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Wheel

of

Stars:
Restoring the True
Biblical
Chronology
Part One

Introduction
During my birthday weekend in 1997, I
was watching a program called Mysteries
of the Bible, on the A&E network.
On that program, which was about Yshua,
they were talking about the best
possible research into the life and
death of the Messiah.
And by the time it was over, I was both
angry and disappointed, and the course of
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my very life was altered.

Introduction
The first thing that annoyed me was the
stubborn refusal of the scholars to give a
precise time for Messiahs birth.
Instead they clung to a three year range
from 7-4 BCE, and then seemed to think it
was plausible for a later scenario of 3-1
BCE as well. A 7 year range for his
birth? Unacceptable! Was that really
the best you could do?
3

Introduction
But it was what they said about his death
time that REALLY got me mad! And what
they said wasnothing at all.
What I mean is this: Most scholars, myself
included, believe Yshua died in the spring
of 30 CE. However, a vocal minority insist
the death is closer to 33 CE.
But when the program simply refused to
even weigh in on the matter, I became
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furious and left the living room.

Introduction
To my wifes astonishment, I retreated into
my study and began typing on my
computer as fast as I can.
What are you doing? she asked me.
Writing a letter to A&E, I answered.
Why are you doing that? She asked.
Because, their experts should know
better, I said back. And Im going to
prove it!
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Introduction
8 hours later, that letter was 50 pages
long.
4 years later, that same letter became
my first book, Signs of the Cross. My
career, if thats what it can be called,
began because the alternative was
throwing my shoe through the glass of
my TV! That also marked my entry into
the world of Biblical chronology, and now
6
its time to release my findings!

Introduction
But before I can begin to lay this case out,
its important to review some of what has
gone on before in this field of Biblical
chronology.
There have been many such attempts
to put hard historical dates to
Scripture, but I am going to focus on
just two of them: The Rabbinic calendar
and the chronology of Bishop Ussher.
7

Introduction
In terms of the Rabbinic calendar,
much of this tradition tries to claim a
much more ancient origin than the real
history allows.
The claims about Oral Law going back to
Sinai and certain calendar traditions going
back to Adam must be regarded with a
high degree of skepticism. The truth is,
there was no need to do a chronology
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while the Temple was standing.

Introduction
The reason for this fact is that as long
as the Temple, priesthood and
Sanhedrin was intact, so were the court
records that showed all this history.
It was only after those records were
destroyed by the Romans, first in 70 CE
when the Temple burned and later when
the Bar Kochba Revolt claimed what little
remained, that the rabbis felt the need to
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write the tradition down.

Introduction
As a result, it is not surprising that the
earliest attempt to codify the Jewish
chronology in writing is within a
generation of the Bar Kochba Revolt, in
around 162 CE.
The work was called Seder Olam Rabba
or the Great Order of the World, and it
was composed by a man named Yose ben
Halafta. It consisted of dates from Adam to
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the time of Alexander the Great.

Introduction
Today, the work survives in fragmentary
form along with some supplemental
quotations from it that are in the Talmud.
It is also very likely that Yoses hand
was not the last one to touch its
pagesit was revised for many
centuries after his day.
Regardless of the ultimate origins and final
form of this work, all versions of it have
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significant problems

Introduction
For example, the Jewish website
www.bible.ort.org refers to this huge
problem in the Rabbinic counting
According to the usual chronology, this
refers to the death of Ay in 2444 (1317
BCE), when Horemheb (1317-1290 BCE.)
came into power (see The Torah Anthology
4:240). The Pharaoh of the Exodus would
then have been Horemheb, and the
cataclysm of the Exodus would have 12

Introduction
brought about the end of the 18th Dynasty.
If we accept the 163 year discrepancy,
then this would indicate the death of
Thutmose II in 1490 BCE (2434), and the
powerful Thutmose III (1490-1436 BCE)
would have been the Pharaoh of the
Exodus. The Exodus and ensuing events
may then have given rise to the apparent
monotheism of Ikhnaton, a century later.
13

Introduction
Incidentally, the 163 year discrepancy is
evident from the fact that Pharaoh Necho
who, in usual chronologies reigned from
609 to 495 BCE., defeated King Josiah in
3316 or 443 BCE. (2 Kings 23:29; Seder
HaDoroth).
http://bible.ort.org/books/pentd2.asp?action=
displayanchor&pentid=P1578#P1578
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Introduction
The reality is actually much worse than
bible.ort.org is letting on. Here is just a
small list of the conflicts between the
Rabbinic count and history (BCE time)
1) Adam created3761 vs. 3901 {140 off}
2) Exodus1313 vs. 1447 {134 off}
3) 1st Temple burned432 vs. 586 {154 off}
4) 2nd Temple stood (in years)420 vs. 584
{164 off}
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Introduction
And this is just scratching the
surfacethese errors cannot in anyway
be reconciled with history, as we will
soon see in vast detail.
For now though let me just focus on the
easiest examples. No scholar believes
that Nebuchadnezzar could have been
alive in 432 BCE, when he is said to
have destroyed the Temple by the
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Rabbis.

Introduction
That one error will completely throw off
most of the rest of Jewish history.
In addition to their account of how long the
2nd Temple stood being wrong, the dates
of people like Daniel, Esther, Ezra and
Nehemiah must also be thrown into
error to accommodate the Rabbinic dates.
It will not be until the Maccabean Revolt
more than 300 years later that their count
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will begin to catch up to reality!

Introduction
Of equal importance was the work of
Bishop James Ussher in the 17th century.
Ussher did a much better job than the
Rabbis, removing many of their errors by
confirming the First Temple was destroyed
in 586 BCE, Alexander the Great dies in
323 BCE, and so on. The strength of his
work was on relying on hard historical
dates and counting backwards or
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forwards in Hebrew time.

Introduction
For example, Ussher noticed that
Nebuchadnezzars deathwhich is a
known date fixed to 562 BCEwas also
fixed to the 37th year of King Yehoichins
exile (2 Kings 25:27), and made some
decent educated guesses about the reign
of certain kings based on that data.
But two major areas in Biblical history
vexed his work greatly
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Introduction
First, the overall chronology of the
Kings of Israel and Judah proved an
almost insurmountable situation for
Ussher to resolve properly.
This is because it would take another
three centuries for scholars to realize that
the kingdoms in Judah and Israel counted
time differently, which we will deal with
later. Without this understanding Kings
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and Chronicles made no sense!

Introduction
The second problematic area
concerned the time-frame between
Exodus and Solomons 4th year,
encompassing the entire period of the
Judges.
1 Kings 6:1 and 2 Chronicles 3:1 told us
this time period was 480 years long.
However adding up the years between
Exodus and 1 Kings 6 straight
yielded at least 100 too many years!

21

Introduction
Again, this is a topic for later discussion,
but for now the bottom line is Ussher
did not resolve the contradiction, based
in part on a failure to see that certain
events in Judges and 1 Samuel were
happening at the same time!
On the other hand, what Ussher, the
Rabbis and later Biblical scholars did get
right was using Hebrew, rather than
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Greek, for the ages of the patriarchs.

Introduction
However, there was no unified
agreement on when Year Zero was,
when to count Adams creation FROM,
even though almost all agreed on Hebrew
intervals, such as Adam was 130 when he
gave birth to Seth, and so on.
At the end of the day, Usshers
attempts remain the most accurate,
with others largely confirming his
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general choices.

Introduction
but that doesnt mean there arent
places where Ussher (and all the
others) arent way off in their estimates
by centuries.
What we are going to do here then is in
effect start over. We will begin by
expanding the strengths of Ussher by
finding other Biblical dates that will be
provable and certain, and we begin with
the most important date of them all 24

Capturing Exodus
As we just saw, 1 Kings 6:1 and 2
Chronicles 3:1 tell us Solomons 4th year,
when he began building the Temple, was
480 years after Exodus.
1 Kings 14:25 tells us that the Egyptian
Pharaoh Shishak invaded Jerusalem
(did not enter the city itself and took a
bribe instead) in the 5th year of
Rehoboam, 5 years after Solomon died.
25

Capturing Exodus
Egyptian records give us a certain date for
the invasion: 926 BCE.
926 BCE then is 41 years after Solomon
began building the Temple, because he
started it in his 4th year and died in his 40th
year (36 years), plus the 5 years of his
successor brings us to that total.
Therefore, 926 + 41 = 967 BCE for
Solomons 4th year and 1447 BCE for
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Exodus.

Capturing Exodus
This timing is confirmed in the most widely
accepted Biblical chronology, The
Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings,
by E.R. Thiele, and the subsequent
validation and tweaking of Thieles work
done by scholar Leslie McFall.
They put Davids death at 971 BCE, and
so Solomons 4th year is again 967 BCE
and Exodus 1447 BCE.
27

Capturing Exodus
From Exodus then it is 92 years to the
first Jubilee, 42 from Exodus to the
Jericho campaign and 50 more from
Jericho to Jubilee, bringing us to 1356
BCE for Jubilee 1.
As we count in 50 year intervals on
forwards, this means in BCE time, any
year ending in -56 or -06 MUST be a
Jubilee, and so it is with 6 BCE as a
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Jubilee

Capturing Exodus
This timing is so precise that the very
beginning and end dates of those 480
years have been completely recovered.
The Exodus hit on Friday night (15 Abib),
March 23rd 1447 BCE and the day that
Solomon began building the Temple (2
Iyar) was Wednesday, April 16th, 967 BCE,
both in our current Gregorian calendar. It
is Exodus that gives the perfect date to
count forwards and backwards from! 29

Coming up in Part 2
Backwards to Adam!

30

Intermission

Part 2: Backwards to Adam!

32

Backwards to Adam
On two points almost all Biblical
chronologists are in agreement on
First, that Hebrew intervals of time are
superior to the Greek ones and those from
other traditions.
Ussher and many othersalong with of
course the Rabbis themselves
conducted exhaustive studies and found
the Hebrew dates held special codes and
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better agreed with wider history.

Backwards to Adam
For example, in Hebrew time only
Abraham is born 1,948 years after
Adam is created, and in 1948 Israel
became a state, giving rise to the belief
that the Hebrew chronology was prophetic.
There are many more instances of these
types of codes which are exclusive to
Hebrew reckoningwhereas the Greek
will add almost 1500 years and be too
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inaccurate to be of real use.

Backwards to Adam
The second area of agreement has to do
with this reference
And the sojourning of the children of
Israel, while they sojourned in the land of
Egypt and the land of Canaan, was 430
years. And it came to pass after the 430
years, all the forces of the Lord came forth
out of the land of Egypt by night.
(Exodus 12:40-41 LXX/Brenton)
35

Backwards to Adam
The traditional (Masoretic) Hebrew text
and the Dead Sea Scrolls and Onkelos
Targum all read 430 years in Egypt.
The Septuagint, or Greek OT translation,
along with the ancient Samaritan Hebrew
version, clearly read in Egypt and in
Canaan for the same 430 year period.
The manuscript record is effectively
split down the middlecan both be
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right?

Backwards to Adam
In order to answer this question, we need to
look at another ancient authority and
witnessone who saw the original Hebrew
text as it existed 2,000 years ago
Now this I say, Torah, that came 430
years later, does not annul a covenant
previously confirmed by Elohim in
Messiah, so as to do away with the
promise. For if the inheritance is by Torah, it
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Backwards to Adam
is no longer by promise, but Elohim gave it
to Abraham through a promise.
(Galatians 3:17-18-AENT)
The Apostle Paul was one of the greatest
Jewish scholars of his age, having studied
under Rabbi Gamaliel, the grandson of
Hillel the Elder. (Acts 22:1-3)
Furthermore, Paul was not educated
according to Hellenistic Judaism, but from
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Jerusalem (also Acts 22:1-3).

Backwards to Adam
Therefore, Pauls analysis of Biblical
chronology came from the original
Hebrew Torah documents that he saw
with his own eyes.
If that original Hebrew was identical to the
modern version of Exodus 12:40, then
Paul is giving us the prevailing
interpretation of that text as referring to
Egypt and Canaan, when it only actually
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says Egypt.

Backwards to Adam
The alternative theory though would be
that the old Hebrew actually read in Egypt
and in Canaan, which was in turn
translated into the Greek Septuagint, and
to my mind this seems more likely.
Either way, this shows that Paul clearly
supported a total chronology from
Abrahams 75th year to Exodus of 430
years, whereas some Masoretic scholars
40
would make it 645 years.

Backwards to Adam
So 215 years hang in the balance. Its
either 215 years in Canaan and the
another 215 in Egypt, equaling 430 years
in all, or its 215 in Canaan plus 430 in
Egypt, or 645 in all. Which is right?
My answer is, in a way, everyone is right.
To my mind, the problem isnt that the later
Hebrew reads, 430 years in Egypt; the
problem is that Hebrew text has not
been interpreted correctly! Heres why41

Backwards to Adam
Then Yahweh said to Abram, 'Know this for
certain, that your descendants will be
exiles in a land not their own, and be
enslaved and oppressed for 400 years.
But I shall bring judgement on the nation
that enslaves them and after this they will
leave, with many possessions. For your part,
you will join your ancestors in peace; you
will be buried at a happy old age. In the
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Backwards to Adam
fourth generation they will come back here,
for until then the iniquity of the Amorites
will not have reached its full extent.
(Genesis 15:13-16 NJB)
Before moving on, let me deal with the
alleged contradiction of 400 years
mentioned here and 430 years given in
Exodus 12:40. We see here that the
prophecy is not about Abraham himself,
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but about his descendants

Backwards to Adam
So Abram went as Yahweh told him, and
Lot went with him. Abram was 75 years old
when he left Haran.
(Genesis 12:4 NJB)
So here is our first clue. Abram, later
renamed Abraham, was 75 years old, both
here in Genesis 12 and when Abba YHWH
speaks with him again in Genesis 15. But
look at what happens when Isaac is
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born

Backwards to Adam
Abraham was 100 years old when his son
Isaac was born to him.
(Genesis 21:5 NJB)
So 25 years pass from Abrahams vision
to Isaacs birth. If the prophecy is really
about what Isaac and his sons go through,
then this is the earliest time the prophecy
can begin to take effect. But if so what
about the 5 remaining years to get to
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430? The answer is here

Backwards to Adam
The child grew and was weaned, and
Abraham gave a great banquet on the
day Isaac was weaned.
(Genesis 21:8 NJB)
Weaning refers to the time a child no
longer needs to rely on its mothers milk,
and it was important enough of an
occasion for Abraham to celebrate. It is
also the precise time the prophetic
clock starts ticking because

46

Backwards to Adam
Yahweh spoke to Moses and said: 'Speak
to the Israelites and say: "If anyone vows the
value of a person to Yahweh and wishes to
discharge the vow: a man between 20 and
60 years of age will be valued at 50 silver
shekels -- the sanctuary shekel; a woman
will be valued at 30 shekels; between 5 and
20 years, a boy will be valued at 20
shekels, a girl at 10 shekels; between 1
month and 5 years, a boy will be valued 47

Backwards to Adam
at 5 silver shekels, a girl at 3 silver shekels.
(Leviticus 27:1-6 NJB)
Heres the logic: The reason a man at
aged 20 has a higher shekel value than
a woman of that age is not because he
is superior to her but because only men
that age can go to war (Numbers 1:3).
Similarly, a little boy becomes more
valuable after he is weaned and not a
burden on his mother (1 Samuel 1:22-28)!48

Backwards to Adam
So here then is how the contradiction is
resolved.
Abraham gets the Exodus prophecy at age
75, and this prophecy is a total of 430
years from that moment until Exodus.
However, the 400 year part of that
prophecy doesnt kick in until 30 years
have passed, 25 for Isaacs birth and 5
for the occasion of his weaning, so no
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problem!

