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KYMENLAAKSON AMMATTIKORKEAKOULU

Kymenlaakso University of Applied Sciences


Degree Programme in Marine Technology

Kai Holmroos

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MARITIME RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN


JACK-UP RIG MOVE OPERATIONS

Bachelors Thesis 2014

ABSTRACT

KYMENLAAKSON AMMATTIKORKEAKOULU
University of Applied Sciences
Degree Programme in Marine Technology

HOLMROOS, KAI

The Implementation of Maritime Resource Management in Jack-up Rig


Move Operations

Bachelors Thesis

82 pages + 25 appendices

Supervisor

Tapani Salmenhaara

September 2014
Keywords

jack-up rig, tug, offshore-towing, anchor handling, MRM

This thesis was composed to study the implementation of maritime resource


management within jack-up rig move operations. In addition, the moving process of a
jack-up rig and the common practices used from an anchor handling vessels point of
view are widely discussed.
The objective was to determine the common perception in various MRM related
questions within this offshore environment. This thesis aimed to question the
sustained and unrefuted methods in tug / tow-master interaction, expose the
inconsistencies and benefits of MRM within a complex setup and explore how various
drafted instructions are complied with in reality or experienced in practice.
A web based qualitative questionnaire was established, measuring opinion by
percentile proportion and ranking scales in addition to option for comments for each
question. Thirty respondents representing a wide scope of professions and
nationalities participated in the questionnaire.
The analyzed results indicated further maritime resource management implementation
possibilities in jack-up rig move operations. The key personnel such as tow-masters,
rig personnel and tug crew are ought to reconsider their roles from a maritime
resource management point of view. In addition, the authors are recommended
recognize their responsibility in writing accurate procedures, guidelines, books or
checklists, with legal status or superiority since the altering opportunities are limited
due to their time sensitive nature. The readers fundamental confidence is easily
misled.
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TIIVISTELM

KYMENLAAKSON AMMATTIKORKEAKOULU
Merenkulku

HOLMROOS, KAI

Merenkulun resurssien hallinnan toteutuminen ljynporauslauttojen


siirto-operaatioissa

Merikapteenity

82 sivua + 25 liitesivua

Tyn ohjaaja

Tapani Salmenhaara

Syyskuu 2014
Avainsanat

ljynporauslautta, hinaaja, offshore-hinaus, ankkurinksittely, MRM

Tm pttty on koottu tutkimaan merenkulun resurssien hallinnan toteutumista


ljynporauslauttojen siirto-operaatioissa. Lisksi ljynporauslauttojen siirtoprosessi ja
siin hydynnetyt yleiset kytnnt on kyty lpi kattavasti ankkurinksittelyaluksen
nkkulmasta.
Tavoitteena on selvitt yleisi ksityksi koskien merenkulun resurssien hallintaa
offshore-ympristss. Pttty pyrkii mys kyseenalaistamaan vakiintuneita ja
kiistattomina pidettyj hinaaja/tow-master-yhteistymenetelmi, osoittamaan hytyj
ja epjohdonmukaisuuksia monimutkaisessa offshore-ympristn resurssien
hallinnassa sek selvitt monien dokumentoitujen ohjeiden todenmukaista
noudattamista ja niihin suhtautumista.
Laadin internetpohjaisen kvalitatiivisen kyselytutkimuksen, joka mittasi mielipideeroja monivalinnoin, arvoasteikoin sek tarjoten prosentuaalisia eroja. Vastaajilla oli
mys mahdollisuus avoimesti kommentoida jokaista kysymyst erikseen.
Kolmekymment vastaajaa osallistui kyselyyn, ja he edustavat eri kansalaisuuksia ja
ammattialoja.
Tulokset viittasivat mahdollisuuksiin list merenkulun resurssien hallinnan
merkityst ljynporauslauttojen siirto-operaatioissa. Keskeinen henkilst, kuten towmasterit, ljynporauslautan sek hinaajien miehist voisivat uudelleen harkita
roolejaan merenkulun resurssien hallinnan nkkulmasta. Lisksi haluaisin
pernkuuluttaa toimintamenetelmien, ohjeiden, kirjojen sek tarkistuslistojen
kirjoittajien vastuuta heidn tuottaessa opastavaa ja laillisen statuksen omaavaa
sislt. Niiden muutosmahdollisuudet ovat rajalliset aineiston aikasidonnaisen
luonteen vuoksi ja lukijan luontainen luottamus tulee helposti harhaanjohdetuksi.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT
1 ABBREVIATIONS AND TERMS

2 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORY

2.1 History

2.2 Working Environment

10

2.2.1 Jack-up Rigs

10

2.2.2 Fixed Platforms

12

2.2.3 Subsea Installations

13

2.2.4 Anchor Handling Tug

14

3 COMMON PRACTICES IN JACK-UP RIG MOVES

16

3.1 Commercial Aspects

16

3.2 Operational Aspects

19

3.2.1 Vessel Features and Selection

19

3.2.2 Equipment

21

3.2.3 Anchors and Buoys

25

3.3 Vessel Certification

27

3.3.1 CMID

27

3.3.2 OVID

28

3.4 Crew Certification and Matrix

28

3.5 Rig move Procedures and Execution

29

3.5.1 Responsibilities and Insurance Policy

29

3.5.2 Weather Criteria

30

3.5.3 Departure and Arrival Locations

30

3.5.4 Emergency Jacking Locations

31

3.5.5 Towing Details

31

3.5.6 Departure Procedure

31

3.5.7 Transit Procedure

32
4

3.5.8 Emergency Procedure

32

3.5.9 Arrival to Standoff Position

32

3.6 Voyage Planning

34

3.7 Checklists

36

3.7.1 Rig

37

3.7.2 Vessels

38

3.7.3 Toolbox Talk

39

3.7.4 Risk Assessments

39

3.7.5 500 m Exclusion Zone

39

3.8 Chart Projection

40

3.8.1 UTM

40

3.8.2 ED1950

44

3.8.3 WGS84

44

3.8.4 Position and Datum Conversion

44

3.9 Offshore Positioning Methods

45

3.9.1 Survey Gear

45

3.9.2 Final Positioning Criteria

46

3.10 Redundancy

46

3.11 Sequence of Events

47

3.11.1 Positioning to Standoff Location

47

3.11.2 Preparations for Anchor Handling

48

3.11.3 Running the Anchors

50

3.12 Final Positioning

54

3.12.1 Anchor Recovery

54

4 QUESTIONNAIRE STUDY

56

4.1 Methods

56

4.2 Reliability

56

4.3 Validity

57

5 ANALYSIS

59
5

5.1 Q1 Are you familiar with the concept MRM - Maritime Resource
Management?
59
5.2 Q2 As tugs are connected to a jack-up rig - choose the options that best describe
the bridge team in terms of Maritime Resource Management (MRM)
59
5.3 Q3 Choose the personnel you think should be included in the bridge team.61
5.4 Q4 Do you feel the tow-master's actions are monitored in appropriate way?61
5.5 Q5 Do you believe the duties of a tow- master could be further delegated?62
5.6 Q6 As a tow-master I would be interested in...
64
5.7 Q7 The safety and fluency of a tug - rig interaction is best assured by focusing
on...
64
5.8 Q8 Given the rig is approaching standoff position and the tow-master is in
command. Describe your perception of the balance in influence between these two
roles (tow-master / tug) by selecting values on this ranking scale.
65
5.9 Q9 Does commercial pressure have any impact on your working performance?
66
5.10 Q10 The rest period regulations are strictly followed.
67
5.11 Q11 Should normal rest periods be compromised; on- duty rest for a short period
of time during non-critical phases of the job should be widely accepted and duly
acknowledged.
68
5.12 Q12 How would you describe the safety culture in your working environment?
68
5.13 Q13 I am ready to hand over my duties and controls to my second in command
officer, junior officer or trainee, to promote training and share responsibilities with
future prospects.
71
5.14 Q14 Building a good confidence to use the full array of bridge / pilot house
equipment takes practice and should be utilized as often as reasonable
72
5.15 Q15 Jack-up rig move procedures
73
5.16 Q16 General verbal communication
74
5.17 Q17 Risk assessment and toolbox talk
74
6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

76

7 SELF-ASSESSMENT

76

8 EPILOGUE

77

SOURCES

78

FIGURES

80

ATTACHMENTS

82

____________________________________________________________________________
1 ABBREVIATIONS AND TERMS
AD HOC

Latin phrase, translating in this context to: "for this job specifically".

AHT

Anchor Handling Tug

AHTS

Anchor Handling Tug / Supplier

BIMCO

The Baltic and International Maritime Council

BP

Bollard Pull (usually measured in metric tons)

CMID

Common Marine Inspection Document

DEMOB

Demobilization, charter related term ref. to costs or geographical point

DP

Dynamic Positioning

ED50

European Datum 1950

FIXTURE

Conclusion of shipbrokers negotiations to charter a ship an agreement

GOMO

Guidelines for Offshore Marine Operations (NWEA replacement 2014-)

HFO

Heavy Fuel Oil

LUB

Lubrication oil

MGO

Marine Gas Oil

MGRS

Military Grid Reference System

MSF

Maritime Safety Forum, An incident reporting system, guideline author

MOB

Mobilization, charter related term ref. to costs or geographical point

NWEA

North West European Guidelines

OCIMF

Oil Companies International Marine Forum

OIM

Offshore Installation Manager

OMC

Offshore Marine Contractors

OVID

Offshore Vessel Inspection Database

ROV

Remotely Operated Vehicle

SG

Specific Gravity (e.g. metric tonnes / m)

SWL

Safe Working Load or Safety Weight Limit

TMS

Tug Management System, position information sharing utility

Tow-master Overall responsibility moving the rig (ship vs. pilot)


UTM

Universal Transverse Mercator co-ordinate system

VHF

Very High Frequency radio band

WGS84

World Geodetic System 84 Datum


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2 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORY


The background behind this study was to explore the implementation of maritime
resource management in jack-up rig move operations. The broad selection of material,
personal familiarity and proximity with this branch drove my decision making
process.
I chose to write the thesis in English because the offshore industry is nonexistent in
the northern Europe and expertise could therefore only be found through an
international approach. Additionally, offshore vocabulary would have had posed some
serious difficulties in terms of translation.
The main objective was to study the implementation of maritime resource
management in jack-up rig moving operations. This was carried out by establishing a
qualitative questionnaire in order to
a) To expose and to demonstrate the inconsistencies and benefits of
Maritime Resource Management implementation within jack-up rig
move environment.
b) To question the sustained and unrefuted methods in tow-master / tug
interaction
c) To resolve priorities in complying drafted instructions and how
various maritime resources are managed in practice
A secondary by-product of this thesis is to progress through the details of common
practice in jack-up rig moves and provide an initial assistance to new or seasoned
mariners in orientating to this branch from an anchor handling vessels point of view.
It is worth noting that the following key concepts all address the same topic and may
therefore be treated as synonyms.
MRM Maritime Resource Management
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MCRM Maritime Crew Resource Management


BRM Bridge Resource Management
The subject of this thesis was confined to the description of common practices used in
jack-up rig moves and the human performance aspects involved in it. Technical
details, oil drilling and area specific phenomena were either minimized or excluded
from this text.
Jack-up rigs together with tugs employ a large number of people vulnerable to
misunderstandings, human errors and cultural differences. Industry characteristic
features and implementation of Maritime Resource Management within jack-up rig
moves was studied through a qualitative questionnaire. These questions measured
opinion by percentile proportion or ranking scales in addition to option for comments
for each question. Thirty respondents participated in the questionnaire through a web
link.
The prominent intensions were to analyze the results, point out the observations and
generate recommendations by resorting to a selection of MRM-material such as
Bridge Resource Management for Small Ships.
The description part is an attempt to bring together topics in jack-up rig moves by
unfolding the process of moving a jack-up rig from one offshore location to another in
a chronologic order while representing a scale of variations. Emphasis is put on
combining the large variety of material available on individual themes covered either
to their full extent or excessively generalized, while only a few describes how various
phases are linked together.
2.1 History
In the early 20th century, the increasing scarcity of natural resources impelled man to
develop novel means for easier access to oil. Land based oil drilling was already
utilized. Many nations urgently constituted exclusive economic zones to maximize the
pace against other countries. The technological development dragged decades behind
the unrecognized rising economic benefits, hence the zoning imbalance. Norway is a
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good example of how the gross domestic product has since the 1960s shaped its way
on top of the world almost single handedly due to export oil. Even wars, the ultimate
reason for technological development were started over oil.
The story of jack-up rigs begins in the mid 1950s, in fact before the huge potential for
offshore oil extraction was recognized. The first self-elevating units were built in
1954. At the time, it was a random event to actually finding any oil. Initially jack-up
rigs were deployed close to the shoreline into shallow waters where the presence of oil
was self-evident. Approximately a decade later the deployment progressed further to
open sea as the level of knowledge and skills started to support even more inventive
means. (Rigzone 2014)
The early stages of offshore oil industry focused more on efficiency and quantities
drilled. Accidents or near catastrophes were not that unusual to occur, not to mention
the overall standard at the time did not exactly promote environmental protection any
more than safe working practices. Many mishaps well beyond increasing
environmental awareness threshold, has shaped what the industry has developed into
and what it is headed towards. No capital is spared developing new technology.
Business is now more than just production rates and money. Safety and reputation
have improved parallel among priorities and opportunities of course ultimately
translating into profit.
2.2 Working Environment
2.2.1 Jack-up Rigs
Todays typical jack-up rig consists of a superstructure with 3-6 legs. The term jackup refers to the legs upon which the hull is raised above the waterline. The unit is
moved by raising the legs, which puts the construction afloat. Jack-up rigs are not selfpropelled.
The unit has its own generators for power production, storages, tanks, manifold,
chemical stores, pipelines, accommodation, helicopter-deck, rescue appliances, radio-

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room, pilothouse, jacking control room, cranes or a drill with a cantilever beam and
other appliances needed to complete the work.
In comparison with a ship being dry-docked, the rig is the opposite. Only the period
when the unit is elevated generates revenue moving the rig is necessary but rather
expensive and the risks are high. The assumption of a jack-up rig being a sea-going
vessel is most unwise. The normal perils of the sea represent an alien environment for
the rig while afloat (Hancox 1993, Jack-up Moving: 10).

Figure 1. Jack-up Rig

Figure 1 above shows a modern 3-leg jack-up rig with cranes. The drilling unit with
the cantilever beam is extended on top of the yellow platform. The unit is elevated to a
safe working air gap. On the opposite side of the cantilever beam is the helideck.
Moving such a unit takes great effort and co-operation. A large number of
crewmembers are involved. Working practices have dramatically changed since the
1950s. Automation and technological solutions have never been as highly utilized.
Nevertheless, the basic functions remain.
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Modern rigs are more functional, and larger variety of work is carried out by jack-ups
they are not only limited to oil drilling anymore. Many are used as service platforms
for various offshore installations such as wind farms or pumping stations, while others
serve as support for the building of fixed stations. Since the early years, the tools have
become bigger, better, more complex and durable. Many of the systems are now more
technologically advanced and the significance of redundancy and duplication have
been discovered since the 1950s.
Given the rigs size it accommodates a rather large number of personnel. The majority
of the personnel is involved in the rigs primary function oil drilling. Once the rig
needs to be moved, dispensable crew is dismissed and diverse roles are assumed.
Specialized extra-personnel, such as tow-master, surveyors, client and marinerepresentatives join the rig. See attachment 1 for further details about standard crew
configuration.
2.2.2 Fixed Platforms

Figure 2. Platform Helwin Alpha

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Figure 2 Illustrates the final construction phase of the yellow platform supported by a
jack-up rig with a crane. This specific platform functions as an offshore wind-farm
electricity switch station in the German sector.
Such fixed platforms are built for long-term use on feasible locations, limited by water
depths up to approximately 500 meters. The structure is fixed to the seabed and cannot
be moved. Fixed platforms often function as pumping stations or as hubs to
submerged oil pipes. With a connection to shoreline, they can also serve as initial
petroleum processing stations. Platforms in active use are manned. (Global Security).
The position of a fixed platform is marked on maps together with the platforms name
and often a number/letter combination referring to an offshore block location. For
safety, they all have a 500 m exclusion zone.
The majority of all jack-up rig units are moved in or out of the platform proximity
utilizing the anchors discussed in Chapter 3.
2.2.3 Subsea Installations
Other subsea installations besides fixed platforms include manifolds, wells, pipelines,
mooring-points and sensors. A subsea well is a drilled hole in the seabed ready for oil
extraction and is maintained using jack-up rigs. The maintenance of manifold,
pipelines and sensors may be carried out for example, using the jack-up rig as a basestation for a ROV (Seaworks).

