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Persuasive

Language
Lesson Aim: By the end of this lesson I
will understand the techniques
used in a speech to persuade
its audience

Over to You:

When was the last time you tried to


persuade someone to do something?

What words or techniques did you use?

Over to You:
When have you been moved, affected or
influenced by a speaker?
Who do you think is a successful speaker?
What makes them successful?
Make a list of adjectives that you could
use to describe a speech, for example
animated

Task - Key Words


Link the word to its meaning

Persuade

To exaggerate

Audience

To attract / to grab interest

Appeal to

The reason for writing

Hyperbole

Repeating certain words / phrases / ideas

Direct Address

Emotive Language

Rhetoric

Persuasive Language

Purpose

Repetition / lists / tripling

Commands

Rhetorical question

To give orders e.g. Dont Come


Words that evoke emotion
The people the writing is aimed at
Use of you to involve audience
A question that doesnt need an answer,
e.g. Dare you ride the Big Dipper?
To make somebody believe you
The art of persuasion and making people
to think/feel in a particular way
Language used to persuade

What persuasive techniques are being used in this advertisement?

Rhetoric

Rhetoric is the art of persuasion.

A device most often used in public speaking


to persuade its audience to think or feel in a
certain way and to convince them of a
particular point of view.
It uses language which appeals to that
audience and is understood by that
audience.

Techniques of Rhetoric
We read and hear lots of persuasive
words every day, although we may
not be aware that we are being
persuaded.
Persuasive writing tries to make you
believe something or think in a
particular way.
Where would you see, hear or read
persuasive techniques being used?

The Rhetorical
Triangle
Ethos

Logos

Pathos

The Rhetorical Triangle ties into the three kinds of persuasive


appeals: logos, ethos, and pathos. Logos refers to the
consistency and clarity of the message and to the logic of the
reasons. Ethos refers to the credibility of the writer/speaker,
conveyed through tone and style. Pathos refers to the
audiences capacity to feel and see what the writer feels and
sees.

Confused? Speeches make use


The appeal to
of
logos
reason.

The appeal to
pathos
emotion.

The persuasive
ethos appeal of one's
character.

Ethos Credibility
The persuasion lies in the
power and authority of the
speaker
Persuading by convincing
the audience that the
speaker is worth listening
to and evaluating:
- Trustworthiness
- Writers reputation
- Writers ability to call on
expert knowledgewith

Ethos: Calling on the expert


We only have one planet to care for and
scientists tell us
There is much research that demonstrates
that school rules ensure order and safety.
Drugs are a serious threat to our long-term
health and doctors warn about the danger
of taking that first step.

Ethos Credibility
Calls on research or expert
opinion
It appears to be a restrained,
sincere, fair-minded
presentation.
e.g. Research shows .
Doctors say

The audience thinks, This


person knows what he is
talking about.

Use of facts/statistics
Persuasive writing uses facts and statistics
to force you to believe something is true.
For example: Whizz cleaning product kills
90% of all known germs
One in ten people
Facts and figures will support your
argument and will give evidence that an
opinion is true.

Pathos =
Emotions

Appeals to Negative Emotions:


Fear, Discrimination, Revenge
Appeals to Positive Emotions:

Love, Charity, Brotherhood, Justice


Use of Figurative Speech:

metaphors, rhetorical questions, parallelism

Emotive Language
(emotive = to bring about a certain feeling)

Words used deliberately to evoke a


particular emotion or response in the
audience
Appeal to the heart:

Emotive language appeals to a responders


feelings and emotions: to make them feel sympathy,
empathy or feel guilty!
Empathy is when a person can understand the emotions
of another ('to put yourself in another's shoes)

Identify the emotive language


used in this news report:
A medic has described the harrowing scenes of
devastation he witnessed in cyclone-ravaged
Burma Homes have been washed away,
erased from the landscape. Entire villages are
totally obliterated.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7410085.stm

Language Devices
Persuasive writing uses language devices
to create powerful effects and visual
images in the minds of the audience
Figurative language such as symbolism,
metaphors, similes, personification:
We must break free from the
chains of oppression

Also, alliteration, adjectives and strong


verbs can evoke certain emotions

Alliteration
Repetition of consonant sounds.
Used to draw attention to certain words
Often affects or conveys tone

E.g. rifles rapid rattle Wilfred Owen


Conveys auditory imagery and tone of
bitterness.

