

1:1

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