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2.2.4 Anchor Handling Tug

Figure 3. Anchor Handling Tug / Supplier

Anchor handling tugs are purpose built vessels for offshore and especially rig moving
duties, able to deploy and recover 3rd party anchors. AHTs features towing abilities
and accommodates a selection of equipment and hardware allowing the handling of
heavy anchors, buoys and wires in a safe manner.
The towing abilities may be utilized in numerous applications, not limited to offshore
operations alone. The variable tow wire lengths used are normally between 50-500
meters, while total capacity may exceed 1000m entailing restricted maneuverability
under towing conditions.
An AHT is more maneuverable than average freighter ship. Additional features may
represent firefighting capabilities with powerful FiFi-monitors, often driven by the
main engine.
Size dependent, AHTs may carry out cargo runs, crew changes and provide standby
readiness for various offshore locations such as platforms, rigs and semisubmersible
units.
Should the normal freighters be compared through their cargo carrying capacity, the
equivalent benchmark in towing environment is the Bollard Pull (BP), often measured
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in metric tons. Inconspicuous features such as Dynamic Positioning capabilities


determine the vessels abilities to cope with the highest offshore positioning demands.
Depending on the size and working environment an AHT is normally manned with 615 crewmembers. More than 30 may be accommodated on the largest units, however
the routine anchor handling duties may be carried out with a relatively small crew.
Due to the notoriously large power to size ratio, AHTs are often ideal for carrying out
icebreaking duties as well.

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3 COMMON PRACTICES IN JACK-UP RIG MOVES


3.1 Commercial Aspects
The logistics chain set in motion a by a jack-up rig move is impressive. A single
operation may involve several charter parties responsible for hiring personnel,
logistics, subcontractors and supplies, for example. The following will only describe
the distinctive pattern in hiring tugs.
First of all, planning the move of a jack-up rig starts well before the tugs are chosen
for the job. Oil companies, the owners of the rigs normally hire a team and the
maritime knowledge that comes with it from a 3rd party. There are rig specific tailor
made procedures for each move. When the destination and timeframe have been
decided, the charterers can start offering the job to tug companies. Expenses are
determined based on the tugs main features, such as HFO/MGO consumption, BP,
and vessel size. There is no discount for hiring a large vessel. The following
paragraphs are describing the charter parties role in more detail.
Tugs and especially AHT tugs are often operating on a spot-market for a reason.
There is hardly enough work for a fleet of AHTs inside a single company. Large
corporations are the exception here, and even they may have to tender their AHTs to
outside operators in order to compensate for the costly upkeep.
A common charter party used is BIMCO and its sub-agreement supplytime 2005. The
bill of lading does not apply under supplytime 2005 unless otherwise stated ad hoc.
(Simon Rainey, 2012). The demand for the features of the tug can be dictated by
insurance policy as well as the planned scope of work. Vessels within reasonable
distance minimizing mobilization and demobilization costs are naturally in a better
position for returning the offers. There are numerous possibilities for chartering
agreements varying from lump sums to daily rates and combinations of the two with
possible compensations. In-house chartering terms can be used to complement or
replace the BIMCO frame, for example. Additional terms of insurance deductibles
may apply. A mundane additional clause between tug and tow could for instance
declare a mutual agreement of waiving the right for compensation from each other
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should an accident occur. Chartering terms in the offshore industry normally include
the following:
-

Conditions and rules to be met for on hire, or reference to charter party rule.

Daily rates, mob/demob costs, economic fuel consumption, lub and bunker rates

BP

Features and equipment

Operational capability 24 hours / 7 days a week

Two men bridge-watch readiness

Valid audits and certification, e.g. CMID,OVID, MSF-data, crew experience and
certification matrix

Two-week bunker and supplies endurance

Up-coming crew changes announced

Representing and bolstering sufficient stability for the proposed work to be carried
out

Compliance with charterers safety policy, inspections and NWEA / GOMO


(Shell Charter Party, 2014)

As the chartering agreement is nearing fixture the concept daily rate needs to be
further explained. Bunkers and lubricant oils are paid separately, or lubricant oils are
incorporated into mobilization/demobilization costs. If no MOB/DEMOB exists, the
consumables are incorporated into the daily rate. The daily rates materializing on spot
market vs long term market tend to be higher in general. Vessel availability in certain
areas sometimes creates very profitable contracts. Hiring a tug for long term could
yield under such conditions, even if the vessel was idling for some of the time. The
market demand status may quickly shift from very quiet to a lack of available vessels.
It is possible to have as much as 300% difference in daily rates between sister ships in
a consecutive two weeks period.

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Should a broker be involved, a commission, usually 2.5%, is included. Alternatively,


if there are various services involved and commissions are overlapping, the
MOB/DEMOB can be adjusted functioning as a buffer to balance unfair trade. Such
cases could include direct continuation of chartering to another sublet, or the changing
destination of redelivery where equal distance would apply. Perhaps there is a
deadline for a redelivery in order to commence work for another charterer.
Allow me to quote a professional concerning the concept 1st Refusal. This
expression has many different meanings in a variety of professions. A precise
explanation within the offshore chartering context is essential.
First refusal used in a brokering context is a verbal agreement between the broker
and the boat owners at the request of the Client. When their vessel is of interest but we
cannot commit to hiring it at that time. *
The way it works is if there is any interest from a 3rd party for the vessel the boat
owner is obliged to call us and give us that first right of refusal. At this point if they
are calling it should be because the 3rd party 100% wants to charter the boat not
because someone else asked about it but is not ready to charter it there and then. So
we must ask our client to make their choice of chartering the boat from that point or
turn down the boat and let it go to the 3rd party.
* E.g. - In a normal situation a rig move might be 4 days away, the client already
knows which boats they want but financially they dont want to start paying for boats
4 days before the work begins, so they ask us to take a first right of refusal between
the owners and ourselves. Now they might save 3 days financially on each boat if they
are lucky or they may only save 6 hours on a boat before they have to commit, they
also have the ability to cancel the first right Refuse if suddenly the move is delayed
further or cancelled without financial penalty as most offers unless stated otherwise
have a minimum of 24 hours hire to protect the Owners.
When agreeing a first right of refusal sometimes a duration is asked e.g. first right of
refusal for 48 hours, When the duration is up if not already chartered or refused you
can negotiate an additional duration. (Hugo Westveer, OMC Operations)
For long-term contracts, it is common to choose partners with at least some history
with working together. Should the parameters described in the following chapter be
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met, contracts are fixed by the tug companies in the right place at the right time and
returning offers with convenient daily rates / lump sums.

3.2 Operational Aspects


A widespread standard is to hire 2-3 tugboats. Insurance companies have
predetermined the minimum total BP required in conjunction with wind area. With the
minimum BP available, the unit should be at least in theory maneuverable within the
maximum weather criteria given in the procedures.
A good example is 180 t total BP and for the leading-tug minimum 80-100 t. With
three tugboats, the configuration usually includes one or two AHTs and one to two
offshore certified harbor tugs (Seafox 2 procedures 2013-0910WN). For shorter
moves with smaller weather window required, two AHTs is a common choice as both
can participate in anchor deploying minimizing the overall on-hire time. Additionally,
the timeframe is no issue once the rig is in place and anchor recovery can be carried
out with just one AHT.
3.2.1 Vessel Features and Selection
Outside the regular rig moves, common features the vessel charterers are interested in
include deck area in square meters, tank capacity for cargo purposes and wire drum
capacities. General endurance consists of the following factors: crew rotation, stores,
provision, fresh water, bunkers. With endurance in question, there is no need to state
exact figures but the master usually declares the maximum timeframe for the intended
voyage prior to need for replenishment.
Although bollard pull is a major factor, the maximum BP alone is an inadequate
attribute, as fuel economy is a direct consequence of engine power. Dynamic
Positioning capability can affect the daily rate on which a vessel is hired. Unless
supply duties are combined with tow and anchor handling duties, DP-vessels features
are not necessarily needed.
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Due to the outside forces generated by the tow- or anchor-wire, dynamic positioning
cannot or should not be used while the towing wire is connected to the rig. No
computer logic existing today is able to adapt or anticipate variable dynamic loads
created by towlines. The problem with writing such algorithms for computer
controlled maneuvering is that it occurs as a result of human action a random
decision with no predictability or linearity unlike the weather or current for example
(Ian Clark, 2005).
According to captain / tow-master Rob Breure tow-masters attend the tug selection
dialogue by providing the numbers for the minimum BP, given it is feasible in terms
of financial and insurance policy. Some tugs are more maneuverable than others; the
structure of the vessel is something that cannot be substantially modified. Finding a
perfect match for the job is not important here. However, some level of minimum
capabilities and features in a long term is vital. It is a matter of scoring the best on
the list of what is available. Tow-masters if anyone are fully aware of whom they
should be working with based on previous experience. This does not apply to tugs
alone, the crew and especially the masters performance is observed as well.
Tugboats are often pitching and rolling terribly in heavy seas in a safe way. They are
designed with initial high GM in ballast condition to ensure sufficient stability in all
towing conditions. A typical design flaw is good stability in fully fueled condition and
insufficient Gravity point to Metacenter (GM) leverage in light condition. This of
course is in conflict with the endurance requirement.
Other factors reducing productivity are design flaws with in the hull and layout of the
equipment. The stern roller could simply be situated too high from the water level
reducing visibility from the bridge. Propellers may be too exposed or vulnerable for
anchor handling. The position of the capstans, pins, rollers or towing-gog may not
provide desired leverage.
The anchor handling gear is normally carried onboard the rig during the transit. It
could also be rental equipment from ashore. Occasionally, an adequate deck space is
questionable should the rig request the AHT to carry the equipment onboard during
the tow. Deck cargo should be arranged in such a way that the towing wire has the
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space to swing around from one side to another on a 180 envelope. High crash rails
enable some overlay and space for the wire to swing above the deck cargo. A deck
with sufficient capacity to load all anchor handling gear at once saves time as well by
omitting extra loading cycles from the rig.
3.2.2 Equipment
Equipment onboard an AHT can for example include tow-wire, spare tow-wire,
stretcher, pennants, shackles, hinge links, grapnel, J-chaser or J-lock chaser, chain,
pelican hook, pins or shark jaws, towing gog, any chain stopper, (karman fork, triplex
stopper) and a roller.
Normally the basic equipment needed to complete the work is provided from the rig
such as; anchors, buoys, pennants, shackles and chains. Here is a brief overview of the
most basic tools:

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Figure 4. Commonly used 64 mm tow-wire

Figure 5. Stretcher

Figure 6. Shackles

Figure 7. Hinge link

Figure 8. Hard eye pennant

Figure 9. Fish plate

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Figure 10. Grapnel

Figure 11. J-Hook

Figure 12 & 13. Pins with red top and shark jaws in red, roller in yellow

Figure 14. Karm Fork and Pins

Figure 15. Smit Bracket

Shackles are often color coded into their correspondent safe working load - SWL. A
common certification interval is 25, 35, 43, 55, 85 and 120 tons (Hancox, 1992).
Hinge links or Kenter links are used to minimize clinging over regular shackles with
pins. Grapnel and J-Hook are mostly used in deep water or special recovery operations
by simply dragging them behind and waiting for them to catch on wire.
23

Pins and a fork or equivalent are a minimum requirement to carry out risk free duties.
They hold the tow or working wires still and relief tension enabling deck crew to
safely work around them. Figures 12 14 illustrate at least two different branches of
equipment. The Karm fork utilizes inserts in order to fit a varying scale of wires and
chains. A Smit Bracket is a strong hold alternative to a regular bollard. With the Smit
Bracket the SWL is more than doubled.

Tow-wires and spare wires should be identical and certified. Certification provides
detailed information on weight to length ratio, structure and they prove that the tow
and spare wires have been test loaded. Common sizes vary between 48 120 mm in
diameter. Decision on wire strengths should always be consistent with the drum
spooling capacity, winch pulling and brake holding force.
Water depth, displacement of the unit towed and weather determine the features and
length selected for the tow-line used. The stretcher is used to compensate against
spikes in tension in high seas. Heavier tow-wires are stable and produce less
twitching. Lighter wires require less drum capacity, and handling on deck is smooth
and safe. Pennants provide modularity and compatibility connecting wires varying in
size, weight and methods of affixing.
To illustrate the idea of just how complex the connection between a tug and a rig can
be, here is a breakdown in a realistic sequence: tug wire socket - shackles
stretcher shackles hard/hard-eye pennant- shackles bridle shackles
fishplate - shackles chain shackles - hard/soft-eye pennant fairlead / Smit
Bracket or bollard - rig. Connecting all this by manual labor means it is no surprise
that wire related accidents are a major concern on tugboats (Seafox 2 procedures
2013-0910/WN).
Tow-wire, of whatever size and diameter, has another indirect impact on navigation.
The heavier the wire, the more tension is required to keep it from touching the bottom.
This induces a challenge on slow-down maneuvers. Spooling the wire in often takes
time, preparations and extra hands.

24

3.2.3 Anchors and Buoys


The enlisted equipment in the last paragraph is used to serve one purpose: to safely
handle large - scale heavy equipment such as anchors, wires and buoys.

Anchors in particular exist in all shapes and sizes. Their holding and handling
properties are well worth a discussion. Anchor size and type are chosen based on
holding requirements. The seabed features have a direct impact on how easily the
anchor will dig into the bottom. Certainly soft clay will not generate as many concerns
as rocky slope. A slip bottom unfortunately is usually not subject to our choices and
extra chain or heavy stevpris-type anchors are sometimes required to gain a grip
(Hancox, 1993).

Figure 16. Offshore Anchors 1

Figure 17. Offshore Anchors 2

25

As Figure 17 shows, most of the anchors in the offshore industry are adjustable.
Fluke-angles are set according to the seabed features. If the seabed features are
known, the anchor selection can be based on that knowledge. A hard bottom will not
allow penetration at extreme fluke angles, and then again angles too small will not
allow the anchor to dig in deep enough, risking a pop-up. There is a fluke angle vs
seabed features matrix for every anchor type. Stevpris for example is stable and
provides the best holding force. A Bruce-type anchor however, digs into the seabed
every time. With Stevpris however, it is always a concern whether the anchor has
landed in the bottom upside down providing zero drag (Marine safety forum).
Always the desired anchor types are not available, or the tug may not be able to
handle them. Additional chains or piggy-back arrangements can be used in such cases.
A piggyback extends the connection by connecting additional anchor(s) in the end
not only increasing the hold but making use of the extra weight.
Riser pennants, chosen according to the water depth, connect the anchors to the buoys.
Heavy duty offshore buoys are deployed to indicate the approximate position of the
anchors. Offshore buoys are equipped with gussets connected to a weight distributing
flanges which allow light loads to be applied on them upon recovery.

