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Mathematicians learn mathematics from their teacher, another mathematician. Physicists learn
mathematics from nature and nature is a better teacher.
James Gates
Work (Formula) is defined as the product of amount of force applied on an object (in the
direction of motion) with displacement (distance displaced).
If the force is a function of displacement then work is.
∫
.
Since Work is a scalar function then Force does not need to be positive at
the interval given. The value for Work is evaluation of the integral of force (vector) in terms of
displacement (vector) and the operation is a dot product.
Some classical forces: Hook’s law of spring (⃗⃗
⃗⃗
(⃗⃗
⃗ ) Newton’s law of gravity
)Magnitude of gravity on surface of earth
Coulomb’s law of electric charges (
Work done against spring
∫
Work done against gravity
∫
⃗
),

(
)
Example:
1 A 20N force stretch a spring 40cm. How much energy was stored in the spring?
2 Show that energy stored on lifting mass m to the height h above the surface of the
earth is
3 Graphically show that the energy needed for compressing an spring from zero to L is not
4 the same as energy needed for compressing from L to 2L.
To pull a chain up
Imagine a chain is vertically hanged from a pulley; to pull this chain up one has to pull up every
infinitesimal section of the chain. If one can calculate the amount of work required to lift any
section of the chain then add them up the result of the operation is the amount of work needed
to lift the entire chain needed.
Note: Since the friction is ignored then this integral is path independent.
1Given a chain with weight density (Newton/meter) and length L. It hangs from a pulley on
top of a building. How much work is required to pull it all the way up? Half the way up?
Find weight of small segment x from the pulley (origin)
∫
∫
Could you solve this problem without using calculus in two different methods?
How about if
was not constant, is it possible to solve it without using Calculus?
2Given a bucket hang by a rope (rope and bucket are mass less) the bucket contains mass of M
of certain Liquid which leaks out at the rate of r kg/sec. The pulley is pulling the bucket at the
rate of R m/sec. What is the work required to lift the bucket at a constant rate up to a distance
∫ (
of L? ∫
∫
)
∫
Can you solve it without using Calculus?
Practice: Let’s use superposition to solve the following question. If the rope on above question
has a weight density
and the bucket has mass m kg. What is the work required to lift the
bucket at a constant rate up to a distance of
meter?
Work done by expanding Gas
For ideal gas law
in a constant temperature and number of moles, then
and know that
the work done is
∫
∫
∫
Practice: Find a general formula for work done by expanding any Gas
number related to the gas in question. The value for air is
( )
where is a
at STP.
To pump Liquid out
Imagine some liquid is stored in a container; to pump out the liquid from the container one has
to pull up every infinitesimal section of the liquid. If one can calculate the amount of work
required to lift any section of liquid then added them up the result of the operation is the
amount of work needed to lift the entire liquid needed.
Step1: Take the origin where the pump is
Step2: Take a segment with thickness dx which is x from the origin.
Step3: Find
= Surface area,
Step4: Evaluate the integral
Volume,
weight of the segment
∫
Example: Find the amount of work required to pumping out a liquid ( ) a distance d above a
tank in a shape of hemisphere with radius R. (Assume it is full)
Step1: done
Step2:
Step3:
Step4: Evaluate
∫
√
To find the hydrostatic force against an area
Imagine a plate is vertically is immersed in to a liquid; to find hydrostatic force on the plate one
has to find hydrostatic force on every infinitesimal section of the plate. If one can calculate the
amount of force required for every section of the plate then add them up the result of the
operation is the amount of hydrostatic force on entire plate needed.
We know that (Force) = (Pressure) (Cross sectional area)
(Pressure) = (density) (height below the surface)(gravity of the region)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Take the origin at water surface
Take the segment a distance x from origin
Find the area for segment
Find the force on the segment
5.
Example: Find hydrostatic force of a liquid ( ) on a plate in a shape of equilateral triangle
with its vertex a meter below the surface.
√
√
√
√
√
∫
√
√
Center of mass
If two forces are acting on a point mass then the resulting force will accelerate the mass in the
direction of the net force. If the forces are equal and opposite then the mass will have no
acceleration.
What about if the object has some dimensions? Then we have to define the location where the
forces are applied to the object. There would be only one point that two opposite forces cancel
each other and the net force would be zero. This point is center of mass of the object and this is
a unique point for any object. This point is not required to be on the object. Can you name 10
different objects so that the center of mass is not on the object?
If these forces are not acting on the center of mass then these forces will rotates the object.
The force of rotation is called Torque or Moment. To find the center of mass one need to
employ the concept of torque.
You have learnt that ⃗ ⃗⃗
product.
and also ⃗ ⃗⃗
when you have worked on dot and cross
Imagine a massless bean supporting four masses and it is pined on the left side.
1What should be the total force which supports the masses?
2Where should the force be applied to support the masses?
The fact that ∑
and
∑
∑
̅
∑
∑
̅ ∑
Center of mass of discrete masses:
∑
∑
̅
̅
∑
∑
Example:
How fast center of mass of these three points
moves
= 2 kg at (3,1) moves 1m/s N
= 4 kg at (2,3) moves 2m/s W
= 4 kg at (2,2) moves√ m/s NE
First find the center of masses at time t=0
Second find the new center of masses at
time t=1
Use distance formula to find the
displacement
= 2 kg at (3,2)
= 4 kg at (0,3)
= 4 kg at (1,1)
̅
̅
̅
̅
√
̅ ̅
̅ ̅
Rate or speed of center of mass =
Example: A man with mass 80 kg 800 N weight walks on a beam weighing 100 N (Constant
density) if he walks at the rate of 2 m/s, what is the rate of change of center of mass of the
whole system?