Backwards to Adam
But my main point is that the traditional
Hebrew text does point to 430 years in
Egypt and in Canaan, even though it
doesnt mention Canaan in Exodus
12:40.
In order to understand why, we need to
look at the last line of the Genesis 15
prophecy, for the sin of the Amorites
is not yet complete. What does it mean
and when did it happen? Look here 50

Backwards to Adam
We laid them under the curse of
destruction as we had done Sihon king of
Heshbon, laying all these towns under the
curse of destruction: men, women and
children-but we seized the livestock and
spoils of the towns as booty for ourselves.
'Thus, by then we had taken the country
of the two Amorite kings beyond the
Jordan, stretching from the Wadi Arnon to
Mount Hermon (Deuteronomy 3:6-8 NJB) 51

Backwards to Adam
This part of Deuteronomy is a re-cap
section, where Moshe reviews all that has
happened over the last 40 years until the
present moment.
It is also very clear that by the time the
Amorites sins have filled up resulting in
their destruction, that we are actually in
that last 40th year, the same year Moshe
dies, or 1407 BCE (Deuteronomy 2:14).
52

Backwards to Adam
So any date after 1407 BCE is after the
time that the Amorites sins are completed.
Since Abrahams 75th year is also a fixed
date, 1877 BCE, the period from that year
to Exodus cannot be 645 years (215 +
430) but only 430 years (215 + 215).
Otherwise, the Exodus will happen way
too late, in 1234 BCE, which will violate
the Scripture chronology in 1 Kings 6:1
53
and 2 Chronicles 3:1.

Backwards to Adam
Therefore, we now see that really all
ancient sources are in agreement,
since the chronological details just
mentioned are in all versions.
Counting in solar timeand for more proof
that the Hebrews counted that way see
The Hebrew Solar Year teachingthis
means Abrahams prophecy was 430
years to the day earlier than Exodus
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March 22-23 (5 Abib), 1877 BCE.

Backwards to Adam
From there it is probable this was
Abrahams date of birth, 75 years earlier,
in around 1953-1952 BCE.
And so, once we get to this point, there
are no remaining obstacles to counting
backwards to Adam and bringing us to a
certain date for his creation: Friday,
September 24th (Gregorian), 3901 BCE.
This is the only date that agrees with all
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the Biblical information.

Backwards to Adam
This key timing, Friday, September 24th,
3901 BCE, has the following aspects
attached to it
It is the daylight period after Fall Equinox,
or the Hebrew timing of the start of
autumn.
It is also the timing of the New Moon of
what will later be called Tishri, even
though lunar reckoning is not in use this
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early (long story).

Backwards to Adam
It is also the morning of the 6th day of the
week (Friday) just before Shabbat, for
Adams creation.
These last two aspects, that Adam was
created on Yom Teruah (Tishri 1; Rosh
Hashanna) that hit on a Friday, align
with some of the most ancient rabbinic
traditions known to existthe Rabbis
are nearly unanimous on these facts!
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Backwards to Adam
But the Rabbis, while preserving these
details correctly, including the proper ages
of the patriarchs when they had their first
sons, were missing one thing.
As we saw before, the Torah did not
directly give them Year Zero, the time
to count forward from. Eventually they
settled on a guess, 3761 BCE, rather
than relying on Biblical data to give
them Exodus and adjust accordingly. 58

Backwards to Adam
Those decisions in turn led to a 140
year error from the Rabbinic date of
Adams creation and the Biblical one
the Rabbis were way too late in their
count!
However, with a firm date for Adams
creation established, all the correct years
for the patriarchs can be completely
recovered to a certainty! Happy
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birthday Adam!

Backwards to Adam
Friday, Sept. 24, 3901Creation of Adam
3771Birth of Seth
3666Birth of Enosh
3576Birth of Kenan
3506Birth of Mahalalel
3441Birth of Jared
3279Birth of Enoch
3214Birth of Methusaleh
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Backwards to Adam
3027Birth of Lamech
2971Death of Adam
2914Enoch taken up to heaven.
2859Death of Seth
2845Birth of Noah
2761Death of Enosh
2666Death of Kenan
2611Death of Mahalalel
61

Backwards to Adam
2479Death of Jared
2365120 year prophecy for Flood begins
2347Shem is born
2250Death of Lamech
2245Noah turns 600; Methusaleh dies;
Flood ravages the earth
2243Arphacsad is born
2208Shelah is born
62

Backwards to Adam
2178Eber is born
2144Peleg is born
2114Reu is born
2082Serug is born
2052Nahor is born
2023Terah is born
1953-Abraham is born (still aged 75 in
1877 BCE, when he has Exodus prophecy)
63

Backwards to Adam
Special Note: The reason there is a small
wiggle room of a year for Abrahams birth
is due to a variety of factors. First, it is
possible that the old count was Fall to Fall
so the switching over at Exodus to Spring to
Spring added 6 months. Second, Abraham
could be 75 years and an uncertain number
of months old when he gets the vision, and
third is the prophecy is at the start of spring
early in 1877 BCE. Continuing
64

Backwards to Adam
1905Death of Peleg
1904Death of Nahor
1895Death of Noah
1875Death of Reu
1852Death of Serug
1853Isaac is born
1818Death of Terah
1805Death of Arphacsad
65

Backwards to Adam
1793Jacob and Esau are born
1778 Death of Abraham
1775Death of Shelah
1747Death of Shem
1714Death of Eber
1701Birth of Joseph
1673Death of Isaac
1646Death of Jacob
66

Backwards to Adam
1591Death of Joseph
1527Birth of Moses
1487Moses flees to Midian
1447 (March 22-23)Exodus
1406 (January 6th)Death of Moses
1405 (Spring)Joshua attacks Jericho
But now one of the most challenging
periods of Israelite history lays directly in
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our path

Next in Part 3
Welcome to the Judges!

68

Intermission

Part 3: Welcome to the Judges!

70

Welcome to the Judges


It is perhaps the most difficult
chronological puzzle of all to decipherit
is certainly the one I have spent the most
time on.
How in the world do we deal with that
nebulous period we loosely call the
time of the Judgesa time when
literally nothing is as it seems?
About the only easy thing about it is
describing the real problem

71

Welcome to the Judges


Here is a basic linear chart of the times
which assumes straight counting from
Exodus on forwards
1447Exodus
140740th anniversary of Exodus
1406Death of Moses
1405Joshua attacks Jericho
1400Caleb turns 85 in Joshua 14
72

Welcome to the Judges


11071st year of Jephtah as judge (Judges
11:26), 340 years after Exodus; dies in 1101
1101-1094Ibzan is judge
1094-1084Elon is judge
1084-1076Abdon is judge
1076-1056Philistine oppression; Samson
is born and grows up
1056-1036Samson is judge
73

Welcome to the Judges

1036-996Eli is judge
996-976No one is judge (1 Samuel 7:1-2)
976-956Samuel judged Israel his whole
life (1 Samuel 7:15) = 20 year minimum
956-936Saul is king
74

Welcome to the Judges


936-896David is king
896-892Solomon builds the Temple in is
4th year.
TOTAL FROM EXODUS555 years
Interval given in Scripture480 years
Discrepancy75 years
This by the way is with a very
conservative count. The discrepancy
could be more than double this amount!75

Welcome to the Judges


So something is clearly wrong, starting
with the idea that a linear count from
Exodus to 1 Kings 6 is not the way to
go.
At some point, we need to see that certain
events were meant to be happening at the
same time, but thats a topic for later.
For now we need to look at issues in the
actual book itself
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The Strange Case of Doctor Phinehas


Lets start with these series of quotes
Eleazar, son of Aaron, married one of
Putiel's daughters who bore him
Phinehas. (Exodus 6:25 NJB)
'The priest Phinehas son of Eleazar, son
of Aaron has deflected my wrath from the
Israelites, he being the only one of them to
have the same zeal as I have.
(Numbers 25:11-12 NJB)
77

The Strange Case of Doctor Phinehas


After killing two sexual sinners, Phinehas
is elevated to priestly status that he
otherwise would not be worthy to do.
This means that the man whose birth is
recorded in Exodus 6 must be between
the ages of 25 and 50 in order to serve
as a priest in the 40th year after Exodus
(Numbers 8:23-28). But if so how do we
explain these verses
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The Strange Case of Doctor Phinehas


The priest Phinehas son of Eleazar and the
leaders left the Reubenites and the Gadites
and went back from Gilead to Canaan and
the Israelites, to whom they reported the
answer. (Joshua 22:32 NJB)
Phinehas son of Eleazer, son of Aaron was
its minister at the time. (Judges 20:28 NJB)
Between Joshua 22 and Judges 20 is
more than 300 years of history, and this
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isnt counting the time in the Torah!

The Strange Case of Doctor Phinehas


So how is Phinehas still a priest four
centuries later when Torah commands that
he retires at age 50? (Hes ministering to
the Ark of the Covenant!)
And how does Phinehas live such a
long life apparentlymore than 400
yearswhen 1 Chronicles 6 puts at
least 6 generations after him serving as
priests during the time of the Judges?
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The answer must behe didnt!

The Strange Case of Doctor Phinehas


As a result, it must be acknowledged that
Judges was not put in precise
chronological order.
Basically, everything after the 16th
chapter when Samson died belongs
actually at the beginning of the book! In
other words, Samson is the very last
judge. 20 years after his death the
Israelites broke free from the Philistines
and soon after the Judges period ended. 81

The Strange Case of Doctor Phinehas


Furthermore, we know there was a period
of some duration between the death of
Joshua and the start of the Judges period
under Othniel, and Judges chapters 17-21
do not mention any single judge after
Samson.
Therefore, this period of no judge or
pagan rulers after Samson clearly only
makes sense at the beginning of the
82
period, rather than at the end.

The Strange Case of Doctor Phinehas


And finally on this subject, it is important to
also realize the importance of only
counting the times of people were actually
called judges or were said to have
judged Israel (shaphat ) in the book.
That simple step, all by itself, also goes
a long way to removing the
chronological confusion in the text.
But next up we need to answer this
83
question: When did Joshua die?

Tracking the Life of Joshua


When it comes to Joshua, the Scripture
has a surprising lack of biographical
information about him given his critical
historical importance as the successor to
Moses.
We are basically told directly three things:
1) He was born a slave in Egypt, 2) He
was a young man when compared to
Moses and 3) He died at age 110.
84

Tracking the Life of Joshua


But we cant really know the start of the
Judges period if we dont know when
Joshua actually died in historical time.
However, the task is far from impossible to
do as other smaller details help build us a
certain picture to lead us to this time.
To begin with, lets first observe a
significant overlap in time between the
latter part of Joshua and the starting
85
part of Judges

Tracking the Life of Joshua


Caleb then said, 'To the man who attacks
and takes Kiriath-Sepher, I shall give my
daughter Achsah as wife. The man who
captured it was Othniel son of Kenaz,
brother of Caleb, who gave him his daughter
Achsah as wife. (Joshua 15:16-17 NJB)
Now look at the parallel passage of the
same event given in Judges
86

Tracking the Life of Joshua


Caleb said, 'To the man who conquers and
captures Kiriath-Sepher, I shall give my
daughter Achsah as wife. The man who
captured it was Othniel son of Kenaz,
younger brother of Caleb, who gave him his
daughter Achsah as wife.
(Judges1:12-13 NJB)
Its clearly the same event, and even
better, we have a certain date for its
87
occurrence

Tracking the Life of Joshua


Some sons of Judah came to Joshua at
Gilgal, and Caleb son of Jephunneh the
Kenizzite said to him, 'You know what
Yahweh said to Moses, man of God, at
Kadesh-Barnea concerning you and me.
I was 40 years old when Moses, servant
of Yahweh, sent me from Kadesh-Barnea
to reconnoitre this country, and I made
him a completely honest report. The
88

Tracking the Life of Joshua


brothers, however, who had gone up with
me discouraged the people, whereas I
myself scrupulously obeyed Yahweh my
God. That day Moses swore this oath, "Be
sure of this, that the country your foot has
trodden will be a heritage for you and your
children for ever, since you have
scrupulously obeyed Yahweh my God."
From then till now, Yahweh has kept me
89

Tracking the Life of Joshua


alive in observance of his promise. It is
forty-five years since Yahweh said this to
Moses -- Israel was then going through
the desert -- and now I am 85 years old.
Today I am still as strong as the day when
Moses sent me out on that errand; for
fighting, for going and coming, I am as
strong now as then. (Joshua 14:6-11 NJB)
This is 47 years after Exodus, and 45
90
years after the spies were sent out.

