SUMMER TRAINING REPORT On “Survey on rice varieties including hybrids in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh”.

For

Dhanuka Agritech Limited
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of

MASTER IN BUSINESS ADMINISRATION (AGRI-BUSINESS) 2007-2009 Submitted By: Sandeep Singh Parihar (H-2007-MBA-40)

Department of Business Management College of Horticulture Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, (H.P.), India
1

List of content
Sr. No. Topic Page no.

1. Introduction A.Introduction of Rice 1-3 B.Introduction of Company 4-10 2. Need of study 11 3. Objectives 12 4. Research methodology 13-14 5. Assumptions and Limitations 15 6. Analysis and Data interpretation 16-29 7. Results 30-31 8. Suggestions 32-33 9. Bibliography 34 10. Appendix 35-40

2

DECLARATION
I am student of MBA (Agri-Business) in Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, (H. P.). Hereby declared that training report entitled “Survey on rice varieties including hybrids in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh” is the outcome of my own and genuine work and the same has not been submitted to any other University/Institute for the award of any degree or professional Diploma.
DatePlace-

(SANDEEP SINGH PARIHAR)

3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all I would like to thank almighty God who bestowed me with good health and courage to accomplish this task. I always felt His presence and blessings with me. ”Opportunities are given by God only to those who avails them. “

My journey through this challenging assignment has enriched me with knowledge and most valuable experience and sweet memories. Today when our endeavours have successfully reached its culmination, I look back with gratitude to one and all those generous help that has made this assignment come true. This acknowledgement may not be sufficient to express my gratitude towards the people who helped me in the completion of this project. I would like to meet this opportunity to express my gratitude towards Dr. O. P. Singh, President, Dhanuka Agritech Limited for providing me an opportunity to work as a trainee. I would also express my profound thanks to project guide Dr. A. K. Singh, Sr. Marketing Officer, Kanpur for his valuable help and guidance. Their constructive and directional recommendations were instrumental in making the project success. I owe my special thanks to all the staff members of Dhanuka Agritech Limited for their kind backing as well as for their mutual aid providing me with the required information. I would like to thanks Dr. Y. S. Negi, Professor and Head, Department Of Business Management, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and forestry Nauni, Solan, (H.P.) for his moral support extended to me from time to time. Besides this I would also like to thanks the Administrators and Government organizations for providing me required information for to complete the project. I express my special thanks to my parents, friends and colleagues, who have been a constant source of help and encouragement.

Date:
Place

(Sandeep Singh Parihar)

4

CHAPTER- 1

INTRODUCTION
(A) RICE: AN INTRODUCTION
Rice (Oryza sativa ) is one of three most important food crop grown in the world. India is the largest rice growing country, while Chine is the largest rice producing country in the world. In India rice accounts more than 40% of the food grain production. Cultivated rice is an annual grass with round, hollow and jointed culms, flat leaves and terminal inflorescence (Panicle). Normally cultivated rice varieties take 110-210 days from germination to physiological maturity of seed.

Biological classification of Rice
Kingdom: Division: Class: Order: Family: Genus: Plantae Magnoliophyta Liliopsida Poales Poaceae Oryza

Nutritional Value of rice
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 370 kcal 1530 kJ Carbohydrates - Sugars - Dietary fibre Fat
5

79.95 g 0.12 g 1.3 g 0.66 g

Protein Thiamine (Vit. B1) Riboflavin (Vit. B2) Niacin (Vit. B3) Pantothenic acid (B5) Vitamin B6 Folate (Vit. B9) Calcium Iron Magnesium Phosphorus Potassium Zinc 0.070 mg 0.049 mg 1.6 mg 1.014 mg 0.164 mg 8 μg 28 mg 0.80 mg 25 mg 115 mg 115 mg 1.09 mg Manganese

7.13 g 5% 3% 11% 20% 13% 2% 3% 6% 7% 16% 2% 11% 1.088 mg

There are three phases in life cycle of rice

a)Vegetative: most variable and characterise duration of variety b)Reproductive: panicle formation to flowering (35 days) c)Ripening: flowering to harvesting (30 days) d)Climate Requirement
♦Temperature:: ♦Soil: ♦pH ♦Water
20-350 C alluvial, red, laterite or lateritic, black soil. 5-8 900-250 mm

6

Kharif (June to October or July to November) Production of rice in 2006 in different countries is as in table
Top paddy rice producers–2006
(million metric ton)

Cropping season in U. P.