Figure 18. Offshore Buoy

The buoys are made with highest quality closed-cel PE/EVA foam. This resilient
foam make the buoys self fendering with high impact absorption capacity. Even the
skin was punctured, it also is unsinkable without absorbing water. With our unique
26

laminating process, each foam core is integrity. The foam core cannot be ruptured
after long time service (Ever Green Maritime).
3.3 Vessel Certification
Besides the common trading certificates required of all seagoing vessels, offshore tugs
need to be BP certified. The BP certification test is carried out based on criteria set by
classification societies. Bollard pull, rating refers to the maximum continuous force
the tug is able to hold for at least one hour. All normal utilities such as main engine
driven pumps and generators remain connected affecting the result in the end. This
figure is nevertheless important for vessel marketing purposes.
Other certificates relevant to AHT vessels are extra crew member capacity, man
overboard recovery capability, firefighting capability and DP classification. Should
AHTs carry out supply or extensive standby duties, the following may be questioned
as well: container capacity, tank capacity and its certified maximum Specific Gravity
in liaison with the Certificate of Fitness.
3.3.1 CMID
According to IMCA, the Common Marine Inspection Document, CMID, can be
considered an inspection report for the vessel similar to a Port State Control
Document tailored to offshore vessels. Emphasis is put not only on the vessels
observable condition, but also on whether the required safety, health, environment and
technical standards are exercised on the tug. It needs to be evident that the industry
procedures and guidelines are followed.
The CMID certificate has no legal status and a vessel not holding the certificate can be
just as seaworthy, properly manned and potent as any. This is an additional
requirement established by the commercial operators promoting universal safe and
efficient working practices. A similar system exists in the tanker environment: vetting
inspections carried out to help the charter parties make the best choice.

27

It is of great importance that such inspections are carried out by independent


contractors. Therefore, it is not uncommon to see an Asian individual inspecting
European vessel and vice versa.
3.3.2 OVID
The Offshore Vessel Inspection Database, OVID, is the future replacement of CMID.
The Oil Companies International Marine Forum suggests it has a number of benefits
over the CMID. The OVID is a database instead of piece of paper. It is planned to be a
living document whereby vessel owners can showcase their vessel capabilities and
inspectors can implement their remarks on the same database. This information can
then be shared or sold as needed.
The idea is to keep the information as up to date as possible. There is no need for a
remark to denigrate a vessels reputation, if the problem can be sorted out sooner than
what inspection interval decrees. The problem with the CMID is that this vessel
specific document needs to be requested by the charterers in order to review the
vessel. A database on the other hand is instantly updated for everyone and details of
other vessel are available to standard users as well (OCIMF).
3.4 Crew Certification and Matrix
Although not mandatory, a DP certificate may be needed depending on vessel type.
DP is a common feature in offshore vessels. However, this feature is utilized in
numerous other applications not limited to rig related operations alone. DP is a
complex science and a topic on its own, therefore the relevant factors are only briefly
discussed in this paper.
A standard STCW-certification is required from the personnel. Currently, the vessel
minimum safe manning certificate fulfills the need. The common perception is that
this is going to change at some point. Tankers, ropax, and passenger ships for example
all have their own required special certification. The DP is a good example of what
used to be a certificate exclusively for the offshore industry and nowadays its use has

28

widely extended outside this context. The latest STCW Manila amendments indicate
increasingly specialized certification to be introduced in the future.
What is more interesting is the crew experience matrix often required by the
charterers. The idea is to establish a minimum combined level of experience onboard.
This can be considered as risk assessment on its own. As an example, it can be
required that the master and the chief officer share a minimum of 3 years worth of
experience between them. The same rules apply to the engine department as well.
Each department should have at least one member familiar with operating the vessel
inside his department. His second in command should be able to fulfill his position if
needed, granted, with small vessels this may be impossible to accomplish as one crew
member inside a department could represent the entire other half. MSF sheet or
Maritime Safety Forum form covers this by providing a matrix to be filled in (KRS).
3.5 Rig move Procedures and Execution
Procedures written for each rig move are extensive and detailed. The following
paragraphs are an overview of OMC rig move procedures which normally should be
carefully studied in conjunction with North West European Guidelines (NWEA) and
rig specific manual prior to the move. [OMC/RMP/2012/07/10 Ensco 80], [20110406/WN Noble Byron Welliver], [2013-0705/WN Atlantic Rotterdam].
3.5.1 Responsibilities and Insurance Policy
The initial information in the introduction paragraph of a rig move procedure states
the name of the rig, the location of the move, the charter parties and where the
possible change of charter party is taking place. Various responsibilities are explained
in more detail, for example the specific duties of an OIM, jacking engineer, towmaster, warranty surveyor, marine representative, position surveyor and tug master
(OMC/RMP/2012/07/10 Ensco 80).
Insurance policy has a great significance in the decision making process regarding the
tug configuration and weather criteria. One person the warranty surveyor is
dedicated to supervising the implementation of the procedures from the insurers point
29

of view. Tugs must meet the minimum bollard pull capability, weather criteria must
be met with, and safe working practices must be followed. The warranty surveyor is
one of the persons who can always call a stop should a potential risk be recognized.
3.5.2 Weather Criteria
Weather criteria may be given for both jacking operations and open sea passage.
Jacking the legs down against the bottom of the sea is a delicate process and allows
for little heaving or rolling movement. Should the wave or swell period exceed the
rigs hull cross length the unit starts to roll. For open sea passage some rolling is
acceptable, but for jacking operations a more sheltered location must be found or
weather is to be waited out. For this very reason forecasts need to be examined well
prior to and during a move. A quote from a Seafox 2-Procedures allows for a better
understanding of the weather scale acceptable for departure or arrival:
Maximum significant sea state 1.5 meters, visibility no less than 500 meters, wave or
swell maximum period of 6 seconds, wind speed 14-18 knots, favorable weather
window for xx hours prior to departure
For weather sensitive operations such as departure and arrival, a strict adherence to the
weather minima and following the operational manual restrictions is justified.
Whereas during a long term tow, greater wind speed is often acceptable, provided that
the tug is able to hold the unit and the wire length is sufficient.

3.5.3 Departure and Arrival Locations


DEP/ARR locations (see attachments 1 & 2) include detailed coordinates, water
depth, seabed analysis, expected leg penetration, prevailing current and wind, tidal
range and information, rig heading, position tolerance, obstructions, sailing distances
to relevant ports and distances to heliports (Seafox 2 procedures 2013-0910WN).

30

3.5.4 Emergency Jacking Locations


Emergency jacking locations must be considered for longer tows. They might have to
be used for sheltering the weather or resolving a technical difficulty. The easiest way
is to browse through the past locations where the rig or its sister ship has been jacked.
This minimizes the risk in entering non-surveyed locations and perhaps makes use of
existing footprints (2011-0406/WN Noble Byron Welliver).
3.5.5 Towing Details
Towing details provides the towing distance. An expected towing speed is estimated.
A time frame for tidal current sensitive arrival is displayed. A sketchy plan for
weather window minima vs expected duration of each working phase is outlined. Any
possible remarks affecting the schedule are usually stated in this context. Expected
towing speed lower than usual or a short period of transit allowing for inadequate rest
periods are issues worth review (2011-0406/WN Noble Byron Welliver).
3.5.6 Departure Procedure
Departure procedure outlines the sequence of events. The checklists and toolbox
triggering points are discussed. It is outlined what working phases are subject to risk
assessment. The exact change of charterer and consumable recording point is brought
up. This can actually read as a checklist:
-

crosschecking weather window

securing the cranes

tug connection, pennants to be used, connection build, configuration

shutdown requirements

leg raising sequence

watertight integrity checks

informing the authorities


31

(Seafox 2 procedures 2013-0910WN)


3.5.7 Transit Procedure
Similar to the departure procedure, this is a written sequence which can be read as a
checklist:
- tug reconfiguring
- tow-master handing over navigational responsibilities to leading tug
- adjusting tow wire lengths for open sea passage
- issuing navigational warnings
- following agreed waypoints and minimum object clearances
- observing weather and studying forecasts always ready to divert for shelter
- filling in progress reports
- adjusting ETA towards the end
(2013-0705/WN Atlantic Rotterdam)
3.5.8 Emergency Procedure
The emergency procedure is essentially the same as arrival procedure in the next
paragraph however, it is discussed in an improvising manner and applied as a general
guideline providing shorten up distances, legs lowering schedule, tug reconfiguration,
current setting, plan for an approach line, checklists to be completed, notifying
appropriate parties. The provided information in this section has no reference to time
or location (Seafox 2 procedures 2013-0910WN).
3.5.9 Arrival to Standoff Position
Arrival can be split into two phases: arrival to standoff and final locations. The latter
is further discussed later as it includes the phases of anchor handling procedure
between. Thoroughly done ETA adjustment allows for shortening the tow wires and
32

slowing down in time without losing the tidal opportunity. If the unit is brought
alongside to a platform a VHF contact by the rig should be established early on to
discuss shutdown requirements, recording events and special arrangements where
platform personnel might be needed. Tugs are normally reconfigured to star formation
while closing in on the standoff location (Seafox 2 procedures 2013-0910WN).
Standoff is usually located just a few hundred feet from the final location.
As the unit is closing in on the final approach line (if such exists), a toolbox talk and
risk assessment are carried out. As a part of entering the 500 m exclusion zone,
redundancy is maximized. Tugs are prepared to their full maneuvering readiness, both
steering gear are selected on, thrusters are fired up, accessory hydraulics are turned on,
navigation systems are checked, communications are checked and all stations are
properly manned.
The heads-up for entering the 500 m zone can be deemed equal to vessel berthing
preparations. Once everything is up and running and checklists are complete, a
permission to enter is granted and recorded on the logbook.
Rig heading and position in mind, the unit is pinned to the stand-off position. The rig
personnel go through some additional checklists such as water integrity checks. The
preload procedure should be initiated without delay in order to use the cranes for
further phases of the work. Once the unit is standing stable against the bottom, the last
tug may be released for anchor handling preparations, while rig finishes off the
preload. TMS or Tug Management System is transferred and installed at this point if it
has not been done earlier (2013-0705/WN Atlantic Rotterdam).
The rig move procedures are composed with the following items
Anchor handling procedure (discussed in 4.14), possible spanset
arrangements,
Final Positioning procedure: anchors test loaded, current setting, weather
criteria, platform shut-in requirements met, survey and deck crew in standby,
connecting tugs, jacking down, pinning the rig with in position criteria,
33

position approval, raising the unit to an appropriate air gap and releasing the
tugs, preload, anchor recovery, notifying authorities
Further details of anchor connection, survey equipment, weather forecasts and
environmental criteria, location approval, possible ROV equipment, remarks
on key personnel and communication details, administrative requirements
Generally amended in the end is the tide tables, passage plan, unit drawings,
scheme drawings, unit elevation drawings, seabed data and charts with a
survey statement, anchor plan, possible buoy catenary points, illustrating
images, management of change form
([OMC/RMP/2012/07/10 Ensco 80], [2011-0406/WN Noble Byron
Welliver],[2013-0705/WN Atlantic Rotterdam])
Consider the above as a compact illustration of the rig move procedure contents.
Procedures may vary from 30-150 pages of detailed heavy information which is a vast
number of details to comprehend in a short period of time. Complex figures and
sequences are burdensome reading, most of the comprehending responsibility falls on
tow-masters in overall responsibility of the rig move. Ideally it is not deemed
necessary to remember the contents by heart but rather cover the sections
synchronized with the actual phases of work.
3.6 Voyage Planning
The voyage plan for a rig move, as stated above, is initially planned in the procedures.
Regular transit voyage planning for the tugs is omitted in this context since it is done
globally in identical manner. However, it is worthwhile to review what makes rig
move voyage planning special.
The following paragraphs describes the primary ingredients to proper towing voyage
plan in reference to rig move procedures [2013-0910/WN Seafox 2],
[OMC/RMP/2011/07/08 Ensco 92] and [2012-0611/WN Noble Ronald Hoope].

34

The initial position information provided in liaison with the chartering query is often
rather vague. Without the procedures the departure and arrival positions often need to
be found with block designators, (see attachment 4) or by searching with platform or
oilfield name.
With the procedures available, the waypoint coordinates are put in and double
checked as in any voyage plan, e.g. under keel clearance (UKC), safe passing
distances, optimization and nav-text messages in force affecting the route.
Transit length in nautical miles is reviewed against a variety of expected towing
speeds and timeframes. Potential emergency jacking locations are copied as per
procedures to the electronic chart interface.
Agreed waypoints may be altered for better optimization. The vessel traffic service
(VTS) or pilots may have their own requirements for shifting waypoints. Nonessential
waypoints may be omitted. However, any changes should be discussed and approved
by the tow-master and participating vessels should be informed (2012-0611/WN
Noble Ronald Hoope).
Authority approvals and reporting responsibilities should be clarified. The rig will
normally look after the authority approvals, while the VTS-reports are on the leading
tugs responsibility, often reporting in the assisting tugs as well.
Schedule for desired ETD/ETA needs to be endorsed by the tow-master as there could
be constraints to daylight operations only (OMC/RMP/2011/07/08 Ensco 92).
A tidal timing should be discussed since various sources may indicate diverging
information and the most reliable source must be sought. To allow a safe departure
and arrival, the current should be setting away from structures should a blackout
occur, resulting in a loss of maneuverability (OMC/RMP/2011/07/08 Ensco 92).

35

The minimum weather window required is written in the procedures, however a close
examination of forecasts is part of the standard voyage preparations. The latest
forecast should always be studied since the tug crew may asked an opinion of the
expected weather conditions.
A complete voyage plan from a tug perspective includes stability information
calculated, bunkering, provision and possible crew changes to be carried out prior to
the departure in order to meet the endurance requirements.
3.7 Checklists
Checklists are carried out onboard both the rig and the tugs. Often the homespun
checklists created by those involved in the heart of operations are viable. The purpose
of checklist is to ensure that the minimum steps are taken to safely carry out the work.
They are not supposed to be detailed or explanatory. Manuals and guidelines should
include such information.
Nevertheless, a good checklist leaves no room for interpretation. Consider Engine
room manning vs. Engine room watch keeping engineer on station. The latter
should be favored for clarity.
Universal references should always be favored. Although everyone would most likely
find a valve under the instruction below Petes window more easily, the location
should be stated in an official way as in deck 4, port side of the monkey bridge
ladder, so that even the least experienced crewmember will not need to struggle to
understand the information.
Checklists should always be practicable as written. Special attention should be sought
to exclude duplicate duties; one man cannot be in two places at once. Overlapping
events should only be written if they are possible in reality. Assuring steps in a
chronologic order is essential. For example, starting a thruster with insufficient
electric power available could be catastrophic (Parrot, 2011).

