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Unit 7: Heat & Temperature

Set up your notes

Eureka!

Video: Heat vs. Temperature


Video Summary
At what temperature does water freeze? Boil?
Is there more hotness in the cup or the bucket? Why?
Does the amount of molecules have anything to do with
temperature (or degree of hotness)?
______ ____combined with ______________ = Quantity
of Hotness (HEAT)

Q: What Did We Just Learn?


Temperature: (degree of hotness) is a measure of
speed of molecules
Heat: (quantity of hotness) is a measure of both
the

mass and speed of molecules.

Transfer of energy due to thermal contact

Q: What Did We Just Learn?


During a phase change, as energy is supplied to a system, it can be
deposited into two different energy accounts: either thermal
energy (Eth) or phase energy (Eph)

Thermal Energy (Eth) acts to increase the temperature


when only one phase is present.
Also known as kinetic energy

Phase energy(Eph) acts to break down the attractions


between particles that hold them together as solid, liquid,
or gas, resulting in a phase change.
Label your graph where thermal energy (Eth) and phase energy
(Eph) are increasing

Exit Ticket
1. Are the following characteristics associated with PHASE
ENERGY or THERMAL ENERGY?

increases temperature _____

acts to break down the attractions between particles


that hold them together as solid, liquid, or gas ___
involved when only 1 phase is present____
involved when the phase is changing ____

Warm Up
Tuesday | December 2, 2014
**Turn in labs and temperature homework*
1. Define thermal and phase energy
2. Hypothermia is a condition in which the body gives up too much
heat energy to its colder surroundings. For humans, a drop in
body temperature to 90F can cause unconsciousness and a
temperature of 78F can be fatal. Express both these temperatures
in degrees Celsius and kelvin.
3. One of the most rapid increases in temperature occurred on
January 22, 1943 in the town of Spearfish, South Dakota. Within
2 minutes, the temperature increased to 49F. What was the
change in temperature in degrees Celsius? Express this in Kelvins.

You will need 2-3 colors

HEATING AND COOLING CURVES

Review: Consensus
Energy is like money
when you have a lot of money, you want to spend it. Money
transfers from high low)

In the same way, energy flows from high energy


low energy (in this case, from hot plate to ice)
In the same way that money can be deposited into
different accounts, energy is deposited into different
energy accounts
These accounts have different purposes, do different things

Review: Consensus
During a phase change, as energy is supplied to a system, it can be
deposited into two different energy accounts: either thermal
energy (Eth) or phase energy (Eph)
Thermal energy acts to increase the temperature when only one
phase is present.
Phase energy acts to break down the attractions between particles
that hold them together as solid, liquid, or gas, resulting in a phase
change.
Label your graph where thermal energy (Eth) and phase energy
(Eph) are increasing

Q: What does a heating curve look like?

Q: Why does this make sense?


HEAT is constant but the temperature changes at a
weird rate.
WHY?
Because of the difference between thermal energy
and phase energy.
Thermal energy changes temperature
Phase energy breaks down phases

What do we think a cooling curve looks like?

Warm Up
Wednesday | December 3, 2014
1. What phase is Region B?

2. Identify the type of phase


change:

1. Solid gas
2. Gas solid
3. Liquid solid
3. Draw and label the heating
curve for mercury (MP = 234K, BP = 630 K)

Its Happened to you:


Its a hot summer day. You get into your car. The
seatbelt is BURNING hot (ouch!)
However, a bottle of water you left in the back
seat is only slightly warm.

WHY????!

Heat Capacities of Common Substances


Substance

Heat capacity (J/g C)

Water (l) liquid

4.18

Water (s) solid


Alcohol
Aluminum

2.1
2.44
0.897

Gold

0.129

Q: What Is Specific Heat?


It takes 4.18 joules to raise the temperature of 1 g of
liquid water by 1 C.
We can write this value as:

C = 4.18 J/(gC)

You have this lovely equation

q = mC DT

q = quantity of energy transferred (in J)


(heat absorbed or released)

m = mass of the sample (in g)


C = specific heat of the substance (J/g C)
T = change in temperature (in C)
T = Tfinal Tinitial
What is absolute value???

