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# ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

## A linearly polarized electromagnetic waves

Time varying magnetic field is a source of electric field, and time varying electric field is a source of
magnetic field. Time and space varying electric and magnetic field produce the electromagnetic wave.
Polarized wave: E.M wave having two components (Ey,Bz) or (Ez,By) .
Unpolarized wave: E.M wave having both components (Ey,Bz) and (Ez,By).
Properties of Electromagnetic waves:
i) Time and space varying electric & magnetic field produce the E.M wave.
ii) E.M waves are transfers in nature .
iii) Velocity of E.M wave in a free space
c0 =1/0 0
iv) E.M carries the energy
v) The magnetic energy density of E.M wave UB =B02/2
vi) The Electric energy density of E.M wave UE =1/20E02
vii) Average magnetic energy density <UB>= B02/40
viii) Average electric energy density <UE>=1/20E02
ix) Total energy density of E.M.Wave = UB+ UE
x) In E.M wave optical effect is produced by electric field so electric field is called light vector.

## Uses of E.M Spectrum:

i)

Radio waves: Its frequency range is 5X106 Hz to 109 Hz. These waves are used in a radio
and T.V broadcasting system and for communication.

ii)

Microwaves: Its frequency range is 109 Hz to 1011Hz. These waves are used for a) Radar
communication b) to study atomic and nuclear research. c) in a aircraft navigation. d) in
micro wave ovens for cooking and warming of food

iii)

Infrared rays: Its frequency ranger is 3X1011 Hz to 4X1014 Hz. These rays are used for i)
Taking photographs in clouds and foggy conditions. ii) in treatment of muscular strains. iii)
revealing the secret writings on ancient walls.

iv)

Visible radiations: Its frequency range is 4X1014 Hz to 7.5X1014 Hz. These rays are used
in i) In photography ii) In optical microscopes iii) In astronomy.

v)

Ultra-violet rays: Its frequency range is 7.5X1014 Hz to 5X1015 Hz. These rays are used
for i) To preserve the food stuffs ii) In making drinking water free from bacteria and germs
iii) In sterilizing surgical instruments iv) In detecting invisible writings, forged documents
and finger prints.

vi)

X-rays: Its frequency range 1015 Hz to 1018 Hz. These rays are used in i) In medical
diagnosis ii) For locating faults and cracks in big metallic bodies iii) In radio therapy to
cure skin diseases , cancers and tumors iv) In location body fractures v) To study the
crystal structure.

vii)

-rays: Its frequency range is 1018 Hz to 1022 Hz . These rays are used in i) Treatment of
cancer ii) To study the structure of the nucleus.

1marks questions
Q. 1. What is the approximate wavelength of X rays .
Q.2. Arrange the following electromagnetic radiations in the ascending order of the wavelength :
microwaves , rays , radio waves , ultraviolet light
Q.3.Give one medical use of UV rays.
Q.4. Which of the following has the lowest frequency : microwave , UV rays and X - rays.
Q.5. What is the equation for the speed of electromagnetic waves in free space.
Q.6. What is the wavelength range of visible spectrum.
Q.7. Name the electromagnetic radiation to which the following wavelength belong
(a) 10-2 m
(b) 1
Q.9.What oscillates in electromagnetic waves ?

Q.10. Find the wavelength of electromagnetic waves of frequency 4x109 Hz in free space.
Q.11. In electromagnetic waves infrared region lies between the radio wave and microwave region. Is
this statement correct ?
Q.12. What is the relation between amplitude of electric and magnetic fields in free space for an
electromagnetic waves.
Q.13. The charging current for a capacitor is 0.25 A .What is the displacement current cross its plates.
Q.14. Which part of the electromagnetic spectrum has the largest penetrating power?
Q.15. What is the ratio of speeds of infrared rays and ultraviolet rays in vacuum?
Q.16. Microwaves are used in Radar .Why?
Q.17. What is the cause of conduction current?
Q.18. What is the maxwells displacement current ?
Q.19. The small ozone layer on the top of the stratosphere is crucial for human survival .Why?
Q.20. State the part of the e.m. spectrum to which each belongs . 2.7 K temperature associated with
the isotropic radiation filling all space thought to be relic of the big bang origin of the universe.
Q.21.For which frequency of light , the human eye is most sensitive ?
Q.22. What is the role of ozone layer in the atmosphere ?
Q.23. Which layer of the earths atmosphere is useful in long distance radio transmission?
Q.24. What is the nature of the waves used in radar ? What is their wavelength range ?
Q.25. Name the part of the electromagnetic spectrum which is used in green houses to keep plants
warm.
Q.26. Give a reason to show that microwaves are better carrier of signals for long range transmission
Q.27. What is common between different types of electromagnetic radiations ?
Q.28. What is the frequency range of microwaves ?
Q.29. State one use and one method of detecting the rays beyond the visible red end of the
electromagnetic spectrum.
Q.30. Find the wavelength of the electromagnetic waves of frequency 5x1019Hz