LOGOS a logical argument


Logos is persuasion by words not hard
evidence.
A presentation that convinces the listener
that the conclusion given is the right one
for the occasion.
Presents a valid, reasonable argument
Finds holes in the opposite argument

Tone
The writers attitude towards a subject.
The tone of the composer may be expressed
through the persuasive techniques used or
language choices made
Tone may be happy, frustrated, hopeful,
reflective, etc.

Assertion
A point of view expressed as fact
Give your audience a strong statement of
belief, then go on to justify and expand on
your ideas
Use of first person to make your writing
strong and personal
I agree I think I believe

Rhetorical Questions
These questions dont need an answer but
are asked to make the reader think
Why is this an
effective
advertisement?
How does the
rhetorical
question appeal
to the responder?

Hyperbole
Hyperbole = Exaggeration / over the top
language
Persuasive writing can be very dramatic
and often exaggerates a lot

I've told you a million times, stop


exaggerating.

Lists, Repetition, Triads

The repetition or restatement of an idea at


intervals not only promotes clarity, but
encourages the acceptance of an idea.
Persuasive writing often uses listing or the rule
of three (triads)
These are memorable phrases such as three
reasons, three benefits or three emotive words :

I have nothing to offer but


blood, sweat and tears.

Anaphora
Repetition of one or more words at the
beginning of more than one clause.
Adds emphasis to the words being spoken

E.g. I am afraid to go out in the sun now


because of the holes in the ozone. I am
afraid to breathe the air because I dont
know what chemicals are in it. Severn
Cullis-Suzuki

Asyndeton

The repeated use of commas without the


use of conjunctions, such as and, or and
because.

E.g. We observe today not a victory of


party, but a celebration of freedom
symbolising an end, as well as a beginning
signifying renewal, as well as change.

Direct Address
Persuasive writing often uses the pronoun
you and your to make the audience feel
as though they are being
spoken to directly
Use of collective pronouns
us, we, and our also gets
the audience involved
Why is this poster effective?

Use of Verbs
A form of command
telling the reader what to
do or how to behave
by use of modal verbs

e.g. will, can, shall may,


must, should, could

or imperative verbs (The bossy verb!)


e.g. Do your homework Close the Door, Eat
your dinner

Humour / Anecdotes

Making the audience laugh is a way of


keeping them interested in what you have
to say and may also get them on side and
support you

Anecdotes An anecdote is a
short tale narrating an interesting or
amusing biographical incident

Second Guessing
Anticipating a counter argument.
Trying to predict what your audience could
say in opposition to your argument.

e.g. You might think that the


internet is a good research tool,
but

The art of persuasion


Identify the persuasive techniques used here:
I believe that three hours of homework a night is the
key to success. Fifty per cent of students agreed.
They know completing homework means they will do
well and the facts prove it. HSC results show
students who complete homework do 25 per cent
better than students who dont. Of course, three
hours of homework a night might seem a lot, but you
know that a temporary inconvenience in time will
make a difference to your life chances. Homework
equals success.

The art of persuasion

I believe that three hours of homework a night is the


key to success. Fifty per cent of students agreed.
They know completing homework means they will do
well and the facts prove it. HSC results show
students who complete homework do 25 per cent
better than students who dont. Of course, three
hours of homework a night might seem a lot, but you
know that a temporary inconvenience in time will
make a difference to your life chances. Homework
equals success.

Structure and Presentation

Structure of argument use connectives; vary


sentence lengths; build to a climax

Formal language (although you may use colloquial


language for a particular effect)

A clear tone often using emotion

Pauses and silences space that may be


filled with the audiences own thoughts.

A strong conclusion end on a memorable note to


make argument even more convincing

Testing Your Understanding


1.

2.

3.

Summarise the meaning of


Logos, Pathos and Ethos
What are some of the main
persuasive techniques
commonly used in
speeches?
How could a speaker use
their voice and body to
make their argument more
convincing?

Lets play Bingo!


Draw a grid like the one below and choose 9 of the following words
to write in each box in any order you wish

Persuade
Audience
Appeal to
Hyperbole
Direct Address
Emotive Language
Rhetoric
Persuasive Language
Purpose
Repetition / lists / tripling
Commands
Rhetorical question
Logos
Ethos
Pathos