̅
(
( ))
The rate of change of center of mass is
̅
(
)
Note that the length of the beam was not required. Does it matter if the density of the beam is
constant or not?
Practice: A man with weighing
walks on a beam weighing mg with
if he walks at the
rate of , what is the rate of change of center of mass of the whole system?
Example: A uniform circular plate of radius 2R has a circular hole of radius R cut out of it. The
center of the smaller circle is a distance 0.8 R form the center of the larger circle. Where is the
position of the center of mass of the plate?
𝑥
̅
𝑦
̅
𝑅
𝑅
𝑅
𝑅
𝑅
𝑅
𝑅
𝑅
𝑅
Center of mass for continuum regions in 2D
∫
[
]
∫
*
+[
(
∫
]
∫
*
+
)
̅ ̅
Example
1.
2.
∫
∫ [
(
)
][(
)
]
3.
4. ̅
[(
∫
)
]
̅
Pappus’s theorem
Volume of a solid can be found as
where A is the area and r is the distance of
rotation from center of mass to the axis of rotation
̅
1. A force of 800 N stretches a spring 70 cm. Find the work done in stretching the spring
the required 70 cm.
2. Find the work done to pump water out of each tank.
3. Take the bottom of the chain and raise it to the 15m level leaving the chain doubled and
still hanging vertically (see the figure)
5
4. Two electron repel each other with a F=
if one electron is fixed at the point (2,4),
find the work done in moving the second electron from (2,4) to (1,4). q for electron =
and K =
Assignment for group work (Application)
A A net force F (x) is applied to mass (M) and moves it. How much work was done for the
following forces, masses and intervals?
√
√
√
BHow much work is needed to
1) lift a 2m rope with
2) pull up a 10m rope with
3) pull up a 5m rope with
from ground?
a distance of 3 meters?
a distance of 3 meters?
Pump out the liquid
C Find the work done to pump out water from a conical tank with radius R and height H,
1) (Vertex up) from the top.
2) (Vertex down) from the top.
D Find the work done to pump out one eighth of volume of a liquid with a weight density
1unit of
1) an inverted conical tank.
2) a hemisphere with radius R
E How much work is required to pump out all the water from a hemisphere with radius 5m
which has only 2m of water in it. The pump is 1m below center of hemisphere.
F How much work is required to pump out all the water from an upright cone with radius 5m
and height 10m which has only 4m of water in it?
Pull up the chain
G You can pump out the water or pull up the water by means of a pulley and chain. If the
pump has 50% efficiency and the pull has 75% efficiency, which one do you use to do the job?
H There are three ways to pull a heavy chain with weight density
(Where x is the distance from the top) and length L. Mathematically show which method
required less work.
Method 1: Pull the chain from the top.
Method 2: Pull the chain from bottom with a weightless string all the way up.
Method 3: Pull the chain from the bottom with a weightless string half way and then pull it up
from both ends.
I A bucket (M=1 Kg) contains water (m=2kg) is pulled a height of L=5m. If there is a leak of
r=0.1kg/sec from the bucket and the rate of going up is R= 0.2m/sec, How many Joule energy
required pulling up the bucket?
Hydrostatic force
J Find the hydrostatic force on
1) a semicircle with radius R , center a distance
2) a semicircle with radius R and from a distance
3) a semicircle plate in a liquid with
liquid.
above the surface of water.
below the surface of water.
where x is the distance from the top of the
4) a Isosceles triangle (454590) with hypotenuse
√ and 2 meter below the surface and
parallel to it. The liquid density is
where x is from the top
K An aquarium tank in a shape of rectangular box is full of liquid.
If a work of 4.5 joules empties part of the tank, what is the hydrostatic force on front side ab?
L A plate in a shape of semicircle falls vertically in to a liquid (
change of Hydrostatic force is constant.
U). Show that the rate of
M Find the hydrostatic force on a semicircle with radius 2m where
1) The center is at the surface of liquid. (
)
2) The center is 5m below the surface.
3) The center is x meter below the surface. (Force is in terms of x)
N Find the expression for hydrostatic force on a square as it rotated under the water with one
vertex always on the surface of water as shown.
Break down the square in three parts and find the force as a function of angle then add them
up to find the total force on the plate.
O You want to design an aquarium with glass and metal. Two sides in a circular shape with R=2
units and the other two sides in a shape of ellipses with a =4 units and b = 1 unit. The rest is
metal. If the aquarium is full what is the Hydrostatic forces on each sides with glass?
P Explain (using mathematics and Physics) the equation for Hydrostatic force.
Center of mass
Q Find ( x , y ) of a region under
1)
2)
√ Bounded by
Where
3) of a semicircle with radius r and constant
 .
R Every cross section perpendicular to xaxis is a rectangular with height of one and the base of
the solid is on y= 1/x , y = 0 and x 1.
1) An incompressible liquid with p = 1 unit is placed from x =1 to x = 2 at time zero. Find an
equation for path of its center of mass as the liquid moves in the hollow pipe.
S Show that the hydrostatic force on a triangle with base B and height H and vertex on water
surface is the same and it is independent of the shape.
is cut in to two hemispheres by plan y x . Find
T A sphere
the center of mass of each hemisphere.
U Show that the average of
,
V Find volume of solid generated by rotating
1) around x axis
is less than half.
√
2) around y axis
(with
).
3) around
W Use Calculus to find the volume of a solid that is bounded by plane z = 4 and
X Derive a formula for finding center of mass of a region between two functions.
Y Show the following
1) Relation between Center of mass and Volume
2) Relation between Center of mass and Hydrostatic force
.
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