Tracking the Life of Joshua

Therefore, 47 of our 480 total years from


Exodus to Solomons 4th year are accounted
for, as it is clear that the events in Joshua
14-24 are happening at the same time as
the events in Judges 1:1-2:7, which is why
both sources conclude the same way about
the most important event of their time
91

Tracking the Life of Joshua


Joshua then said to all the people, 'Look,
this stone will be a witness to us, since it has
heard all the words that Yahweh has spoken
to us: it will be a witness against you, in
case you should deny your God.' Joshua
then dismissed the people, every one to his
own heritage. After this, Joshua son of
Nun, servant of Yahweh, died; he was
110 years old. He was buried on the estate
92

Tracking the Life of Joshua


which he had received as his heritage, at
Timnath-Serah which lies in the highlands of
Ephraim, north of Mount Gaash. Israel
served Yahweh throughout the lifetime of
Joshua and throughout the lifetime of
those elders who outlived Joshua and
had known all the deeds which Yahweh
had done for the sake of Israel.
(Joshua 24:27-31 NJB)
93
And again, in Judges

Tracking the Life of Joshua


Joshua having dismissed the people, the
Israelites then went away, each one to his
own heritage, to occupy the country. The
people served Yahweh throughout the
lifetime of Joshua and throughout the
lifetime of those elders who outlived Joshua
and had known all the great deeds which
Yahweh had done for the sake of Israel.
Joshua son of Nun, servant of Yahweh,
94

Tracking the Life of Joshua


was 110 years old when he died.
He was buried on the estate which he had
received as his heritage at Timnath-Heres in
the highlands of Ephraim, north of Mount
Gaash. And when that whole generation
had been gathered to its ancestors,
another generation followed it which
knew neither Yahweh nor the deeds
which he had done for the sake of Israel.
95
(Judges 2:6-10 NJB)

Tracking the Life of Joshua


The two accounts of the same event
Joshuas deathare nearly identical.
The only real difference is that while
the writer of Joshua emphasizes
Israels loyalty to Yahweh in Joshuas
lifetime, the writer of Judges goes out
of his way to explain the nearimmediate descent into paganism
before his body had even gone cold in
96
his grave.

Tracking the Life of Joshua


For an undetermined period of timealso
covering the events in chapters 17-21
the Israelites had neither loyalty to
Yahweh nor a strong ruler to judge them.
As a result, Yahweh gave the Israelites
over to pagan rulers for 8 years, until the
Israelites cried out to Him for help (Judges
3:1-8). His answer was to raise up
Joshuas aide Othniel as a deliverer, for he
97
was loyal to Yahweh (Judges 3:9)

Tracking the Life of Joshua


But, in order to find the actual years of
Joshuas career and ultimate demise,
we need to look towards a linguistic
solution, since direct chronological
data is challenging to interpret.
The key rests in two statements about
Joshua that have left many scholars
puzzled over the centuries, simply
because the simplest answer went against
98
their own assumptions.

Tracking the Life of Joshua


These background statements set the
foundation for the Joshua quotes
Now Pharaoh's daughter went down to
bathe in the river, while her maids walked
along the riverside. Among the reeds she
noticed the basket, and she sent her maid to
fetch it. She opened it and saw the child:
the baby (naar ) was crying. Feeling
sorry for it, she said, 'This is one of the little
99
Hebrews.' (Exodus 2:5-6 NJB)

Tracking the Life of Joshua


This Hebrew word naar is being applied to
Moses when he is only 3 months old
(Exodus 2:1). 1 Samuel 1:22 and 4:21
apply this same word to newborn males.
However, this is far from the only usage of
this word. Ishmael is called a naar about 5
years after his circumcision at age 13
(Genesis 17:25; 21:12), so he is about 18
when he is sent away.
100

Tracking the Life of Joshua


Joseph is also directly called a naar when
he is 17 years old (Genesis 37:2).
Similar but more general statements are
given about David and Solomon (1
Samuel 16:11; 1 Kings 3:7). In other
cases, some authorities believe this word
can mean servant, retainer but even
there we never have any implication
that these retainers arent also young
men, specifically 19 years and younger. 101

Tracking the Life of Joshua


The reason why I say a naar must be 19
years or younger is because once a male
turns 20 he is always called by another
Hebrew word
"No man (ish)
of 20 years and over,
who left Egypt, shall set eyes on the country
which I promised on oath to Abraham, Isaac
and Jacob, for they have not followed me
absolutely. (Numbers 32:11-12 NJB)
102

Tracking the Life of Joshua


The word ish, along with its synonym
anash (e.g. Genesis 12:20; Exodus 17:9),
denotes a man ready to go to war or is a
general reference to a male ready to
marriage. Other times words that can
mean a male at any agelike zakarare
applied to this age of man as well.
Only Adam, who is created as a fully
formed adult, is also called ish when he
103
marries Eve (Genesis 3:16).

Tracking the Life of Joshua


Now lets apply this understanding to
Joshua
Yahweh would talk to Moses face to face, as
a man talks to his friend, and afterwards he
would come back to the camp, but the
young man (naar ) who was his
servant, Joshua son of Nun, never left the
inside of the Tent. (Exodus 33:11 NJB)
Notice that naar does not mean retainer
because its synonym servant is there! 104

Tracking the Life of Joshua


Therefore, since the retainer meaning is
already taken care of with the word
sharath (minister, aide), naar must be
intended with its only other meaning
young man, 19 years old and younger.
We should also bear in mind that the rules
for a person being aged 20 and over to go
to war were not given until Leviticus1 to
2 years laterso Joshua could be a
warrior too at age 19. Heres another105

Tracking the Life of Joshua


Then Joshua the son of Nun, the attendant
(sharath)
of Moses from his youth
(behorim
),
said, "Moses, my lord,
restrain them." (Numbers 11:28 NAU)
Same situationonce again the
retainer/attendant meaning is taken up by
sharath and his youth is expressed by a
separate word. Behorim is related to
bikurrim, first-fruits and therefore also
106
means a boy coming into manhood.

Tracking the Life of Joshua


And so I believe the evidence is
overwhelming here. Joshua must be 19
years old at Exodus.
Furthermore, the text even gives us an
idea when Joshua was born. Since he is
19 years old in Exodus 17, it means he
had to be born sometime between
Passover and the Feast of Weeks
(Exodus 20), because the 10
107
Commandments were given then!

Tracking the Life of Joshua


Therefore, if Joshuas career begins at
age 19 and ends when he dies at age 110,
this means he was in Yahs service for a
total of 91 years!
Joshua would then be 59 years old when
Moses died in 1406 BCE and just turned
60 when he attacked Jericho the
following year. From there the numbers
point to a very surprising date for his
108
death

Tracking the Life of Joshua


A 60 year old Joshua at Jericho means
that, the very year Israel entered Canaan
was exactly 50 years away from the first
Jubilee, the precise time Joshua dies!
In other words, Joshua is born in the
springtime and by the time he dies, it is
the same moment as the first Jubilee
(1356 BCE) for Israel. But apparently
Israel doesnt honor their obligation as
109
this passage shows

Tracking the Life of Joshua


Joshua son of Nun, servant of Yahweh,
was 110 years old when he died. He was
buried on the estate which he had received
as his heritage at Timnath-Heres in the
highlands of Ephraim, north of Mount
Gaash. And when that whole generation
had been gathered to its ancestors,
another generation followed it which knew
neither Yahweh nor the deeds which he had
110

Tracking the Life of Joshua


done for the sake of Israel. The Israelites
then did what is evil in Yahweh's eyes
and served the Baals. They deserted
Yahweh, God of their ancestors, who had
brought them out of Egypt, and they
followed other gods. (Judges 2:8-12 NJB)
So instead of celebrating their 1st
Jubilee and keeping the Feasts, they
prostituted themselves to idolsno
111
wonder Abba YHWH judged them!

Tracking the Life of Joshua


We also see in the text the clue that
another generation followed after
Joshua began his ruleindicating that
his reign was at least 40 years long!
From all this data, it is clear that Judges
starts immediately after Joshuas death,
since all during his life the people were
loyal to Abba YHWH. Therefore the start
of the Judges is fixed to the 1st
112
Jubilee1356 BCEso count from there.

340 Years to Jephtah


The next fixed marker is here
When Israel settled in Heshbon and its
dependencies, and in Aroer and its
dependencies, or in any of the towns on
the banks of the Arnon 300 years ago,
why did you not recover them then? I for my
part have done you no harm, but you are
wronging me by making war on me. Let
Yahweh the Judge give judgement today
between the Israelites and the king of the 113

340 Years to Jephtah


Ammonites." ' But the king of the Ammonites
took no notice of the message that Jephthah
sent him. The spirit of Yahweh was on
Jephthah, who crossed Gilead and
Manasseh, crossed by way of Mizpah in
Gilead, and from Mizpah in Gilead
crossed into Ammonite territory.
(Judges 11:26-29 NJB)
Therefore, the start of Jephtahs 6 year
114
reign = 300 years after this war.

340 Years to Jephtah


That war in turn was fought just before
Moses died, 40 years after Exodus
(Deuteronomy 2:14; 3:6-11); therefore
Jephtah rules 340 years after Exodus,
starting in 1107 BCE.
So lets begin counting 340 years from
Exodus to now. The death of Joshua and
start of Judges is fixed to 1356 BCE,
and this is 91 years after Exodus,
leaving 249 years left for the Judges. 115

340 Years to Jephtah


But in order to get the mandated 340
years from Exodus to Jephtah, we need to
dig much deeper into the text an deal with
quite a few surprises.
Those surprises have long baffled
scholars and to this very day I have
never seen anyone deal with most of
these issues, let alone all of them.
Basically it comes down to recognizing
116
certain rules and following them

340 Years to Jephtah


Rule #1:
There are times when, under the ruler of a
single judge, several separate Israelite
groups may exist in different places at the
same period of time. Each separate Israelite
group can also be oppressed by separate
enemies or one group of Israelites has war
while another group of Israelites has peace.
Lets see examples of this
117

340 Years to Jephtah


The Benjaminites left their towns and
mustered at Gibeah to fight the Israelites. At
the time, a count was made of the
Benjaminites from the various towns: there
were 26,000 swordsmen; and the count
excluded the inhabitants of Gibeah...A count
was also held of the men of Israel, excluding
Benjamin: there were 400,000 men, all
experienced swordsmen.
118
(Judges 20:14-15-17 NJB)

340 Years to Jephtah


So here was in effect a civil war between
Benjamin and the rest of Israel. And this
next Scripture shows us who the majority
leader was
The Israelites then consulted Yahweh. In
those days, the ark of the covenant of God
was there, and Phinehas son of Eleazer,
son of Aaron was its minister at the time.
They said, 'Ought I to go into battle against
119

340 Years to Jephtah


the sons of my brother Benjamin again, or
should I stop?' Yahweh replied, 'March! For
tomorrow I shall deliver him into your
hands.'(Judges 20:27-28 NJB)
As we just saw, Phinehas being present
proves this part of Judges happens at
the beginning of the book
chronologically, not at the end where it is
placed. Therefore this war against
120
Benjamin is conducted by Othniel.

340 Years to Jephtah


However, the 18 years of Midianite
oppression that is resisted by heroes
Ehud and Shamgar also happens as
part of Othniels 40 year reign.
The reason is that the 80 years of peace
that comes after Moab is defeated
(Judges 3:30) does not make sense for
being applied to all of Israel, but only to
the group led by Ehud and Shamgar. This
121
leads us to our next rule

340 Years to Jephtah


Rule #2:
The general rule of thumb is that we only
count the time of people who are specifically
called judges or of whom it is said X
judged Israel. There are times (Jephtah)
where a man is called a chief but not a
judge and this is counted separately from
when they are elevated to a judge. Minor
leaders to a judge (Ehud for Othniel, Barak
122
for Deborah) do not get time counted.

340 Years to Jephtah


So Ehud and Shamgar are never called
judges but rather deliverers or heroes.
In Ehuds case, it was Israels leaders
under Othniel who hired him to take
tribute to the Moabite king (Judges
3:15), therefore Ehuds time, as well as the
18 years of Moabite oppression, are also
under Othniels 40 years.
So lets show a brief timeline
123

340 Years to Jephtah


1447Exodus
1356Death of Joshua
1356-1348Israelites enslaved by King of
Edom
1348-130840 year reign of Othniel.
Israel Group #1 has total peace for this
time.
1348-1330Ehud and Shamgar (Israel
Group #2 ) liberate Israel from Moabite
124
oppression, also during Othniels time.

340 Years to Jephtah


1330-1250Ehuds group (Israel Group
#2) has peace for 80 years.
1308-1288Oppression by Jabin of
Canaan coincides with the 20 year reign of
Deborah over all of Israel. Deborah and
Barak kill Jabin and his general, Sisera.
1288-124840 years of peace for all of
Israel.
1248-12417 years of Midianite
125
oppression.

340 Years to Jephtah


1241-120140 years of Gideon judging in
a time of peace.
1201-1198False rule of Abimelech
established and then defeated.
1198-1175Reign of Tola
1175-1153Reign of Yair
But now we need to deal with the time of
Jephtah, where nothing is what it
seems
126

340 Years to Jephtah


Judges 10 gives us a general picture of
the conditions of Israel under Midianite
oppression for 18 years.
But Judges 11 gives us details from
Jephtahs own life story that affect the
overall timeline.
The most important detail here is that
Jephtahs clan of Gilead has been set up
with local leaders, apparently while the
127
rest of Israel is leaderless.

340 Years to Jephtah


So this is the exception to my previous
rule that only people called judges or who
judged Israel have their time count,
because this is only done when there is
a main judge over a large part or all
of Israel.
But when there is a local group alone
ruling part of Israel, even though they
called elders and not judges, their reign
128
must count because a judge follows
them.

340 Years to Jephtah


In other words, Judges 11:1-3 says that
the warrior Jephtah was driven out of
Gilead because he was of illegitimate
birth.
Further, Jephtahs exile into the land of
Tob is of some serious duration of
years, and all this is before the
Ammonites begin their 18 year
oppression.
129

340 Years to Jephtah


But when Jephtah is persuaded to come
home and fight the Ammonites, he is not
made a judge but a chief or a head
only of his family group (Judges 11:512).
So Jephtahs war with Ammon and later
with Ephraim (and the 2 months with his
daughter) all took place during those 18
years, and he doesnt become a judge
until all those wars are over. 130

340 Years to Jephtah


The time reference we are looking atin
11:26that Jephtahs time is 340 years
after Exodus, is precisely timed to his 18th
year as chief (again, not judge)
Jephthah crossed into Ammonite
territory to attack them, and Yahweh
delivered them into his grasp. He beat
them from Aroer to the border of Minnith (20
towns) and to Abel-Keramim. It was a very
131

340 Years to Jephtah


severe defeat, and the Ammonites were
humbled by the Israelites.
(Judges 11:32-33 NJB)
Therefore Jephtahs 18th year as chief =
The 340th year after Exodus (1107 BCE).
Since this is a fixed point in timea
hard reference, we now have to fill in
the rest of the years around it
132

340 Years to Jephtah


1241-120140 years of Gideon judging in
a time of peace.
1201-1198False rule of Abimelech
established and then defeated.
1198-1175Reign of Tola
1175-1153Reign of Yair
1153-1125No judge in Israel but local
elders are in charge in Gilead. Warrior
Jephtah is driven out before Ammonites
133
invade.

