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Hydroelectricity Project

By: Nick Conrad, Nadir Garcia, & Matt Jones

Obtaining and Using Hydropower

How is it Captured? Hydropower is captured from water. The mechanical energy of the water turns turbines to run
generators that convert energy into electricity.

How is it Stored? Hydropower can be stored by storing the water that turns the turbines. The water can be stored in
reservoirs that, when opened, allows the water to rush to the turbines that power the generators. Another way to store the
energy is to put it in batteries. The batteries are then available for later use.

How is it Used? Once the water is turning the turbines, which run the generators, electricity is then available for use. The
electricity can be transported over long-distance electric lines to homes, factories, and businesses.

Classification?

Inexhaustible!

History of Hydropower

Greeks used water wheels to grind wheat into flour

First hydroelectric plant in the world at Appleton hydroelectric power plant

1880- Michigan Grand Rapids powered 16 brush-arc camps with hydropower

1881- Niagara Falls powers city street

1901- 1st Federal Water Power Act was set in place in order to more effectively coordinate the development of
hydroelectric projects in the United States.

Hydroelectricity nearly tripled in United States. since 1940.

Percentage of Use

Hydropower produces 20% of the worlds electricity.

Hydropower produces 9% of the United States electricity.

49% of renewable energy sources used in the United States is hydropower.

Percentage of efficiency that hydropower turbines can achieve is 95%

Pros
Renewable

Environmental
problems

Green (doesnt
pollute
environment)

Expensive

Reliable

Droughts are a
issue

Flexible

Limited space
for reservoirs

Safe

Cons

Where is it Produced?

For large scale hydroelectric projects, youll have to be next to a large river with flowing water.

For personal homemade projects, you can be by any body of water (as long as its enough to run continuously through
your system)

Where is it used?

Hydroelectricity can be used anywhere (i.e. residential, commercial, and industrial)

Infrastructure Requirements

Must have water!

Must have a way to capture the mechanical energy from water (i.e. turbines and generators).

Must have enough resources to build a dam on a river to fully utilize the hydropower.

Must have a way to transport the electricity.

Disasters Related to Hydropower


August 16, 2009 at Sayano Shushenskaya hydro plant in Siberia

The issue arose in a control room at the nearby Bratskaya 1,400 MW hydro plant during the night before the accident. A
fire caused its grid-regulating function to be transferred to Sayano Shushenskaya. The generators that took the load
were old and badly maintained. The generally accepted view is that the water-hammer in the penstock caused this unit
to fail and blow up, throwing the generator and turbine high in the air.

Damages: 75 people drowned or lost, the Siberian grid dropped 10% of its capacity, oil poured into the Yensei river,
generators and transformers were destroyed, and concrete structures were severely damaged.

December 15th, 2005 at Taum Sauk Dam in Southeast Missouri

Overtopping water at the Taum Sauk Upper Storage Facility caused a massive dam failure during the pre-dawn hours of
December 14th 2005. More than a billion gallons of water rushed down Proffit Mountain and covered the east fork of the
Black River and the lower ground of Johnsons Shut-Ins State Park.

Damages: It swept the park superintendents home and family at least a quarter-mile away and caused damage to
several vehicles. According to local calculations, the flow of the water at the time would have been nearly 150,000
cubic feet per second, which is the equivalent of the Mississippi River flowing at 7 feet in St. Louis.

Ways to Make it Safer?


Hydrokinetics

Hydrokinetics work like wind energy; it uses turbines with fins that are moved by the kinetic energy of water. Its safer
because you dont have to build a dam to harness the waters energy. Also there is no need to worry about flooding or
overflow.

Future Predictions?

It is very possible to have hydropower as our main source of energy. Over time, it will get more and more efficient, and
we will find ways to make it cheaper to harness.
Eventually we will stop using fossil fuels as our primary energy source and we will have to turn to something else.
Hydropower is a great contender for the first spot and it could be whats powering our homes in the future.
This energy source can affect us in our lifetime in so many ways, like: powering our homes, cars, companies, and even
cities.

Most Surprising Finding?

Over 200,000 people have jobs because of hydroelectricity. With new technological advances in this field means more
jobs for more people.

Resources

"Hydropower Statistics." Statistic Brain RSS. Web. 6 Nov. 2014. <http://www.statisticbrain.com/hydropower-statistics/>.

"How Hydrokinetic Energy Works." Union of Concerned Scientists. Web. 6 Nov. 2014.
<http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/our-energy-choices/renewable-energy/how-hydrokinetic-energyworks.html#.VFsAE_nF_Uc>.

"Top 10 Things You Didn't Know about Hydropower." Energy.gov. Web. 6 Nov. 2014. <http://energy.gov/articles/top-10things-you-didnt-know-about-hydropower>.

"Energy.gov." History of Hydropower. Web. 6 Nov. 2014. <http://energy.gov/eere/water/history-hydropower>.


"Hydropower Facts, Hydropower Information- National Geographic." National Geographic. Web. 6 Nov. 2014.
<http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/hydropower-profile/>.