China India Indonesia Bangladesh Vietnam Thailand Myanmar Pakistan Philippines Brazil Japan
World Total Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[9]

182 137 54 40 36 27 25 18 15 13 11 700

7

(B) INTRODUCTION
I.

OF COPMANY

Profile of Dhanuka Agritech Limited
Dhanuka Group has been actively involved in the service of Indian farmers for the past 25 years and has been instrumental in providing crop specific, eco-friendly high quality crop care products such as Dunet, Caldan, Kasu-B, Sheathmar, Targa Super, Vitavax,® Vitavax® Power, Omite® etc, through its international collaborations, Recently the Group has entered into seeds and water soluble fertilizers also. Dhanuka Group has most modern, state of art manufacturing facilities in Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Jammu & Kashmir. The Group R & D Centre, recognized by Ministry of Science and Technology. Government of India, is engaged in field research activities and supports in updating the manufacturing facilities, to be in line with the international trends. Dhanuka Group puts highly focused efforts to provide Indian farmers, and understanding of different modern agriculture technologies, to ensure high quality produce with increased profits, through its technocommercial professionals and national marketing network. Dhanuka is a quality conscious; customer friendly and eco-friendly group conscious for new molecules. The group is committed to provide Customer Support Services in the area of product of safety and disposals.

8

II. Brief

history of Dhanuka Agritech Limited

Dhanuka Agritech Limited, a flagship company of Dhanuka Group, was acquired as sick unit in 1980 with a meager sales turnover of 17 million INR, is today a unit of over 900 million INR. Dhanuka Pesticides Limited (DPL), was incorporated as a public Limited Company under Indian Companies Act 1956 in the year 1985; primarily for manufacture of technical grade pesticides namely Cypermethrin. DPL entered into technical tie-up with E. i. Dupont De nemours & Co. Inc., USA. In the year 1992 to formulate, brand and market on exclusive and all India basis, Methmyl- Brand name Dunet 12.5 L. A 28 year old, nearly dead molecule Methomyl, which to India third time, and finally through our Group was recognised in the Indian market. In the first six months Dunet sales was 232 KL and in the fourth year itself the sales of Dunet touched all time high of 977 KL. In 1984 Dhanuka Group established a Research & Development unit named Dhanuka Agriculture Research Centre (DARC), to carry out in house field research in process development. DARC is recognized by Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of 1ndia. In the year 1992 Group acquired another sick unit namely Rajasthan Insecticides and Fertilizers Co. Pvt. Ltd. (RIFCO), mainly to make dust formulations. This unit has crossed 10,000 MTs production in the third year itself. On the other hand Northern Minerals Limited (NML) joined hands technically with Uniroyal Chemical Company Inc., U.S.A. in the year 1999 to formulate and market Carboxin (Vitavax 75 WP), Oxycarboxin (Plantvax 20 EC) and Diflubenzuron (Dimilin 25 WP). We are in advance negotiation stage forfurther MOUs with few other MNCs.
9

Within 17 years of its existence, the Group has diversified in Pharmaceuticals Bulk Drugs manufacture activity, Dhanuka laboratories Pvt. Ltd. (DLPL) is established in 1997 to manufacture Cephalexin, 7- A.D.C,A. and Simvastatin, Within two years DLPL’s turnover is 150 million INR and is all for exports. & just two decades the group has touched a mark of 1500 million INR as Group’s turnover. Now, Dhanuka Group has completed 25 years. (Silver Jubilee)

III.Products

of Dhanuka Agritech Limited

CALDAN 50 SP is an eco friendly effective against Rice Yellow Stem
Borer and Leaf Folder and other chewing and sucking insect-pest of various crops.

OMITE is a powerful true miticide belonging to an entirely new group
sulphite ester.

SHEATHMAR is a systemic antifungal effective for control of Sheath
Blight of Rice and Black Scruf of Potato caused by Rhizoctonia solani .

SHEATHMAR is

highly

effective

against

diseases

caused

by

Rhizoctonia sp. on certain vegetable crops..

DUNET is a broad spectrum carbamate insecticide with quick knock
down action. DUNET acts as contact and stomach insecticide effectively controlling pests with ovicidal, larvicidal & adulticide activity
10

KASU-B is a broad spectrum systemic antibiotic fungicide cum
bactericide effective for control of Rice Blast and also various fungal and bacterial diseases in vegetables and fruit crops

DHAWA is a new based insecticide, recommended for effective control of
Helicoverpa armigera

DIMILIN is an insect growth regulator for control of insect pests,
particularly belonging to Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera.