340 Years to Jephtah

1125-110718 years of Ammonite


oppression; Jephtah made clan chief and
defeats enemies. Period ends on the
340th year after Exodus!
However, next we need to see if the rest
of the Judges time equals the remaining
required years (340 +140= 480)
134

340 Years to Jephtah


1107-11016 year reign of Jephtah as
judge over all Israel.
1101-10947 year reign of Izban
1094-108410 year reign of Elon
1084-10768 year reign of Abdon
1076-103640 year domination of
Philistines, including Samsons rule in the
last 20 years.
135

340 Years to Jephtah


1036-99640 year reign of Eli; Ark taken
by Philistines
996-995Ark in the Philistine country for
7 months
995-975Samuel begins judging Israel
during the 20 year residence of the Ark at
Kiriath Jearim (1 Samuel 7:1-3).
975-935Samuel appoints his sons as
judges but they are soon rejected. Saul is
136
made king immediately, reigns 40 years.

340 Years to Jephtah


935-895David rules 40 years and 6
months.
895-891Solomon rules 4 years and
begins building the Temple.
Immediately though it is easy to see the
problem. Counting in linear time from
Judges and into 1 Samuel and 1 Kings
yields way too many years: 556, instead
of the required 480! We are 76 years
137
overdrawn!

The Rest of the Time


Like so many others, I assumed that the
period of Judges ended when the Book of
Judges did, with Samson as the last one.
But while Samson was the last judge, it
became clear to me that additional judges
were in 1 Samuelthey had to be counted
to! The difference was they were priests
Eli and Samueland not from the other
tribes. And it turned out priests co-ruled
138
with the other judges

The Rest of the Time


Moses co-ruled Israel with his brother
Aaron. Joshua co-ruled with his son
Elieazar. Othniel co-ruled with Elieazars
son Phinehas.
The rest of the judges, when they were not
ignoring Yahweh altogether, also co-ruled
with the sons of priests mentioned in 1
Chronicles 6: Abishua, Bukki, Uzzi,
Zerahiah, Meriaoth and Ahitub.
139

The Rest of the Time


Next, let us see that the times of Judges
and 1 Samuel are described in the exact
same way
(Samsons) father and mother did not know
that all this came from Yahweh, who was
seeking grounds for a quarrel with the
Philistines, since at this time the
Philistines dominated Israel.
(Judges 14:4 NJB)
140

The Rest of the Time


Next, let us see that the times of Judges
and 1 Samuel are described in the exact
same way
For all Israel, the word of Samuel was as
the word of Yahweh; since Eli was very old
and his sons persisted in their wicked
behavior towards Yahweh. It happened at
that time that the Philistines mustered to
make war on Israel and Israel went out to
141

The Rest of the Time


meet them in war, pitching camp near
Ebenezer while the Philistines pitched camp
at Aphek. (1 Samuel 4:1 NJB)
Therefore, the times of Eli and Samuel,
like that of Samson, are a period of
Philistine dominationand since we have
too many years, it makes sense to fold
the years from the start of Eli to the rise
of Saul into the same period of the
142
Judges!

The Rest of the Time


Our last certain date was 1076-1036 BCE,
when the 40 year domination of the
Philistines began after Abdons death.
From 1056-1036 BCE, this was clearly
the time of Samson.
But from 1076 BCE, we have only 109
years left to get to Solomons 4th year in
967 BCEwhile the linear count from 1
Samuel to 1 Kings 6 is 185 years.
143

The Rest of the Time


Other data to consider
The period of Philistine domination begins
in the final years of Elis judgeship.
At that time, Samuel is called a naar,
meaning a boy 19 years old and under (1
Samuel 3:1), but he is also called sharath
or a minister, a title never given to young
children, and he is ministering to Eli the
priest, something a child also would not do
144
(1 Samuel 2:11).

The Rest of the Time


Then we are told that Samuel judged
Israel his entire life (1 Samuel 7:15),
and that it was under his rule that the
Philistines were subdued (1 Samuel
7:13).
But Samuel then is said to be very old
even before he makes Saul king (1
Samuel 8:1). This means the 40 year
domination of the Philistines closely
matches the time Samuel was145judge!

The Rest of the Time


So now we see that the 40 years of
Philistine domination is one and the same
time (1076-1036 BCE) with Samuels 40
years as a judge also during part of
Samsons rule as well. But since Samuel is
a judge for his whole life, it must also
include the 18 years he counseled Saul
(1051-1033 BCE).This also explains why the
Philistines vex Saul too, even though
Samuel is no longer judging alone.
146

The Rest of the Time


My independent analysis of sifting
through the text for chronological clues
is confirmed by Josephus
To this sad end did Saul come, according to
the prophecy of Samuel, because he
disobeyed the commands of God about the
Amalekites, and on the account of his killing
the family of Ahimelech, the high priest, with
Ahimelech himself, and the city of the high
priests. Now Saul, when he had147reigned

The Rest of the Time


18 years while Samuel was alive, and
after his death 22, ended his life in this
manner. (Antiquities, 6:378)
This data then adjusts the times for when
Eli would have ruled, putting his 40 years
as judge and high priest from 1119-1079
BCE. 1079 BCE, when the Ark of the
Covenant was taken and Eli died, is when
the glory departed Israel, and the start of
148 time.
judgment clock, a topic for another

The Rest of the Time


But when we put all this data together, this
timeline finally emerges
1119-1079Eli is priestly judge during the
time of Ammonite oppression, the reign of
Jephtah as chief and later judge, and 5
years into Izbans 7 year reign.
1079-103940 years of Philistine
domination.
1079-1051Samuel is a priestly judge.
149

The Rest of the Time


1059-1039Samson is a military judge.
1051-1033Samuel as priestly judge corules with Saul for 18 years before he dies.
1051-1011Saul reigns for 40 years
overall.
1011-971David reigns 40 years and 6
months, but still dies in 971.
971-967Solomon begins building
Temple in his 4th year. TOTAL480
yrs!
150

Next in Part 4: The Mysterious Numbers of


the Hebrew Kings

151

Intermission

Part 4: The Mysterious Numbers of the


Hebrew Kings

153

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
The Thiele system just mentioned is the
most widely accepted chronological
reckoning by far in scholarly community.
However, there were a few very minor
issues that Thiele himself said needed
further attention but which he did not
clarify prior to his death. For these minor
issues another scholarLeslie McFall
further refined the chronology and Thiele154
McFall is the system we go by today.

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
In this system, the kingdoms of Judah and
Israel counted time differently.
The kingdom of Judah counted their
years Tishri-Elul (fall to fall).
They also fluctuated between counting
from the part of a year that a king
ascended to the throne (accession year
reckoning) and from the next new years
day of Tishri 1 as year 1 (non-accession
155
year reckoning).

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
However, we also know the precise times
that Judah fluctuated between accession
and non-accession year counting
1) From Rehoboam to Yeshosophat:
Accession year system.
2) From Yehoram to Yoash: Non-accession
year system.
3) From Amaziah to Zedekiah (including
Yehoikim): Accession year system. Our
156
focus is on period #1

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
So now we turn to the reign of Judahite
king Yehosaphat, on the TishriElul/Accession year system.
He comes to the throne in 870 BCE and
dies in 848 BCE.
His son, Jehu, will reign in the Northern
Kingdom from 841 BCE to 814 BCE,
starting from the 23rd year of Yoash in
Judah (2 Kings 13:1). But 1-2 Kings is on
157
Judah time reckoning.

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
So going by Judah based time, both it and
the Assyrians counted on the Accession
Year system at this moment in history.
It is therefore highly significant that
Assyrian records also mention Jehu,
King of Israel: The tribute of Jehu, son of
Omri: I received from him silver, gold, a
golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed
bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets,
158
tin, a staff for a king [and] spears."

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
This same text, the Black Obelisk of
Shalmanessar III, dates the campaign
to the 17th year of his reign, or 841 BCE.
The advantage of Assyrian recordsin
addition to the fact that they count time
the same way that Judah didlies in
the fact that there is universal
consensus among scholars as to the
years they depict. The Assyrians were
159
the most precise time-keepers ever!

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
From this data, we can easily count from
the Biblical record also seamlessly back
to Shishaks invasion in 926-925 and
therefore also Solomons 4th year in 967
BCE, because we now know the exact rules
of counting behind both Assyria and Judah.
But we should also not leave this topic
without also taking into account the rival
reckoning system used in the Northern
Kingdom of Israel 160

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
In addition, this same Assyrian king,
Shalmanessar III, mentions an even
earlier Israelite kingAhabby name as
well. Ahab is said to have provided 2,000
chariots and 10,000 men to this kings
enemy, Hadad-ezer, also known as Ben
Hadad II. Ahab and Ben Hadad II also had
three battles against each other, the last
one being in the year Ahab died
(1 Kings 22:1-40). 161

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
However, the previous battle between
Ahab and Ben Hadad II was three years
before Ahabs death, or 856 BCE, and
this is another fixed date that we can
count backwards to hit Solomons time.
But the final piece is, as I said before, to
talk about how Ahabs kingdom counted
time and how this was different than
Judahs system. Heres how it worked
162

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
The Kingdom of Israel counted their time
this way according to Thiele/McFall
1) Unlike Judah which counted fall to fall,
Israel counted spring to spring (AbibAdar).
2) Israel used a non-accession year
system from the reigns of Yeroboam to
Yehoaz. They then switched to the
accession year system from Yehoash to
163
Hoshea, their last king.

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
That means that Ahab counted time under
the older Israelite reckoning: Spring to
spring/Non-accession year system.
Using those rules will bring us to the
exact same range of years we saw by
using Judah and Assyrian models, so
all systems agree with each other, even
though different methods are in place with
each one! Those same records combine
with Egyptian and Biblical data! 164

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
When everything is put together, all the
ancient witnesses then point to the 5th year
of Rehoboamand therefore Shishaks
invasion of Judahas 926-925 BCE.
This evidence is confirmed by Shishaks
own monument which dates the campaign
to that exact time. Shishak lists dozens
of cities in and around Judah and
Israel. If Jerusalem is not mentioned
directly, he was still quite near165it.

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
Nowadays, many Egyptologists think one
reference to Shishak at Karnakit reads
YWD MLKis referring to the monument
of the king, which is in Northern Israel.
The problem is, Karnak is all about
recording the monuments of nearly all
the kings of Egypt, so why single out
Shishak alone there? That is why the
man who first deciphered hieroglyphics
166
had another opinion...

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
Jean-Francoise Champollion, who gave
Egyptologists the breakthrough
understanding of Egypts ancient
language, believed that Shishaks
monument at the official kings list at
Karnak read: YWD (Youda = Judah) MLK
(kingdom).
In other words, Shishak does claim
collecting tribute from the Kingdom of
Judah, just as Scripture says! 167

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
In addition, the most widely accepted
range of Shishaks reign harmonizes
nearly perfectly with the Scripture, 945 to
924 BCE.
Shishaks own monument dates the
campaign to his 21st year. The slight
challenge is easily dealt with when we
realize there are two campaigns recorded,
starting in Israel at year 20, then Judah in
168
year 21, which crosses 925 BCE.

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
However, the final discrepancy between
Scripture (926-925 BCE) and the way the
Egyptian dating appears to read (925-924
BCE), is because Egypt counted still
another different way from Judah!
First, Egypt reckoned their years
summer to summer; Judah counted fall
to fall. Second, even though both counted
from accession year, Egypts new year hit
169
first, giving them an EXTRA year.

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
As a result, the 20th year of Shishak
(counting summer to summer) would most
certainly cross 926 BCE, completing a
year 2+ months before Judah would count
theirs.
945 BCE would count TWICE, once before
summer started, and once after, and the
end of the range would also add an extra
year by the time Judah reckoning caught
170
up. It looks like this, just to be clear

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings

1) 945 BCE (before summer), 2) 945 (after


summer), 3) 944, 4) 943, 5) 942, 6) 941, 7)
940, 8) 939, 9) 938, 10) 937, 11) 936, 12)
935, 13) 934, 14) 933, 15) 932, 16) 931, 17)
930, 18) 929, 19) 928, 20) 927, 21) 926
BCE.
171

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
At that point we cross into Biblical-Judahite
reckoning, from 926-925 BCE, with the 5th
year of Rehoboam beginning that fall,
bringing us to 967 BCE for Solomons 4th
year and 1447 BCE for the Exodus!
Finally, we must also see that in Moshes
time counting switched to the spring for the
year (Exodus 12:1-2) which in turn was
inter-calated by the Judahite historian of 1-2
Kings on their fall to fall system.
172

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
So the data from Pharaoh Shishak, along
with Assyrian records, is our best tool
outside the Bible for determining
Solomons 4th year, which of course helps
us with Exodus, Davids reign and the time
of the monarchy split into Judah and
Israel.
The broad chronology then gives us the
years 931-586 BCE for Judah and 931173
722 BCE for Israel. The kings dates
are:

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
Kings of Israel (BCE):
Jeroboam I931/0-910/9
22 years
Nadab910/9-909/8
2 years
Baasha909/8-886/5
24 years
Elah886/5-885/4
2 years
Zimri885/4
1 week
Tibni885/4-880 (Overlapping reign with
Omri
174

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
Kings of Israel (BCE):
Omri885/4-880 (ruling with Tibni)
Omri880-874 (ruling alonetotal 12
years)
Ahab874/3-853
22 years
Ahaziah853-852
2 years
Joram852-841
12 years
Jehu841-814/3
28 years
175

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
Kings of Israel (BCE):
Jehoahaz814/3-798
Jehoash798-782/1
Jeroboam II793/2-753
Zechariah753-752
Shallum752
Menahem752-742/1
Pekahiah742/1-740/9
176

17 years
16 years
41 years
6 mths
1 mth
10 years
2 years

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
Kings of Israel (BCE):
Pekah752-732/1
20 years
Hoshea732/1-723/2
9 years
Assyria invades in 722 BCE and Kingdom
of Israel is taken into captivity and later
scattered throughout the earth.
177

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
Kings of Judah (BCE):
Rehoboam931/0-913
Abijah913-911/0
Asa 911/0-870/9
Jehosophat/Asa co-rule 872-870
Jehosophat (alone) 870/9-853
Jehoram/Jehosophat CR 853-848
Jehoram (alone)848-841
178

17 years
3 years
41 years
2 years
18 years
5 years
8 years

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
Kings of Judah (BCE):
Ahaziah841
Athaliah841-835
Joash835-796
Amaziah796-767
Uzziah/Amaziah CR 792-767
Uzziah (alone)760-740/9
Jotham750-732/1
179

1 year
7 years
40 years
29 years
25 years
27 years
16 years

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
Kings of Judah (BCE):
Ahaz732/1-716/5
Hezekiah716/5-687/6
Manasseh687/6-643/2
Amon643/2-641/0
Josiah641/0-609
Jehoahaz609
Jehoiakim609-598
180