## Two & Three marks questions

Q.31. Electromagnetic wave have wavelength
(i) 1 are used to kill germs in water purifiers.
(ii) 2 are used in aircraft navigation.
(iii) 3 are referred to as heat waves.
Identify the waves and arrange them in ascending order of their magnitudes.
Q.32. State any four basic properties of electromagnetic waves.
Q.33.Which of the following ,if any, can act as a source of electromagnetic waves:
(i) A charge moving with a constant velocity.
(ii) A charge moving in a circular orbit.
(iii) A charge at rest.
Give reason.
Q.34. A plane electromagnetic wave travel ,in vacuum ,along the y direction. Write (i) the ratio of
the magnitudes, and (ii) the directions of its electric and magnetic field vectors.
Q.35. A plane electromagnetic wave of frequency 25 MHz travel in free space along the xdirection .At a particular point in space and time E = 6.3 j V/m. What is B at this point.
Q.36. Which part of the electromagnetic radiation:
(i)
is used for satellite communication
(ii) has is frequency range 4 x 10 1 4 Hz to 7 x 10 1 4 Hz
(iii)
produce intense heating eff ect
(iv)
used for purifi cation of water.
Q.37. The amplitude of electric field in an electromagnetic wave is Eo = 120 N/C and its frequency is
= 50.0 MHz. (a) Determine, Bo,, k, and . (b) Find expressions for E and B.
Q.38. Suppose that the electric fi eld part of an electromagnetic wave in
vacuum is
E = {(3.1 N/C) cos [(1.8 rad/m) y + (5.4 106 rad/s)t]}i .
(a) What is the direction of propagation?
(b) What is the wavelength ?
(c) What is the frequency ?
(d) What is the amplitude of the magnetic fi eld part of the wave?
(i) If the earth did not have an atmosphere, would its average
surface temperature
be higher or lower than what it is now?
(ii) Some scientists have predicted that a global nuclear war on
theearth would be
followed by a severe nuclear winter with a devastating eff ect on
life on earth.
What might be the basis of this prediction?
(iii) Optical and radiotelescopes are built on the ground but X-ray
astronomy is
possible only from satellites orbiting the earth.Why?
Q.40. In a plane electromagnetic wave, the electric fi eld oscillates
sinusoidally at a
frequency of 2.0 1010 Hz and amplitude 48 V m1.
(a) What is the wavelength of the wave?
(b) What is the amplitude of the oscillating magnetic fi eld?
(c) Show that the average energy density of the E fi eld equals the
average energy density of the B fi eld. [c = 3 108 m s1.]

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
6.

7.

