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They are able because they think they are able. The suggestion of an a solution to any given problem is known as presentation. Role of presentation in business is to gather and exchange information, to influence the organizational process, to create, change and modify work-group identities. Major elements that go into making an effective business presentation are planning, preparing the content, delivery skills and techniques, and the speaker’s self-state.
Planning a Presentation
He who climbs a ladder must begin at the first rung. Effective presentations are shaped by asking three major questions − What is your audience expecting out of this? − What is the goal and purpose of the presentation? − What is the limiting factor within which you have to deliver the presentation? The ‘Receiver Process’ is the thought process related with retention of information. This process aims at helping the audience listen, understand, believe and take action.
Audience can be analyzed − Demographically − Psychographically Demographic information includes − Size of the audience − Gender of the audience − Age of the audience − Sex of the audience − Shared purpose or sense of affiliation Psychographical information includes − The attitude of your audience − The values and moral concerns of your audience − The level of understanding of your audience − The factors motivating your audience continue …
Four questions guiding goal analysis are − What is the purpose of this presentation? − What is my stake in the presentation? − What will my company want to happen as a result of this presentation? − What do I want to happen as a result of this presentation?
Building the Content
We judge ourselves by what we feel capable of doing, while others judge us by what we have already done. Material for a presentation can be obtained at libraries, through conversation and discussion, by referring to the latest business magazines. Mind mapping is a tool used to determine specific information you will use to convey your themes. All points in your presentation should be relevant, independent, prioritized and appropriate. Speech can be organized chronologically, topically, logically, according to difficulty, or according to need-plan.
Rules for answering questions. − Repeat question − Rephrase question − Postpone irrelevant questions − Do not bluff
If a man will begin with certainties he shall end in doubt; but if he will be content to begin with doubts he shall end in certainties. The general functions of an introduction include securing attention, establishing goodwill, orientation of the subject to your audience and making your purpose clear. Zingers are of different types including − Key statistics − Quotes − Analogies − Visual aids − Humour − Third party continue …
Agenda is the list of items that you intend covering during your presentation. Positive expectancy includes − Methods to practice well in advance − Methods to practice at the last minute − Methods to practice during the presentation
Designing the Conclusion
After all is said and done, there’s a lot more said than done. The conclusion of your presentation consists of. − Review − Memorable statement To Successfully review your presentation − Summarize your subject or viewpoint − Repeat your main point − Combine a summary with a repetition
To use a memorable statement successfully in your presentation. − Use an attention-getter − Return to the theme of your attention-getter − Look to the future − Call for action Do’s and Don’ts of an effective conclusion − Don’t merely stop at the end of your material − Don’t Stretch it out − Don’t introduce new points − Don’t pack up early − Don’t continue to speak as you leave the lectern
− Do make the conclusion 10% or less of your total presentation − Do make style consistent with the rest of your presentation − Do thank your audience − Call for action
Factors Affecting Skills
The best carpenters make the fewest chips. Factors affecting your presentation skills include − Confidence − Rapport with your audience − Credibility − Nervousness − Enthusiasm − Professionalism − Psychological reciprocity
Confidence can be developed by regular practice, preparing contingency questions and answers, recording your presentations and working on your flaws. Rapport can be developed by − Introducing yourself to your audience − Maintaining good eye contact − Making an effort to get their names right − Eliminating barriers (both psychological and physiological) − Using proper body language − Being authentic
Your credibility with your audience depends upon − Your propriety − Your competency − Your intent You can reduce your nervousness by − Regular practice − Picturing success − Reducing potential risks − Talking to your audience − Using a helper
Be slow of tongue and quick of eye. There are barriers that disturb an effective communication between you and your audience-termed as ‘noise’. ‘Noise’ can be filtered using the ‘Feedback Process’ which includes verbal and non-verbal skills. Verbal skills include articulation, humour, inflection, grammar, language, rate of speech, volume of speech, phonetics, etc. Verbal pacing is an effective tool, which can be used during your presentation. Verbal pacing skill can be developed and includes restatingrestating of content, restating of theme.
A place for everything and everything in place. Non-verbal communication includes body language (kinesics) voice and articulation (paralanguage), objects ( clothes and things), pace and time. Non-verbal communication has some peculiar characteristics: − It always communicates something − It is bound to the situation − It is believed − It is seldom isolated − It affects our relationships
Body action includes postures, gestures (reinforcing and descriptive), walking, footwork and facial expression. Non-verbal skills also include avoidance of certain mannerisms like − Smoking − Chewing gum − Hands in the pocket − Jingling of change in the pockets − Tapping the microphone
A man’s success in business today turns upon his power of getting people to believe he has something that they want.
In a presentation, good visual aids help in − Retention of the subject − Creating better impact on your audience − Explaining your subject better − Saving time − Creating a better image
Visual aids include slides, overheads and flip charts While using visual aids, care must be taken regarding its placement, consistency, colours used, etc. Selection of your visual aids depends upon − The type of presentation − The resources available
Every man has three characters-that which he exhibits, that which he has, and that which he thinks he has. Environment plays a major role in making a presentation successful The environment of your presentation is affected by various factors and includes − The room which includes the room size, services, freedom from distraction − Space to breathe − Acoustics − Using the lectern − Lighting − The entrance continue …
Different styles of room arrangement have their advantages and disadvantages.
If I lead you may not follow, if I follow you may not lead, so please just walk besides me. Objectives of team presentation − Responsibility − Content − Avoid duplication − Order and introductions − Visual aids − Introduction and summary − Rehearsal − Communication continue …
Elements of successful presentation − Planning − Prepared content − Delivery skills and techniques − Your self-state