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MN HO HC

I. Ni dung thi
- Tt c cc kin thc trong chng trnh trung hc ph thng
- Cc php tnh c s dng:
1. Php tnh cng, tr, nhn, chia thng thng
2. Php tnh hm lng phn trm
3. Php tnh cng tr cc phn s
4. Php tnh bnh phng, s m, khai cn
5. Php tnh logarit (log; ln) v i logarit
6. Gii phng trnh bc nht mt n
7. Php tnh cc hm s lng gic sin, cos, tg, cotg
8. Gii h hai phng trnh bc nht mt n
9. Gii h ba phng trnh bc nht mt n
10. Gii phng trnh bc hai mt n
11. Gii phng trnh bc ba mt n
12. Cc php tnh v vi phn, tch phn, o hm
II. Cu trc bn thi
Phn th nht: HS trnh by li gii v ni dung ha hc
Phn th hai: HS trnh by cch s dng my tnh b ti gii phng trnh v
tnh ton
Phn th ba: HS trnh by kt qu
III. Hng dn cch lm bi v tnh im
gii mt bi ton Ho hc, th sinh phi ghi tng ng tm tt li gii v ni
dung ha hc, cch s dng my tnh b ti gii phng trnh v tnh ton kt qu vo
cc phn tng ng c sn trong bn thi.
Mi bi ton c chm im theo thang im 5. im ca mt bi ton bng tng
im ca 3 phn trn.
im ca bi thi l tng im th sinh lm c (khng vi phm qui ch thi) ca 10
bi ton trong bi thi.
IV. V d bi ton v cch trnh by bi gii
V d 1:
Hai nguyn t ha hc X v Y iu kin thng u l cht rn. S mol ca X c
trong 8,4 gam X nhiu hn so vi s mol ca Y c trong 6,4 gam Y l 0,15 mol. Bit khi
lng mol nguyn t ca X nh hn khi lng mol nguyn t ca Y l 8 gam. Xc nh
k hiu ha hc ca X v Y?
Phn th nht: HS trnh by li gii v ha hc
187

K hiu khi lng mol nguyn t ca X v Y l x v y


So snh s mol:
nA =

6,4
8,4
8,4 6,4
; nB =
ta c phng trnh
= 0,15
y
y
x
x

Theo gi thit: x + 8 = y
Ghp hai phng trnh cho: 0,15x2 - 0,8x - 67,2 = 0
Phn th hai: HS trnh by cch s dng my tnh b ti gii phng trnh
Bm MODE hai ln mn hnh my tnh hin ln EQN
1
Bm nt s 1 mn hnh my tnh hin ln Unknowns
2

Bm nt chuyn sang phi mn hnh my tnh hin ln Degree?


2

Bm 2 ( chn PT bc 2) mn hnh my tnh hin a? th bm 0,15


Bm = mn hnh my tnh hin b ? th bm (-) 0,8
Bm = mn hnh my tnh hin c ? th bm (-) 67,2
Bm = mn hnh my tnh hin x1 = 24
Bm = mn hnh my tnh hin x2 = - 18,6666...
Phn th ba: HS trnh by kt qu
Theo iu kin ha hc: x > 0 nn ch chn x = x1 = 24 X l Mg
y = 24 + 8 = 32 Y l S
V d 2:
Ha tan 15,8 gam hn hp A gm Na2CO3; K2CO3 v Na2O bng dung dch HCl
thot ra 1,68 lt CO2 (ktc) v thu c dung dch B. C cn dung dch B c 22,025
gam hn hp cha hai mui khan. Tnh thnh phn % hn hp A.
Phn th nht: HS trnh by li gii v ha hc
Theo u bi ta c cc phng trnh ha hc:
Na2O + 2HCl 2NaCl + H2O
Na2CO3 + 2HCl 2NaCl + CO2 + H2O
188

K2CO3 + 2HCl 2KCl + CO2 + H2O


Hn hp hai mui khan l NaCl v KCl
1,68
Kh thot ra l CO2 =
= 0,075 (mol)
22,4
t s mol Na2O; Na2CO3 v K2CO3 ln lt l x, y, z
Ta c cc phng trnh:
* khi lng A:
62x + 106y + 138z = 15,8
* khi lng hai mui khan: 58,5(2x + 2y) + 74,5 x 2z = 22,025
hay 117x + 117y + 149z = 22,025
* s mol kh CO2:
y + z = 0,075
Phn th hai: HS trnh by cch s dng my tnh b ti gii phng trnh
Bm MODE hai ln mn hnh my tnh hin ln EQN
1
Bm nt s 1 mn hnh my tnh hin ln Unknowns
2
3
Bm 3 ( chn h PT 3 n) mn hnh my tnh hin a1? th bm 62
Bm = mn hnh my tnh hin b1 ? th bm 106
Bm = mn hnh my tnh hin c1 ? th bm 138
Bm = mn hnh my tnh hin d1 ? th bm 15,8
Bm = mn hnh my tnh hin a2 ? th bm 117
Bm = mn hnh my tnh hin b2 ? th bm 117
Bm = mn hnh my tnh hin c2 ? th bm 149
Bm = mn hnh my tnh hin d2 ? th bm 22,025
Bm = mn hnh my tnh hin a3 ? th bm 0
Bm = mn hnh my tnh hin b3 ? th bm 1
Bm = mn hnh my tnh hin c3 ? th bm 1
Bm = mn hnh my tnh hin d3 ? th bm 0,075
Bm = mn hnh my tnh hin x = 0,1
Bm = mn hnh my tnh hin y = 0,021
Bm = mn hnh my tnh hin z = 0,054
Bm 62 0,1 : 15,8 SHIFT = (%) mn hnh my tnh hin 0,3924
Bm 106 0,024 : 15,8 SHIFT = (%) mn hnh my tnh hin 0,1360
Bm 138 0,054 : 15,8 SHIFT = (%) mn hnh my tnh hin 0,4716
Phn th ba: HS trnh by kt qu
% Khi lng Na2O = 39,24%
% Khi lng Na2CO3 = 13,6%

