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Bode gain

Bode Diagram
33.5

Magnitude (dB)

33

32.5

32

31.5

31
1

Phase (deg)

0.5

-0.5

-1

10

10
Frequency (rad/sec)

Integrator
Bode Diagram
20
15

Magnitude (dB)

10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-89

Phase (deg)

-89.5

-90

-90.5

-91

-1

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

10

Derivative
Bode Diagram
20
15

Magnitude (dB)

10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
91

Phase (deg)

90.5

90

89.5

89

-1

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

10

Real pole

Real zero

Complex pole

Complex zero

Example 1: Construction of Bode Diagram


Given the transfer function
G( s ) =

60( s + 5 )
s( s + 0.5 )( s 2 + 0.2s + 150 )

Conversion to Bode form:


60 5 s

1
+

0.5 150 5

G( s ) =
2

0.2
s
s
s
s + 1
+ 1
+
0.5
150 150

Frequency Response
j

4
+ 1
5

G( j ) =
2

0.2
j

+
j + 1
j
+ 1
0.5
150 150

Example 1: Gain Asymptotes


s
+1
5

-20 db/dec

1
s

20 log10 4
-40 db/dec

s2
0.2
+
s +1
150 150

gain [db]
s
+1
0.5

-20 db/dec

-60 db/dec

[rad/sec]

Example 1: Gain Comparison

exact

gain [db]

asymptote

[rad/sec]

Example 1: Phase Asymptotes

s
+1
5
KB
phase [degrees]

s2
0.2
+
s +1
150 150

s
+1
0.5

1
s

[rad/sec]

Example 1: Phase Comparison

[rad/sec]

Example 2: Computing A Transfer Function

-40 db/dec

-20 db/dec
-40 db/dec

-60 db/dec

Example 2: Computing A Transfer


Function
1. At low frequencies slope 40 db/dec
(double integrator)
2. Change in slope by +20db/dec at =0.1
3.

Change in slope by +20db/dec at =1

double pole at s = 0
zero at s = 0.1
zero at s = 1

4. Change in slope by -40db/dec at =5


double pole at s = 5 or
complex pole with n = 5 and some 0 < < 1
5. Change in slope by -20db/dec at =30

zero at s = 30

Example 2: Computing A Transfer Function


Transfer function
G( s ) =

K 0.1 1 s
s

+
+
1
1
1

5 30 0.1

s
s

+ 1
s2 + 1
5
30

K 0.1 1
KB =
5 30

To find K, extend the line of low frequencies until = 1 and find


the gain at the intersection of the line at = 1

Example 2: Computing A Transfer Function

-40 db/dec
-20 db/dec

KB

-40 db/dec

-60 db/dec

Example 2: Computing A Transfer Function


Hence
K B = 30dB 20 log10 K B = 30dB
K B = ( 10 )

3 / 2

10 10
K 0.1 1
1
150
=
=
= 47.43
5 30
10 10
10
Hence the transfer function is

G( s ) =

47.43 ( s + 0.1 )( s + 1 )
s 2 ( s + 5 ) ( s + 30 )
2