36

There are various ways in utilizing checklists. Others promote teamwork, some secure
your action when working alone while a few allow for speedy flows. There is one
shared feature though: every checklist should be planned and written in a logical
manner. The checklist whether it is type A, B or C as described below, should not be
mixed. Here are a few examples:
A. Read and do.
B. Run a flow of tasks / memory items and complete the checklist afterwards.
C. Read out loud, delegate action and expect confirmation.
A good checklist takes time to form, no matter how short. The creation phase takes
brainstorming, perhaps trial and error. Once it is functional, it really relishes the
crews trust. Should the checklist be completed by a team, it is important to actually
wait for the clear, checked, on, off, or complete - read back before proceeding
with corresponding action. An inconspicuous function of the checklists is to establish
a logical sequence between phases, not only by doing it right but in correct order as
well. Having the need to sort out a checklist in order to continue working, indicates
the checklist obviously is not serving its purpose. There is only a thin line between
these two extremities whether the checklist is ensuring safe and fluent action or just
needless paperwork. A good checklist will always lighten the burden.
When or how the checklist is triggered should be either self-evident or an agreed plan
should exist. A bad example is to start early, stall for a step that cannot be completed
yet and continue (should one recall) later on. Having one printed version flying around
the bridge, another incomplete version open on a computer awaiting to be archived
the workload may end up being increased rather than decreased. In such cases, it
might be worth considering checklist type B.
3.7.1 Rig
The large organization onboard a rig allows for better distribution of responsibilities
and carrying out their corresponding checklists in comparison to small teams onboard
37

the tugboats. Many of the checklists are therefore carried out according to the
employment position rather than operational triggers. In his book Jack-up Moving
(1993), Hancox enlists the primary pre-move checklists. This certainly does not cover
all possibilities but the vast number of preparation checklists are carried out at least by
the following individuals:
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Tow-master, in conjunction with OIM / Barge Master


OIM / Barge Master
Senior Toolpusher
Toolpusher
Driller
Radio Operator
Welder
Crane Operator
Chief Electrician
Mechanic / Motorman
Electrician
Instrument technician
Rig Medic

In addition to the employment position based checklists, the primary operation


triggered checklists used throughout the rig move onboard the rig could include the
following:
-

Watertight integrity
Intact stability
Afloat operations
In transit
Operations planning
Tow-masters towing vessel checklist

3.7.2 Vessels
Routine checklists for a tug would normally include departure, arrival, entering 500 m
zone and possible DP checklist if applicable. Regarding routine operations, the
ENTERING 500m ZONE checklist is the most important of these. It is to be
completed and reported to the radio room prior to entering the exclusion zone. If not
reported, the vessel is most certainly challenged to do so. Transparency in any defects
found is to be taken seriously as well (AHT Zeus, bridge documentation).

38

3.7.3 Toolbox Talk


Toolbox talk, in a nutshell, is briefing the dedicated team involved in the job to be
carried out face-to-face. Safety is the number one topic in this forum. Regardless of
title, this is your chance to speak out if something in your opinion is compromising
safety. Toolbox talk is known as eventless, the team is simply briefed on how the
routine is progressed through, reminding everyone the safety aspects. Execution is
often painstakingly boring for cohesive teams already predicting each other moves.
The challenge is to properly carry out such a routine, should a new team member join,
or to ensure everyone is looking at the same scenario no matter how experienced they
are.
3.7.4 Risk Assessments
Risk assessments salient in many branches is used to determine a numbered value
for the risks involved. Risk is always represented in a magnitude multiplied by its
potential loss. The number is either acceptable, not acceptable, or acceptable after
applying countermeasures. A matrix, displaying risks without protective action and
with all precautions taken is often represented side by side. This allows establishing
clear boundaries between GO/NOGO situations. An example of Seafox 4 risk
assessment is displayed below.

3.7.5 500 m Exclusion Zone


This exclusion zone is not only important for the vessels and rigs to trigger the
checklists, but it also functions as a commercial boundary upon entering or leaving,
where change of charterer may take place and various responsibilities are changed.
39

3.8 Chart Projection


In seafaring, ellipsoid projections has been the established position coordinate system
for some time now hence the numerous GPS appliance compatibility. However, in the
offshore industry the rampant positioning method used is the grid-based coordinate
system.
Conversion between these two is somewhat complex, and often requires
transformation programs. The reason for this is to combine information from both grid
based coordinates and spheroid projections. A grid system allows for better angular
accuracy as well as simple, on-the-field distance calculations between objects close to
each other utilizing the Pythagoras method. Spheroid projection then again provides
better general sense of whereabouts in a more global way.
3.8.1 UTM
The Universal Transverse Mercator divides the Earth into sixty zones, each a sixdegree band of longitude, and uses a secant transverse Mercator projection in each
zone. A position on the Earth is given by the UTM zone number and the easting and
northing coordinate pair in that zone. The point of origin of each UTM zone is the
intersection of the equator and the zone's central meridian, but to avoid dealing with
negative numbers the central meridian of each zone is set at 500,000 meters east. In
the northern hemisphere positions are measured northward from zero at the equator;
the maximum "northing" value is about 9,300,000 meters at latitude 84 degrees north.
(Wikipedia).

40

Figure 19.UTM Grid Zones

Figure 20. UTM Zone section

UTM zones may not be combined. It is possible to have the exact same coordinates within two
different zones. Figure 20 Illustrates the zone size inside which all distance and heading
calculations must be made.

41

Figure 21. UTM breakdown

With UTM it is worth noting that there are various ways of indicating the northern
hemisphere, this is further discussed later in this chapter. Offshore industry in the
North Sea uses labeling as displayed below.

(Seafox 2 anchor- plan screenshot)


42

The screenshot above displays the position origin in the bottom, European Datum
(1950) and its central meridian 3 east. This establishes the origin of the grid zone 31
displayed in this example. Other datums may be used as well. An easting value of
500 000 is in the middle of the grid zone 31.The northing value is derived from
distance between equator and the position of interest. In the southern hemisphere the
figures are reversed, indicating a maximum value of 10 000 000 at the equator in order
to preserve the logic of values increasing towards the north.
There is a great chance of mixing the occasionally used N indicating northern
hemisphere with abbreviated designator N as in northing value. The Military Grid
Reference System (MGRS) used in conjunction with UTM, adds the confusion even
more. In MGRS the latitude band designators are labeled with characters. The letter
designators indicate latitude zone (see Figure 19) and character N by coincidence
indicates the first latitude band in the northern hemisphere.
In MGRS, a few exceptions exist regarding grid zones being identical to each other.
Letter designators I and O have been omitted from the MGRS system in order to avoid
similarity with numbers one and zero. In addition some latitude bands have been
extended or shrunk to accommodate for a shared coordinate bed. To avoid confusion,
here is what MGRS coordinate looks like:
4QFJ 12345 67890
According to Wikipedia this is how it may be interpreted:
An example of an MGRS coordinate, or grid reference, would be
4QFJ12345678, which consists of three parts:
4Q (grid zone designator, GZD)
FJ (the 100,000-meter square identifier)
12345678 (numerical location; easting is 1234 and northing is 5678, in this case
specifying a location with 10 m resolution)
43

3.8.2 ED1950
The ED1950 is a World War II era coordinate system. It was widely used between
European nations to agree postwar territorial boundaries. As it was an approved and
internationally recognized coordinate system, it was ideal for early 1960s offshore
industry, providing consistent position information across nation borders. It has been
replaced in many applications by now.
Seafox 2 Anchor Plan screenshot also shows that the eastings and northings are
given in European Datum 1950 form. Initially this may create some confusion
whether the UTM is a datum itself. It is a cross section of a Transverse Mercator
projection as the name suggests. The coordinates may still be given in various datums
of which ED1950 is one among others (John D. Bossler, James B. Campbell, Robert
B. McMaster, Chris Rizos).
3.8.3 WGS84
World Geodetic System 1984, refined from its predecessors WGS72 and WGS66, was
first introduced in the early 1980s. It is the most widely used coordinate system. Many
standards have been replaced to support this datum and GPS of course during its 30
years of history. WGS84 is the most accurate ellipsoid model of the earth. Latitude
and longitude provide an easy understanding of how the coordinates translate into
position. International navigation is based almost exclusively on this datum
(hydrographic and marine software solutions).
3.8.4 Position and Datum Conversion
Coordinate conversions allow combining information from the procedures and
provide redundancy should a TMS system for example malfunction. When converting
from UTM to WGS84 one should always remember to check the origin datum as well,
ED1950 in most cases. Conversion is therefore carried out from UTM / ED1950
eastings and northings in meters to WGS84 latitude and longitude degrees minutes
and fractions or equivalent.

44

The philosophy behind implementing two different coordinate systems is to provide


better angular and distance information using UTM. Many offshore positioning
systems especially prior to the GPS era used lasers and prisms. Light as in laser of
course does not travel along a rhumb line.
When positioning subsea assets with accuracy calculated in centimeters, it is better to
use UTM because of less local angular distortion, and a good compatibility with
programs using metric system such as Autocad. This allows the engineers, survey
team and those navigating to combine the information. It may sound strange, but two
vessels exact parallel relative to each other 30 meters apart, for example, according to
WGS84, are actually on a different geographical heading. For navigation or anchor
deploying this accuracy is good enough. However, it may not enough to align several
bolts together in a large unit.
UTM is not very navigable, which is why conversion to WGS84 is needed in order to
place points of interest on the navigation screens of the vessels.
3.9 Offshore Positioning Methods
A regular differential corrected GPS signal is sufficient for most applications in
offshore positioning, tugs can be maneuvered and a rig can be put to standoff with
high accuracy. Final position approval often requires laser beams and prisms to be
used, allowing for even better precision while DGPS still provides redundancy.
Subsea sonar reflectors are used where applicable, for ROV operations as an example.
Radioactive measuring is used in oil drilling a rather extreme but nevertheless
essential to data gathering through a solid seabed in drilling operations (Fugro).
3.9.1 Survey Gear
The survey gear in a towing environment consists of a DGPS unit, GPS compass,
data-link and a display unit. This configuration is called the Tug Management System
(TMS). A dedicated position survey team onboard the rig provides the equipment for
the tug in order to send its positon and heading data back to the rig where every action
can be reviewed and accepted, especially in anchor-handling operations. A display
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unit with shared data is onboard the tug as well. Live interaction with the survey team
enables new anchor or midline buoy positions to be drawn on the screen with no
action required from the tug.
3.9.2 Final Positioning Criteria
The position accuracy demands vary. The seabed, the legs, crane operational limits,
cantilever beam and drill, antenna transceiver coverage, helideck clearance all affect
the requirements. Even for open locations some aspects need to be reviewed. A quote
from a Seafox 2 procedure to illustrate the position tolerances 1x1,5m box with a rig
heading 150T 1 This is the main reason why anchors need to be deployed.
3.10 Redundancy
Redundancy is present everywhere in offshore. Almost every key system is
duplicated. Blackout standing orders for example provides the details in a written
procedure of what to do should one of the tugs have a blackout. Redundancy is
planned for various operational levels such as maneuvering inside the 500 m zone.
According to GOMO 2014 the bridge must be manned by minimum of two STCWcertified officers under such conditions.
Strength calculations are done for almost every tool. A minimum SWL of the
hardware is usually enlisted for example in the procedures: chains, shackles, deltaplates, bridle, pennants or stretcher.
Redundancy could also mean safe working practices over practical solutions.
Collecting the towing pennant with a bosun hook is not an industry approved method.
There is a possibility to do it without exposure to danger. A heaving line is thrown to
collect a light tugger wire from the tug. The tugger wire is then connected to a running
shackle around the towing pennant and it is brought on deck in a controlled manner
between the pins and secured in the fork before connecting it to a towing wire.

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3.11 Sequence of Events


In order to maintain the red thread between chapters, it is a good idea to recap
chapters 3.5 Rig Move Procedures and Execution and 3.6 Voyage planning. The
following paragraphs describe the events in continuation to that.
A rather sketchy approach on topics such as anchor handling was chosen. These topics
are not covered to their full extend to avoid discussion on overlapping topics in more
detailed books.
3.11.1

Positioning to Standoff Location


During the open sea passage vessel headings are used to carry out course alterations,
however, the transit from open sea passage to standoff positioning takes place 1-3 NM
before arrival. It is an ineffable rule that heading commands from this moment on
should be considered as line headings.
The tow-master engineers a plan and briefs the tugs and rig crew accordingly. Such
plan includes where the tugs are to be put into star formation and unit to be turned
around, or brought to a standstill. An approach line can be used, normally it is a 0.51.0 NM line drawn as an extension from the standoff to the direction of rigs standoff
heading. Ideally, the unit should be brought to this line, turned to the desired standoff
heading, and balance any cross-track deviations while establishing a steady ~0.5 KTS
approach speed. Current is often interfering with this plan, and constant adjustments
are needed. One could say it is a form of energy management. Fighting the current to
stay on a preplanned line does not always pay off. Finding a convenient mean without
compromising the safety margins often poses a challenge.
When the tugs are in a star formation and connected with heavy wires, large changes
in tow-wire bearings should be carried out through a sidestep maneuver. This
guarantees sufficient tension. Touching the bottom is not the main concern, but it
takes planning to keep the tug-rig configuration stable by minimizing sudden drops in
BP in one direction.

47

How stable the rig will remain depends both on the tow-masters discretion and the
maneuver performed by the tug. It may be challenging if the current is pushing
directly from the side and the thrusters are already nearing maximum operational
limits to keep the relative position with the unit moving more than 1 KTS upstream.
Predicting such a situation takes practice, and occasionally there is no other choice but
to compromise the vessel pulling force in order to remain in the correct relative
position to the rig. Choosing the tug position according to their maneuvering
capabilities also helps to solve the situation.
Standoff positioning is not very position sensitive, however finding the balance for a
steady approach early on is challenging to accomplish. A smooth landing without
any last minute yanks is everyones goal.

3.11.2

Preparations for Anchor Handling


Once the rig is pinned in standoff position, preparations for anchor handling begin by
finishing off preload or pre-drive as required by rig manual and seabed features.
Normally, cranes cannot be used until the legs are stable and pinned deep enough to
the bottom. Attachment 5 provides a good overview of the anchor plan.
The AHT then positions itself near the crane to load a set of anchor handling gear on
the deck and spools in the necessary pennants on the working drum and loads the
shackles, buoys and anchors. Procedures provide a useful buildup overview. There are
plenty of personnel making sure everything is in correct order. However, no one
should lull him or herself into thinking my coworkers have it covered.

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Figure 22. Anchor leg build up (above)

Should the tow-master take more active and authoritarian role while positioning the
rig, during anchor handling the communication is more reciprocating. This team
together decides which anchors are most reasonable to deploy depending on the
current direction and strength.

Pre-drive or preload together with tidal situation often provides a small gap in hectic
situations, allowing rest-period requirements to be met. Anchor handling is the most
grueling effort, often requiring the whole crews input.

49

Midline buoys have to be measured on the working drum in order to determine the
correct position providing buoyancy to the anchor wires above vulnerable pipelines.
There are at least two ways to do it. One is to measure it on deck and use paint to
mark the wire at 10 meter intervals, for example. The easier way, when pipelines are
not an issue, is to proceed to a survey team designated point, at an equal distance of
midline buoy respective position, and mark the wire from the rig-end. The wire is then
spooled in to the working drum between the tug and the painted mark.

Anchor nexus sometimes deviates from the procedures. In such an unexpected


situation, the bridge team must be alert and receptive to copy the tow-masters revised
instructions. Considering the information exchange would be done via VHF, the
challenge is to forward the unmodified message to the deck crew in order to comply
with the approved anchor leg build.

3.11.3

Running the Anchors

Figure 23. Running Anchors

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Illustration in Figure 22 helps unfolding the equipment involved in the connection in


its simplest form: anchor wire shackle/shackle pigtail shackle/shackle
anchor shackle/shackle pigtail-shackle riser pennant shackle/shackle
buoy messenger line.
In addition to this chain, ground pennants or extension wires are sometimes used.
Clamped or delta-plate connected midline buoys and piggyback arrangements may be
required. These are connected and dropped into their planned slot prior to connecting
to the anchor.
The idea is to have the anchor wire from the rig connected to the tugs working drum
with the anchor connected in between. The anchor is then dropped past the stern
roller. With the AHT proceeding towards the drop point, the survey team and the towmaster will approve the position and the anchor is dropped into the seabed as per
Figure 23. The riser pennant from the anchor is connected to the buoy and it is
deployed by simply maneuvering the tug away from the anchor position, allowing the
pennant to drag the buoy off the deck over the stern roller.

Figure 24. AHT Preparing for anchor run

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Figure 25. Deck layout

The more complex equipment combinations are used the more workload it generates
to the crew. The sheer size of the buoys and the diameter of pennants alone can for
example double the time to carry out one anchor deployment. Physical stress is
52

naturally carried by the deckhands. However, the importance of teamwork cannot be


underlined enough. A considerable amount of time is spared if the deckhands know
what to expect and if the captainofficer teamwork is fluent, since the handling of
the winches connected to the anchor wire directly affects maneuvering and the other
way around.