189

% Khi lng K2CO3 = 47,16%


V d 3:
Al(OH)3 l mt hidroxit lng tnh c th tn ti 2 cn bng sau:
Al(OH)3

Tt (1) = 10-33

Al3+ + 3OH-

Al(OH)3 + OH-

AlO2- + 2H2O

Tt (2) = 40

Vit biu thc biu th tan ton phn ca Al(OH)3 (S) = [Al3+] + [AlO 2 ] di
dng mt hm ca [H3O+]. pH bng bao nhiu th S cc tiu. Tnh gi tr S cc tiu.
Phn th nht: HS trnh by li gii v ha hc
Xt 2 cn bng:
Al(OH)3

Al(OH)3 + OH -

T Tt(1):

v t Tt(2):

Al 3+ + 3OH

10-33

3+

[Al ] =

[AlO 2

AlO 2

OH
-

Tt(1) = [Al3+].[OH-]3 =10-33


+ 2H2O

AlO-2
Tt(2) = OH - = 40

10-33 H 3O+

-14 3

(10 )

= 10 9[H3O+]3;

10-14

] = 40[OH ] = 40 H O+
3

3+

Do S = [Al ] +

[AlO 2

10-14
] = 10 [H3O ] + 40
H 3O+
9

+ 3

4.10-13
dS
9
+ 2
2 = 0
S cc tiu khi o hm
= 3.10 [H3O ] d H 3O+
H 3O+
[H3O+]4 =

4.10-13 [H O+]4= 133,33. 10-24


3
3.109
[H3O+] = ?
pH = - lg[H3O+] = ?
pH = - (- 6) - lg3,4= ?

Phn th hai: HS trnh by cch s dng my tnh b ti gii phng trnh


Bm 4 SHIFT 133,33 = 3,4
Bm log 3,4 = 0,53

190

Phn th ba: HS trnh by kt qu


[H3O+] = 3,4. 10-6
pH = 5,47
Smin = 10 9.(3,4. 10-6) + 40

4 1013
= 1,5. 10-7 mol/l
3,4 106

V d 4:
Hy xc nh khong cch gia 2 nguyn t iot trong 2 ng phn hnh hc ca
C2H2I2 vi gi thit 2 ng phn ny c cu to phng. (Cho di lin kt C I l 2,10
v C=C l 1,33 ).
Phn th nht: HS trnh by li gii v ha hc
ng phn cis- :
H

H
C

C
I

1200

300

0
dcis = d C= C + 2 d C - I sin 30 .
I

ng phn trans-:
I

H
C
I

C
H

1200

d trans = 2 IO

IO = I C2 +CO2 - 2I C CO cos1200=

2,12 +(

1,33 2
1,33
) -2 x 2,1 x
cos1200
2
2

Phn th hai: HS trnh by cch s dng my tnh b ti gii phng trnh


Bm MODE mn hnh hin COMP SD REG
1

Bm 1 sin 30 = 0,5
Bm 2,1 x2 + 0,67 x2 4,2 0,67 cos 120

= 2,5

191

Phn th ba: HS trnh by kt qu


dcis = dC = C + dC- I
= 1,33 + 2,1 = 3,43
dtrans = 2 2,5 = 5,0
V. Mt s bi tp c hng dn gii
Bi 1. Cho nng lng lin kt ca:

kJ/mol

N-H

O=O

N N

H-O

N-O

389

493

942

460

627

Phn ng no d xy ra hn trong 2 phn ng sau ?


2NH3 + 3/2 O2

N2 + 3 H2O (1)

2NH3 + 5/2 O2 2NO + 3H2O (2)

Hng dn gii :
Tnh hiu ng nhit:
E1 = (6EN-H +

3
EO=O) - (EN N + 6EO-H)
2

= 6 389 +
E2 = (6EN-H +

3
493 - 942 - 6 460 = - 626,5 kJ
2

5
EO=O)- (2EN-O + 6EO-H)
2

= 6 389 +

5
493 - 2 627 - 6 460 =- 447,5 kJ
2

- Phn ng (1) c H m hn nn p (1) d xy ra hn.


Bi 2. Cho V lt kh CO qua ng s ng 5,8 gam oxit st FexOy nng mt thi
gian th thu c hn hp kh A v cht rn B. Cho B tc dng ht vi axit HNO 3 long
thu c dung dch C v 0,784 lt kh NO. C cn dung dch C th thu c 18,15 gam
mt mui st (III) khan. Nu ha tan B bng axit HCl d th thy thot ra 0,672 lt kh. (Cc
kh o iu kin tiu chun).
a) Xc nh cng thc ca oxt st
b) Tnh % theo khi lng cc cht trong B.

Hng dn gii :
a) S mol Fe trong FexOy = s mol Fe trong Fe(NO3)3 = 0,075
192

s mol oxi trong FexOy =

Fe 0,075 3
5,8 0,075 56
=
=
= 0,1
O
0,1
4
16

Vy cng thc ca B l Fe3O4.


b) B c th cha Fe, FeO (a mol) v Fe3O4 d (b mol)
3Fe3O4 + 28HNO3 9Fe(NO3)3 + NO + H2O
3FeO + 10HNO3 3Fe(NO3)3 + NO + 5H2O
Fe + 4 HNO3 Fe(NO3)3 + NO + 2H2O
Fe + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2 ,

nFe =nH 2 =

0,672
=0,03(mol)
22,4

56.0,03 + 72a + 232b = 5,16


a=0

ta c :
a b
0,03 + + = 0,035
b = 0,015

3 3

%mFe =

0,03.56
.100% = 32,56%
5,16

v %mFe3O4 = 100% 32,56% = 67,44%


Bi 3. 226
88 Ra c chu k bn hu l 1590 nm. Hy tnh khi lng ca mt mu Ra
c cng phng x = 1Curi (1 Ci = 3,7. 1010 Bq)?

