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# Beams

## Shear & Moment Diagrams

E. Evans
2/9/06

Beams
Members that are slender and support
longitudinal axis.

Longitudinal
Axis

Span, L

Types of Beams
Depends on the support configuration
FH
Pin

FH

FV

FV

Fixed

Roller

M
Fv

Roller

FV

Pin

FV

FH

## Statically Indeterminate Beams

Continuous Beam

Propped Cantilever
Beam

reactions?

## Internal Reactions in Beams

At any cut in a beam, there are 3 possible
internal reactions required for equilibrium:
normal force,
shear force,
bending moment.
P

b
L

## Internal Reactions in Beams

At any cut in a beam, there are 3 possible
internal reactions required for equilibrium:
normal force,
shear force,
bending moment.
M

## Left Side of Cut

N
V

Pb/L

Positive Directions
Shown!!!

## Internal Reactions in Beams

At any cut in a beam, there are 3 possible
internal reactions required for equilibrium:
normal force,
shear force,
bending moment.
M

Positive Directions
Shown!!!
Right Side of Cut

N
Pa/L

L-x

## Finding Internal Reactions

Pick left side of the cut:
Find the sum of all the vertical forces to the
left of the cut, including V. Solve for shear, V.
Find the sum of all the horizontal forces to the
left of the cut, including N. Solve for axial
force, N. Its usually, but not always, 0.
Sum the moments of all the forces to the left
of the cut about the point of the cut. Include
M. Solve for bending moment, M

## Pick the right side of the cut:

Same as above, except to the right of the cut.

## Example: Find the internal reactions at

points indicated. All axial force reactions
are zero. Points are 2-ft apart.
P = 20 kips
1

10

6 7

8 kips

12 kips

12 ft
20 ft

P = 20 kips
1

10

6 7

8 kips

12 kips

12 ft
20 ft
8 kips

(kips)
-12 kips

M
(ft-kips)

16

32

48

64

80

96
72
48
24
x

V & M Diagrams

8 kips

P = 20 kips

12 kips

12 ft
20 ft
8 kips

(kips)

## What is the slope

of this line?
96 ft-kips/12 = 8 kips

M
(ft-kips)

-12 kips
96 ft-kips

## What is the slope

of this line?
-12 kips

V & M Diagrams

8 kips

P = 20 kips

12 kips

12 ft
20 ft
8 kips

(kips)
What is the area of
the blue rectangle?
96 ft-kips

-12 kips
96 ft-kips

## What is the area of

the green rectangle?
-96 ft-kips

M
(ft-kips)

## Draw Some Conclusions

The magnitude of the shear at a point
equals the slope of the moment diagram at
that point.
The area under the shear diagram
between two points equals the change in
moments between those two points.
At points where the shear is zero, the
moment is a local maximum or minimum.

Bending Moment

## w( x ) the load function

M( x ) V( x )dx

V( x ) w( x )dx

Common Relationships
0

Constant

Linear

Constant

Linear

Parabolic

Linear

Parabolic

Cubic

Shear

Moment

Common Relationships

Constant

Constant

Constant

Linear

Linear

Linear

Parabolic

Shear

Moment

## Example: Draw Shear & Moment

diagrams for the following beam
12 kN

8 kN

1m
RA = 7 kN

3m

1m
RC = 13 kN

12 kN

8 kN

1m

3m
8

7
V

1m

7
-15

(kN)

-5
7

M
(kN-m)

2.4 m

-8