16 years
29 years
55 years
2 years
31 years
3 mths
11 years

The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew


Kings
Kings of Judah (BCE):
Jehoiachin598-597
3 mths
Zedekiah597-586
11 years
On the 9th of Ab or July 11th, 586 BCE,
King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon burned
the Temple and sent the nation of Judah
into exile for 70 years. They return in 516
BCE to a rebuilt Temple.
181

Tracking the Prophets through the Kings


With these dates for the Kings of Judah
and Israel in place, now we can recover
with precision the years of key events in
every Tanakh prophet.
All we have to do is search out
references that say in ___ year of king
__, the prophet __ said, then consult
our lists and add or subtract time as
needed. So lets get started!
182

Tracking the Prophets through the Kings


Elijah/Ahabs reign
874-853 BCE
Elisha/beginning of Jehu
841 BCE
Amos/days of Uzziah
792-739 BCE
Jonah/15th year of Uzziah
767 BCE
Zechariah/38th year of Uzziah
754 BCE
Isaiah/b. of last 15 yrs Hezekiah 700 BCE
Daniel/3rd year of Jehoiakim
595 BCE
Jeremiah/4th year of Jehoiakim 594 BCE
183

Tracking the Prophets through the Kings


Ezekiel/5th year Jehoiachin exile 592 BCE
Fortunately also, by the time we get to the
days of the Babylonian Captivity and after,
this period of history has extremely reliable
dates from Persian, Babylonian and other
records to know the precise times of folks
like Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther and so on.
From these dates also we can
synchronize Daniels prophetic clock to
Yshuaour next stop!184

abr hdwt
Todah Rabbah
END PART ONE

Peace and blessings


Andrew Gabriel Roth

185

Wheel
of

Stars:
Restoring the True
Biblical
Chronology
Part Two

186

Next in Part 6:
From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond

187

Intermission

Part 6: From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond

189

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


One of the reasons interpretations of
Daniel 9 seem to vary so much is because
some folks misread the text or skip
steps that Daniel doesnt.
Almost everyone, for example, seems
content to begin their analysis at 9:24.
However, if one is going to set Daniels
clock right, maybe they should also look
at the previous 23 verses too!
190

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


It was the first year of Darius son of
Artaxerxes (not the same one Daniel starts
his clock from-AGR), a Mede by race who
assumed the throne of Chaldea. In the first
year of his reign I, Daniel, was studying
the scriptures, counting over the number
of years -- as revealed by Yahweh to the
prophet Jeremiah -- that were to pass
before the desolation of Jerusalem would
come to an end, namely seventy years. I191

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


turned my face to Adonai Elohim, to seek
Him through prayer and pleadings and
fasting in sackcloth and ashes.
(Daniel 9:1-3)
So lets listen to how Daniel himself sets
the stage. He gives us a definite year, the
1st year of Darius the Mede, which in our
calendar is 522 BCE. We also know
Daniel was carried into Babylon in the 3rd
192
year of Jehoikim, or 605 BCE.

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


That means Daniel has been in exile for
an amazingly long period of time: 82
years, so he is nearly 100 years old at this
point in time.
Then we see that Daniels prophetic
method involves him studying the
Scriptures, and it is from this process
that Daniel feels he must repent for the
sake of his people. The question is why?
193

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


I pleaded with Yahweh my God and made
this confession: 'O my Lord, God great
and to be feared, you keep the covenant
and show faithful love towards those who
love you and who observe your
commandments: we have sinned, we have
done wrong, we have acted wickedly, we
have betrayed your commandments and
rulings and turned away from them. We
194

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


have not listened to your servants the
prophets, who spoke in your name to our
kings, our chief men, our ancestors and all
people of the country. Saving justice, Lord,
is yours; we have only the look of shame we
wear today, we, the people of Judah, the
inhabitants of Jerusalem, the whole of
Israel, near and far away, in every
country to which you have dispersed us
195

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


because of the treachery we have
committed against you. To us, our kings,
our chief men and our ancestors, belongs
the look of shame, O Yahweh, since we
have sinned against you. And it is for the
Lord our God to have mercy and to pardon,
since we have betrayed him, and have not
listened to the voice of Yahweh our God nor
followed the laws he has given us through
196

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


his servants the prophets. The whole of
Israel has flouted your Law and turned
away, unwilling to listen to your voice; and
the curse and imprecation written in the
Law of Moses, the servant of God, have
come pouring down on us, because we
have sinned against him. He has carried out
the threats which he made against us and
the chief men who governed us -- that he
197

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


would bring so great a disaster down on us
that the fate of Jerusalem would find no
parallel under all heaven.
(Daniel 9:4-12 NJB)
No parallel under all heaven, i.e.,
unprecedented, but also clearly going
back to the time of Moses and the
Exodus, which the prophet is also going
to reinforce in this next portion of text.
198

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


And now, as written in the Law of Moses,
this whole calamity has befallen us; even
so, we have not appeased Yahweh our God
by renouncing our crimes and learning your
truth. Yahweh has watched for the right
moment to bring disaster on us, since
Yahweh our God is just in all his dealings
with us, and we have not listened to his
voice. And now, Lord our God, who by
your mighty hand brought us out of 199

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


Egypt -- the renown you won then
endures to this day -- we have sinned, we
have done wrong. (Daniel 9:13-15 NJB)
Then, from verse 16 to 23, Daniel is in
continuous prayer repenting on behalf of
his people, keeping the sins of the
Exodus firmly in his mind as he does
so. Only then is he commanded to
understand the vision, and this gives us
200
part of his time code

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


While Daniel says the 70 years of
punishment came from Jeremiah, it was
Jeremiah himself who based that figure
on Leviticus 26:34-40, that every missed
Land Sabbath would count as a year of
punishment, 70 in all.
In order to accrue 70 missed Land
Sabbathsone every 7th yearyou
needed to have at least 490 years of
apostasy, 500 if we count Jubilee itself. 201

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


It was 490 years of forgetting the Jubilee
and Land Sabbath times that led to the
destruction of Solomons Temple in 586
BCE, so they began to forget during the time
of the Judges. Jubilee is skipped10
yearsbecause Israel skipped it, and 490
was part of an overall theme Daniel wanted
to confirm. This same #490is used
again by Daniel in his 70 weeks (7 x 70 =
490), proving he is on a day = year cycle.
202

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


But Scripture gives us two other witnesses
to this essential fact.
First, again going back to Moses, the
spies are given a day = year
punishment of wandering in the
wilderness a year for every day they
spied out the land (Numbers 13 and 14).
Second, Daniels contemporary Ezekiel
also counts in a day = year formula after
203
Daniel is in exile (Ezekiel 4).

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


In both cases, the clocks begin when the
decree was given, not when it was
enforced, and this is a critical detail to
counting what Daniel is about to tell us!
The spies sins give the nation immediate
punishment from that exact moment.
And after Ezekiel lays on one side for one
day of each year of Israels sins, there is
no pause between completing that and
turning over for 40 years for Judah! 204

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


The 40 years for Judahs sins again match
the 40 years of penalty for the spiesno
coincidences in Scripture.
And 390 + 40 = 430 years total, matching
the period of time between Abrahams
vision and the Exodus itself, down to the
very day (Genesis 15:13, Exodus 12:40)!
430 also shows up with the patriarch
Eberhis name means cross over
205
where we get Hebrew from.

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


Now, with those facts in mind, we can begin
to learn about Daniels 70 weeks
70 weeks (= 490 years, a day for each yearAGR) are decreed upon thy people and
upon thy holy city, to finish the
transgression, and to make an end of sin,
and to forgive iniquity, and to bring in
everlasting righteousness, and to seal vision
and prophet, and to anoint the most holy
206
place. (Daniel 9:24 JPS 1917)

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


At first it seems these 490 years are
talking about rebuilding Temple, or
anointing the most holy place, but the
reality is the Temple is just a form of
shorthand for Daniel.
This is because the Temple never, ever,
put an end to sin! But Daniel does
seem to be aware of what will be the
words of Zechariah, who uses the same
207
symbolism

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


For look at the stone I have put in front of
Y'hoshua: on one stone are seven eyes; I
will engrave what is to be written on it,' says
ADONAI-Tzva'ot; 'and I will remove the
guilt of this land in one day.
(Zechariah 3:9 CJB)
We really need to see this very clearly.
This is the High Priest who will supervise
in the rebuilt Temple, Yehoshua Ben
208
Yehozadak.

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


Zechariah 3:8 tells us that Yehoshua and
his entourage are a sign or symbol for
people and places that are yet to come.
The prophecy there is also that these men
will bring the branch, and righteous
branch is a name for Messiah
(Jeremiah 23:5-6).
Then in Zechariah 6:12 we are told that
Yehoshua has the name of the branch!
209

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


This is super-important! Yehoshua is not
the branch himself, but he is named
after who the Righteous Branch
Messiahwill be.
Yehoshuas name, in shortened form, is
Yshua, the name of the Real Branch!
So while Yehoshua #1 and his Temple do
not bring forgiveness of sins in 1 day, the
other Yshua does, which is why he says
210
clearly

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


The queen of the south will arise in
judgment with this generation, and she will
condemn it because she came from the
ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of
Shleemon, and behold, one who is more
than Shleemon (Solomon) is here.
(Matthew 12:42-AENT)
And just so his meaning is not
misunderstood, heres our second
211
witness

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


But he said to them, "Have you not read
what Dawid did when he hungered, and
those who were with him? How he entered
the House of Elohim and he ate the bread of
the altar of Master YHWH, which was not
Lawful for him to eat, neither for those who
were with him, but only for the priests? Or
have you not read in Torah that the priests
in the temple disregard the Shabbat, and
212

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


they are without blame? But I say to you
that one greater than the temple is here
now. (Matthew 12:3-6-AENT)
Yshua is greater than Solomon, greater
than Yehoshua ben Yehozadak and yes,
greater than the Temple itself, because
only Yshua put an end to
sintransgression and offering,
bringing us right back to Daniel again.
213

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


Know therefore and discern, that from
the going forth of the word to restore and
to build Jerusalem unto one anointed, a
prince, shall be seven weeks; and for
threescore and two (62) weeks {total = 69
weeks = 483 years--AGR}.
(Daniel 9:25-a JPS 1917)
Going forth (min-motzah/ )
specifically means when the command
was issued, not when it was carried out. 214

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


There are some who think this is 445 BCE,
when Nehemiah brings documentation
allowing for the rebuilding of the city.
However, this is incorrect. Commands of
Persian kings were always dated from
when they were first written down,
regardless as to how long it takes to
carry them out. And, once issued, the
king cant take it back (Esther 1:19)!
215

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


In Esthers case, the king had to issue
other commands that had the effect of
nullifying the one to kill all the Jews, but
thats a very rare exception.
The overriding rule though was even
subsequent Persian kings honored the
laws of their predecessors when such
was proven (Ezra 6:1-2). So Nehemiah
wasnt the time the decree was issued,
216
only when it was enforced.

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


Next, we need to find the right decree
Daniel is referencing, because his details
are extremely specific.
The key phrase is to restore and rebuild
Jerusalemnot just the Templebut the
whole city.
In previous decrees such as those of
Cyrus and Darius, only the Temple was
allowed to be rebuilt.
217

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


Then, when the Jews exceeded their
mandate by reinforcing the walls, their
enemies complained to the Persians
(Nehemiah 4-5)!
Finally, Artaxerxes clarified the intentions
behind the earlier rulings, because the
Israelites had to reinforce their walls to
protect their Temple, and the details of
that clarification are in two places.
218

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


This is the text of the document which King
Artaxerxes gave to Ezra, the priest-scribe, a
student of matters pertaining to Yahweh's
commandments and statutes relating to
Israel: 'Artaxerxes, king of kings, to the
priest Ezra, Secretary of the Law of the God
of heaven: greetings! 'Now here are my
orders. All members of the people of
Israel in my kingdom, including their
219

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


priests and Levites, who freely choose to
go to Jerusalem, may go with you, for
you are being sent by the king and his seven
counselors to investigate how the Law of
your God, in which you are expert, is being
applied in Judah and Jerusalem, and to
transport the silver and gold which the king
and his counselors have voluntarily offered
to the God of Israel who resides in
220

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


Jerusalem, as well as all the silver and gold
which you receive throughout the province
of Babylon and the voluntary offerings freely
contributed by the people and the priests for
the Temple of their God in Jerusalem. 'This
money you will punctiliously use for the
purchase of bulls, rams, lambs and the
materials for the oblations and libations
which go with them, offering these on the
221

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


altar of the Temple of your God in
Jerusalem, and using the remainder of
the silver and gold in accordance with
the will of your God as you and your
brothers may think fit. (Ezra 7:11-18 NJB)

Translation: Use the money to reinforce the


walls and rebuild the city if you want. And
that message is confirmed here
222

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


For we are slaves; but God has not
forgotten us in our slavery; he has extended
his faithful love to us even under the kings of
Persia and revived us to rebuild the
Temple of our God, restore its ruins and
provide us with a refuge in Judah and in
Jerusalem. (Ezra 9:9 NJB)
So this decree is the only one that fits the
strict criteria of Daniel 9, and the Tanakh
223
gives us a certain date for it

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


A number of Israelites, priests, Levites,
singers, gatekeepers and temple slaves
went up to Jerusalem in the seventh year
of the reign of King Artaxerxes. Ezra
arrived in Jerusalem in the fifth month, in the
seventh year of the king's reign; for he had
ordered the departure from Babylon on the
first day of the first month, and he arrived in
Jerusalem on the first day of the fifth month,
224

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


since the kindly hand of his God was over
him. For Ezra had devoted himself to
studying the Law of Yahweh so as to put
into practice and teach its statutes and
rulings. (Ezra 7:7-10 NJB)
The decree then begins the very next line.
So, the 7th year of Artaxerxes is,
beyond dispute, 457 BCE. This is the
start of Daniels clock for 70 weeks. Now
225
back to the rest of that line

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


[The Temple] shall be built again, with
broad place and moat (or trench--AGR), but
in troublous times. (Daniel 9:25b JPS 1917)
This is talking about Herods expansion of
the Temple, where he used a trench to
support a wall as Josephus confirms
Herod rebuilt the temple, and surrounded a
piece of land about it with a wall, which
land was twice as large as that before
enclosed. (The Jewish War,1:401) 226

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


And anyone who has studied even a little
bit about the life of Herod the Great
according to Josephus, easily knows that
troubled times is an understatement
describing his long reign!
But another key to understanding Daniel is
to notice something a bit odd. Daniel has
stepped a little outside of his own
counting, even by Jewish standards for
227
interpreting the verse.