Anchor handling is always carried out using available means to promote safety.
Whenever possible, wire is captured in between the pins and wire stopped in the fork
while making further connections. There should be a constant communication
between the deck and the bridge. Whether it is only nodding heads or giving a
thumbs up or verbal confirmation via VHF, the crew must be aware of the next move
so that they do not inadvertently enter a danger zone. Fluent interaction means
almost completely omitting titles and authorities. A deckhand, for example,
witnessing a dangerous situation developing, intermittently makes him or her the
most important part of the team. Observations from the bridge could be flawed or
occasionally obscured and in such cases there is no choice but to further weigh in the
crews verbal reports.

Despite the good intentions, this does not always prove to be reliable as VHF traffic
can be rather intense and there is a great risk of overlapping transmissions, which is
fine as long as the awareness is raised to address this. Thinking silence means
assent is dangerous in this context. The tug crewmembers are not the only
individuals exposed to the risks here. The tow-master may suddenly need a full
attention as he or she may need to stop spooling out the wire and nimble moves may
be needed promptly.

Once all the anchors have been deployed, they are test loaded to make sure none of
them are dragging along the bottom. Obviously no vessel should cross the anchor
wires while tension is applied on them.

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3.12 Final Positioning


With the anchors deployed, preparations for jacking down are carried out. All tugs are
called in to connect on the rig in a star formation and the unit is put afloat secured by
anchor wires and tugs. From standoff to final position it is usually less than a100
meters or so. The anchor wires for example provide the stability to make the fine
adjustments required in the proximity of platforms. It is a rather slow process to pay
out the anchor wires on the one side and heaving in on the other. Same rules apply on
final positioning and the current should be taking the unit away from the platform
during afloat period in case the unit breaks free.
The tow-master directs the tugs, jacking control and anchor wire adjustments. Unlike
standoff positioning, there is a potential risk of lowering the legs prematurely or too
late in which case one may risk creating a crater where the legs are being sucked in
slightly off station on the wrong footprints. Correcting such footprints could prove
impossible, so close attention to observe the correct position while lowering the legs
for the first time is essential.
When the rig is finally pinned to the final location, position is approved by all parties.
The unit is raised to a couple of meters air gap. Preload or pre-drive is needed once
again. One or more tugs may be kept connected during this time. Pinning the legs is
always stressing the structures and constant monitoring of rig attitude and reading the
hydraulic pressure is needed on the rig to avoid leg bending. Once a sufficient air gap
is reached to prevent swell hitting the units bottom, and legs are stably pinned to the
bottom, the assisting tugs can be released and the AHT can prepare herself for anchor
recovery.
3.12.1

Anchor Recovery
The tow wire is stowed away and work wire prepared on the deck to pick up anchors.
The first step is to locate the buoy and the direction of where its messenger line is
pointing to. It is a good practice to approach the messenger line from below the
current or wind, whichever is greater, generating less propeller wash taking the
messenger line even further away.
54

Recovering the anchors is perhaps even more challenging than deploying them since
the only trusted position information is displayed on the screen and no visual
reference of where the anchor exactly lies in exists. The buoy position of course
provides some idea of the approximate position. However, a riser pennant twice as
long as the water depth only entails a radius inside which the AHT must be initially
positioned in. It is a combination of visual observations and interpreting the
navigational aids correctly to position the tug in the right place when the anchor is
reaching the roller. One could also say that gut feeling of building tension and varying
pointing direction of the riser pennant or messenger line is a very good indicator to
alert the one maneuvering to ease the power early enough and re-position the tug and
preserve the weak links such as buoy messenger line.
Once the buoy is decked, the anchor recovered and disconnected, the anchor wire is
kept captured in between the pins and socket secured in the fork. Unless the anchor is
racked, the rig spools in the anchor wire and is towing the tug close to the rig to slip
the socket by lowering the fork at close range. Alternatively, the socket can be slipped
away once the anchor has been disconnected should the subsea obstructions allow it.
Bringing the socket nigh the rig is more common to avoid wearing out the hardware.
The remaining anchor handling gear is then discharged with a crane, and the AHT can
be released unless designated stand-by duties are appointed.

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4 QUESTIONNAIRE STUDY
4.1 Methods
A large part of this thesis is the study, carried out in a form of web based qualitative
questionnaire. The 17 questions measured opinion by percentile proportion or ranking
scales in addition to the option for comments for each question. The answer selection
was manipulated with exclusion logic or by providing multi-choices accordingly in
order to avoid both yesses and noes as per single respondent.
4.2 Reliability
According to Colin Phelan and Julie Wren, reliability is the degree to which an
assessment tool produces stable and consistent results (College of Humanities and
Fine Arts Student Outcomes Assessment).
When weighing out the reliability of the questionnaire study, majority of the answers
inside a question constituted a consistent set of data. The questions that did not
indicate consistency, raised comments as expected. While some questions served in
establishing background information on the participants, the others were created
merely to evolve discussion and an inconsistency to be analyzed.
Inter-rater reliability is a measure of reliability used to assess the degree to which
different judges or raters agree in their assessment decisions. Inter-rater reliability is
useful because human observers will not necessarily interpret answers the same way;
raters may disagree as to how well certain responses or material demonstrate
knowledge of the construct or skill being assessed. (College of Humanities and Fine
Arts Student Outcomes Assessment).
While working hard creating questions and minimizing the possibility for
misinterpretation, I reckon the reliability objectives according to the quote in the last
paragraph was not reached to a satisfying level. Fortunately however, this does not
mean the questionnaire itself would not have succeeded reaching the original
objective: finding and sharing the common perception in various MRM related topics,
outside daily discussion within jack-up rig move operations. It may be outlined that
56

only a vague link exists between studies measuring opinion and definitive studies such
as whether a cure for a cancer has been found.
4.3 Validity
Validity refers to how well a test measures what it is purported to measure.
Sampling Validity (similar to content validity) ensures that the measure covers the
broad range of areas within the concept under study. Not everything can be covered,
so items need to be sampled from all of the domains. This may need to be completed
using a panel of experts to ensure that the content area is adequately sampled.
Additionally, a panel can help limit expert bias (i.e. a test reflecting what an
individual personally feels are the most important or relevant areas). What are some
ways to improve validity?
1. Make sure your goals and objectives are clearly defined and operationalized.
Expectations of students should be written down.
2. Match your assessment measure to your goals and objectives. Additionally, have
the test reviewed by faculty at other schools to obtain feedback from an outside party
who is less invested in the instrument.
3. Get students involved; have the students look over the assessment for troublesome
wording, or other difficulties.
(College of Humanities and Fine Arts Student Outcomes Assessment)
As per item 2 above, the questionnaire was crosschecked for clarity and contents by a
few seasoned foreign and native English speaking mariners prior to release. In
addition, spelling and grammar checks were carried out by the supervising English
teacher.
The Survey Monkey, a web based research software used provided many powerful
tools to work with. Functions such as IP-filtering, prompts for required fields,
duplicate identifier and bot blockers we in use. In addition, the participants were
prompted for a name / identifier, positon and employer. Naturally, in this text such
details were omitted to protect the anonymity. The questionnaire was only distributed
through an emailed link requiring an invitation and a password.
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Expectations and target group in addition to all details were clearly displayed on the
first page as per item 1 in the previous quote. The questions were carefully chosen in
respect with the expected target group e.g. not only limited to seafarers or towmasters. A broad selection of answering choices pertained each question accordingly.
Comments were enabled for each question to promote discussion and they are
published in this text for transparency.

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5 ANALYSIS
I chose to explore human performance through the means of Maritime Resource
Management topics. The contents of the MRM holds in many of the factors resulting
in human performance related accidents. Jack-up rigs together with tugs comprises a
large number of people, vulnerable to misunderstandings, human errors and clashes
between cultural differences. The objective was never to seek definitive answers with
a conclusion. The initial goal was to find and share the general perception in various
questions outside daily discussion in this branch. Especially the tug / tow-master
interaction was closely examined. In addition, many common MRM-features
materialized in my questions in a branch specific manner.
5.1 Q1 Are you familiar with the concept MRM - Maritime Resource Management?
The sole purpose of this question was to establish the background of the respondents.
The majority of the respondents were either remotely familiar or familiar with this
concept. It was acknowledged that part of the participants would not have seafarer
background. However, it would not jeopardize the quality of their input.
MRM as a course is nowadays mandatory by STCW standards in bridge officer
studies which nevertheless does not reflect the number of actual certificate holders due
to transition periods. The answering distribution, however, does provide a reasonable
average figure across this branch.
5.2 Q2 As tugs are connected to a jack-up rig - choose the options that best describe the bridge
team in terms of Maritime Resource Management (MRM)
According to Captain Daniel S. Parrott (Bridge Resource Management for Small
Ships) the bridge team consists of members openly communicating, verifying and
monitoring each others actions.
The bridge team definition can be further illustrated with a communication loop.

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Figure 26. Communication loop

Build the loop: Establish who is in it, what is expected of them, and the means of
communication to be used.

Maintain the loop: It does no good to issue an order, ask a question, or report
traffic if the receivers attention is elsewhere. Also, dont muddle the message or
distract others with unrelated information.

Get in the loop: If you have information or a concern that is relevant to the
situation, dont keep it to yourself and stay in the loop

Close the loop: Close the loop by only move forward on the basis of assumptions.
An unanswered message sows uncertainty.

Explain your intentions: Create the necessary mental model. Dont assume
everyone knows your plan

Follow up: After a message has been sent and confirmed, watch to see if the
actions of the receiver are consistent with the message.

Listen: Above all, listen. No one learns anything when theyre talking.

Talk the talk: Officers are leaders and will be emulated. Model the communication
approach that you expect and require. If you expect a crew member to repeat a
command, then you owe them an acknowledgement.
(Parrott, 2011).

A minor majority of 38% selected an answering option Tug-masters and tow-master


form one bridge team in addition to the bridge team inside every unit or vessel and
31% selected Tug-masters and tow-master form their own bridge team. Even though
the question was represented in a multi choice form, it is evident that the remaining
31% chose a selection outside the definition described above.
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The MRM code does not provide an exact definition to who should be included in the
bridge team. Bridge team is a vague expression in defining roles unless agreed and
well established.
5.3 Q3 Choose the personnel you think should be included in the bridge team.
Regarding the question 2, the objective was to further sort out the general perception
purely out of ignorance. Although the tow-master and tug masters appeared obvious
members of the team, the numerous comments revealed the absence of OIM, marine
representative, assistant barge engineer and jacking engineer from the list of selection.
In addition, the membership of the remaining roles was not as definitive (less than
75%).
The idea was to demonstrate the non-shared mental model in liaison with question
number 2. While a possibility for multiple interpretations was present, it is worth
reviewing whom are supposed communicate with each other. This does not translate
into bigger - the better. Comment #3: Bridge teams should be very select and only
consist of essential members. sums up the thought appropriately.

5.4 Q4 Do you feel the tow-master's actions are monitored in appropriate way?
23 out 29 respondents replied yes and little less than half of them chose Yes. Towmaster's actions are monitored to a MRM-standard. as well. The significance
between these two alternatives is in the phrase MRM-standard defined in chapter
6.2.
There is no doubt tow-masters action require planning, briefing, assent and feedback
from a carefully selected team onboard the rig such as marine rep, OIM and the barge
engineer for example, numerous comments will back this up. MRM-code, however,
addresses more specific items such as tug heading and power commands and
maintaining a situational awareness as a team.

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Ten percent advocated for second guesses creating more confusion. While this may be
considered case sensitive, both may be true.
Fourteen percent voted against sufficient monitoring level. Granted, although the towmasters performance is hardly ever an issue, concerns may be raised in the future
regarding the implementation of MRM standards already present onboard the vessels
and not as evident on the rigs.
Comment #3 raises another concern.: If a marine rep is on the rigmove he should
monitor the Towmaster. unfortunately these days most marine reps are inexperienced.
The OIM and barge eng. should be able to question the towmasters actions if unsure
or in any doubt.
A larger team better accommodates for filling in the situational awareness gaps. While
the comment prevail a universal truth present both on the rig and the tugs, vessels and
units are always undergoing a transit period. Someone is always the least experienced
or under an ongoing orientation.
5.5 Q5 Do you believe the duties of a tow- master could be further delegated?
In the spirit of MRM, a majority of 17 out of 29 reckoned the tow-masters actions
could be further delegated or further delegated at least during high workloads. One
could make the conclusion that is possible to direct a jack-up unit, the tugs and leg
operation as a team with monitoring elements rather than holding all the strings in one
hand.
Yet, eight participants input stated No - overall situational awareness is better
maintained by one person in addition to the four participants answering a simple
no. It is easy to understand, since all the said actions in the last paragraph are tied
together in a time sensitive manner and do not promote the teamwork possibilities. It
is evident that only one VHF channel is used in coordinating the action, should a towmaster for example make a mistake, there is hardly room for the team around him to
point this out, since the channel must stay open for immediate corrective action,
carried out in form of verbal commands using the very same VFH channel. The odds
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are slim for a pre-emptive monitoring action suspending an undesired event taking
place as well. This is mainly because of aforementioned VHF limitations or other
physical constraints such as pilothouse and jacking control room being situated in
different locations.
With a solo watch stander, team navigation is a rare event and the wheelhouse is
configured accordingly. A benefit of this situation is that it teaches self-sufficiency and
working within ones limits. The problem with self-sufficiency is that a person can get
used to it, leading to difficulties when the need for teamwork arises. In a team you
have to trust others to do things you might normally do yourself. Instead of working at
the speed of thought, cognitive resources become maxed out simply staying on top of
details, and there is nothing to spare for communicating with the team. While the skill
and experience that go into the team-of-one are impressive, teamwork benefits from
practice. Going it alone all the time can be a handicap when a team approach is
needed. Talk of teams may seem unnecessary to those accustomed to the team-of-one,
yet sooner or later, perhaps in an emergency, all mariners end up functioning as part
of a team, and it quickly becomes apparent if they are out of practice. (Parrott,
2011).

There is no doubt a tow-master must be a team player. However, the unrefuted method
of solo directing is questionable if teamwork has hardly ever been attempted to put
through a rehearsal. The highly controversial result of this question indicates the
industry approved methods may be undergoing another transitional period in terms of
working practices. As discussed in chapter 3.10, almost everything is subject to
duplication and double checks. While carrying out the tow-master duties may not
seem to fit in this context today, it may not seem out of the ordinary to witness
working policies reshaping for the sake of redundancy and bureaucracy in the future.
It should be duly acknowledged though, that many respondents may have interpreted
this question referring to times under low workloads as well e.g. arranging anchor
handling gear or carrying out pre-transit checks and other duties subject to elementary
delegation.

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Regarding the comment #2: - 2 Tow-masters during high performance moves it is


unclear in what proportion the two tow-masters onboard a rig would be each others
relievers (full filling the rest period requirements) and help providing a monitoring
resource.
5.6 Q6 As a tow-master I would be interested in...
Identity of the tug masters, earlier working history together, tug BP and features, crew
nationality, age and experience were appealing fragments of information to a great
majority of the respondents.
Comment #2 It will very soon be evident whether the tug controls are in the hands of
a professional. Most of the questions raised are already covered by todays exchange
of paperwork between tugs and rigs/towmasters. reflects this by endorsing the towmaster Rob Breures observations when asked what would pay off in tug selection:
Obviously bollard pull and anchor handling capabilities, more and more DP
requirements, maneuverability. Another big one is earlier experience with a tug/ahv.
If a tug gives problems during rig moving, this info goes around really fast.
Reputation damage for the tug owner is quickly made and it takes long to recover
from it. This is not only for tug but also for captains.
In the light of these comments, it is inevitable to highlight the indisputable effects of
crew performance to the vessels marketing value and generating hidden pressure.
5.7 Q7 The safety and fluency of a tug - rig interaction is best assured by focusing on...
The question is rather self-explanatory and provides reliable results on average
priorities of various items. The question, even though not essential, was ideal creating
an interesting comparison of mental models with personal input since the results were
promptly visible upon completing the survey.

