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Beams

Shear & Moment Diagrams


E. Evans
2/9/06

Beams
Members that are slender and support
loads applied perpendicular to their
longitudinal axis.
Distributed Load, w(x)

Concentrated Load, P
Longitudinal
Axis

Span, L

Types of Beams
Depends on the support configuration
FH
Pin

FH

FV

FV

Fixed

Roller

M
Fv

Roller

FV

Pin

FV

FH

Statically Indeterminate Beams


Continuous Beam

Propped Cantilever
Beam

Can you guess how we find the extra


reactions?

Internal Reactions in Beams


At any cut in a beam, there are 3 possible
internal reactions required for equilibrium:
normal force,
shear force,
bending moment.
P

b
L

Internal Reactions in Beams


At any cut in a beam, there are 3 possible
internal reactions required for equilibrium:
normal force,
shear force,
bending moment.
M

Left Side of Cut

N
V

Pb/L

Positive Directions
Shown!!!

Internal Reactions in Beams


At any cut in a beam, there are 3 possible
internal reactions required for equilibrium:
normal force,
shear force,
bending moment.
M

Positive Directions
Shown!!!
Right Side of Cut

N
Pa/L

L-x

Finding Internal Reactions


Pick left side of the cut:
Find the sum of all the vertical forces to the
left of the cut, including V. Solve for shear, V.
Find the sum of all the horizontal forces to the
left of the cut, including N. Solve for axial
force, N. Its usually, but not always, 0.
Sum the moments of all the forces to the left
of the cut about the point of the cut. Include
M. Solve for bending moment, M

Pick the right side of the cut:


Same as above, except to the right of the cut.

Example: Find the internal reactions at


points indicated. All axial force reactions
are zero. Points are 2-ft apart.
P = 20 kips
1

10

6 7

8 kips

12 kips

12 ft
20 ft

Point 6 is just left of P and Point 7 is just right of P.

P = 20 kips
1

10

6 7

8 kips

12 kips

12 ft
20 ft
8 kips

(kips)
-12 kips

M
(ft-kips)

16

32

48

64

80

96
72
48
24
x

V & M Diagrams

8 kips

P = 20 kips

12 kips

12 ft
20 ft
8 kips

(kips)

What is the slope


of this line?
96 ft-kips/12 = 8 kips

M
(ft-kips)

-12 kips
96 ft-kips

What is the slope


of this line?
-12 kips

V & M Diagrams

8 kips

P = 20 kips

12 kips

12 ft
20 ft
8 kips

(kips)
What is the area of
the blue rectangle?
96 ft-kips

-12 kips
96 ft-kips

What is the area of


the green rectangle?
-96 ft-kips

M
(ft-kips)

Draw Some Conclusions


The magnitude of the shear at a point
equals the slope of the moment diagram at
that point.
The area under the shear diagram
between two points equals the change in
moments between those two points.
At points where the shear is zero, the
moment is a local maximum or minimum.

The Relationship Between Load, Shear and


Bending Moment

w( x ) the load function

M( x ) V( x )dx

V( x ) w( x )dx

Common Relationships
0

Constant

Linear

Constant

Linear

Parabolic

Linear

Parabolic

Cubic

Load

Shear

Moment

Common Relationships

Load

Constant

Constant

Constant

Linear

Linear

Linear

Parabolic

Shear

Moment

Example: Draw Shear & Moment


diagrams for the following beam
12 kN

8 kN

1m
RA = 7 kN

3m

1m
RC = 13 kN

12 kN

8 kN

1m

3m
8

7
V

1m

7
-15

(kN)

-5
7

M
(kN-m)

2.4 m

-8