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


What I mean is this: Both Jewish and
Christian scholars agree that Daniel is
talking about Herods expansion of the
Temple, which began in 20 BCE but didnt
completely finish until 64 CE.
They know the words for trench, moat
do not appear at all with regards to
Zerubabels Temple built shortly after the
Jews returned from Babylon.
228

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


This is because Nehemiah and company
didnt add walls, but reinforced the
existing ones.
It was only after Herod the Great decided
to make the Temple largerback to
Solomons own measurementsthat an
additional trench or moat was needed to
go with that double sized wall Josephus
mentions.
229

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


The issue though is this: Herod building
his trench and moat is within the 69
weeks, not past it.
In fact, as we just saw, the completion of
the project isnt until 6 years prior to
the Temple being destroyed again in 70
CE, and that is also past the 69 week/483
year window, again without even dealing
with Yshua at all at this point.
230

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


Not even the Orthodox will deny the plain
words of Daniel. So there must be an
explanationeven in purely Jewish
circlesto explain this alleged
contradiction.
After studying this for nearly 30 years, I
have found only one explanation that fits
all the facts: Daniel pauses his count to
tell us he is using embedded prophecy.
231

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


Embedded prophecy means that the
same statement in Hebrew has a short
term branch and a long-term branch
attached to it.
In Isaiah 7-9 for example, part of that
prophecy is about a 65 year window and
the prophets wife giving birth, and another
longer branch is about Yshuas birthall
from the same Hebrew phrase!
232

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


The same thing is happening here in
Daniel because, as we will soon see, if we
dont adopt that view we will then
believe the Jews burned their own
Temple with one of their own princes.
Lets keep reading though and I will show
this clearly when it happens a second
time also.
Then I will explain what Daniel really
233
means!

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


And after the threescore and two weeks
shall an anointed one be cut off...
(Daniel 9:26a JPS 1917)
threescore and two weeks = 62 weeks.
But the 62 weeks is counted after the first
7 weeks, so this is really after 69
weeks or after 483 years. The clock
started in 457 BCE. 483 years later is the
time of Yshuas immersionthe
234
beginning of his ministryin 27 CE!

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


But heres the second problem I mentioned
earlier
And the people of a prince that shall
come shall destroy the city and the
sanctuary; but his end shall be with a flood;
and unto the end of the war desolations are
determined. (Daniel 9:26 JPS)
Up until now, we have only heard of one
prince, the anointed one. All agree
235
whoever he is, he is Jewish!

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


So who is the prince that is to come? If
its not another prince, like Titus of Rome
who destroyed Jerusalem, then the only
conclusion is the first Jewish prince
did it!
You may say, thats ridiculous! and I
agreethats the point I am trying to
make! Once again, Daniel broke his
count because Titus is also after the
236
69th week!

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


Why then would Daniel seem to break his
own rules? The answer is this: Daniel is
making a prediction about someone
who will in turn make the same
prediction about the same event! Its a
circular prophecy with circular language!
In other words, its a prophecy about a
prophet, who will make the same prophecy
that the earlier prophet did. Lets see this
237
clearly

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


And when you see the sign of
uncleanness and desolation, that was
spoken of by Daniel the prophet, which
will stand in the Set Apart place. He
that reads, let him understand. Then those
who are in Yehuda, let them flee to the
mountain. And he who is on the roof, let him
not come down to take that which is in his
238

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


not come down to take that which is in his
house. And he who is in the field, let him
not turn back to take back his clothes.
(Matthew 24:15-18-AENT)
And when he had drawn near and saw the
city (Jerusalem), he wept over her. And he
said, "If perhaps you had known those
things that were for your peace, even if in
this your day now, but they are hidden from
239

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


your eyes. But to you will come the days
when your enemies will surround you, and
will oppress you from all sides. And will
overthrow you and your children within you,
and they will not leave in you a stone
upon another, because you did not know
the time of your visitation."
(Luke 19:41-44-AENT)
So Daniel predicted Prince #1 and Prince
#2, and Prince #1 also saw Prince #2. 240

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


But with that circular prophecy aspect dealt
with, the rest of what Daniel has to say is
rather in a straight line
And he shall make a firm covenant with
many for one week; and for half of the
week he shall cause the sacrifice and the
offering to cease; and upon the wing of
detestable things shall be that which causes
appalment; and that until the extermination
241

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


wholly determined be poured out upon that
which causes appalment.'
(Daniel 9:27 JPS 1917)
Before getting to the main part, I should
take a moment and explain what I, as an
anti-missionary, used to do about this part
of Daniel
I actually looked up what Christians
thought the abomination of desolation
242
was, according to Paul who said

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


Let no one deceive you in any way because
(that day will not come) unless there
previously come a defection and that man
of sin be revealed; the son of
destruction; who is an opponent and
who exalts himself above all that is called
Elohim and praiseworthy; so that he also
sits in the temple of Elohim as a deity
and displays himself as if he were a
deity. (2 Thessalonians 2:3-4-AENT) 243

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


The Anti-Messiah, or the abomination that
causes desolation, sat in the place where
Elohim was, in this case, in the Temple.
By that definition, I could show several
cases before and after Yshua, that had
nothing to do with him, which was how I
tried debunking the Messianic linkage.
For example, Antiochus IV defiled the
Temple and sacrificed a pig on the altar,
literally standing where Elohim was to be.244

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


Then, according to Josephus, the Romans
put their pagan ensigns on the ground
where the Temple used to stand and also
sacrificed pigs, standing the place
Elohim was supposed to be.
After the Bar Kochba Revolt, Roman
Emperor Hadrian built a temple to Zeus on
the grounds of the former Temple,
standing in the place Elohim was
245
supposed to be.

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


I would then turn to the Jewish kid who
was thinking about Christ and ask,
What did that abomination have to do
with Jesus at all? Where was this Jesus
in Daniel?
Well, it really was more of a dodge
tactic than a serious question, but
unfortunately it did work on these kids
more than I like to think about now when,
246
of course, I know better.

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


I know better now also because now I
have the calendar to tell me exactly
when certain events in the Gospels
happened. I will show the proof later, but
now just see that Daniel gives us the # of
days for this abomination here
And from the time that the continual burntoffering shall be taken away, and the
detestable thing that causes appalment set
up, there shall be 1,290 days. (12:11 JPS)247

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


Now part of this prophecy is still to be
completely fulfilled in our future. But
there is an element that was partially
fulfilled in Yshuas time, by him.
I will prove this later but heres the
headline: From the start of the Hebrew
year that Yshua began his ministry
(Sept 27/Tishri 1, 26 CE) until the
conspiracy (abomination) to deny his
248
resurrection, its 1,290 days!

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


Now back to the main part of Daniels last
piece
And he shall make a firm covenant with
many for one week; and for half of the
week he shall cause the sacrifice and the
offering to cease. (Daniel 9:27-a)
So recall now that the 483 years (69 x 7)
brought us from 457 BCE to 27 CE, the
time of the immersion of Yshua. From
there a half week is given to Messiah 249

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


Since we have proof Daniel is counting
with a day equaling a year, we know a
half week must correspond to 3
years.Thats how long Yshuas ministry is
meant to last, and this is evident on
several levels.
First, John tells us there are four
Passovers, one un-named feast of the
Jews that I proved is Purim, one Sukkot
and one Hanukkah: Total: 3 years. 250

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


This 3 year period is also meant to have
an evil parallel with the time of the Beast,
mentioned alternatively and
interchangeably as time, times and
half a time or 1,260 days or 42 months.
Attempts to suggest otherwisethat
Yshuas ministry was only 70 weeks long,
arise purely from a lack of scholarship of
the Word and the actual manuscript
record. (We can talk about why later) 251

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


The other thing is, we know the actual
day Yshua dies, so we therefore know
where the prophetic week evenly
divides from, both forwards and
backwards.
Yshuas death is on Abib 15, the time of
the Abib Full Moon, or Passover, so 3
years earlier must be the time of the
Tishri Full Moon, or Sukkot, back in the
252
year 26!

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


Those facts in turn tell us that Daniel
counts in 7 solar year increments, from
Tishri full moon to Tishri full moon, and
there will be more on that aspect later.
For now my point is simply this: Daniels
prophecy of when Yshua was to die was
fulfilled to the very dayand almost the
very hourfrom 500 years in advance. He
has set his range of 3 years from the
253
fall of 26 CE to the spring of 30 CE.

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


But as extensive a process as this has
been in just getting to those 3 years of
Yshuas ministry
the fact is we have other witnesses to
this critical fact to bring to bear, and these
are from the Gospels themselves!
For the duration of this section, we will be
focusing on the testimony of Luke and
Yochanan, and then we can get back to
254
Revelation

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


First lets deal with Yochanan
And in the temple he found those who were
selling oxen and sheep and doves and the
moneychangers who were sitting. And he
made a whip for himself from cords, and
drove all of them from the temple, even the
sheep and oxen and moneychangers. And
he poured out their exchange money and
turned over their tables. And to those who
255

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


were selling doves, he said, "Take these
away from here, and do not make the House
of my Father a house of bartering." And his
disciples remembered that it is written that,
"The zeal of your house has devoured me."
But the Yehudeans answered and said to
him, "What sign do you show us that you do
these things?" Y'shua answered and said
to them, "Tear down this temple and after
256

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


three days I will raise it!" The Yehudeans
said to him, "For 46 years this temple
was built, and you will raise it in three
days!" But he was speaking concerning
the temple of his body. And when he rose
from the grave, his disciples remembered
that he had said this, and they believed the
Scriptures and the word that Y'shua had
said. (Yochanan 2:14-22-AENT)
257

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


So now all we have to do is find out when
the Temple began to get expanded by
Herod the Great, or rebuilt.
That must be what the Pharisees mean,
because it was in 516 BCE, way more
than 46 years ago, that Zerubabels
Temple was rebuilt after the Babylonian
captivity. The Jewish historian Josephus
gives us two accounts when this was, and
258
both point to the same year.

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


In his book Antiquities Josephus tells us
Herod began building the Temple in his
18th year. But in The Jewish War its
Herods 15th year.
How can both be right? Simple: There is a
3 year difference between when the
Romans declare him king and when he is
officially made king, so the 18th year is
the former and the 15th year is the
latter, but both come out to 20 BCE! 259

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


Now recall that there are only 19 years
from 20 to 1 BCE, and there is no year
zero between BCE and CE (or BC and
AD) time.
So its 19 years to get to 1 BCE, plus
another 27 years to get to Passover in
the year 27 CE, where John 2 takes
place. Total: 46 years. John has just
validated Daniel 9. But Luke, at least to
260
some, seems to throw us a curve!

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


We begin now in the 15th year of the reign
of Tiberius Caesar (which was also) during
the governorship of Pontius Peelatos in
Yehuda. Herodus was tetrarch in Galeela
(at this time). (Additionally this was also
while) Peleepos his brother was tetrarch in
Ituraea and in the region of Trachona. (In
this time also) Lusania was tetrarch of
Abileena. Finally during the high
261

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


priesthood of Khanan and Qayapa, the
Word of Elohim came upon Yochanan,
the son of Zakharyah, in the wilderness.
(Luke 3:1-2-AENT)
The two most relevant historical
references are the first and last ones
all the others can be made to broadly fit
almost any scenario imaginablebut
these last two are the most precise
tools we have--for proving the right time.262

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


But first, we need to deal with a popular
misconception.
There are some folks who will forget
that both Daniel and John have agreed
on 27 CE as the start of Yshuas ministry,
going back in Hebrew terms of course to
the fall of 26. Instead, they will point to
an alleged ambiguity in Luke to try to
prove a later time of about 29-33 CE for
263
Yshua.

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


Even I admit their argumentat first
glanceseems to make a lot of sense.
It goes like this: We know the exact day
that Augustus died and Tiberius took over,
and it is March 16th, 14 CE.
15 years later will bring us to about April,
in 29 CE for Yshuas start and therefore
he dies on a Friday, April 3rd, 33 CE,
according to early Christian tradition.
264

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


There are three major problems with this
idea
First, Yshua is in the ground three days
and three nights (Matthew 12:38-40) not
1 days from Friday afternoon to
Sunday dawn. Therefore, he cant die on
a Friday, tradition or not.
Second, you still havent dealt with Daniel
or Yochanan, already mentioned.
265

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


Third, in order to have a 33 CE death, you
need a 1 BCE birth (Luke 3:23) and so
you are now in opposition to 99% of all
historians who know that Herod the
Great died in late March or early April
of 4 BCE, and that Yshua was born
sometime before this.
And this is just scratching the surface
theres much more on these problems in
266
my books and the AENT.

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


Therefore, we need to find a better
alternative, and the fact is, there was no
one unified way to count the reigns of
Roman emperors in the first century.
Some, like Josephus, count from when
these men ruled completely on their own,
so from the time Augustus died in 14 CE.
Others though counted co-regencies, or
when the old and new king began to rule
267
together.

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


It just so happens that Tiberius began
co-ruling with Augustus 2 years before
Augustus died, in 12 CE. 15 years later
will bring us to 27 CE, not 29 CE.
But because there is again no one
standard, how do we know which way
Luke counted?
The surprisingly simple answer is this:
Just ask him based on what he wrote!
268

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


Finally, during the high priesthood of
Khanan (or Ananus) and Qayapa, the
Word of Elohim came upon Yochanan,
the son of Zakharyah, in the wilderness.
(Luke 3:2-AENT)
The historical record is crystal clear:
Khanan reigned as high priest from 6
CE to 15 CE, but continued to exert
powerful influence for many years after
269
this as a kind of High Priest Emeritus.

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


At the same time, from 18 to 36 CE, Yosef
Qayapa (a.k.a. Caiaphas), was also High
Priest. Both men were in charge during
Yshuas entire ministry; even though
technically speaking there could be
only one high priest at a time, Qayapa.
This was because Qayapa was Khanans
son-in-law. Many religious elite didnt trust
Qayapa, so daddy-in-law was there to
270
keep the skeptics in line.

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


The point is this: If Luke were only
counting from when a leader ruled on
his own, he would have counted only
Qayapa as high priest!
The fact that he didnt do that, and
combined the high priesthood of Khanan
and Qayapa in his narrative proves he
counted co-regencies! That further
proves Luke is counting Tiberius reign
from 12 CE, and Yshuas debut in 27 CE.271

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


So here are some important NT dates (all
are in Gregorian calendar time)
September 13th, 5 BCE (14 Tishri)
Yshua is born
April 7th, 8 CE (15 Abib) Yshua in
Jerusalem for Passover at age 12
September 27th, 26 CE (1 Tishri)
Yshuas first ministry year begins
Spring of 28Yochanan the Immerser 272
jailed and executed.