8.
9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

## What is displacement current? Write an expression for displacement current?

What modification was made by Maxwell in Ampere circuital law.
For an E.M. wave write the relationship between amplitued of Electric and
magnetic field in free space?
Give a schematic and labelled diagram Hertz experiment for producing E.M.
Wave.
Name the E.M radiation to which the following wave length belongs (i) 10 -2 m. (ii)
1A0.
What is the approximate wav length of X ray?
Which of the following has shortest wave length:- Micro wave, UV rays and X ray
arrange the following in the descending order of wave length:- Y ray, infra red
ray, mirco wave, yellow light radio wave.
What is green house effect? Which layer of earth atmosphere protect us from UV
Write four characterstic of E.M wave.
Give one uses of each of the following (i) Micro wave (ii) I.R wave (iii) U.V
Identify the following E.M radiation as per the wave length given below. Write one
application of each (i) 1 mm (ii) 10-3nm (iii) 10-8m.
Identify the following E.M radiation as per the frequency given below. Write one
application of each ( i) 1020 HZ (ii) 109 HZ (iii) 1011 HZ.
Electromegnetic wave with wave length
(i)
1 are used to treat to treat mascular strain (ii) 2 are used by F.M radio
station.
(ii)
3 are used to detect fracture in bone.
(iii)
4 are observed by ozone layer. Identify and name the part of E.M
spectrum to which these radiation belong.
(iv)
Arrange these wave length in decreasing order of magnitue.
Name the constituent radiation of a E.M spectrum which (i) is used in setallite
communication.(ii) is used for studying crastal structure. (iii) is similar to the
radiation emitted during decay of radio active nuclei (iv) Has a wave length wave
length range between 390nm and 770 nm. (v) is observed from sunlight by ozone
layer (Vi) porduce intense heating affect.
E.M radiation with wave length (i) 1 are used to kill germs in water purifier. (ii) 2
are used T.V. communication. (iii) 3 play an important role in mainting the earth
warm. Name the part of E.M spectrum to which these radiation belong. Arrange
these wave length in decreasing order of their magnetic.
Write the order of frequency range and one used of each of the following E.M
radiation (i) Micro wave (ii) UV rays (iii) Gama rays.

Question 8.1:
Figure 8.6 shows a capacitor made of two circular plates each of radius 12 cm, and separated by 5.0 cm.
The capacitor is being charged by an external source (not shown in the figure). The charging current is
constant and equal to 0.15 A.
(a) Calculate the capacitance and the rate of charge of potential difference between the plates.
(b) Obtain the displacement current across the plates.
(c) Is Kirchhoffs first rule (junction rule) valid at each plate of the capacitor? Explain.

Radius of each circular plate, r = 12 cm = 0.12 m
Distance between the plates, d = 5 cm = 0.05 m
Charging current, I = 0.15 A

## Permittivity of free space,

= 8.85 1012 C2 N1 m2

## (a) Capacitance between the two plates is given by the relation,

C
Where,
A = Area of each plate

## Charge on each plate, q = CV

Where,
V = Potential difference across the plates
Differentiation on both sides with respect to time (t) gives:

Therefore, the change in potential difference between the plates is 1.87 10 9 V/s.
(b) The displacement current across the plates is the same as the conduction current. Hence, the
displacement current, id is 0.15 A.
(c) Yes
Kirchhoffs first rule is valid at each plate of the capacitor provided that we take the sum of conduction and
displacement for current.

Question 8.2:
A parallel plate capacitor (Fig. 8.7) made of circular plates each of radius R = 6.0 cm has a capacitance C =
100 pF. The capacitor is connected to a 230 V ac supply with a (angular) frequency of 300 rad s 1.
(a) What is the rms value of the conduction current?
(b) Is the conduction current equal to the displacement current?
(c) Determine the amplitude of B at a point 3.0 cm from the axis between the plates.

Radius of each circular plate, R = 6.0 cm = 0.06 m
Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor, C = 100 pF = 100 1012 F
Supply voltage, V = 230 V
Angular frequency, = 300 rad s1

## (a) Rms value of conduction current, I

Where,

XC = Capacitive reactance

I = V C
= 230 300 100 1012
= 6.9 106 A
= 6.9 A
Hence, the rms value of conduction current is 6.9 A.
(b) Yes, conduction current is equal to displacement current.
(c) Magnetic field is given as:

B
Where,

## 0 = Free space permeability

I0 = Maximum value of current =
r = Distance between the plates from the axis = 3.0 cm = 0.03 m

B
= 1.63 1011 T
Hence, the magnetic field at that point is 1.63 10 11 T.

Question 8.3:
What physical quantity is the same for X-rays of wavelength 10 10 m, red light of wavelength 6800 and

The speed of light (3 108 m/s) in a vacuum is the same for all wavelengths. It is independent of the
wavelength in the vacuum.