Hng dn gii :
Theo biu thc v = -

dN
= kN = 3,7.1010 Bq
dt

ln2

(trong N l s nguyn t Ra, cn k = T


1

N=

3,7.1010
. T1/2)
0,693

10

v T1/2 = 1590.365.24.60.60 = 5,014.10

226N
226.3,7.1010.5,014.1010
mRa =
=
= 1 gam
6,022.1023
0,693.6,022.1023
Bi 4. Nung FeS2 trong khng kh, kt thc phn ng thu c mt hn hp kh c
thnh phn: 7% SO2; 10% O2; 83% N2 theo s mol. un hn hp kh trong bnh kn (c
xc tc) 800K, xy ra phn ng:

2SO3
2SO2 + O2

Kp = 1,21.105.

a) Tnh chuyn ho (% s mol) SO2 thnh SO3 800K, bit p sut trong bnh lc ny
l 1 atm, s mol hn hp kh ban u (khi cha un nng) l 100 mol.
b) Nu tng p sut ln 2 ln, tnh chuyn ho SO2 thnh SO3, nhn xt v s
chuyn dch cn bng.

Hng dn gii :
193

a) Cn bng:

2SO2

2SO3
+ O2

Ban u:
7
10
0
(mol)
lc cn bng: (7-x) (10 - 0,5x)
x (x: s mol SO2 phn ng).
Tng s mol cc kh lc cn bng: 100 - 0,5x = n.
p sut ring ca cc kh:

PSO 2 = (7-x). p ; PO2 = (10 - 0,5x). p ; PSO3 = x . p


n

Kp =

(PSO3 )
2

(PSO2 ) .PO2

x2(100- 0,5x)
2

(7- x) .(10- 0,5x)

do K >> x 7 Ta c :

49.96,5
(7 x)2.6,5

= 1,21. 105

= 1,21. 105

Gii c x = 6,9225.
Vy chuyn ha SO2 SO3:

6,9225.100%
= 98,89%.
7

b) Nu p sut tng 2 ln tng t c: 7- x =

0,300 . 5 . 10-2 = 0,0548 x =

6,9452.
chuyn ho SO2 SO3: (6,9452 . 100)/7 = 99,21%
Kt qu ph hp nguyn l Lsatlie: tng p sut phn ng chuyn theo chiu v
pha c s phn t kh t hn.
Bi 5. t chy hon ton 3 gam mt mu than c cha tp cht S. Kh thu c cho
hp th hon ton bi 0,5 lt dung dch NaOH 1,5M c dung dch A, cha 2 mui v
c xt d. Cho kh Cl2 (d) sc vo dung dch A, sau khi phn ng xong thu c dung
dch B, cho dung dch B tc dng vi dung dch BaCl 2 d thu c a gam kt ta, nu
ho tan lng kt ta ny vo dung dch HCl d cn li 3,495 gam cht rn.
a) Tnh % khi lng C; S trong mu than, tnh a.
b) Tnh nng mol/lt cc cht trong dung dch A, th tch kh Cl 2 (ktc) tham
gia phn ng.

Hng dn gii :
a) Phng trnh phn ng: C + O2 CO2 (1)
x
x
S + O2 SO2 (2)
y
y
Gi s mol C trong mu than l x, s mol S trong mu than l y
12x + 32y = 3.

194

Khi cho CO2; SO2 vo dung dch NaOH d:


CO2 + 2NaOH = Na2CO3 + H2O
(3)
SO2 + 2NaOH = Na2SO3 + H2O
(4)
Cho kh Cl2 vo dung dch A (Na2CO3; Na2SO3; NaOH d)
Cl2 + 2NaOH = NaClO + NaCl + H2O
(5)
(d)
2NaOH + Cl2 + Na2SO3 = Na2SO4 + 2NaCl + H2O (6)
Trong dung dch B c: Na2CO3; Na2SO4; NaCl; NaClO. Khi cho BaCl2 vo ta c:
BaCl2 + Na2CO3 = BaCO3 + 2NaCl
x
x

(7)

BaCl2 + Na2SO4 = BaSO4 + 2NaCl


(8)
y
y
Ho tan kt ta vo dung dch HCl c phn ng, BaCO3 tan.
Na2CO3 + 2HCl = 2NaCl + CO2 + H2O
Vy : BaSO4 = 3,495 g = 0,015mol
Vy y = 0,015 mol mS = 0,48 g

%S = 16%

mC = 2,52 g %C = 84%
a gam kt ta = 3,495 +

2,52
(137 + 60) = 41,37 g
12

b) Dung dch A gm: Na2CO3; Na2SO3; NaOH(d)


[ Na2CO3 ] = 0,21: 0,5 = 0,12M
[ Na2SO3 ] = 0,015: 0,5 = 0,03M
[ NaOH ] =

0,75 - (2 . 0,21 +2 . 0,015)


= 0,6M
0,5

Th tch Cl2 (ktc) tham gia phn ng:


MCl2 = 1 . 0,3/2 VCl2 = 0,3 . 22,4/2 = 3,36 lt
Bi 6. Cho 23,52g hn hp 3 kim loi Mg, Fe, Cu vo 200ml dung dch HNO3 3,4M
khuy u thy thot ra mt kh duy nht hi nng hn khng kh, trong dung dch cn d
mt kim loi cha tan ht, tip t t dung dch H 2SO4 5M vo, cht kh trn li thot ra
cho n khi kim loi va tan ht th mt ng 44ml, thu c dd A. Ly 1/2 dd A, cho dd
NaOH cho n d vo, lc kt ta, ra ri nung ngoi khng kh n khi lng khng
i thu c cht rn B nng 15,6g.
a) Tnh % s mol mi kim loi trong hn hp.
b) Tnh nng cc ion (tr ion H+-, OH-) trong dung dch A.