HOOK has excellent translocation action. Absorbed by leaves and roots
within four hours, hence later no effect of rain. Safer to wheat crop without any side effect. No vapour action. Hence no effect on adjoining field of mustard, pea, sunflower etc. if not directly sprayed on them .

QURIN is an effective post- emergence weedicides for effective control
of broad leaf weeds in soybean.

VITAVAX is a non - mercuric systemic fungicide for use as seed
treatment for control of seed-borne diseases in different crops.

EM-1 is based on Emamectin benzoate, a new generation broad spectrum
larvicide for effective control of Spodoptera litura, Helicoverpa armigera & Plutella xylostella in Cotton and Vegetable crops.

NUKIL is a broad spectrum CHO compound insecticide having quick
killing action effective for control of all pests of Rice, Helopeltis and sucking insects in Tea, etc.

11

SIXER
various

is a broad spectrum systemic and contact fungicide controlling fungal diseases affecting leaves, stems, flowers, fruits etc .

VITAVAX POWER is a systemic-cum-contact fungicide effective for
control of soil and seed born diseases of large number of crops,

TARGA SUPER is leading post-emergence herbicides for the control of
narrow-leaf weeds in broad leaf crops .

IV. Production

Units of Dhanuka Agritech
to formulate and market (Plantvax 20 EC) and

Limited
NORTHERN MINERALS LIMITED:
Carboxin (Vitavax 75 WP), Oxycarboxin Diflubenzuron (Dimilin 25 WP).

DHANUKA PESTICIDES LIMITED:
technical grade pesticides

for

manufacturing

of

DHANUKA AGRICULTURE & RESEARCH CENTRE:
& D unit to carry out in-house field research, process development

AN R

NORTHERN MINERALS LIMITED, MANDIDEEP, and BHOPAL: to make dust formulations DHANUKA LABORATORIES LIMITED:
diversified in

Pharmaceuticals Bulk Drugs manufacture activity
12

DHANUKA SEEDS:

Producer & distributors of certified and high

quality seeds of cereals, vegetables, oil seeds & pulses & fibres. The Dhanuka Group has an excellent rapport with the farmers at the grass root level through our experienced staff at 24 Regional Offices spread throughout the country & is also backed by a strong network of distributors / dealers.

I.

Collaborations of Dhanuka Agritech Limited
Country
USA

Collaboration with M/s.Chemtura Corporation Sumitomo Chemical Takeda Agro Co. Ltd. Hokko Chemical Co. Ltd Mitsui Chemical Inc. Nissan Chemical Industries E.I. Dupont FMC Corporation Yara ASA International

Product DIMILIN 25 WP, OMITE 57® EC,VITAVAX ® 75 WP, VITAVAX POWER® CALDAN 4G, CALDAN 50 SP SHEATHMAR 3L KASU-B ® SL NUKIL ® 10 EC TARGA SUPER DUNET, NUSTAR AAATANK ® , DANFURAN SAMADHAN

JAPAN

JAPAN JAPAN JAPAN USA USA NORWAY

MARKAR

V.

Future plans of Dhanuka

 Develop our own Research and Development.

Set up Seed Testing Laboratory with latest technology .
13

 Create strong and production area.

modern

infrastructure

in

the

 Have overseas partnership with reputed International companies. Grow out testing facilities .
II. Vision,

mission and objectives of Dhanuka

VISION- Farmers Prosperity Through Dhanuka Excellence. MISSIONOBJECTIVE-

Life Enrichment Through Science.

 Serve the Indian farming community with safer, Ecofriendly and quality Agrochemical.  Support the grower on judicious and right use Technology.  Provide customer support services on usage and environment safety.  Pursue Research and Development growth bulk drugs.

14

CHAPTER-2 NEED OF STUDY
India is agriculture-based country. Agriculture sector alone contributes more than 19% to the GDP and about 70% of the total population of India depends upon this sector. Agriculture sector need to be on boom if the country like India wants to feed its increasing population. Rice is one of three most important food crop grown in the world. To achieve high yield in rice, Indian growers need to be aware about latest development in this sector. Use of improved seed is good mean to achieve high production with quality produce. The seed industry of rice in India going through rapid changes. Unlike in past now there are many varieties of rice with high yield in the market. There is cut throat competition in seed market so this study will help Dhanuka Agritech Limited to knowing the farmer’s behaviour towards the use of hybrid seed of rice and the areas where company can improve sale in Kanpur Dehat. The study will be of great importance for Scientists, Extension officers and company’s sales promotions.