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5.8 Q8 Given the rig is approaching standoff position and the tow-master is in command. Describe
your perception of the balance in influence between these two roles (tow-master / tug) by
selecting values on this ranking scale.
An indisputable fact is that, regulations, laws, procedures and certification dictates the
fundamental responsibilities between various positions. The question was an attempt
in seeking the human performance aspect.
The exact results in attachment 6 should be studied in order to understand the
distribution of perception. It is however, worth noting that actions were considered a
shared result of tug and tow-master input in majority of sub questions.
It is obvious, that personal features are broadcasted through our individual
performance. Some may appear authoritarian to an excess level while others are more
easily influenced.
Leadership doesnt always come with a title. It may be exhibited at the lowest levels
of a hierarchy, reinforcing what some have always suspected, that leadership involves
certain intangibles of character that transcend rank, credentials, and connections. But
while some people seem to be born under a leadership star, leadership can be
learned, improved, and cultivated by example, necessity, or sheer determination.
People grow into it all the time.
Like other arenas, the nautical world contains a full spectrum of leadership types.
There are some who bully and belittle while others go out of their way to mentor and
instill confidence. There are extroverts who narrate every thought, and introverts
whose concerns and expectations are a mystery to the crew, keeping everyone slightly
off balance.
There are reluctant leaders who are exceedingly skilled in all things nautical, except
in projecting an aura of leadership; people know who is in charge, but they dont feel
it (Parrott, 2011).

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As a general rule and according to the procedures, the tug masters are a subordinate to
the tow-master. An officer is under masters command. These roles however do not
always come to realize in the real life. A spectrum of collisions and merging of egos
and personalities takes place in many ways.
It is these findings that explain the inconsistency in balance of affecting the end result.
An example, should the tow-master command a power setting of 40%. The tug may
interpret this command as in a pulling force equal to 40% is needed, while the captain
recognizes the fact that a great proportion of the pulling force is shortly going to be
depleted due to a side step maneuver. As the tug is completing the maneuver,
straightening the rudder and aligning with the commanded line heading results in
increase of the BP. Now, the tow-master may be aware of this and readily command a
new power setting. However, the benefits of the tug taking this into account in a
preventive manner are not discussed. One might raise a concern that acting on your
own to a certain extent is impairing the tow-masters conception of how his or hers
commands are materialized. Others address the common sense benefits and carrying
out commands in a suggestive manner, possibly beneficial in an eventful situation
where scarce VHF-share is already present. Nevertheless, it is always a good practice
to warn in time when the tug is reaching her limits if applicable.
5.9 Q9 Does commercial pressure have any impact on your working performance?
This statement holds in my favorite - controversial issues. Should the operational
needs be tailored to the preference of commercial requirements? Only 15% reckon
yes, this is the way it should be. If it is not the commercial requirements then what is
driving the need for progress? A majority of 54% answered no which in this context
indicates that the current balance-frame allows for properly carrying out the duties
without the anxiety of fulfilling commercial requirements.
In addition to the three simple yesses, another 15% selected Yes, I find it challenging
to compromise between commercial and operational requirements In rare occasions
the operations must be adversely ceased and revenue is suspended. A compromise
may be in the verge of safety margins.

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Comment #1: Normally commercial pressure doesn't have impact on the operations.
But when the rig is waiting on weather for weeks it sometimes happens that the
required weather window is implemented more creative
The proportion of pressure behind decision making and working contribution is role
dependent. It is the guidelines and procedures that help us to establish quality
decisions, in other words sharing such responsibilities with a superior.
5.10 Q10 The rest period regulations are strictly followed.
I read a great book widely used as a source analyzing this questionnaire: Bridge
Resource Management for Small Ships. I was impatiently waiting for a chapter or a
paragraph of non-existent resource management to come by. While this opus
provided many answers and new aspects, the rather soft approach to this subject
endorses the obvious. There is no substitute for lack of resources, only means of
coping.
Human resources are limited and exceeding them, according to many respondents is
tacitly accepted. No brainstorming of the reasoning resulted in any answers of why
some regulations are followed, while neglecting others. Falsifying the rest-period
documentation as needed makes no sense since the laws and regulations for the most
part are on our (the employee) side. The bottom line is, falsifying a vessel document
in such way would be stressing the working moral, since it is outside our personal
space of which we consider having the full control.
A collective assent in bending the rules, in order to finish what have been started
lightening the overall burden, is a feature found in many associations. 12 % of the
respondents reckon the slow process behind implementing maritime regulations could
be the reason why compliance is dragging behind the laws in force.

67

5.11 Q11 Should normal rest periods be compromised; on- duty rest for a short period of time
during non-critical phases of the job should be widely accepted and duly acknowledged.
64% either addressed the common sense as it is for the greater good to take rest when
the situation allows or would allow as long as there is no impact on working
performance and delegation is appropriately carried out.
Twelve percent selected Everybody does it, allowed or not. There's no need for a
new regulation or guideline A regulation is not indeed needed for everything,
sometimes things work out better when common sense prevails. It is the long living
myth that the employer pays the employee for the hours he or she has contributed,
while nowadays this obviously is not true in many cases as progress results in
revenue. There is no reason why the very same ideology would not work in employer /
employee relationship.
5.12 Q12 How would you describe the safety culture in your working environment?
This question introduced seven sub statements, measured with a rating scale. The sub
statements worth analyzing were:
- Safety is important, however exaggerated to some extent.
A majority appeared to agree or somewhat agree to this. The objectives of safety
standards appear obvious, the less accidents, the more progress and revenue is
generated. In addition, everyone is entitled to safely carry out his or hers job.
A majority quite surprisingly reckon the opposite. Safety is nowadays much more than
just protection against accidents: pre-emptive measures and establishing safety records
in order to prevent accidents from occurring in the light of statistics. Using a helmet is
not a subject to accidental susceptibility. It is an industry established statute created by
the fact that a helmet will protect your head against probable and improbable
accidents.

68

Pre-emptive measures however, may decipher a large variety of means reducing risks,
where only the skys the limit. While many of the pre-emptive measures provide
notoriously beneficial and effective practices, others may seem discontinued from the
original context, appearing confusing, dispensable or generating needless work to be
done.
Establishing a benchmark for genuine and dispensable measures may prove to be
difficult since the general perception is that all forms of safety are beneficial. Widely
accepted safety routines are difficult to alter afterwards. An individual doing so is at a
great risk of being labeled as a person poisoning the safety and good faith atmosphere.
Despite the good intentions of weeding out safety measures with questionable
benefits, the opposite will often take place. Further regulations are augmented and the
bureaucracy-level is increasing to accommodate for this. Suddenly the benefits of
common sense are forgotten. In the wildest thoughts, compliance with the mass of
safety standards may be considered as a hidden marketing strategy. Companies taking
care of business in a responsible manner are always deemed better than those not
promoting it. This conclusion does not however indicate the companies should
disregard safety, but instead recognize the difference between genuine and polished
safety standards.
The comment #1 prevail another misuse of safety standards: Safety is important. But
it often influences the efficiency of an operation, given a potentional hazard a longer
time to materialize. Some personnel develop an attitude problem because of safety,
they hide behind it, when there is something they don't like doing they state that they
can't do it because it is no safe.
- Safety should be incorporated to routine work - not the other way around.
One may have discovered the safety equipment matrixes used onboard the rigs and
towing vessels. Such matrix will provide the appropriate safety equipment to be used
in conjunction with the job requirements and the working areas. As an example, safety
shoes are always mandatory when working on the deck, while it is mandatory to use
them everywhere if it involves welding work.

69

This may initially seem reversed. Putting the gloves and helmet on hardly provides
any additional protection if you are splicing on the deck for example. This example
illustrates the difficulty with excessive production of regulations. Surely the crew
acknowledges the compliance problem of such guidelines. No one puts goggles on
and then decides what can be done. I would address the lost confidence in mariners.
Inarguably such posters and guidelines are in place for a good reason, however to
what extent does it cover the managements back? MRM constitutes for a blame-free
culture to which these findings are in conflict with.
- The objectives of safety and productivity do not meet.
Comment #2: Safety cannot be breached. If it collides with produtivity, time-out,
another way to be found. A towmaster cannot afford to trust individuals too far/too
much. He needs to check, check and check again to ensure his commends contain the
correct amount of safety mixed with progress needed.
The overall average in this statement was evenly distributed. An accident is the
biggest possible collision with the productivity suspending all progress. The comment
above sums up the thought appropriately.
- "Safety related" accidents are real, too much concentration on safety and
guidelines tends to draw the focus away from the work, increasing the likelihood
of accidents to happen.
It is surprising to find that respondents agreed to this in a proportion of 60-40.
According to the Nautical Institute in association with the Royal Institute of
Navigation, VHF-assisted collisions for example are not just a myth. Numerous
accident reports will back this up.
Relying on this, I reckon it is possible to be focused on routine work with all the
quality ingredients: a shared mental model, experience and training present only it
would be confusing and distracting to find the procedures or guidelines in conflict
with the next step. Experience and confidence will help us to overcome the limitations

70

of written information, although potentially risk developing an excess self confidence


in a long run.
- I trust every colleague and outside operator to be fully qualified and trained to
one standard.
References to age, nationality, ethnicity, gender or experience were deliberately
omitted from this context. A healthy suspicion is always in place and assessing coworkers abilities, weaknesses and strengths takes time. On the other hand, one might
adopt new skills, knowledge and a widen his or hers aspects through a fresh colleague.
5.13Q13 I am ready to hand over my duties and controls to my second in command officer,
junior officer or trainee, to promote training and share responsibilities with future prospects.
A conclusive majority considered being ready to hand over the controls to his or hers
second in command officer, junior officer or a trainee in order to promote training and
share responsibilities with future prospects. Luckily nowadays dual controls in many
occasions allow this.
All responsibilities are not shared physically though. The decision making
responsibility for example often requires support and an overlapping period. Many of
us remember being in the decision makers role for the first time recognizing the
helpless feeling of doubt. Confidence will build up only as a result of time and
repetition. Mentoring will in most cases only help you halfway through. Taking over
the responsibilities for the first time often reflects the commonly used phrase a
license is an approval to start learning
The crew training and expertise status is a nonstop process. A school does not prepare
one for the reality. Experienced and senior crewmembers will often shoulder the
burden of orientating new crewmembers to their tasks. This is often the case even
though only a few have been coached to mentoring and teaching. This causes a
significant variation in the quality of teaching. Others may deem it nonessential,
outside their job description, while others easily jump in the other persons shoes on
mental level. Mentoring may be difficult to someone shining with his own
71

performance. Explicating may be someones strength without possessing the


coordination skills.
People can find themselves in leadership roles for reasons other than their
leadership skills. This may seem backward but reality often imposes other criteria;
timing, availability, the right license or endorsement, special skills, experience, local
knowledge, seniority, and personal connections can all play a part in filling
leadership positions (Parrott, 2011).
As described above, opportunities and demands often do not meet. When the time
comes in handing over the duties, it is not always self-evident that the skills have been
transferred accordingly. Most blatant and irresponsible examples represent
responsibility exchange taking place without the possibility for training.
How effectively the knowledge and skills are adopted and transferred, is often subject
to personal chemistry. This is a good reason for anyone to reconsider and duly
acknowledge their responsibility in transferring knowledge regardless to personal
preference.
5.14 Q14 Building a good confidence to use the full array of bridge / pilot house equipment takes
practice and should be utilized as often as reasonable
The results were not surprising and it is hard to imagine this branch appealing to
anyone not feeling comfortable with technical accessories and systems. However, the
assumption of anyone mastering the full array of such equipment is simply nonsense.
Even the most seasoned (or should I say especially?) must study and re-study the
manuals in order to stay in the loop. Mastering your arena helps you building
confidence to your subordinates.
Real operations are no place to study the manuals and time will hardly ever allow for
it. Another aspect worth of introducing, is practicing. Mariners are often put through a
stressful test of practicing in a real situation. Granted, even the wealthiest owners
hardly can afford training sessions with hourly rates exceeding thousands of euros.

72

In order to demonstrate my concern on engineering quality, allow me to state the


following: as to my experience, a great deal of attention has been given to working
ergonomics during past years. Office chairs, for example, are available with many
functions, features and ergonomic attributes. A chair with converging features and
functions may exist however lacking the ergonomic qualities, making its use
awkward, abrasive and possibly intolerable in a long run.
Such engineering roses exist in software and hardware environment as well. The
presence is evident in many systems. It takes an exercised eye to pick up the bad
quality in engineering and evaluating a smooth operation of such accessories. The
fluent operation of a new bridge element is sometimes invisible to us due to the strong
coping strategies set up with old technology, obstructing us in adopting more
thoroughly thought designs and ideology.
5.15 Q15 Jack-up rig move procedures
A great majority of 63% reckon the rig move procedures should be followed as far as
practicable. 52% also thought it provides an excellent frame to carry out the common
practice and 42% considered the procedures allow room for individual solutions.
A slight minority selected answering options outside the comfort zone addressing
potential issues in credibility and questioning the integrity should the procedures be
deviated for the demands of the situation.
All three comments red flagged the significance of differences between procedures,
composed to various extents and purposes. Inarguably the rig move procedures are
essential. Living without them would be something in between vague and chaotic. A
frame must be provided in order to set a large organization in motion. Many details
are not easily obtained. An assembly is needed to address the entity.
Entity by definition accommodates a touch of generalization though. With all due
respect to the authors of procedures, guidelines and books, the contents are not always
waterproof. Flaws in procedures, guidelines or books are not put under suspicion on a
light basis. Perhaps it is due to the legal status or superior nature of written guidelines.
73

For example, it is easier to question or challenge the given information face to face
with the ability to adjust your output by body expressions. However, to deviate a
procedure or a guideline does not allow for settling - it is either complied or breached.
Even admitted flaws generate extra work. Normally, infeasible findings must be
recycled in order to meet the legal requirements. A verbal rearrangement is often
insufficient. Common sense may be saying the biggest shackle will permit the weight
anyway, however, to what extent is subject to documentation in order to obey the law
and regulations.
The more inaccuracies the documentation contains, the bigger the chances of
breaching it. Frequent incompliance may inconspicuously become a new standard
which in many contexts is dangerous. It becomes unclear which of the rules and
guidelines must be obeyed and which may be disregarded by the prevailing standard.
5.16 Q16 General verbal communication
According to the unified results, good communication is established by minimizing
VHF-chatter and exercising direct commands preferably reviewable against written
instructions. More than half conceded multiple nationalities creating extra challenge.
One third granted offshore vocabulary rather extensive and unique.
The characteristic features of communication were already discussed in the paragraph
6.2 and therefore not further analyzed in this context.
5.17 Q17 Risk assessment and toolbox talk
The last question results did not evolve discussion since all respondents appeared to
be sharing the same point of view: risk assessment and toolbox talk must be carried
prior to work involving risks, brings various parties physically together, helps sharing
the mental model, and genuinely reduces the risks.