Hng dn gii :
195

a) Gi x, y, z l s mol Mg, Fe, Cu trong hn hp, ta c :

24x + 56y + 64z = 23,52

3x + 7y + 8z = 2,94

(a)

ng cn d c cc phn ng:
Cho e:

Nhn e:
2+

(1)

NO3 + 3e + 4H+ = NO + 2H2O

3+

(2)

3+

Cu - 2e = Cu2+

(3)

Mg - 2e = Mg
Fe - 3e = Fe

2+

Cu + Fe = Cu + Fe

2+

(4)
(5)

Phng trnh phn ng ho tan Cu d:


3Cu + 4H2SO4 + 2NO3- = 3CuSO4 + SO42- + 2NO + H2O
T Pt (6) tnh c s mol Cu d: =

(6)

0,044.5.3
= 0,165 mol
4

Theo cc phng trnh (1), (2), (3), (4), (5): s mol e cho bng s mol e nhn:
2(x + y + z - 0,165) = [3,4.0,2 - 2(x + y + z - 0,165)].3
x + y + z = 0,255 + 0,165 = 0,42 (b)
T khi lng cc oxit MgO; Fe2O3; CuO, c phng trnh:
x
y
z
.40 + .160 + . 80 = 15,6 (c)
2
4
2
H phng trnh rt ra t (a), (b), (c):

3x + 7y + 8z = 2,94
x + y + z = 0,42
x + 2y + 2z = 0,78

Gii c: x = 0,06;

y = 0,12;

z = 0,24.

% lng Mg = 6,12%; % lng Fe = 28,57%; % lng Cu = 65,31%


b) Tnh nng cc ion trong dd A (tr H+, OH-)
[Mg2+] =

0,06
= 0,246 M;
0,244

[Fe2+] = 0,492 M;

[Cu2+] = 0,984 M;

[SO42-] = 0,9 M;

[NO3-] = 1,64 M

Bi 7. a) Tnh pH ca dung dch HCl nng 0,5.10-7 mol/lt.


b) Tnh pH ca dung dch X c to thnh khi trn 200ml dung dch HA 0,1M (Ka
= 10 ) vi 200ml dung dch KOH 0.05M; pH ca dung dch X thay i nh th no khi
thm 10-3 mol HCl vo dung dch X.
-3.75

Hng dn gii :
a) [ H+].0,5.10-7 do nng nh phi tnh n cn bng ca H2O
H2O
196

H+ + OH -

HCl

H+ + Cl -

Theo nh lut bo ton in tch:


10-14
[ H ] = [ Cl ] + [OH ] [ H ] = 0,5.10 + +
H

-7

[ H+] 2 - 0,5.10 - 7[ H+] - 10 -14 = 0.


Gii c: [ H+] = 1,28.10-7 pH 6,9
b) nHA = 0,1.0,2 = 0,02 mol; nKOH = 0,05.0,2 = 0,01 mol
KOH + HA KA + H2O
0,01 0,01 0,01
Trong d2 X: CHA = CKA =

Theo phng trnh HA cn d = 0,01 mol


0,01
= 0,025M. Xt cc cn bng sau:
0,4

H2O

H+ + OH-

KW = 10-14

(1)

HA

H+ + A-

KHA = 10-375

(2)

KB = KHA-1. KW = 10-10,25

(3)

A- + H2O

HA + OH-

So snh (1) vi (2) KHA >> KW b qua (1)


So snh (2) vi (3) KHA >> KB b qua (3) Dung dch X l dung dch m
axit
c pH = pKa + lg

0,1
mui
= 3,75 + lg
= 3,75
0,1
[ axit]

Khi thm 10-3 mol HCl


KA + HCl KCl + HA
0,001 0,001
[HA] =

0,001

(mol)

0,01 +0,001
0,01 - 0,001
= 0,0275 M v [KA] =
= 0,0225M.
0,4
0,4

Dung dch thu c vn l dung dch m axit.


Tng t, pH = 3,75 + lg

0,0225
= 3,66
0,0275

Bi 8. Ho tan 8,862 gam hn hp: Al, Mg trong 500ml dd HNO3 long thu c dd
A v 3,316 lt (ktc) hn hp 2 kh khng mu c khi lng 5,18g trong c 1 kh b
ho nu trong khng kh.
197

a) Tnh thnh phn % theo khi lng mi kim loi trong hn hp.
b) C cn dd A c bao nhiu gam mui khan.
c) Tnh nng mol/lt ca dd HNO3 tham gia phn ng.
d) Ho tan dd A vo dd NaOH d tnh khi lng kt ta to thnh.

Hng dn gii :
a) M 2kh =

5,18.22,4
= 37. Do MNO = 30 nn kh th 2 l N2O (c M = 44)
3,136

Tm c nNO = nN2O = 0,07 mol


Theo nh lut bo ton: Al - 3e = Al3+
Mg - 2e = Mg2+
t s mol Al = x; Mg = y th tng s mol e nhng = 3x + 2y
N+5 + 3e = N+2
2N+5 + 8e = 2N+9 tng s mol e thu = 3.0,07 + 8.0,07 = 0,77
Ta c h phng trnh:

3x + 2y = 0,77
27x + 24y = 8,862

Suy ra:
%mAl =

x = 0,042 ;

y = 0,322

0,042.27
. 100% = 12,8% v %mMg = 87,2%
8,862

b) mmui khan = 56,602 gam;

c) [HNO3] =

0,98
= 1,96M;
0,5

d) mMg(OH)2 = 18,676 gam.


Bi 9. Tnh lng NaF c trong 100ml dung dch HF 0,1M; bit dung dch c pH =
3, hng s cn bng Ka ca HF l 3,17. 10 4.

Hng dn gii :
CHF = 0,1M; [H+] = 10 -3, gi nng NaF trong dd ban u l x
HF
[]

H+

(10 -1- 10 -3 )

3,17.10 - 4 =

F-

10-3

)=

103 x + 10 3
101 10 3

x + 10-3

10

x +10

99.10

x + 10 -3 = 313,83.10 -4
x = 303,83.10 -4

nNaF = 3,03.10 -4

Khi lng NaF l : 303,83.42.10 -5 = 0,1276 g

198

x + 103
=
99

Bi 10. Ho tan m gam Cu trong lng d dung dch HNO 3. Kt thc phn ng thu
c 5,97 lt hn hp gm NO v NO2 (kh A), v dung dch c khi lng khng thay
i so vi khi lng axit ban u. Thc hin 2 th nghim sau:
Th nghim 1: ly 11,94 lt kh A cho i qua dung dch KOH 0,5 M phn ng va ,
thu c dung dch B (th tch khng thay i so vi th tch dung dch KOH).
Th nghim 2: Ly 5,97 lt kh A cho i qua Cu bt d thu c kh C.
a) Tnh m.
b) Tnh th tch dung dch KOH v nng mol/lt ca dung dch B.
c) Tnh th tch kh C thu c. Cc th tch kh o iu kin tiu chun.