15

CHAPTER-3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
1.To 2.To

study rice varieties grown in the district study companies supplying rice seed. study the varieties wise price of the seed (Distributors

3.To

price/dealers price/farmers price)
4.To

study the cultivation practice adopted by farmers.

5.To Study yield potential of the varieties and price of produce realized at farmers field 6.To study procurement agencies and quality accepted by farmers.
7. To study major insect/ pest of rice

16

CHAPTER-4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Location of study:
In the present scenario the project is done in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh.

Data collection:
Primary data and secondary data are used.

♦ Primary data was collected from retailers as well as
farmers. Interview schedule was prepared to collect the primary data from retailers & farmers.

♦Secondary data is collected from Extension Deptt. of
C.S.A. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur and Agriculture Deptt. Kanpur Mandal.

Sample size:
Total sample size is 115 out of which 5 Distributors, 10 dealers & 100 progressive farmers were taken as sampling size for the study.

Sampling unit:

17

Retailers and farmers of Kanpur Dehat were defined as a sampling unit.

Sampling technique:
Convenient sampling was used as a sampling method.

Interview schedule:
Interview schedule of questions related to the awareness and satisfied of retailers & farmers toward the seeds & also related to the quantity of rice seed sold by the retailers.

Analytical tool:
Percentage method: It is value showing that out of 100 samples hoe many come under a particular category.
X

% = ----------------------× 100
Y

Where as – X = No.

of respondent under particular category

Y = Total no. of respondents

18

CHAPTER-5 ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS (a) Assumptions of study
 Respondents will response correctly  Respondents will respondent without biases.
 Sample is true representative of population .

(b) Limitations of study
 As the study is completed in a short span of 40 days. The time factor put a limit on the scope at extensiveness of the study.  Sample size was small (115) therefore sample may not be true representative of population.  Convenience sampling was used  Respondents may be biased.  Respondent are not well educated so there is no guarantee of extracting the correct information.

19

CHAPTER- 6 ANALYSIS AND DATA INTERPRETATION
1. Rice acreage in district
Total area of Kanpur Dehat Total cultivated area Area under other crops Area under rice 314984Hac. 220399Hac (i.e. 69.97 of total area of Kanpur Dehat) 163977Hac...(74.4%) 56422 Hac. (25.6%)
Area under rice

Rice 26%

Other crops 74%

Other crops

Rice

Inference: Out of total cultivated area in Kanpur Dehat on 74% area rice is grown and on rest of area other crops are grown.

2. Varieties grown in Kanpur Dehat
During study information from varieties was obtained from farmers and dealer of that area. In Kanpur Dehat most of the varieties grown are as under

20

Distribution of varieties according to farmers growing is as
Variety
PHB71

HYBRID VARIETIES Farmer Company price
Pioneer 170

Dealer price
165

Distributor price
160

Yield
45-55

No. of Farmers
21

6444 Pro-Agro 180 JRS-1 Dhanuka 170 PAC-801 Advanta 175 PAC-832 Advanta 185 KRH-1 Namdhari 180 SRH-5151 Shakti 170 S-201 Spriha 160 S-261 Spriha 170 Pusa RH-10 Spriha 200 Dhanya Dhanya 170 Loknath-50 Nath Seeds 180 5017 Syngenta 185 Navaratna Nitya 160 9090 Kaveri 160 Durga Ganga Kaveri 170 Total Farmers Growing Hybrid Varieties

170 155 170 175 160 160 150 160 185 160 175 180 150 150 165

165 150 165 165 155 155 145 155 175 150 170 175 145 145 160

50-55 45-50 50-55 45-50 40-45 45-50 45-55 40-45 40-45 40-45 70-75 35-40 35-40 40-45

31 0 4 1 0 16 9 6 3 1 1 0 0 1 0 94

S-261 6%

Others 12% PHB71 22%
PHB 71 6444 SRH5151 S201 S261 Other s

S-201 10%

C

SRH-5151 17%

6444 33%

21

INFERENCE: Out

of 94 farmers who were growing h ybrid varieties 33% farmers are growing 6444,17% are growing SRH-5151, 225 are growing PHB-71, rest of the farmers are growing other varieties asS=201, S-261.