74

One selection perhaps furthest to the ideology of the others, Are good tools if utilized
as a checklist gathered seven votes. The objectives of a risk assessment or a toolbox
talk are hardly to educate people but instead bring everybody to the same page.
The comments however, did not reflect the results:
Comment #1 They are good tools to increase safety as long as it is done before non
routine jobs If it is done forstandard jobs it is just extra paperwork. Also during the
time I was still working on vessels it was extra paperwork as we were with a small
crew only (7 to 9 crew) and things were already discussed during coffee time.
Comment #2 When working with the same crew and doing the same works you don't
need to point out the same things with every move you take.
Comment #4 Some RA are not fully taken inboard by rig crew just signed and filed
Bureaucracy is a rising concern on ships. Increasing quantities of documentation
requirements have been introduced in the past years, up to the point that a mariner
may feel the contents of the job discontinued from his or hers original training and
education. The most striking examples of irrelevance that have been brought to my
knowledge include sending copies of toolbox talk or a risk assessment carried out to
the management. Without questioning, it is the mariners legs and fingers in danger.
Carrying out oness duties in a safe manner is the cheapest known life insurance. An
airline does not request a copy of a takeoff checklist from the pilots prior to departure
it is part of their fundamental duties.
Only because a bridge of a vessel is a place where various documents can be
produced, it does not mean they should. Sending verifying copies in order to satisfy
documentation demands may sound crazy with often the small resources onboard a
tug. There might be a lot more essential things going on behind the scenes like
familiarizing a new crew member by having dual men watch. The vessel may be
dealing with a technical difficulty altering the routine. The bridge really is not the
ideal place to modify the documentation to satisfy the evident safety policy as in

75

management would probably be reluctant to receive copies of checklists filled in half


way through.

6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


In the light of the questionnaire survey results I would like to address the following
items:
For the various individuals involved in jack-up rig moving to reconsider their roles
from a maritime resource management point of view.
For masters, mates and tow-masters, it would be worth considering to what extent we
permit sustained methods to obscure our development of new strategies.
The authors for recognizing their responsibility in writing accurate procedures,
guidelines, books or checklists, with legal status or superiority which cannot be altered
because of their time sensitive nature. The readers fundamental confidence is easily
misled.

7 SELF-ASSESSMENT
The most difficult part of setting up the survey was creating the right questions
evolving discussion, without excess provocation.
Too simple questions would have appeared self-explanatory and leave no room for
academic analysis. An excess complexity increases the chances of misinterpreting and
possibly frustrates many to the point of discontinuation. In order to avoid this, many
of the questions were created in a multi-choice or a ranking scale form in addition to
retaining the possibility for comments.

76

Yet after closing the survey I found some of the questions either slightly irrelevant,
too extensive or providing too many alternatives and lacking the red thread in
between. The possibility of respondents skipping the questions was recognized early
on and the filtering feature helped a lot to come up with a consistent legible
proportion.
I experienced the questionnaire target group cropping challenging. Tuning the
questions to a more general level solved the problem, as well as it probably increased
the number of respondents. Regarding my initial goal, I consider the number of
respondents to be more than adequate.
Creating the answering options was challenging. A convenient blend of objectiveness
and provocation had to be found almost completely without outside opinion. Exposing
personal preference in the process and providing appropriate scale of answering
selection forced me to step outside the box. It was not until a good friend of mine
cross checked the questions, when I realized the numerous interpretation possibilities
and the vague expressions he kindly pointed out.
8 EPILOGUE
At the time of writing this thesis and during the past 4 years I was an active duty 1st
officer on an anchor handling tug operating mostly in the North Sea area.
I would like to thank captain Mikael Stude, captain Nils Erik Westerholm and towmaster Rob Breure for providing their knowledge and assistance in orientating to this
profession, allowing me to pass forward and merge the surfacing thoughts.
In addition, I would like to thank all the questionnaire participants for allowing me to
gather a sufficient selection of data.

77

SOURCES
AHT Zeus, bridge documentation
Captain Daniel S. Parrott, 2011, Bridge Resource Management for Small Ships
http://books.google.fi/books/about/Bridge_Resource_Management_for_Small_Shi.htm
l?id=zemjU7S3qSsC&redir_esc=y
College of Humanities and Fine Arts Student Outcomes Assessment
https://www.uni.edu/chfasoa/reliabilityandvalidity.htm

Ever Green Maritime, Retrieved 23 Jun 2014


http://www.evergreenmaritime.com/products-and-solution/surface-buoyancy/generalsurface-support-buoys/?gclid=CjgKEAjwoJdBRDbjfKN7IzN0FsSJAAP0G_DOBmqo92YLpbQy0CBcDfXPgGJWxEUcNizrMo4o5nkvD_BwE
Fugro

http://www.fugro.com/our-expertise/our-services/geotechnical/geological-andgeophysical-surveys
Global Security, Retrieved 21 Apr 2014
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ship/platform-fixed.htm

Hugo Westveer, OMC operations (reference to email 18 Aug 2014)

Hydrographic and marine software solutions


https://confluence.qps.nl/pages/viewpage.action?pageId=29855173

Ian Clark, 2005. Ship Dynamics for Mariners, The Nautical Institute, p.182

IMCA, Retrieved 24 Jun 2014


http://www.imca-int.com/marine-division/cmid.aspx

John D. Bossler,James B. Campbell,Robert B. McMaster,Chris Rizos, Manual of


Geospatial Science and Technology, Second Edition
KRS, Retrieved 25 Jun 2014

http://www.krs.co.kr/kor/dn/T/pdf/TASWEEQ%20CREW%20MATRIX%20GUIDELIN
ES.doc.pdf
Marine Safety Forum, Retrieved 23 Jun 2014

http://www.marinesafetyforum.org/upload-files/guidelines/anchor-handling-manualmsf-.pdf
Michael Hancox, 1992. Oilfield Seamanship, Anchor Handling Vol 3. OPL
78

Michal Hancox, 1993. Oilfield Seamanship, Jack-up Moving Vol 2. OPL


NWEA North West European Guidelines
http://www.nwea.info/
OCIMF, Retrieved 24 Jun 2014
https://www.ocimf-ovid.org/AboutOvid.aspx

Rigmove procedure OMC/RMP/2012/07/10 Ensco 80


Rigmove procedure 2011-0406/WN Noble Byron Welliver
Rigmove procedure 2013-0705/WN Atlantic Rotterdam
Rigmove procedure OMC [2013-0910/WN Seafox 2]
Rigmove procedure [OMC/RMP/2011/07/08 Ensco 92]
Rigmove procedure [2012-0611/WN Noble Ronald Hoope]
Rigzone, jack-up rig history, Retrieved 5 Mar 2014
http://www.rigzone.com/training/insight.asp?insight_id=339&c_id=24

Rob Breure, reference to email 20 May 2014


Seafox 4 risk assessment

Seaworks, Retrieved 22 Apr 2014


http://www.seaworks.co.nz/content/18/22/

Shell Charter Party, Retrieved 28 Apr 2014

https://www.bsp.com.bn/main/commercial/commercial_documents/GCC%20Docs%2
0B/General_Conditions_of_Contract_for_Vessel_Charters.pdf
Simon Rainey, 2012, The Law of Tug and Tow and Offshore Contracts, Chapter5,

Rule 18, Paragraph 5.65, page 255, published by INFORMA


http://books.google.fi/books?id=bZg3AAAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&hl=fi&sourc
e=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false
The Nautical Institute in association with the Royal Institute of Navigation
http://www.google.fi/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&u
act=8&sqi=2&ved=0CC0QFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nautinst.org%2Fdow
nload.cfm%3Fdocid%3D702FCCC5-6187-40D68D5BABD714095B29&ei=RXQFVKGnE6j9ywPz8oKYCA&usg=AFQjCNEYqcSmzn
2VvDCCMiuQRM4UT0akfQ&sig2=Y2L6WkO9SV2sElPI18eKiA&bvm=bv.74115972
,d.bGQ

79

FIGURES
Figure 1. Jack-up Rig, Photo of Jack-up rig Retrieved 19 Jun 2014

http://www.offshoreenergytoday.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/Noble-SecuresDrilling-Contracts-for-Its-Jack-Ups-Noble-Scott-Marks.jpg
Figure 2. Platform Helwin Alpha under construction, Retrieved 21 Apr 2014
http://overdick.com/slideshowpro/p.php?a=XUUiMD46OycqYHtlPzI4Jzo6Jis/OzouN
yowNC4jKyAiPjQjJjs/NCY+LiY0&m=1377673550

Figure 3. AHTS

https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/_poOMUbd3H4k/TZIPZTGSmWI/AAAAAAAAAak/
Dk_X_9QrHjE/s800/anchor%20handling%20tub%20supplier.jpg
Figure 4. 64mm tow-wire, Retrieved 23 Apr 2014
http://www.richfar.com/images/news_GZ-spooling_12.jpg

Figure 5. Strecher, Retrieved 2 May 2014


http://denverrope.com/images/134tow_line.jpg

Figure 6. Shackles, Retrieved 25 May 2014

http://i566.photobucket.com/albums/ss102/OMBugge/Offshore%20Vessels/AHTS/DS
C_5161.jpg

Figure 7. Hinge Link, Retrieved 2 May 2014


http://i01.i.aliimg.com/photo/v0/329929769/Hinge_Link.jpg

Figure 8. Hard eye pennant, Retrieved 2 May 2014


http://unirope.com/wp-content/themes/unirope/img/loop_back_hd_img3.jpeg

Figure 9. Fish plate, Retrieved 2 May 2014

https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRmGCHE-vHBYI401zfd3ojEbloS94kPRa6XKQsFzjjJhaADVlV
Figure 10. Grapnel, Retrieved 23 Apr 2014

http://www.aliotogroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/945xNxchain-grapnelimg.gif.pagespeed.ic.DjvfGhj818.png
Figure 11. Offshore J-Hook, Retrieved 23 Apr 2014

https://encryptedtbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSBP2nLJbZhjlcsSm2aiYJMoMhsxTK9vVRsfLPvldymErSY1Sa
80

Figure 12 & 13, Retrieved 2 May 2014

https://encryptedtbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSNtw1hTPOpNvEh3yF4ImjO0zwz7DjJ30T1
m5STo-mXL7Wzd3fC
Figure 14. Karm Fork, Retrieved 2 May 2014

https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQBq5TyxAfuSmDWcDjYKkBdewLlMgHZSTJDjgdaxbEMfLOaYP8
Figure 15. Smit Bracket, Retrieved 19 Jun 2014

http://www.maritiemdigitaal.nl/index.cfm?event=search.getdetail&id=135000224
Figure 16. Offshore Anchors 1, Retrieved 19 Jun 2014
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_ZGppTC5mDE/TWIsk4WG1bI/AAAAAAAAABU/o2_QdL_YlSM/s1600/a3.jpg

Figure 17. Offshore Anchors 2, Retrieved 19 Jun 2014


http://www.v-gurp.nl/offshore/images/Anchors.jpg

Figure 18. Offshore Bouy, Retrieved 24 Jun 2014


http://www.ipskl.com.my/service005.htm

Figure 19. UTM-Grid Zones, Retrieved 15 Aug 2014


http://www.luomus.fi/sites/default/files/mgrszones_europe.jpg

Figure 20. UTM Zone section, Retrieved 29 Aug 2014


http://www.georeference.org/doc/images/p_earth_trans_proj.gif

Figure 21. UTM Breakdown, Retrieved 15 Aug 2014


http://therucksack.tripod.com/MiBSAR/LandNav/UTM/UTMzoneDiagram.jpg

Figure 22. Anchor leg build up


Seafox 2 procedures 2013-0910WN

Figure 23. Running Anchors

Michal Hancox, 1993. Oilfield Seamanship, Jack-up Moving Vol 2. OPL (p296)
Figure 24. AHT Preparing for anchor run, Retrieved 20 Aug 2014

http://oddsalt.files.wordpress.com/2013/04/img_16061.jpg
Figure 25. Deck layout

Michael Hancox, 1992. Oilfield Seamanship, Anchor Handling Vol 3. OPL (p138139)
Figure 26. Communication loop

Captain Daniel S. Parrott, 2011, Bridge Resource Management for Small Ships (p130131)
81

ATTACHMENTS
Attachment 1. Jack-up Rig Crew Retrieved 16 Apr 2014
http://petrowiki.org/File%3ADevol2_1102final_Page_634_Image_0001.png#file

Attachment 2. Departure location


2013-0910/WN Seafox 2 Procedures

Attachment 3. Arrival location


2013-0910/WN Seafox 2 Procedures

Attachment 4. Offshore map, Retrieved 1st May 2014


http://www.offshore-mag.com/content/dam/offshore/printarticles/Volume%2073/08/NorthSeaMap2013-071713Ads.pdf

Attachment 5. Seafox 2 Anchorplan


2013-0910/WN Seafox 2 Procedures

Attachment 6. Questionnaire Study

82

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P)LUPFOD\
P/RRVHWRPHGLXPGHQVHVDQG
PDVSHUODVWYLVLWLQ5HWXUQLQJWRWKHSUHYLRXV
IRRWSULQWV
7XUQLQJFORFNZLVHPD[NWV

Prevailing wind

1:6:

Expected Penetration

Tidal range

Time of
Location

6SULQJPWU)DFWRU[5DQJH,PPLQJKDP
1HDSPWU)DFWRU[5DQJH,PPLQJKDP

High water at +: +:,PPLQJKDPKP
/: /:,PPLQJKDPKP

 *ULG
Proposed SF2  7UXH

SPS /
Heading
SPS dimensions
Tolerance
Air gap
Obstruction

Closest Distance

Distance to shore
Distance to Den Helder
Distance to De Kooi airport
Distance to closest platform

Remarks

/[%[+[[P PDERYHVHDEHGOHYHO 
$FLUFOHZLWKDUDGLXVRIPDQGKHDGLQJ

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H[DPSOHPDLUJDSLVDOVRDFFHSWHG 
6XEVHD7HPSODWHDQG3LSHOLQHV
6LQJOH0DWWUHVVLVREVHUYHGWRWKH1RUWK(DVWRIWKHWHPSODWH
8PELOLFDODQGSLSHOLQHH[LWLQJWKH7HPSODWHFORVHVWGLVWDQFH
WRXPELOLFDO6%%RZ/HJP
6%%RZ/HJWRWHPSODWHP
6%$IW/HJWRWHPSODWHP
QPWR9OLHODQG
QP
QP
QPIURP.(1&
QPIURP.1
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QPIURP.&
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&DQWLOHYHUEHDPSUHZHOGHGRQGHFN6WLFNLQJRXWPWU
7XJVWREHZDUQHG



Attachment 4

Cornerstone

35,000 km2 of state-of-the-art BroadSeisTM, BroadSourceTM


and extended-bandwidth broadband data in the North Sea.

214/4D214/5C
OMV
OMV OMV

OMV

214/9A
TOTAL
214/10A

L014
VALIANT

214/8 214/9BEXXMOB
214/10B
OMV
214/9C
OMV
OMV
OMV

213/10
OMV

213/9
OMV

208/6
DONG

209/8
DONG

208/7
DONG

213/13
SAGEX

213/14A
OMV

214/11
TOTAL

213/15
OMV

214/13A
OMV 214/14A
OMV
214/14C 214/15
DONG
OMV
214/13B
214/12B TOTAL
TOTAL

214/12A
OMV

213/12
SAGEX

209/11A
DONG
208/13B
208/15
208/14
208/12 DONG
E.ON
E.ON
DONG
209/11B
208/13A
DONG
DONG
208/15A
DONG

208/11
DONG

213/20A
TOTAL

L006
STAT

204/
9A
HESS
204/9B
HESS

204/
13
OMV

Licence blocks courtesy of ....