Q: How do we calculate specific heat?


Lets Look At An Example
Suppose that we have a larger sample of liquid water.
How much energy would it take to raise the
temperature of 5 g of water by one degree Celsius?
How much energy would it take to raise the
temperature of 5 g of water by 2 degrees Celsius?
How could we graph this on a heating/cooling curve?

Heat Equations
Energy Constants (H2O)
Heat of fusion, Hf= 334 J/g

(amount of energy required to melt


or freeze 1 g of H2O)

Heat of vaporization, Hv = 2260


J/g

(amount of energy required to


evaporate or condense 1 g of H2O)

Heat capacity (C) of solid H2O =


2.1 J/gC
Heat capacity (C) of liquid H2O =
4.18 J/gC

q mH f
q mH v

q mC T

q mH f
q mH v

q mC T

Q: Which Heat Equation?


What is happening to
the substance?

Use This Equation

Freezes or melts

q mH f

Evaporates or
condenses

q mH v

Temperature
changes

q mCT

Wait! Which equation do I use??!!


1. A cup of hot chocolate (270 g) cools from 60C
down to comfortable room temperature 20.C.
How much energy does it release to the
surroundings?

First, before you do any math, you need to


determine what changes are taking place.

Warm Up
Thursday | December 4, 2014
1. What is specific heat (heat capacity)?
2. Alba decided to have soup for an after-school snack. She
takes the 500g soup from the refrigerator (5C) and heats it
up to 85C. How much energy was absorbed?
3. Jawan accidentally left a flavor-ice popsicle, with a mass of
33g at 0C, on a park bench during the summer. By the time
he gets back from running a few miles, it is totally melted.
How much energy must be absorbed by the ice in order for
it to melt all the way?
4. Vince leaves a 270g cup of water outside on a summer day
and it evaporates. How much energy did the cup of water
absorb?

1 Step Practice
1. If 200 grams of water is to be heated from 24C to 100C to
make a cup of tea, how much heat must be added?
2. A block of aluminum weighing 140g is cooled rom 98.4C to
62.2C with the release of 1280 joules of heat. Calculate the
specific heat of aluminum?
3. How many grams of water can be warmed from 7C to 97C
by the addition of 32886 J?
4. If 90g of a substance absorb 18900 joules while it boils,
calculate the heat of vaporization.
5. How much energy is released to the environment by 50.0
grams of freezing water?
6. Calculate the amount of heat needed to melt 35.0 g of ice
at 0 C.

Two-Step!
Trickier quantitative
energy problems
Like a dollar bill, with
hard work, you too
will be on FIRE!!!

Steps to solve 2-step Energy problems:


1) Determine if its a HEATING or COOLING curve.
2) Identify WHAT PARTS of the curve its
describing
3) Match the appropriate HEAT EQUATIONS, and
solve.
4) ADD the two answers together.

Two-Step
A 50.0 g sample of liquid water at 0.0C ends up as ice at
20.0 C. How much energy is involved in this change?
You begin with a 75g glass of 50C water. You cool it to 0C
and then completely freeze it. How much energy was lost?
Daniel has 25g of water at 80C and boils it completely into
gas. How much energy was lost?
1 or 2? Tanika takes a 50C glass of water (50g) and
completely freezes it. How much energy was released by
the water?

Warm Up
Friday| December 5, 2014
1. How much energy is required to boil 15g water?
2. How much energy would Adjara need to heat a 56 gram
block of ice from -20C to -5C?
3. Destanie warms a 45g of water from 50C to 70C and
then boils it completely into gas. How much energy was
lost?
4. Uriel takes a 48g glass of water glass of water at 50C and
completely freezes it.

Is this a one step or a two step equation?


How much energy was released by the water?