O.P. VARIETIES
Variety
Kranti Sarju-52 Mahamaya Narendra-359 Pant-10 Pant12

Farmer price
17 18 16 16 15 16

Dealer price
15 17 15 15 14 15

Distributor price
14 16 14 14 13 14

Yield
25-30 25-30 22-28 20-25 25-30 20-25

No. of Farmers
2 0 0 0 0 0

Total Farmers Growing O.P.Varieties

2

INFERENCE: Onl y

2 farmers are growing Kranti variety of O.P. rice

BASMATI VARIETIES Compan y Advanta Rasi Seeds Farme r price 90 70 Dealer price 80 60 Distributo r price 75 55 220 No. of Farmers

Variety Pusa Basmati-1 Sugandha-4

Yield

25-35 20-25 25-35

2 1 1 4

Golden Shakti 250 235 Basmati Total Farmers Growing Basmati Varieties

22

Grown Basmati varieties in Area
No. of Farmers
Golden Basmati 25%

Pusa Basm ati-1

Pusa Basmati-1 50%

Suga ndha-4

Golden Basm ati

Sugandha-4 25%

Out of 4 farmers who were growing Basmati varieties 2 farmers are growing Pusa Basmati 1,1 is growing Pusa Sugandha4, 1 is growing Golden basmati,

INFERENCE:

Distribution of varieties according to area is as Name of farmer
Amit Tiwari Depu Ram Bahdur Shiv Mohan Tej Bhan Gajendra Shambhu Munnu Pal Deependra Dheer pal Shyam Singh Vinod Gaur Uday Bhan Vijay Kumar Munna Dubey Ashok Pal
SRH5151 Gold Pusa Sugand en S-261Kranti BasmatiOthers ha-4 Bas 1 mati

PHB71

6444

S-201

Total
1 1 1.5 4.5 0.8 1.5 5 16 4 6.6 5 2.5 6 5.2 9 150.8

1 1 1.5 4 0.8 1.5 5 16 4 6.1 5 2.5 6 5.2 9 0.5 23 150.3 0.5 0.5

Manoj Singh Vinay Kumar Santosh Ram Pal Raju Kumar Hari pal Surendra Arvind Yadav Mohan Pal Indresh Singh Pawan kumar Avinesh Yadav Vivek Singh Sunil Shukla Rahul Yadav Kuldeep Chauhan Mukesh Hemant Tiwari Prashant Mohan Singh Shailendra Pankaj Rakesh Jha Mahendra Rajesh Tarun Singh Manish Punit Arjun Singh Gaurav Tripathi Navneet Avinesh Kumar Nikhil Singh Devesh Pratap Shudhanshu Pal Rajendra Piyush Pal Rajneesh Singh Abhishek Ram Aasrey Jagat Pal Dularey Narendra Pal

4 0.6 4 6.3 2.5 2.5 4 2.5 4.5 1 4 6 2.5 4 0.8 1.5 4.5 4 2.5 1.5 5.4 5 2 2.5 6.8 5.5 4 0.9 2 4.5 1.5 0.5 1.8 4.5 1.5 9 5 3.5 2.6 1 2.5 4 1.5 1.5

4 0.6 4 7.8 2.5 2.5 4 2.5 4.5 1 4 6 4 4 0.8 1.5 4.5 4 2.5 1.5 5.4 5 2 2.5 6.8 5.5 4 0.9 2 4.5 1.5 0.5 1.8 4.5 1.5 9 5 3.5 2.6 1 2.5 4 0

24

Ram Nath Shivnendra Awdesh Kumar kaushal Mahesh kumar Sushil Singh Munesh Pal Ram Das Gupta Ujagar lal Ganesh Ram Kumar Rakesh Singh Surendra rawat Mangal Singh Kishan Pal Ram Bhadur Raj Dev Anil Dhorey Pappu Dhanuk Ram Babu Ram Snahey Bhola Suresh Yadav Ram Dayal Vishnu Katiyar Shiv Shankar Abdul Khan Naseem Shyam Lal Babu Yadav Vikash Sachan Aneesh Ranjeet Singh Raj Pal Ram Dhari Jay Kishan Kumendra Birju Pal Sumit Yadav Babban Pasi Drig pal

6 1 3.5 1 4 2.5 3 3 4 4 4 12 2 5.5 2.5 1.5 9 3 4 1 2 1.8 2.5 4 4 4.9 6 1 2.5 8 15 1.5 5 6.5 0.5 3 3.5 2