Hng dn gii :
Phng trnh phn ng: 3Cu + 8HNO3 = 3Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O
Cu + 4HNO3 = Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO2 + 2H2O
2NO2 + 2KOH = KNO2 + KNO3 + H2O
0

t
NO + Cu

CuO + 1/2N2

2NO2 + 4Cu = 4CuO + N2


Gi s mol Cu tham gia phn ng (1) l x, tham gia phn ng (2) l y.
(x + y) .64 = 30.
y = 0,11

2x
+ 46 . 2y
3

hay 7y = 11x

Gii c x = 0,07

2x
+ 2y = 0,2665
3
a) Tnh m:
a = 11,52 gam
b) S mol NO2 tham gia phn ng (3) : 0,11 4 = 0,44 (mol)
S mol KOH tham gia phn ng : 0,44 mol Th tch dung dch KOH 0,5M =
0,44
= 0,88 (lt)
0,5
Nng cc mui trong dung dch B: [KNO2] = [KNO3] =

0,44
= 0,25 (M)
0,88.2

c) Theo cc phng trnh (4), (5)


S mol N2 =

1
1 0,07.2
s mol (NO + NO2) = (
+ 0,11 . 2) = 0,13335 (mol)
3
2
2

Th tch kh N2: (ktc) = 0,13335. 22,4 = 2,987 (lt).


Bi 11. Phn t X c cng thc abc .Tng s ht mang in v khng mang in trong
phn t X l 82. Trong s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht khng mang in l 22, hiu
s khi gia b v c gp 10 ln s khi ca a, tng s khi ca b v c gp 27 ln s khi ca
199

a. Tm cng thc phn t ng ca X.

Hng dn gii :
Gi s ht proton, ntron, s khi ca nguyn t a l: Za ; Na ; Aa
Gi s ht proton, ntron, s khi ca nguyn t b l: Zb ; Nb ; Ab
Gi s ht proton, ntron, s khi ca nguyn t c l: Zc ; Nc ; Ac
T cc d kin ca u bi thit lp c cc phng trnh:
2(Za + Zb + Zc) + (Na + Nb + Nc) = 82
(1)
2(Za + Zb + Zc) - (Na + Nb + Nc) = 22
(2)
Ab - Ac = 10 Aa
Ab + Ac = 27Aa
T (1) v (2) : (Za + Zb + Zc) = 26; (Na + Nb + Nc) = 30 => Aa + Ab + Ac = 56
Gii c: Aa = 2 ; Ab = 37 ; Ac = 17. Kt hp vi (Za + Zb + Zc) = 26
Tm c : Za = 1, Zb = 17 ; Zc = 8 cc nguyn t l: 1H2 ; 17Cl37 ; 8O17
Cng thc X: HClO.
Bi 12.
a) Cho n-butan phn ng vi Clo ( t l mol 1:1), chiu sng c hn hp 2 sn
phm hu c A v B cng kh C.
* Vit phng trnh phn ng.
* Kh C c ho tan trong nc, trung ho dung dch cn 800 ml dung dch
NaOH 0,75M. Tnh khi lng sn phm A, B , bit nguyn t Hidro Cc bon bc II
c kh nng phn ng cao hn 3 ln so vi nguyn t Hidro Cc bon bc I.
b) C 4 hidrocacbon thm: C8H10 (A); C8H10 (B); C9H12 (C); C9H12 (D). Thc hin
phn ng cc hidrocacbonvi Br2/Fe (t l mol 1:1) c cc dn xut mono Brom.
A cho 1 sn phm th.
B cho 3 sn phm th.
C cho 1 sn phm th.
D cho 2 sn phm th.
Vit cng thc cu to ca A; B; C; D.

Hng dn gii :
a) * Vit phng trnh:
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 + Cl2

CH3-CHCl-CH2-CH3 + HCl
(A)

CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 + Cl2

CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2Cl + HCl
(B)

* Tnh khi lng sn phm:

200

(C)
(C)

Gi s mol sn phm A l nA ; sn phm B l nB : nA + nB = nHCl = nNaOH = 0.8.0,75 =


0,6(mol)
%nA =

100.r A .4 100.3.4
100.3.4 0,6
=
=> nA =
.
= 0,4 (mol) => nB = 0,2 (mol)
4r A +6r B
4.3 + 6
4.3 + 6 100

(rA; rB l kh nng phn ng ca nguyn t H nguyn t cac bon bc II v bc I)


Khi lng sn phm A = 0,4.92,5 = 37 gam.
Khi lng sn phm B = 0,2.92,5 = 18,5 gam.

CH3
CH3

CH3

CH3
H3C

CH3

H3C

CH3
CH3

CH3

hoc
CH3

(A)

(B)

CH2-CH3

(C)

(D)

Bi 13. Trong mt bnh kn dung tch 16 lt cha hn hp hi ba ru n chc A,


B, C v 13,44 gam O2, nhit v p sut trong bnh l 109,2 oC v 0,98 atm. Bt tia la
in t chy ht ru, sau a nhit v 136,5 oC, p sut trong bnh lc ny l P
atm.
Cho tt c kh trong bnh sau khi t chy ln lt i qua bnh 1 ng H 2SO4 c v
bnh 2 ng KOH c. Sau th nghim thy khi lng bnh 1 tng 3,78 gam cn bnh 2
tng 6,16 gam.
a) Tnh p sut P
b) Xc nh cng thc phn t ca ru A, B, C, bit rng B, C c cng s cacbon
v s mol ru A bng 5/3 tng s mol ru B v C.
Cho khi lng mol nguyn t:
C = 12; O = 16; H = 1; Cl = 35,5; Ca = 40; Be = 9; Mg = 24; Ba = 137; Fe = 56.