Question 8.4:
A plane electromagnetic wave travels in vacuum along z-direction. What can you say about the directions of
its electric and magnetic field vectors? If the frequency of the wave is 30 MHz, what is its wavelength?

The electromagnetic wave travels in a vacuum along the z-direction. The electric field (E) and the magnetic
field (H) are in the x-y plane. They are mutually perpendicular.
Frequency of the wave, = 30 MHz = 30 106 s1
Speed of light in a vacuum, c = 3 108 m/s
Wavelength of a wave is given as:

Question 8.5:
A radio can tune in to any station in the 7.5 MHz to 12 MHz band. What is the corresponding wavelength
band?

A radio can tune to minimum frequency, 1 = 7.5 MHz= 7.5 106 Hz
Maximum frequency, 2 = 12 MHz = 12 106 Hz
Speed of light, c = 3 108 m/s
Corresponding wavelength for 1 can be calculated as:

## Thus, the wavelength band of the radio is 40 m to 25 m.

Question 8.6:
A charged particle oscillates about its mean equilibrium position with a frequency of 10 9 Hz. What is the
frequency of the electromagnetic waves produced by the oscillator?

The frequency of an electromagnetic wave produced by the oscillator is the same as that of a charged
particle oscillating about its mean position i.e., 10 9 Hz.

Question 8.7:
The amplitude of the magnetic field part of a harmonic electromagnetic wave in vacuum is B0 = 510 nT.
What is the amplitude of the electric field part of the wave?

Amplitude of magnetic field of an electromagnetic wave in a vacuum,
B0 = 510 nT = 510 109 T
Speed of light in a vacuum, c = 3 108 m/s
Amplitude of electric field of the electromagnetic wave is given by the relation,
E = cB0
= 3 108 510 109 = 153 N/C
Therefore, the electric field part of the wave is 153 N/C.

Question 8.8:
Suppose that the electric field amplitude of an electromagnetic wave is E0 = 120 N/C and that its frequency
is = 50.0 MHz. (a) Determine, B0, , k, and . (b) Find expressions for E and B.

Electric field amplitude, E0 = 120 N/C
Frequency of source, = 50.0 MHz = 50 106 Hz
Speed of light, c = 3 108 m/s
(a) Magnitude of magnetic field strength is given as:

## Angular frequency of source is given as:

= 2
= 2 50 106
Propagation constant is given as:

## Wavelength of wave is given as:

(b) Suppose the wave is propagating in the positive x direction. Then, the electric field vector will be in the
positive y direction and the magnetic field vector will be in the positive z direction. This is because all three
vectors are mutually perpendicular.
Equation of electric field vector is given as:

## And, magnetic field vector is given as:

Question 8.9:
The terminology of different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum is given in the text. Use the formula E =
h (for energy of a quantum of radiation: photon) and obtain the photon energy in units of eV for different
parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. In what way are the different scales of photon energies that you
obtain related to the sources of electromagnetic radiation?

Energy of a photon is given as:

Where,
h = Plancks constant = 6.6 1034 Js
c = Speed of light = 3 108 m/s

The given table lists the photon energies for different parts of an electromagnetic spectrum for different.

(m)

103

103

106

108

1010

1012

E
(eV)

12.375
1010

12.375
107

12.375
104

12.375
101

12.375
101

12.375
103

12.375
105

The photon energies for the different parts of the spectrum of a source indicate the spacing of the relevant
energy levels of the source.

Question 8.10:
In a plane electromagnetic wave, the electric field oscillates sinusoidally at a frequency of 2.0 10 10 Hz and
amplitude 48 V m1.
(a) What is the wavelength of the wave?
(b) What is the amplitude of the oscillating magnetic field?
(c) Show that the average energy density of the E field equals the average energy density of the B field. [c
= 3 108 m s1.]

Frequency of the electromagnetic wave, = 2.0 1010 Hz
Electric field amplitude, E0 = 48 V m1
Speed of light, c = 3 108 m/s
(a) Wavelength of a wave is given as:

## And, energy density of the magnetic field is given as:

Where,
0 = Permittivity of free space
0 = Permeability of free space
We have the relation connecting E and B as:
E = cB (1)
Where,

(2)
Putting equation (2) in equation (1), we get