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


Thursday, April 4th, 30 CE (15 Abib)
Yshua dies
Sunday dawn, April 7th, 30 CE (18 Abib)
Yshua resurrects
Saturday morning, May 25th, 30 CE (7
Sivan) Ruach ha Kodesh comes day
after Shavuot (when the days of
Pentecost were completed)
30-64 CE Career of Peter
273

From Daniel to Yshua and Beyond


30-67 CE Career of Paul
30-62 CE Career of James (Yaakov
HaTzadik)
30-62 CE Career of Mark
30-100 CE Career of Yochanan Bar
Zawdee (the Apostle John)
But next its time to go deeper into the
mysteries and prophecies of NT time
274

Next in Part 7
Yshua and Revelation

275

Intermission

Part 7:
Yshua and Revelation

277

Yshua and Revelation


Its at this point, with the 3 year half
week of Yshua established as running
from the Fall of 26 to the Spring of 30, that
we can begin to see how other numbers in
Daniel and Revelation relate to this time.
The original calendar that was used in 1st
century Israel was similar to but also had
significant differences from, the current
Rabbinic calendar. For more info, please
278
consult my book, Wheel of Stars.

Yshua and Revelation


There are also other detailed
presentations online that focus on the
calendar, such as The 4 Calendar Laws
and Philo and the New Moonif you
need these to consult, let me know.
Otherwise let me just state the rules that
were in force then: The Hebrew month
begins the sunset after lunar
conjunction. And, the New Moon
279
nearest the start of spring is Abib.

Yshua and Revelation


By those rules, Yshuas first ministry year
that crosses our 27 CE in the Gregorian
Calendar, would have begun in Hebrew
terms on Tishri 1, 26 CE, or September
27th (all my dates are Gregorian).
When Daniel is dealing with very long
periods of time (490 years), he normally
counts New Moon to New Moon. But when
he deals with prophetic weeks, that is
from Tishri Full Moon to Tishri Full Moon. 280

Yshua and Revelation


That means when counting raw days
(e.g. 1260, 1290), its either from a fixed
historical event or a Tishri New Moon.
But with prophetic weeks, again, Daniel
counts Tishri Full Moon to Tishri Full
Moon, as those times unfold over a
solar year, but Daniel does not count the
actual months by Full Moon to Full Moon
cycles, so Yshuas ministry is 42 solar
months long but 43 lunar months long! 281

Yshua and Revelation


As a result, when Daniel counts from Full
Moon to Full Moon, he is not concerned
with how many Full Moons are in a
yearthey can be 12 or 13or a half
yearthey can be 6 or 7.
In other words, while Daniel knows leap
months are needed from time to time,
he doesnt count by moon months, so
the solar full year count will always be 12
solar months and the half-year always 6. 282

Yshua and Revelation


This is the reason behind the vague
language of time, times and half a
time.
That term is relativistic, meaning it
represents a kind of ratio, and the total
number will change based on what is
plugged into that ratio of 1 to 2 to .
So in 360 time, time, times and half a
time is 360 (time) + 720 (times) + 180 (1/2
283
time) = 1,260 days.

Yshua and Revelation


But as Revelation uses that same exact
ratio, the same number for the Dragon
(1,260 days), it is also represented by the
phrase 42 months.
This is because in 360 time, every month
is always 30 days long, including the
leap months that balance it with the
tropical year. Then its a matter of simple
math: 42 x 30 also equals 1,260 days!
284

Yshua and Revelation


The ratio though also works in pure solar
time, or the way Daniel counts in prophetic
weeks such as the 70 weeks in 9:24-27.
In that case, the tropical year is divided
into 12 equal portions, so a year that is
365.2422 days long has 12 months of
exactly 30.44 days each.
However, in practical terms, the Hebrews
reckoned the solar year in whole days.
285

Yshua and Revelation


The way the system workedaccording to
Scripture, Josephus and Philowas that
the solar year began on the first day of
spring, about our March 21st, the time of
Vernal Equinox.
With VE day as day 1, month 1, the first 6
months of the year would each last 31
days, for a total of 186 days in all. Then
day 1 of month 7 would be the first day of
fall, and months 7-11 are all 30 days long.286

Yshua and Revelation


The last month would be 29 or 30 days
long depending on whether the next spring
had started or not. For more info, please
see the Powerpoint The Hebrew Solar
Year. For now though just understand 12
months of 30.44 days each is done to
make the math easier to handle.
Then with this ratio, each full year will
always have 12 and each half year will
287
always have 6 solar months each.

Yshua and Revelation


So for Yshuas ministry, those 42 months
are on solar time, rather than 360 or
moon based time, and 42 x 30.44 days =
exactly 3 years.
This 42 number, both for the time the
Dragon dominates and for Messiah, is
extremely important and carried a powerful
message. 42 is always the number of
wilderness or transition, and this we
288
saw clearly in another presentation.

Yshua and Revelation


To use just some examples to make my
point 42 is used as
1) The number of Creation steps in
Genesis 1.
2) The number of total years from Exodus to
the start of the conquest of Canaan.
3) The number of stops the Israelites made
in the wilderness over that 42 year period.
289

Yshua and Revelation


4) The number of days from Elijah asking to
die to his trek to Sinai.
5) The number of generations from Abraham
to Yshua given in Matthew 1 (14 + 14 + 14
= 42).
6) The number of days from Yshuas
immersion to completing HaSatans
temptation. And many more where those
came from, each with the same exact
290
theme and message.

Yshua and Revelation


But the differences between Yshuas 42
month time (pure solar) and the Dragons
(360) are also significant theologically
speaking.
The Dragons 42 months are in 360 time
because he thinks he is perfect and
exalted above Elohim, and so wants a
perfect circle to represent his alleged
superiority. On the surface this makes
291
sense, but there is a huge catch

Yshua and Revelation


The circle is perfect only from its own
frame of reference, and yes, in other
contexts, Abba YHWH also uses circles to
proclaim His glory, but thats another story.
In the case of the Dragon though, his 360
time is subservient to Yshuas time
because he still has to balance his
time to the tropical yearthe full solar
years Yshua hasor fall out of alignment
292
with the seasons.

Yshua and Revelation


So if the Dragon just looks to himself, he
sees only internal perfection, even though
the two witnesses against him have equal
time and days (Revelation 11:2-4)
But if he looked to the big picture, he
would see his 360 circles answer to
Yshuas pure solar time, because the
Son of Man defeated HaSatan! Now back
to the 1,290 days being fulfilled by
293
Yshua

Yshua and Revelation


Before we saw that when it comes to raw
numbers, that is a figure like 1,290 days,
Daniel will count from Tishri New Moon
or a particular historical event.
I have reached this conclusion for a very
simple reason: Its the only scenario
where the math works out perfectly and
the Scripture is not broken. In other
words, the fact that it works is its own
proof of validity, a key test also in science.294

Yshua and Revelation


So I began my count from the 3 year
starting point of sunset September 27th,
26 CE, counting all the way, at first, to the
crucifixion day of Thursday, April 4th, 30
CE. Here are my totals:
From Sept 27, 26 CE to Sept 26, 27 CE:
365 days.
From Sept 27, 27 CE to Sept 26, 28 CE:
366 days (Leap year in 28: Feb 29th).
295

Yshua and Revelation


From Sept 27, 28 CE to Sept 26, 29 CE:
365 days. Subtotal for three full years:
1,096 days.
1,096 (subtotal)
+ 4 (remainder of Sept)
31 (October)
30 (November)
31 (December) = 1,192 days to 12/31/29
296

Yshua and Revelation


1,192 (as of 12/31/29)
+ 31 (January of 30 CE)
28 (February)
31 (March)
4 (April) = 1,286 days as of crucifixion.
Now this is where it got both exciting and
frustrating, because that meant
Resurrection Day was 1,289 days, just 1
day short of Daniels 1,290 days!
297

Yshua and Revelation


No matter what I did, I was 1 day shortor
was I? It was at that point that I
remembered exactly Daniels precise
words
And from the time that the continual burntoffering shall be taken away, and the
detestable thing that causes appalment
set up, there shall be 1,290 days.
(Daniel 12:11- JPS 1917)
298

Yshua and Revelation


In the Temple, the burnt offering was not
technically taken awaythat is in the
future.
But in the case of Yshuas partial
fulfillment, the need for the burnt
offering was taken away when Yshua
began his ministry. That is why he was
proclaimed as Behold the Lamb of Elohim
who takes away the sin of the world even
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before he was immersed.

Yshua and Revelation


But on the other hand, Daniel is still calling
the end of 1,290 days as the day when
the abomination is set up, and thats
when I realized
the 1,290 days could not apply to
Yshuas resurrection because that is
surely not an abomination! Instead it is
pointing to something that literally
happened the day after the resurrection,
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something that is mentioned here

Yshua and Revelation


And behold, Y'shua met up with them and
said to them, "Peace to you." And they drew
near and grabbed his feet and worshipped
him. Then Y'shua said to them, "Do not fear.
Rather, go and tell my brothers to go to
Galeela, and there they will see me." Now
when they had departed, some men came
from those soldiers to the city and told the
chief priests everything that happened.
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Yshua and Revelation


And they were assembled with the elders
and they took counsel and they gave not
a small amount of money to the soldiers.
And they said to them, "Say that his
disciples came and stole him in the
middle of the night while we were
sleeping." And if this is heard before the
governor, we will persuade him to not
make trouble for you. And when (the
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Yshua and Revelation


soldiers) took the money, they did as (the
Yehudeans) had instructed them. And this
word has gone out among the Yehudeans
to this day. (Matthew 28:9-15-AENT)
That is the abomination that causes
desolationor at least the version of it
that relates to Yshuait takes 1,290 days
for the ministry to be born and climaxes
with this denialand without the
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resurrection our faith is desolate!

Yshua and Revelation


The next number of Daniel that is
fulfilled by Yshua is 1,150 days. In
Daniel 8, the prophet talked about 2,300
evenings and mornings. As I mentioned
before, part of this was fulfilled during a 6
year period the included the 2+ year
Maccabean Revolt at its center.
We also saw that the idea of evenings
and mornings as 2 sacrifices a day, or
1,150 days, did not work for that event. 304

Yshua and Revelation


It didnt work because there was no way
to get 1,150 days into the 2+ year time
of the Maccabean Revolt. The
maximum possible time for that was 56
days short, or 1,094 days.
But that didnt mean the 1,150 day figure
was completely irrelevant as prophecy.
Rather, its relevancy simply had to
wait for Yshuas time to be made clear.
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Yshua and Revelation


With the recovery of the 26-30 CE 3
year period for Yshuas ministry, along
with the re-discovery of the calendar used
back then, we can now date Gospel
events and Great Feasts with to 100%
precision.
This includes the time from the
immersion to the Temptation for 40
days and nights to the start of
Passover in the year 27 CE, per John 2.306

Yshua and Revelation


Taking into account the time it took to
travel between locations from Jerusalem
to Galilee and the fact that Mark says
Yshua was thrust into the desert
immediately after immersion, this time is
clearly calculated at 56 days.
Subtract 56 days from the start of
Passover that year (April 8th) and we
easily come to the morning of February
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11th for the immersion.

Yshua and Revelation


February 11th also has another connection
to the calendar that was used in 1st
century Israel.
When the 40 days and 40 nights of
temptation are overthe Vernal Equinox
literally comes at 8:01 AM on that 40th day
(March 21st). So Yshua spends the last 40
days of winter in starvation. The Hebrew
Solar Year will then begin at sunset that
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day, crossing the day of 3/22!

Yshua and Revelation


It is on that very dayMarch 22ndthat
Yshua is refreshed by angels, at the
same time that the earth is refreshed
with the arrival of spring in Hebrew
terms.
This then brings us back to the 1,150 day
prophecy that is exclusively attached to
Yshuas ministry time. We begin our
count then from the immersion date
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(Feb 11th) until the crucifixion

Yshua and Revelation


From February 11th, 27 to February 10th,
30: Subtotal for three full years: 1,096
days.
1,096 (subtotal)
+ 18 (remainder of February)
31 (March)
4 (April 4th, Crucifixion Day) + 1
(sunset changes day count) = 1,150 days!
310

Yshua and Revelation


Technically speaking, its 1,149 days
during the daylight part of April 4th,
when Yshua is being crucified.
However, by the time he is buried it is very
close to the end of that day in Hebrew
termssunset is about 90 minutes away.
When that sun sets on Yshuas body
and tomb, its the start of day 1,150! It is
also the start of the omer count which
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Daniel targets the start and end of!