Warm Up
Monday| December 8, 2014
1. How much energy would Candace need to melt a 56 gram
block of ice from 0C to -5C?
2. Sydney cools a 65g glass of water from 70C to 0C and then
freezes it completely. How much energy was released by the
system?
3. While Joseph wassweating his chemistry test, water vapor
evaporated from his body, absorbing 135 kJ of energy.
Assuming no temperature change, what mass of water
evaporated?
4. A mixture of 14.0 moles of hydrogen, 84.0 moles of nitrogen,
and 2.0 moles of oxygen are placed in a flask. What are the
partial pressures if the total pressure is 105.00 mm of
mercury? Convert this value to atm.

Set Up Your Notes

PHASE DIAGRAMS

Q: What are Phase Change Diagrams?


Phase changes depend upon the temperature and
pressure.
Solids = low temperature and high pressure
Liquids = medium temperature and medium pressure
Gases = high temperature and low pressure

Triple Point: Where a substance can be either a solid,


liquid or a gas
Critical Point: Where you cant determine whether a
substance is a liquid or a gas (substance called PLASMA)

Warm-Up
Tuesday| December 9, 2014
1. Draw a phase change diagram and be sure to label the
phases and the triple-point.
2. What is the triple point?
3. How much energy does it take to boil a 500g sample of
water?
4. I heat up 100g of water for my tea in the microwave.
The water goes from 50 C to 100 C and then boils. How
much energy was transferred?

A sample of 98g liquid water heats up


from an initial temperature of 25oC to
68oC. How much energy did it take in?

Answer: 17614.5J

What phase change is occurring during


Section II: What is happening to phase
energy?

Answer:
MELTING and
INCREASING!

At point X (60 kPa and -150 C) what


phase is the substance in?

Answer:
SOLID!

During the winter, you accidentally


forgot your 414 g cup of iced tea
outside and it froze. How much energy
was released?

Answer:
138276 J

What is the appropriate term for the


phase change when a solid changes
immediately to a gas?

Answer:
SUBLIMATION

An ice cube (40 g) cools from -10C


down to -45C. How much energy
does it release to the surroundings?

Answer:
2940 J

If you start at point Y, what 2 things


could you do for the substance to
evaporate?

Answer:
Increase
Temperature
or Decrease
Pressure

What type of energy is increasing during


sections I, III, and V?

Answer:
Thermal!

What is the Law of Conservation of


Energy?

Answer:
Energy cannot be created nor
destroyed!

When water is boiling on the stove,


what is true about the temperature
of the water?

Answer:
It REMAINS THE SAME!

If a substance begins at 0C at a pressure of


150 kPa and the pressure decreased to 10
kPa what phase change occurred?

Answer:
Evaporation

On a hot summer day, a block of 0C ice


(200g) melts and then warms to 20C .
What is the total amount of energy
taken in from the surroundings?

Answer: 83520 J!

You spill a cup of water (110g) on


the floor and the next day you see
its all gone! How much energy did
it take for the water to evaporate?

Answer:
248600 J

Warm-Up
Wednesday | December 10, 2014
1. What is the difference between heat and temperature?
2. What is sublimation?
3. You spill a cup of water (110g) on the floor and the next
day you see its all gone! How much energy did it take for
the water to evaporate?
4. Princess has 1450 g of water at 70C which she heats
and then boils it completely into gas. How much energy
is required?
5. A 400g popsicle melts on the sidewalk. How much
energy was released? (solve + curve)
6. When I am melting, what happens to temperature?

Warm Up
Thursday | December 11, 2014
1. Convert 42 psi to torr.

2. A 35 L tank of oxygen is at 315 K with an internal


pressure of 190 atmospheres. How many moles of gas
does the tank contain?
3. Consider the following unbalanced equation.

___Al + ___ HBr ___AlBr3 + ___H2


When 5.22 grams of Al react with 9.96 grams of HBr,
how many grams of H2 are formed? What is the limiting
reagent? How much of your excess reagent is left over?