Hng dn gii :
Tng s mol ca cc kh trong bnh kn
n=
S mol O2 l:

P.V
16.0,98
=
= 0,5 mol
R.T (109,2 + 273).0,082

13,44
=0,42 mol
32

Tng s mol 3 ru A, B, C: 0,5 - 0,42 = 0,08 mol

201

a) Gi CxHy-OH, C x 'H y ' OH, C x "H y " OH l cng thc ca A, B, C v a, b, l


cc s mol tng ng ca chng
y 1

y +1
CxHyOH + x + - O2 xCO2 +
H2O
4
4
2

a
y' 1

y' +1
CxHyOH + x' + - O2 xCO2 +
H2O
4 4
2

b
y" 1

y" +1
CxHyOH + x" + - O2 xCO2 +
H2O
4
4
2

c
Ta c: a + b + c = 0,08
S mol CO2 thot ra: xa + xb + xc =

6,16
=0,14 mol
44

S mol H2O
y +1
y' +1
y" +1
2 a + 2 b + 2 c =0,21 mol

ya + yb + yc = 0,34

S mol O2 cn dng t chy A, B, C:


y 1

x +4 - 4 a +

y' 1

x' + 4 - 4 b +

y" 1

x" + 4 - 4 c =

xa + xb + xc +

ya +y'b +y"c a +b +c
=
4
4

0,14 + 0,085 - 0,02 = 0,205 mol


S mol O2 d: 0,42 - 0,205 = 0,215
Vy s mol cc kh sau phn ng:
nCO2 + nH2O + nO2d = 0,14 + 0,21 + 0,215 = 0,565 mol
Ta c:
n=

P.V
RTn 0,082(136,5 +273).0,565
P=
=
RT
V
16

P = 1,186 atm
Vy p sut sau phn ng l 1,186 atm.
b) Do s cacbon ca ru B, C bng nhau nn ta gi
202

CnH2n+1-2xOH

CmH2m+1-2yOH

(A)

CmH2m+1-2zOH

(B)

(C)

l cng thc ca ru A, B, C trong x, y, z l s ni i trong mch hirocacbon


v a, b, c l s mol tng ng ca 3 ru.
Phn ng t chy ru:
CnH2n+1-2xOH +

3n - x
O2 nCO2 + (n + 1 - x) H2O
2

CmH2m+1-2yOH +

3m - y
O2 mCO2 + (m + 1 - y) H2O
2

CmH2m+1-2zOH +

3m - z
O2 mCO2 + (m + 1 - z) H2O
2

Ta c tng s mol 3 ru
a + b + c = 0,08
Do

nA =

(1)

5
5
(nB + nC) a = (b + c)
3
3

(2)

S mol CO2: na + m(b + c) = 0,14

(3)

S mol H2O: (n + 1 - x)a + (m + 1 - y)b + (m + 1 - z)c = 0,21

(4)

na + m(b + c) + a + b + c - xa - yb - zc = 0,21
xa + yb + zc = 0,01
T (1) (2)

(5)

= 0,05

b + c = 0,03
T (3) 0,05n + 0,03m = 0,14 5n + 3m = 14
n

<0

n = 1, m = 3
Ru (A) ch c 1C, ru (B), (C) c 3C
Do (A) ch c 1C nn khng c ni i hay ni ba trong mch (A) l ru n no,
suy ra: x = 0
Vy cng thc (A): CH3 - OH
T (5) yb + zc = 0,01

(*)

Cng thc ca (B), (C): C3H7-2y OH, C3H7-2z OH


B, C c th l ru n no, ru n c mt ni i hoc ru n c 1 ni ba. Do
B, C c th l mt trong cc trng hp sau:
+ B, C l 2 ru n no khng cha ni i, ni ba
Lc ta suy ra t (*): y = 0, z = 0
203

Thay vo (4)
na + m(b + c) + a + b + c - xa - yb - zc = 0,22 0,21
Khng tha mn.
+ (B), (C) c th l 1 ru n no v 1 ru c mt ni i, suy ra trong phn t (C)
c cha 1 ni i
y = 0, z = 1
T (*) yb + zc = 0,01 c = 0,01
b = 0,02
Trng hp ny tha mn
Vy cng thc ca (B), (C) l: C3H7OH v C3H5OH
+ (B), (C) l 2 ru n no c ni i y = z = 1
Lc yb + zc = b + c = 0,01 0,03 (loi)
+ (B), (C) l 2 ru n c 1 ni ba y = z = 2
T (*) 2(b + c) = 0,01 b + c = 0,005 loi
+ (B) c 1 ni i, (C) c mt ni ba.
y = 1, z = 2
T (*)

b + 2c = 0,01
b + c = 0,03 b = 0,03 - c
c + 0,03 = 0,01 loi

+ (B) c mt ni ba, (C) l ru n no. Lc y = 2, z = 0


T (*)

yb + zc = 2b = 0,01 b = 0,005

c = 0,025 tha mn
Cng thc (B), (C) l: C3H3OH, C3H7OH
Vy cng thc ca (A): CH3OH, cng thc ca (B) v (C) l: C3H7OH v C3H5OH
hoc C3H7OH v C3H3OH.
Bi 14. Mt hn hp (X) gm 1 ru no n chc (A) v 1 axit no (B) 2 ln axit.
Khi lng ca (X) l mX = x gam. Chia (X) lm 3 phn bng nhau:
- Phn 1 cho tc dng vi natri d cho ra y lt hiro (ktc).
- Phn 2 t chy ht cho ra z gam CO2.
a) Tnh s mol a (nA), b (nB) theo x, y, z.
b) Cho x = 34,8 gam, y = 3,36 lt v z = 15,4 gam
* Xc nh cng thc cu to ca (A), (B).
* Tnh thnh phn phn trm theo khi lng ca hn hp (X).
c) Phn 3 un nng vi H2SO4 (xc tc). Tnh khi lng este thu c vi hiu sut
phn ng l 80%.
Cho: C = 12, H = 1, O = 16, N = 14, Cl = 35,5, Na = 23, K = 39, S = 32, Ca = 40,
Br = 80.
204