Total

82.2 150

53

37

12 153
25

3

1

1.5 21

6 1 3.5 1 4 2.5 3 3 4 4 4 12 2 5.5 2.5 1.5 0 9 3 4 1 2 0 1.8 2.5 4 4 0 4.9 6 1 2.5 8 15 1.5 5 6.5 0.5 3 3.5 2 512.8

PHB71 6444
Sugandha-4 0% Golden Basmati 0% Others 6%

SRH-5151 S-201 S-261

Pusa Basmati-1 1% Kranti 1%

S-261 3% S-201 10%

PHB71 23%

Kranti Pusa Basmati-1 Sugandha-4 Golden Basmati Others

SRH-5151 14%

6444 42%

Inference : In Kanpur Dehat area on the basis of sample the distribution of
varieties is as in above graph, that 6444 is grown In maximum area.

3. Source of Seed
Information regarding source of seed was obtained from farmers. As 100 farmers were selected as sample, some farmers were growing more than one type of rice as hybrid, basmati, and/ or O.P. Some farmers were growing Basmati rice for only .2 hac area for self consumption only with hybrid or O.P. varieties.

26

Type of rice Basmati Hybrid O.P. %

Self Produ p cing rod Farmer uce s d
2 94 4 100 2 1 3 6 6

Purchased
Govt. Univers ity Local Mark et Kanp ur Others

Exchan ged
0 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 1 1

0 7 0 7 7

0 72 1 73 73

0 11 0 11 11

0 2 0 2 2

Source of seed form where farmer get seed

Others 2% Kanpur 11%

Exchanged 0%

Self produced 6%

Govt. 1%

University 7%

Local Market 73% Source of seed

Self produced

Govt.

University

Local Market

Kanpur

Others

Exchanged

4. Market size for sale as seed
27

As total area under rice was about 56422 Hac and average seed rate was 20 kg seed for one Ha. area. In 2007-08 market size for rice seed was 1128.440 M tone

5. Main companies supplying seed of rice ♦Spriha Bioscience Pvt. Ltd. ♦Shakti Seeds Pvt. Ltd. ♦PHI (Pioneer) Seeds Pvt. Ltd. ♦South Eastern Transgenic Seeds Pvt. Ltd.(Advanta India
Limited)

♦Syngenta Seeds Pvt. Ltd. ♦Nitya Seeds Pvt. Ltd. ♦Kaveri Seeds ♦Ganga Kaveri Seeds ♦Dahnuka Agritech Ltd ♦Proago Pvt. Ltd. ♦Nam Dhari Seeds Pvt. Ltd. ♦Nath Seeds Pvt. Ltd. 6. Average yield reported in Kanpur Dehat
During 2007-2008 average yield in Kanpur Dehat was 114747m. Tonne and average productivity was 20.330q per hac.

28

7. Procurement Agencies
In Kanpur Dehat intermediaries play a vital role in procurement of rice as in last year 73% farmers sold their produce to intermediaries and only 27 % farmers sold their price to rice mills.

8. Farmers accepted qualities for selection of varieties
Quality Milling Cooking Resistance Yield Price of seed High 3 79 91 16 86 Medium 20 19 9 4 12 Low 77 0 0 0 2 Total 100 100 100 100 100

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
High

91 77 79

86

Frequency

20 3
Milling Medium

19 9 0
Cooking Low

16 0 4 0

12 2

Resistance

Attributes

Price of seed accepted qualities

Yield

29

9. Cultivation practise

Sowing For sowing of rice in Kanpur Dehat area farmers

usually adopt following methods  Seed Rate Seed rate for rice differs according to the type of rice farmers sowing i.e. O.P., Hybrid or basmati rice For O.P. Varieties: Fine rice- 30 Kg seed per Hac. Medium rice 35 Kg seed per Hac. Course rice 40 Kg seed per Hac. For hybrid varieties 14-19 Kg seed per Hac. For Basmati varieties 22-30 Kg seed per Hac.
Time of sowing
Early Varieties 1-5 June  Area Medium Varieties 5-10 June Late varieties 10-15 June

of nursery Area of nursery differs according to the

type of rice farmers sowing i.e. O.P., Hybrid or basmati rice. In Kanpur Dehat ratio of nursery to field was found as
Type of rice Basmati Hybrid O.P.
 Field

Area of nursery 0.07 Hac, to 0.08 Hac. 0.06 Hac. to 0.07 Hac. 0.06 Hac. to 0.07 Hac.