Yshua and Revelation


This is also because Daniels language
specifies evenings and mornings, not
mornings and evenings.
The evening sacrifice is well before
sunset, at the 9th hour, around 3 PM.
The morning sacrifice, around 9 AM, is
technically the next Hebrew day, which
explains the precision of Daniels counting
and predictive powers!
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Yshua and Revelation


So thus far we have seen that the 1,260/3
year 360 pattern relates to the
Dragon
the partial fulfillment of the 1,290 days
abomination prophecy is the range from
the start of Yshuas first ministry year to
when the conspiracy to deny his
resurrection began.
and the 1,150 evening-morning
prophecy is from that start to crucifixion. 313

Yshua and Revelation


That leaves only one other number from
Daniel to account for in partial fulfillment by
Yshua
And from the time that the continual burntoffering shall be taken away, and the
detestable thing that causes appalment set
up, there shall be 1,290 days. Happy is he
that waits, and comes to 1,335 days.
(Daniel 12:11-12 JPS 1917)
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Yshua and Revelation


From Sept 27, 28 CE to Sept 26, 29 CE:
Subtotal for three full years: 1,096 days.
1,096 (subtotal)
+ 4 (remainder of Sept)
31 (October)
30 (November)
31 (December) = 1,192 days to 12/31/29
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Yshua and Revelation


1,192 (as of 12/31/29)
+ 31 (January of 30 CE)
28 (February)
31 (March)
4 (April) = 1,286 days as of crucifixion.
To this figure, we must add the remaining
26 days in April and another 23 days in
May, for 49 more days. Total: 1,335. The
question is, what happened on May 23rd?316

Yshua and Revelation


Heres the answer
And after the (fifty) days of Shavuot
(Pentecost) were fulfilled, all were
assembled as one. All of a sudden there
was a sound from heaven like a roaring
wind and all that House in which they
were sitting was filled. And (it) appeared
to them like tongues divided, and fire sat
upon every one of them. And all of them
317

Yshua and Revelation


were filled with the Ruach haKodesh, and
they were compelled to speak in different
tongues, just as the Spirit had given them to
speak. (Acts 2:1-4-AENT)
It is a popular Christian misconception that
the Ruach Ha Kodesh came on a Sunday
that was also the day of Pentecost. A
careful reading of both the Greek and
Aramaic texts proves the omer count
had finished, on Daniels 1,335th day! 318

Next in Part 8
What is Still to Come

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Intermission

What is Still to Come

321

What is Still to Come


THE Revelation of Y'shua the Mashiyach,
which Elohim gave to him to show to his
servants the things that must shortly occur:
and he signified (it) by sending, through his
Messenger to his servant Yochanan; who
bore witness to the Word of Elohim, and to
the testimony of Y'shua the Mashiyach, as to
all that he saw. Blessed is he that reads,
and they who hear the words of this
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What is Still to Come


prophecy, and keep the things that are
written in it; for the time is near.
(Revelation 1:1-3-AENT)
On the one hand, Yshua said that only His
Father truly knows the timing of the End.
On the other, Yshua also chided the
Pharisees for not generally knowing when
to expect himyou know the seasons but
not the signs of the times.
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What is Still to Come


So the question then is this: How much of
our future are we really allowed to
know, and even if we do know it, how
much of what we know is subject to
change?
I think that what we have seen up until
now may be close to the limit of what is
recoverable from the Scripture. But if other
aspects of this remain unclear, it may be
because Abba YHWH wants it that way324

What is Still to Come


"But you, Daniel, keep the words secret,
and seal the book until the time of the
end. Many will range far and wide and
knowledge will increase. Then I, Daniel,
looked and saw two others standing, one on
one bank of the river, the other on the other
bank of the river. One said to the man
clothed in linen, who was above the water of
the river, "How long until the end of these
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What is Still to Come


awful things?" Then I heard the man
dressed in linen, who was above the
water of the river, swear by the EverLiving One as he lifted his right hand and
his left hand to heaven: "For a time,
times, and half a time; and when the
breaking of the power of the holy people
comes to an end, then shall all these
things be fulfilled. I heard and did not
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What is Still to Come


understand, so I said, "My lord, what will
be the outcome of these things? He
said, "Go, Daniel, for these words are
secret and sealed to the time of the end.
Many will be purified and purged and
refined; the wicked will act wickedly and
none of the wicked will understand; but the
knowledgeable will understand.
(Daniel 12:4-10 JPS 1985)
327

What is Still to Come


After these fateful lines, those numbers
for 1,290 and 1,335 days are given, so
thats how we know they have a future
fulfillment as wellthis next time being
after the final resurrection of the dead
happens (Daniel 12:1-2).
About the only thing we can say with
certainty otherwise is to follow the
general time references given in
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Revelation as follows

What is Still to Come


Once again, we know the clock starts
ticking in Revelation 4, starting in the
spring harvest, based on the timing of the
stars. From there we are given broad
time references in the form of harvest
imagery:
And I heard a voice in the midst of the four
Creatures, saying: "A quart of wheat for a
denarius, and three measures of barley
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What is Still to Come


for a denarius; and hurt not the oil and
the wine." (Revelation 6:6-AENT)
This period describes a Hebrew
agricultural season, from the barley in the
spring to the wine (or grapes) in the fall.
More specifically it describes the time from
Passover to Tabernacles, starting at
sunset on the 14th of Abib, which is the
beginning of 15 Abib, and end 15 Tishri
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(Sukkot), for a total of 178 days.

What is Still to Come


This time period is confirmed with the 7
shofar imagery, because each shofar is
blown at the Hebrew New Moon.
It is of course 7 months, counting from the
start of Abib (barley) to the start of Tishri
(grapes)!
But since we are really counting full
moon to full moonDaniels halfyearthe total amount of days at 178 is
331
confirmed!

What is Still to Come


One interesting correlation linking
Revelation back to Genesis though is this
In all, Enoch lived for 365 years. Enoch
walked with Elohim, then was no more,
because Elohim took him. When
Methuselah was 187 years old he
fathered LamechIn all, Methuselah lived
for 969 years; then he died.
(Genesis 5:23-27)
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What is Still to Come


Enoch lived 365 years, a year for each
whole day of the solar year, which is
365.242187 days long.
Then Methusaleh lived 187 years before
giving birth to his sonthis next
interval of years is a year for each
whole day between spring equinox and
fall equinox! Then right after Methusaleh
dies, judgment (the Flood) comes. Does
333
this pattern repeat in Revelation?

What is Still to Come


I would suggest that the pattern completes
and repeats in Revelation.
We start with the full solar year (365), then
the interval between spring and fall
equinoxes (187), so the only time left is
that between fall and spring
equinoxesand that period is the 178
days we just added up! But the harvest
pattern in Revelation is still spring to fall in
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terms of where we count from.

What is Still to Come


Since this is the same time the first of
seven seals are opened, those 178 days
count throughout all those plagues.
They are also counting forwards, until
hitting the next time reference, so this
also includes events in chapters 7
through 9, for both the seals and most of
the trumpets being blown, until we get
here
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What is Still to Come


And the fifth Messenger sounded; and I saw
a star which fell from heaven upon the earth.
And there was given to him the key of the pit
of the abyss. And he opened the pit of the
abyss; and smoke issued from the pit, like
the smoke of a furnace that is in blast; and
the sun and the air were darkened by the
smoke of the pit. And out of the smoke
came locusts upon the earth: and power
336

What is Still to Come


was given them, like that which
scorpions have on the earth. And it was
commanded them that they should not hurt
the grass of the earth, nor any herb, nor any
tree; but (only) the persons who had not the
seal of Elohim upon their foreheads. And it
was given them, that they should not kill
them, but should torment them five
months: and their torment was like the
337

What is Still to Come


torment of a scorpion when it strikes a
person. (Revelation 9:1-5-AENT)
The 5 month period is confirmed again in
9:10, and these locusts are given a king
to rule them named Abaddon (9:11).
Like before, my assumption is these 5
months, or 150 days, are running
forward with events until the next time
reference is given, which is here
338

What is Still to Come


And a reed was given to me, like a rod; and
the Messenger stood, saying, "Arise and
measure the Temple of Elohim, and the
altar, and them that worship inside it. But the
court which is without the Temple, leave out,
and do not measure it, because it is given to
the Gentiles; and they will tread down the
Set Apart city 42 months. And I will give
my two witnesses; and they will
339

What is Still to Come


prophesy 1,260 days, clothed in
sackcloth." (Revelation 11:1-3-AENT)
The 42 months of the Gentiles
trampling Abba YHWHs Set-Apart city
and the 1,260 days of the two witnesses
testifying against it are the same block
of time, 42 x 30 = 1,260.
To this we must add 3 days, when the
witnesses are killed and their bodies are
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left to rot (11:1-14).

What is Still to Come


But the witnesses are resurrected again
just after that and all heaven rejoices,
probably for that remaining a day
(11:5-19).
After that, the Dragon makes war on a
woman and her baby, and the two are
hidden for another 1,260 days.(12:1-17).
After the Dragons defeat, the Beast
begins another 42 months (1,260 days) of
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terror (13:1-18).

What is Still to Come


This period of 1,260 days also
encompasses events from 14:1-19:10,
because in the very next verse (19:11),
Yshua returns to the earth to wage war!
So simply by adding up the time
references and being conservative, we
have now compiled the real number of
days from the start of the clock to
Yshuas return. Time to do a little
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addition!

What is Still to Come


178 days (4:1-6:6)
150 days (9:1-5)
1,260 days (11:1-3)
4 days (3 plus -11:1-19)
1,260 days (12:1-17)
1,260 days (13:1-19:10)
TOTAL4,112 days from start of the
clock to Yshuas return.
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What is Still to Come


Now these 4,112 days11.26 years or
11 years and nearly 95 daysprobably
has little or nothing to do with the Pre,
Mid or Post Trib debate, as the last
batch of years could be 7+ years before
any half or full week period.
However, it does make a current debate
in our Hebrew Roots circles very
interesting to follow
344

What is Still to Come


Right now there is a debate going on
about a special series of blood moons
hitting on Hebrew feasts, from 2014-2017.
While I dont subscribe to this theory, I
respect those who do. Many in this
school of thought believe Yshua will return
during this period, most focusing on the
Fall of 2017, so let me just put up the
date for the end of Sukkot in that year:
345
sunset on October 13th.

What is Still to Come


11 full solar years later brings us to October
12th, 2027, so lets start adding days
19 (remaining in October)
30 (November)
31 (December)
15 (January, 2028) = 95 days
While I dont have a firm return date set, I
find it very intriguing this minimum
count crosses 2028.
346

What is Still to Come


This is because, in my system, 2028 is a
very critical year. I believe Yshua must
return in the middle of the 70th Jubilee.
The problem isand I am vastly
oversimplifyingthere are two ways to
count to this time.
The early count brings the 70th Jubilee to
1995 and ending in 2045. So if this count
is right, Yshua must return before 2045.
347

What is Still to Come


Now, since Yshua left us in the middle of
the last 70-cycle, I theorize that the
earliest possible return is in the middle
of the early 70th Jubileeand that
earliest year is 2020.
However, in tracking other mathematical
patterns (another long story), my
attention becomes very interested in a
two year periodfrom 2028 to 2030.
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What is Still to Come


It is in 2028 that an utterly unique
number appears on something I call the
Constellation Clock.
This number appears only in 2028
never before and never againin all of
history.
That number also only appears once in all
of the Scripture, and so I believe there is
a link between these two unique
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occurrences of the same number.

What is Still to Come


And here is that number
And Y'shua said to them, "Children, do you
have something to eat?" They said "No!" to
him. He said to them, "Cast your net from
the right side of the ship and you will find."
And they cast it and they were not able to
drag the net in from the multitude of fish that
it had caught. And that disciple whom
Y'shua had loved said to Keefa, "This man is
350

What is Still to Come


And here is that number
our Master!" And when Shimon heard that it
was our Master, he took his garment and
girded his loins, because he was naked, and
threw himself into the sea that he might
come to Y'shua. But the other disciples
came by boat for they were not very far from
the land, only but about two hundred cubits,
and they were dragging that net of fish.
351

What is Still to Come


When they had come up onto the land they
saw burning coals, and placed fish and
placed bread upon them. Y'shua said to
them, "Bring some of those, now that you
have caught fish!" And Shimon Keefa
embarked and dragged the net to land,
being full of 153 great fish. And with all
this weight, that net was not torn.
(Yochanan 21:5-11-AENT)
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What is Still to Come


As I said, this is the only time the number
153 appears directly in Scripture.
However, in Hebrew, the numerical value
of the letters in the name Betzalel
also adds up to 153.
Betzalel means in the shadow of El and
it is also the name of the man who built
the Ark of the Covenantboth images
being symbolic of the all-powerful
manifestation of Abba YHWH on earth.353

What is Still to Come


However, getting back to the reference to
153 fish, I believe these fish symbolize us
as followers of Yshua.
This is because Yshua told his
disciples, Come with me, and I will
make you fishers of men!
So when the number 153 appears only in
2028, I have to wonder: Is it a time code?
Does it mean: You have this long to
catch followers and the time runs out?354

What is Still to Come


Not being 100% sure, I looked for a
second witness, because two witnesses
are required to establish matters of life
and death (Deuteronomy 19:15).
I also wanted a heavenly witness,
because in Luke 21 Yshua said that there
would be signs in the heavens and that
when these happened, Look up, your
salvation (your Yshua) draws near!
355

What is Still to Come


Ideally, I also wanted that heavenly
witness to appear almost exactly in the
middle of early 2028 and the 2000th
anniversary of the resurrection, on April
7th, 2030.
Sounds like a tall orderbut I found
just such a heavenly witness.
On Friday, April 13th, 2029, a large
asteroid named Apophis will pass closer
than our own satellites.

356

What is Still to Come

357

What is Still to Come


Though named after the Egyptian god that
is supposed to bring the end of the world,
I know for a fact, this Apophis will miss
us. Its job, after all, is to warn, not to kill.
Then after these two witnesses, its less a
year to the 2000th anniversary of the
resurrection.
Does that mean Yshua must return then?
No, not necessarily.
358

What is Still to Come


Nor is it the case he must return at the
fall feasts in 2030 either, starting on
Friday, September 27th, that yearthe
same exact solar day for Tishri 1 back in
Yshuas 1st ministry year.
This is because, even in the early
return scenario, Yshua still has until
2045. But, I must admit at this moment,
more evidence favors the early return than
359
the later one

What is Still to Come


And if that is true, within that early return
scenario, the most likely time for
Yshuas return is in 2030.
So it is significant to me personally, that
even an absolute minimum count of all
the days in Revelation touches this
critical 2 year period in my system,
counting from the fall of 2017, another
popular system. Whether the two
360
processes go together we will have to see.

What is Still to Come


And, even if it turns out there are hidden
days in Revelation that we cant know
about yet and cannot count, the more of
these days there are, the closer we get
to 2030 and the outer edge of 2045.
So while the proof is not 100%, what can
be recovered directly from the text is
both tantalizing and extremely
provocative, even if we cant know the
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exact day, because

What is Still to Come


Behold, I come quickly; and my reward is
with me to recompense everyone
according to his work. I am Alap and the
Taw, the First and the Last, the Beginning
and the Completion. Blessed are they who
do His (Master YHWH's) Mitzvot, that they
may have a right to the tree of life and
may enter through the gates into the city.
Without (will be) dogs and sorcerers, and
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What is Still to Come


sexual sinners and manslayers and
idolaters, and everyone that loves and does
falsehood. I Y'shua have sent my
Messenger to testify to you these things
before the assemblies. I am the root and
offspring of Dawid: like the splendid star of
the morning. And the Spirit and the bride
say, 'You come.' And let him that hears,
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What is Still to Come


say, 'You come.' And let him who thirsts,
come; and he that is inclined, let him take
the living water freely. I testify to every one
who hears the words of the prophecy of this
book, that if anyone will add to them, Elohim
will add to him the plagues that are written in
this book. And if any one will take away from
the words of the book of this prophecy,
Elohim will take away his portion from the
364

What is Still to Come


tree of life and from the Set Apart city, which
are described in this book. He who
testifies these things, says: 'Yes, I come
quickly.'" Amen. Come, Master Y'shua!
The grace of our Master Y'shua the
Mashiyach (be) with all the Set Apart
believers. Amen.
(Revelation 22:13-21-AENT)
May we all live to see this glorious day!
365

abr hdwt
Todah Rabbah

Peace and blessings


Andrew Gabriel Roth

366