Hng dn gii :
- t cng thc tng qut: A: CnH2n+1OH
v B: CmH2m(COOH)2
1
Gi: a = nA, b = nB trong
hn hp X.
3
V khi lng ca hn hp X l x nn ta c :
x
a(14n + 18) + b(14m + 90) =
3
x
Hay:
14(na + mb) + 18(a + 2b) + 54b =
3
- Phn 1 vi Na:
Ta c phn ng: CnH2n+1-OH + Na CnH2n+1-ONa +

(1)
1
H2
2
a
2

CmH2m(COOH)2 + 2Na CmH2m(COONa)2 + H2


b
b
a
y
y
nH 2 = +b =
a + 2b =
(2)
2
22,4
11,2
- Phn 2 t chy:
3n
O nCO2 + (n + 1)H2O
2 2
a
na
3m +1
CmH2m(COOH)2 +
O2 (m + 2)CO2 + (m + 1)H2O
2
b
(m + 2)b
z
nCO2 = na + (m + 2)b =
44
CnH2n+1-OH +

Hay:

na + mb + 2b =

(3)

na + mb =

z
44

z
- 2b
44

(3)
(3)

x
z
18y
- 2b +
+54b =
T (1) (2) (3) 14
3
44
11,2
Hay:

26b =

x 9y 7z
3 5,6 22

205

b=

1 x 9y 7z
26 3 5,6 22

(2)

a=

y
y
1 x 9y 7z
- 2b =
11,2
11,2 13 3 5,6 22

b)
* Thay cc gi tr ca x = 34,8 ; y = 3,36 ; z = 15,4
Ta c: a = 0,2 mol
b = 0,05 mol
T (3), ta c:
z
15,4
na + mb =
- 2b =
- 0,1 = 0,25
44
44
0,2n + 0,05m = 0,25
Hay: 4n + m = 5
n

(-)

Cng thc cu to A: CH3- OH


COOH
B: CH2
COOH
* mA = 32g 0,2 3 = 19,2 g
mB = 104g 0,05 3 = 15,6 g
%A = 55,17
%B = 100 - 55,17 = 44,83
c)
Phn 3:
H+

COOCH 3

CH 2(COOH)2 +2CH 3 - OH CH 2

+2H 2O
COOCH 3

0,05 mol

0,1 mol

meste = 0,05 132

0,05 mol

80
= 5,28 gam
100

Bi 15. t chy 1,6 gam mt este (E) n chc c 3,52 gam CO 2 v 1,152 gam
H2O.
a) Tm cng thc phn t ca (E).
b) Cho 10 gam (E) tc dng vi lng NaOH va . C cn dung dch sau phn
206

ng c 14 gam mui khan. Tm cng thc cu to ca (E), bit (E) khng phn nhnh.
c) (F) l mt ng phn ca (E), (F) tc dng vi NaOH to ra mt ru m khi t
chy mt th tch hi ru ny cn ba th tch oxi o cng iu kin. Tm cng thc
cu to ca (F)
(Cho: Na = 23; Ba = 137; C = 12; H = 1; O = 16)

Hng dn gii :
1. Gi cng thc phn t (E) l CxHyO2, ta c phng trnh
y

to
CxHyO2 + x + - 1 O2

xCO2

a mol

ax mol

y
H2O
2
ay
mol
2

Gi nE = a mol
nCO2 =

m 3,52
1,152
= 0,08 mol; nH O =
= 0,064 mol
=
2
M
44
18

ta c h sau:

a(12x + y + 16 2) = 1,6

(I)

ax = 0,08

(II)

ay
= 0,064 ay = 0,128
2

(III)

Gii h 12ax + ay + 32a = 1,6


32a = 1,6 - 12 0,08 - 0,128 = 0,512
a = 0,016
(II) x =

0,08
=5
0,016

y=

0,128
=8
0,016

Cng thc phn t E: C5H8O2

nE =

10
= 0,1 mol
100

Gi cng thc tng qut ca E: RCOOR


RCOOR + NaOH RCOONa + R - OH
0,1

0,1

0,1

nE = nNaOH = nRCOONa = 0,1 mol (v E l este n chc)


mNaOH = 0,1 40 = 4 g
mE + mNaOH = mmui + mru mru = 0
Vy E tc dng vi NaOH khng to thnh ru nn E phi l este vng. C cu
to :
207

CH 2 - CH 2
CH 2

O
CH 2 - C
O

Tnh =

2.5- 8 +2
=2
2

Tht vy

CH 2 - CH 2
CH 2

O
CH 2 - C O

t
+ NaOH
HO - CH2 - CH2 - CH2 - CH2 - COONa

mmui = 0,1 140 = 14 g (ph hp ).


VI. Cc bi tp t gii
1. 820oC hng s cn bng ca phn ng phn hy:
CaCO3 (r) CaO(r) + CO2(k) l K = 0,2
Trong mt bnh kn, chn khng, dung tch 22,4 (l) 820oC, ta a 0,1 mol CaCO3
vo.
a) Tnh thnh phn s mol mi cht trng thi cn bng.
b) Gi s tng dn th tch V (vn 820oC) v cc th biu din s bin thin ca
p sut P v ca s mol CaO theo th tch V.
p s: 0,05 mol; 44,8 lt; P = 4(n -1)
2. Trong mt bnh kn, chn khng, dung tch 22,4 (l) 820oC, ta a 0,1 mol CaO
vo. Sau bm kh CO2, v th biu din s bin thin ca p sut P theo s mol CO 2
a vo.
Khi t chy hon ton hirocacbon A hoc B u cho CO2 v hi H2O theo t l
1,75: 1 v th tch. Cho bay hi hon ton 5,06 gam A hoc B u thu c mt th tch
hi ng bng th tch hi ca 1,76 gam oxi trong cng iu kin. Cho 13,8 gam A phn
ng hon ton vi dung dch AgNO3 (d) trong dung dch NH3 thu c 45,9 gam kt
ta, cht B khng c phn ng va nu. Hirocacbon A phn ng vi HCl cho cht C,
hirocacbon B khng phn ng vi HCl. Cht C cha 59,66% clo trong phn t (v khi
lng). Cht C phn ng vi Br2 theo t l mol 1: 1, c chiu sng ch thu c 2 dn xut
cha halogen. Cht B lm mt mu dung dch KMnO4 khi un nng.
a) Vit cng thc cu to ca A, B, C.
b) Vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra i vi A, B, C.
p s: C7H8; C7H12Cl4
3. Xt phn ng xy ra gia cc cht kh nhit khng i:
mA + nB pC + qD.
208

Vi cc th nghim v cho cc kt qu sau:


Th nghim

[A] mol/l

[B] mol/l

V [mol.l-1.s-1]

0,2

0,2

4.10-4

0,2

0,3

9.10-4

0,8

0,8

256.10-4

a) Vit biu thc tnh tc phn ng.