preparation After summer 2-3 ploughings were done

and 10-15 days before transplanting field was filled with water. In Kanpur Dehat 62% farmers used FYM @12 tone / Hac. before 2 weeks of transplanting .  Transplanting Generally in Kanpur Dehat 25 to 30 days old seedling for Hybrid and Basmati varieties and for O.P. varieties 30 to 35 days old seedlings are used for transplanting. Farmers have transplanted their seedling on as under

30

Early Varieties 20-30 June

Medium Varieties 25 June-5 July

Late varieties 1 July – 10 July

Spacing Type of rice Basmati Hybrid O.P. Spacing 25x15 cm2 to 20x10 cm2 15x15 cm2 to 20x15 cm2 15x15 cm2

 Fertiliser Farmers use chemical fertilisers in the form of Urea,

DAP, SSP, MOP and for organic they use FYM. Average fertiliser used by a farmer for crop of rice in this year as (in K.g.)

Type of rice Basmati Hybrid O.P.

Nitrogen 90-100 150-160 120

Phosphorus 40 75 60

Potash 30 60 60

 Very few farmers (less than 5 %) used Zinc Sulphate for the supply of Zinc  Farmer applies full dosage of P and K and the time of field preparation before transplanting. N was supplied in three dosages as half of the N was supplied at the time preparation, one forth of N was supplied at early tillering stage and remaining one fourth dosage before panicle initiation.
 Harvesting

In last year farmers harvested their crop as
Late varieties 145-160 days

Early Varieties 90-120 days

Medium Varieties 120- 145 days

31

10.Main disease and pest
Kanpur Dehat area is not too much affected by any disease and pest. Disease: Main disease that are usually occur on rice are Blast (Moderately), Bacterial leaf blight (Moderately), Khaira (Rarely), Jhonka(Rarely)

Insect: main insect are
Termite(serious), (Cyclotermes obesus) Ghundi (Leptocornis acuta) Grasshopper, (Hieroglyphus banian) leaf folder(Moderately)(Marasmia exigua)

11.Some problems in Kanpur Dehat
 In some areas of Kanpur Dehat like in Akbarpur distribution of most demanded varieties e.g. 6444 is not proper as the result there is shortage of demanded varieties and farmers have to shift to other varieties or they have to purchased these varieties on high price
 Availability and price of DAP fertiliser is not proper. Some times

farmers have to pat very high price even up to Rs. 750 for per 50 K.g.
 Areas near canal or river, their is huge risk of loss due to high rain ad

increase in water level.  Promotions of seed and pesticides companies are done only in some areas, farmers of interior area are not benefited by these promotions.

32

 Many small farmers have not enough money that they can not purchase high priced hybrid seed and they have to grow their old seed of O.P. varieties as result yield is low.

33

CHAPTER- 7
RESULTS
 In Kanpur Dehat Area Out of 314984Hac area in 24.6% area rice

are grown and in rest of thee area i.e. 74.45 area other crops like Wheat, Paddy, Maize, Pulses, Oil Seeds, Sugar cane, Potato are grown .
 In Kanpur Dehat area 94 farmers are growing Hybrid varieties, 2

farmers are growing O.P. varieties and 4 farmers are growing basmati varieties. Some farmers are growing more then one varieties in their land.  In Hybrid varieties PHB-71(22%), S-201(10%), SRH-5151(17%) and 6444(33%) are mostly grown.  Most of the O.P. varieties growing farmers are growing Kranti.
 Basmati

rice growing are growing Pusa Basmati-1(50%), Sugandha-4(25%), Golden Basmati varieties (25%) farmers are purchasing seed from various sources, 6%farmers are using self produced seeds and no one is using exchanged seeds .

 94%

 Farmers who purchase seed they are purchasing 73% seed from local market, 7% seeds from University, 1% seed from government agencies  Average yield reported in Kanpur Dehat during 2007-2008 average yield in Kanpur Dehat was 114747m. Tonne and average productivity was 20.330q per Ha.

34

 Last year 73% farmers sold their produce to intermediaries and only 27 % farmers sold their price to rice mills.  Most of the farmers are going for high yield as quality during purchasing seed.

35

CHAPTER- 8 SUGGESTIONS
 Dhanuka should go for aggressive advertisement and wide publicity through

field demonstrations, pump lets, posters, wall paintings and local daily radio channels as seeing in believing at grower power.  There should meetings with farmers and Gram Pradhans on regularly basis to make them aware about products, their use and advantages to them and to get feed back of their product.