Tnh bc ca phn ng (m + n).
b) Tnh hng s tc phn ng (K).
c) Nu gim p sut ca h thng xung 2 ln th tc ca phn ng tng hay gim
bao nhiu ln?
p s: n= 2; m =1; k = 0,05; 8 ln
4. Tnh nng lng mng li tinh th ion mui BaCl2 t cc d kin thc nghim
sau y:
Nhit to thnh tiu chun BaCl2 tinh th: -205,6 kcal. mol-1
Nhit thng hoa ca Ba(rn): + 46,0 kcal.mol-1
Nng lng lin kt ca Cl2: + 57,0 kcal.mol-1
i lc electron ca clo: - 87,0 kcal.mol-1
Nng lng ion ha ln th nht ca Ba: + 119,8 kcal.mol-1
Nng lng ion ha ln th hai ca Ba: + 230,0 kcal. mol-1
p s: - 484,4 KCal/mol
5. Kh N2O4 km bn, b phn ly mt phn theo phng trnh:
N2O4 2NO2
(1)
Thc nghim cho bit cc s liu sau khi (1) t ti trng thi cn bng p sut
chung 1 atm:
Nhit
Mh

(0oC)
(g)

35
72,45

45
66,80

( M h l khi lng mol trung bnh ca hn hp kh trng thi cn bng)


a) Tnh phn ly ca N2O4 cc nhit cho.
b) Tnh hng s cn bng Kp ca (1) mi nhit trn.
c) Cho bit (1) l phn ng thu nhit hay ta nhit. Gii thch? (Khi tnh ly ti ch
s th 3 sau du phy).
p s: a) 27% & 33,7%; b) Kp= 0,315 v 0,513
6. t chy 0,6 gam hp cht hu c A thu c 0,88 gam CO2 v 0,36 gam H2O.
Cho 0,6 gam A tc dng vi Na thu c 112 ml H2 (ktc). Hiro ha A (c xc tc), thu
209

c hp cht B; t chy 1,24 gam cht B thu c 1,76 gam CO2; cn khi cho 1,24
gam B tc dng vi Na th thu c 448 ml H2 (ktc). Vit cc phng trnh phn ng
xy ra v gi tn ca A.
p s: OH - CH2 - CHO
7. Cho bit tan ca canxi sunfat l 0,2 gam trong 100 gam nc ( 20 oC) v khi
lng ring ca dung dch CaSO4 bo ha d = 1g/ml. Hi khi trn 50 ml dung dch CaCl2
0,012 M vi 150 ml dung dch Na2SO4 0,004 M ( 20oC) c kt ta xut hin khng?
2

p s: [Ca2+] = [SO 4 ] = 0,003 M


8. Hai bnh kn A v B u c dung tch l 5,6 lt c ni vi nhau bng mt ng c
kha K dung tch ng khng ng k. Lc u kha K ng.
Bnh A cha H2, CO, HCl (kh); bnh B cha H2, CO v NH3; s mol H2 trong A
bng s mol CO trong B, s mol H 2 trong B bng s mol CO trong A. Khi lng kh
trong B ln hn trong A l 1,125 gam. Nhit 2 bnh u bng 27,3 oC; p sut kh
trong A l 1,32 atm, trong B l 2,2 atm.
M kha K cho kh 2 bnh khuch tn ln vo nhau. Sau mt thi gian, thnh phn
kh trong 2 bnh nh nhau. a nhit 2 bnh n 54,6 oC; p sut kh trong 2 bnh u
bng 1,68 atm.
a) Tnh phn trm v th tch ca cc kh trong A v B thi im ban u.
b) Tnh thnh phn % v khi lng cc kh trong bnh thi im cui.
Bit rng nhit cho cht rn to thnh khng b phn hy v chim th tch
khng ng k.
(Cho Ca = 40; O = 16; S = 32; C = 12; Cl = 35,5; N = 14; H = 1)
p s: 30%; 20%; 50% v 4,59%; 64,22%; 31,19%
9. Chia m gam hn hp (X) gm metanol v 3 hyrocacbon th lng lin tip trong
dy ng ng lm 2 phn bng nhau:
- Phn 1: Cho phn ng vi Na d thu c 1,12 lt kh H2 (ktc)
- Phn 2: t chy hon ton, sn phm chy cho i qua bnh ng dung dch
Ba(OH)2 d thy khi lng bnh nng thm 154,7 gam ng thi xut hin 462,95 gam
kt ta trng.
1. Xc nh cng thc phn t ca 3 hirocacbon trn.
2. Tnh m gam.
m
lng
100
hn hp (X) trong mt xylanh dung tch 89 cm3 nhn thy p sut to ra ngay sau khi t l
41,836 atm. Tnh nhit (oC) ca xylanh khi y.
3. Trong mt phng th nghim v ng c n ngi ta t chy hon ton

p s: C5H12; C6H14; C7H16 v 142 g; 190,340C


10. Cation Fe3+ l axit, phn ng vi nc theo phng trnh:
210

Fe3+ + 2H2O Fe(OH)2+ + H3O+


Ka ca Fe3+ l 10-2,2. Hi nng no ca FeCl3 th bt u c kt ta Fe(OH)3.
Tnh pH ca dung dch bit Tt Fe(OH)3 = 10-38
p s: pH = 1,8

211