 Company should develop high yielding varieties because in Kanpur Dehat area most of the farmers are more concerned about high yield rather then quality.  Free sample of seed should be give to some farmers so that a part of farmer can be attracted by company in future.

 The company

should improve

its distribution

network

because other

companies are focusing more on distribution  Transportation cost that is given return to distributors should be given total as from company to distributors shop not for only up to Kanpur Railway station because some distributors and dealers told that only Dhanuka is not giving full transportation cost rest of the companies is are giving total transpiration cost.

36

 There should some relaxation in credit facility given to distributors with certain time limit  Company should not give too much discount in comparison to distributors to dealer who directly purchase product from company as it disturb distribution channel.

 To educate farmers regarding modern technical promotional Programme may be organized in the beginning of crop season.  Cost of the Dhanuka products should be comparatively reduced.

 Timely availability of the product in right time and right place.  The company should conduct field trails of seeds in different locations.

 The company should provide the dealers/retailers with a wide range of seeds with good margin.

37

CHAPTER- 9 BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books:
 Gupta, S.P. (1997) Statistical Methods, Sultan Chand and Sons, New Delhi  ICAR, Hand Book of Agriculture(2006)  Agrawal, R.L. (1998) Seed Technology, Oxford and IBH Publication, New Delhi  Kothari, C.R. (1990) Research Methodology (Methods andTechniques), Wishwa Prakashan, New Delhi  Kotler, Philip, (2007)Pearson Education Inc. Publishers (Singapore), Marketing Management  Acharya S S and Singh, (2004) Oxford and IBM Publishers, New Delhi, Agriculture marketing in India

Websites:
www.dhanuka.com www.indiaseeds.com/rice www. wikipedia.com/rice www.kanpurdehat.nic.in/agriculture/rice

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CHAPTER- 10 APPENDIX
Interview Schedule for farmers
1. Name………………………………………………………….. 2. Village…………………………………………………………. 3. Block……………………………………………………………. 4. Total cultivated area…………………………………………….. 5. Area under rice production Varieties grown Area

Total 6. Source of seed Source Ag. Deptt. University Self produced Market :Local market Kanpur Luckno w Delhi Ohters Exchanged Total
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Reason

Distance

Quantity

Frequency(Please√ mark) Often Sometime Always s

7. Source of information
Village trader/ Neighbour farmer/ Radio-TV/ Personal visit to market/ Visit to farmer fair/ KVK demonstration
8.

Is there any promotion of company (Yes/No)
Company: Frequency Rare/Not regularly /Always

if yes then

9. Variety wise price
Varieties grown Price (2008) Price(2007)

10.Yield potential
Varieties grown Last year Yield(Q/Ha) Average of last three years

Total

11.Procurement agency
Agency Varieties grown

Total

40

12. Marketable and marketed surplus
Varieties grown Production Self consumed Gift Exchan ged Labo ur Sold in market Farmer Price Market price

13.Farmer acceptance of quality (Please tick mark)
Quality Milling Cooking Yield Resistance Price pf seed
14.Cultivation practice

High

Medium

Low

Practice Field preparation Puddling Transplanting Irrigation Fertilizer Chemicals Weeding

Time

Frequency

Rate

Total amount

15.Major disease and pest
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Disease

Insect

Occurrence Sever Mild

Rare

16.Other problems
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)

Fertilizer Chemicals Seed

Availability/High price/Poor quality Availability/High price/Poor quality Availability/High price/Poor quality Availability/High price Availability/High price/Poor quality

Human labour Machine labour Irrigation

Availability/High price/Poor quality

Market Distant/Not fair price/Too much intermediaries/Delay in auction Storage quality Finance Not available//high cost/loss in quantity and Not available/ high interest

(h)

(i) (j) (k)

Information Not available/Late/Insufficient/Misleading Seed certification No/only for some varieties/All
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(l) (m)

Electricity Transportation

Not available/Rare/Periodically/Always Not available/high cost

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(2)Interview schedule for retailers/distributor
Firm name……………………………………….. 2. Owner name……………………………………… 3. Location………………………………………….. 4. Most demanded varieties
1.

a) b) c) d) e)
Variety

…………………………. ……………………….. ………………………. ………………………… ………………………….
Company Distributor Price Dealer Farmer

5. Companies supplying seed

6. Farmers acceptance of quality
Quality Milling Cooking Yield Resistance Price of seed High Medium Low

7. Annual Sale

Variety

Sale(Rs)

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