204/14
OMV

TORNADO
SUILVEN

204/18A
MAERSK

204/19A

204/21A
VALIANT

204/26A
VALIANT
174/28
FAROE

174/29
FAROE
164/4
FAROE

164/5
FAROE

204/26B
DONG

175/26
FAROE

204/
22A
HURR
DONG
204/27A
HURR

204/28B
DONG

204/29A
HURR

206/2
TOTAL

206/1B
TOTAL

206/3
TOTAL

205/10A
TOTAL

205/14
FAROE

205/15
NEXEN

205/18
FAROE

205/19A
FAROE

208/19B
208/20B
208/18A DONG
DONG
DONG

208/22
DONG

208/23
DONG

208/24
DONG

209/15
DONG

210/12
NORECO

209/17
DONG

210/24C 210/19B
NEXEN
NEXEN

206/6
TOTAL

206/8
BP

210/25A-9
TERN

SHELL

KESTREL

DANA

29B
DANA

210/30B
VALIANT

2/4B
ENQ

207/1B
VALIANT

LYELL

2/10B
ANTRIM

2/10A
LUNDIN

CHEVIOT ATP

3/13B
3/12B EXTRACT
APACHE

3/11B
LUNDIN

2/15B
ANTRIM

Sullom Voe

206/17
BP

205/
26A-3

205/20
NEXEN

3/16
BRIDGE

2/20
BRIDGE

3/18
TOTAL

3/17
APACHE

NUGGETS N2

205/23
PARK

Shetland
Islands

205/25
PARK

205/24
PARK

3/23B
STAVA

3/22A
NAUT

RHUM
205/27
CHRS

SOLAN

205/28
PARK

205/30
PARK

205/29
PARK

3/28C
RWE

3/27A
FIRST

3/26
NAUT

206/28
HURR

ELF

3/29C
APACHE

STAT

BRESSAY

30/10-2
DETN

4/26-1A

Kollsnes

32/4-2
TALIS
31/6-3
TALIS

31/7-2
STAT

32/7-1
TALIS

31/9-1
STAT

Bergen

31/8
RHURGAS

31/7-3
LUNDIN

OSEBERG
SOUTH
STAT
30/9-3
STAT
30/12-2
STAT

ODIN

3/30B
TOTAL

Sture

CLACHNABEN
MERLIN
CAUSEWAY NE
CAUSEWAY
CAUSEWAY EAST
DUNLIN SW
BARNACLE
211/27C-12
NINIAN COLUMBA 'B'
NINIAN COLUMBA 'E'
NINIAN COLUMBA 'D'

31/7-1
STAT

30/9-2
STAT

30/
11-2
STAT

30/
10-6

FROG

BP
BP

165/1
FAROE

31/11
VALIANT

30/11-3
STAT

FRIGG
NORTHEAST

APACHE
202/1
DONG

202/2
DONG

202/5
CHRS

202/4
CHRS

202/3
DONG

5/1
HURR

203/1
CHRS

5/2
HURR

5/3
HURR

5/5
HURR

5/4
HURR

8/5
ENQ

9/2B
NAUT

9/1
NAUT

XCITE

5/7
HURR

5/8
HURR

9/7B
NAUT

9/6
NAUT

5/9
HURR

BP

KEITH

BERYL

MARINER

8/14
TOTAL

8/20
INDEPENDENT

203/16
PREM

164/19A
CONOCP

BUCKLAND

GRYPHON

ATP
202/24
PREM

8/25C
MARINER
MARINER
164/26
STAT

202/29
PREM

202/30
PREM

203/26
PREM

7/30
8/26
CONOCP CONOCP

154/1
ENTER
154/1A
ENTER

201/5
PREM

Flotta

154/6A
ENTER

14/14B
BRIDGE

12/16A
ITHACA

11/25B
CAITH

LYBSTER
11/23
CAITH

12/17C
ITHACA
12/
17B
FIRST

BEATRICE

12/27-1

11/30B
ITHACA

12/26B
SUNCOR

17/5B
ENDEV

18/1A
ENDEV

ITHACA

12/18
ELIXIR

12/19B
PCANA

12/23B
CAITH

12/20A
PREM

13/13
ZEUS

13/12
ZEUS

12/20B
PCANA

CAPTAIN
13/22A
TALIS CHEV
DANA
13/21B
CHRS
PCANA

13/21D
ITHACA
12/24
PCANA

12/28
PCANA

13/17
FOX

13/16A
NEXEN

12/25
PCANA

CHRS
13/26A
MAERSK

12/27
SUNCOR

11/30A
ITHACA

11/29
ITHACA

17/4B
PA

12/22B
CAITH

JACKY

13/11
ZEUS

ZEUS
12/19A
PREM

12/23A
ENDEV

12/21B
SEND

11/24
CAITH

11/28
CAITH

12/15
ZEUS

12/14
PREM

12/16B
FIRST

12/29
FAROE

13/26B
TALIS

12/30
ECHO

BGI
BG
13/27A
PCANA

13/26A-2
18/2A
ENDEV

18/4
TALIS

17/4B
PA

19/1A
APACHE

18/5
TALIS

19/2
ROUND

19/1B
CTURY

18/5
PREM

14/12
14/11
NORECO NORECO

15/8
CHRS

15/7
CHRS

15/9
NEXEN

16/6B
NEXEN

15/10
NEXEN

NEXEN

NEXEN

19/8
NEXEN

Nigg
Cromarty

20/6A
19/10A NEXEN
NEXEN

19/9
NEXEN

20/
02A-8

14/14A
NOR

14/15B
BRIDGE

15/11B
GTO

15/12A
STAVA

14/15A 15/11A
SERICA TALIS

15/13A
BP

BP

15/
5-6
STAT

16/11B
BRIDGE

19/15
MAHONA

20/9
BSAPP

20/8
BSAPP

20/14
WINTER

20/12
SEND

Peterhead
Cruden Bay

21/6B
SUMMIT

20/10
BSAPP

21/9A
BP

20/15A
STRATIC

GOOSANDER
21/11
FIRST

20/15
FIRST

20/20
WINTER

EXXMOB

Aberdeen

21/27A
LUNDIN
20/30
SABLE

18/30
BRIDGE

26/5
DELIV

Montrose

27/1
DELIV

27/2
DELIV

27/3
DELIV

27/4
DELIV

27/5
DELIV

21/26
ENQ

28/1
DELIV

28/6
DELIV

26/10
DELIV

Dundee

TALIS

21/19
TALIS
VENT
TALIS

21/18B
NEXEN

COOK

TALIS

GDF

ARBROATH
GANNET D

17/4
LUNDIN

16/5-2
STAT

16/6-3
STAT

17/5-2
LOTOS

17/9-1
LOTOS
16/9
STAT

16/8
STAT

PCANA

17/8-1
BG

18/7-1
BG

17/9-2
BG

16/11-1
STAT
17/11-1
BG

18/10-1
BG

17/12-1
BG

16/11
GASSCO

9/1-1
PREM

8/3-1
PREM

22/10A
BG
CENT

23/6
CENT

22/15A
BG

23/
11B
BANKS CENT

28/24
GTO

29/21
GTO

28/25
GTO

9/1-2
TALIS
9/5-1
STAT

7/4-1
TALIS

7/6-1
STAT

7/5
TALIS

9/4
EXXMOB

8/6
EXXMOB

8/8-1
VENT

29/20A
MAERSK

29/20B
GTO

29/23
TALIS

29/24
VALIANT

29/25
VALIANT

CONOCP58
CLYDE PARK
56 ORION 30/19A
30/18A 30/SHELL
57
59
55
TALIS 19B

AUK

30/
16G
TALIS

30/21
4GEN

EDDA

29/26
GTO

29/27
PARK

30/20A
VALIANT
CONOCP
30/18B
MAHONA
VALIANT

JANICE

JAMES

2/7-19

INNES

30/23
30/22C
30/24
VALIANT VALIANT LUNDIN

29/30
29/29
VALIANT VALIANT

29/28
PARK

30/26
NEXEN

30/27
NEXEN

30/28
NEXEN

30/29
VERITAS

EMBLA
2/8-1
BP

2/7-29

UPB

2
ENDEV

31/26
UPB

30/30
OMV FLORA

31/27
UPB

37/3
PARK

37/4
PARK

37/5
VOLAN

38/1
VOLAN

38/2
NEXEN

38/3
NEXEN

38/4
NEXEN

38/5
NEXEN

5603/03
WINTER

37/10
VOLAN

38/6
VOLAN

38/10
NEXEN

125/23
SINGLE

125/20
SINGLE

125/19
SINGLE

125/24
SINGLE

37/16
VENT

36/20
VENT

125/25
SINGLE

37/17
37/18
37/19
EXXMOB EXXMOB EXXMOB

37/20
38/16
EXXMOB EXXMOB

A12D
CHEV

36/22
CONOCP

36/24
VENT

36/23
VENT

36/25
VENT

37/21
VENT

37/23
37/22
37/24
37/25
EXXMOB EXXMOB EXXMOB EXXMOB

38/21
38/22
EXXMOB EXXMOB

Newcastle
41/5
TRAP

Northern
Ireland

112/12
IONA

112/13
IONA
112/13
IONA

42/9
RWE

42/14
RWE

42/13
RWE

42/12A
RWE

41/24A-1

RHYL 113/27B
HYDROC
BURL

MILLOM

110/3B
VENT

MORECAMBE NORTH
110/2D
SERICA

ORMONDE SOUTH
110/4
VENT

110/03B-6A

DALTON 110/2A

HYDROC

CROSSANS
110/7A
BURL

110/
8B
CENT

110/7B
EOG

110/08A-5

LENNOX
LENNOX

110/12 110/13C
EOG
BHP

HAMILTON EAST
110/14B
EOG

HAMILTON

110/13B 110/18B
SERICA
BHP
110/18A
NEXEN

33/18
PROV

110/23
NEXEN

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

110/9C
CHALL

DARWEN

DOUGLAS
DOUGLAS WEST

Almwych

VENT

HAMILTON NORTH

42/21
CENT

110/19A
NEXEN

Ayr Point

Liverpool
Birkenhead

Republic of
Ireland

42/18
RWE

42/10
RWE

43/9
PA

43/8A

42/19A
RWE

43/10
PA

44/2
WINTER

44/7
VOLAN

44/6
PA

44/3
WINTER

44/8
VOLAN

44/5
CENT

5606/26
ELKO

5606/27
ELKO

5606/28
ELKO

5606/30
ELKO

5606/31
ELKO

5606/32
ELKO

5506/03
ELKO

5506/
04 5506/
ELKO 04
ELKO
ELKO

TYRA

JENS

5504/12
MAERSK

5504/11
MAERSK

ROLF

GORM

B8
GERMAN

5505/09
MAERSK

5505/13
MAERSK

HALFDAN

SKJOLD

B10
CHEV

5505/17
5504/20
MAERSK
SCOTS KRAKA

B14
BG

B13A
CHEV

A15B
VENT

SCOTS
B15
TOTAL

B13-FA

B16A
CHEV

REGNAR

F01
STERLING

5506/ 5506/
08
08
ELKO ELKO

5506/10
ELKO

5506/11
ELKO

5506/ 5506/
12
12
ELKO ELKO

5506/14
ELKO

5506/15
ELKO

5506/ 5506/
16
16
ELKO ELKO

5506/18
ELKO

5506/19
ELKO

5506/20
ELKO

C11
BOW
5506/23
ELKO

5506/24
ELKO

C13
BP

C16
TOTAL

VENT

B18-FA

F03A
VENT

HANZE
E03
STERLING

5505/22
WINTER

5505/21
WINTER

B18
BP

B17A
VENT

B16-FA

5506/07
ELKO

DAN

SCOTS
B11
GERMAN

5506/07
ELKO

IGOR

SIF

5504/16
MAERSK

MAERSK

B17-FA

44/4
WINTER

5606/24
ELKO

5506/06
ELKO

DAGMAR 5504/15

B10
BEB

A18A
CHEV
45/1
CENT

5606/23
ELKO

ADDA

B10-FA

38/27
38/28
EXXMOB EXXMOB

F03B
GDF

F02A
PCANA

F3-FB

F06A
TOTAL

44/9
VOLAN

F06B
PCANA

42/20A
RWE

WOLLASTON

42/29A
BP
42/
WHITTLE
26A
42/28D
RWE 42/27A
E.ON
E.ON
RWE

CAISTER
CARBONIFEROUS
CAISTER BUNTER
ENSIGN
VAMPIRE
49/16-15
ALISON
ALISON-KX
VIKING E
VICTORIA
VIKING D
VIKING C
VALKYRIE
CLIPPER SOUTH
VANGUARD
VALIANT SOUTH
GANYMEDE
VISCOUNT
VIXEN
49/18-5Z
BRIGANTINE B
BRIGANTINE D
BRIGANTINE C
BRIGANTINE A
INDEFATIGABLE SW
BELL
CALLISTO
BAIRD
CORVETTE
BESSEMER
BEAUFORT
GAWAIN
WENSUM
TRISTAN NW
WELLAND NW
TRISTAN

Hull

ROUGH
47/6
STELIN

43/23B
VENT

43/22C
VENT
43/26B 43/27B
E.ON
E.ON

43/26A
E.ON

43/24B
HOLYW

BRIDGE

ERIS

43/28
FAIRF

JOHNSON

43/29
VENT

43/27A
E.ON

RAVENSPURN SOUTH

NEPTUNE

44/
15
GDF

44/13A
GDF

E.ON BABBAGE
E.ON 48/3A
48/2B
VENT
E.ON

48/1A
DANA

HYDE

48/4A
VENT

RITA
BOULTON

G7
BEB

E09
GDF

H7
GASSCO

KELVIN
D15-A
44/23B-13
EPIDOT
CONOCP
MINKE
MURDOCH
E13
D15
1
TULLOW

GDF
44/24A
GDF D18-FA
2
GDF
44/26B
GDF
44/28-3
43/30A
VENT
GDF
44/28A 44/29C
ORCA
KETCH VENT GDF
SCHOONER
GDF
GDF
TULLOW
44/28B
44/29A
43/30B
CENT
TULLOW
VENT
HOLYW VENT
49/2C CHISWICK
RWE
VENT J03
VENT
VENT
TOPAZ GDF
49/4A
49/1B
J3-C
48/5
49/3
VENT
VOLAN GDF
VENT
VENT
GDF

WATT

E12
GDF

F12
CIRRUS

E12 LELIE

WINDERMERE

E15
WINTER

F13
WINTER

F14
WINTER

F15B
TOTAL

F16-A
E17-FA

E18-DF

E17
GDF

E16
GDF

K02
GDF

K1-A

VENT CERES

BP

DANA

BP

48/6
PREM

WEST
AMOCO
HELVELLYN SOLE

E18B
TULLOW

K2-FA

F17
WINTER

F16
WINTER

E18A
WINTER

L1-A

K5-U

L2-FA

G16B
GDF
M01B
CIRRUS

L03
TOTAL

L02
EXXMOB

L01B
STERLING

G14-AB

G16A
GDF

F18
WINTER

F17-FB

L1-FB

G13
GDF

F15B
TOTAL

L2-FB
L01A
GDF

K03
GDF

G11
GDF

G14
GDF

H15
WINTER

F15-A
F18-FA

F17-FA

F16-P

G10
GDF

J10
NORTH SEA

J11
NORTH SEA

G17-A

G16-FA

G18
HANSA

G17
GDF

M1-FA

M03
HANSA

M01A
CIRRUS

L2-FC

J13
NORTH SEA

H/15
H16
HANSA

H16
WINTER

H17
H17
WINTER WINTER

L1
N01 WINTER
HANSA
L2
WINTER

HOTON

BP

J8
NORTH SEA

F15B
TOTAL

F14-A
E14
TULLOW

WINTER

K01
TOTAL

J7
NORTH SEA

E12 TULIP EAST


E11
TULLOW

HUNTER

43/25B
HOLYW

H9
E.ON

L5-FA
MARKHAM
48/8C
49/8C VENT
L4-G
K04
48/10C
L6-FA
L04B
VENT MIMAS
WINTER
K5-C
K6-T TOTAL L4-1
RWE
GDF
TOTAL
STAMFORD K4A-D TOTAL
L06A
GDF
49/7
CONOCP
K5-FE
K6-G
M05
K4-A
L06D
WINTER
ANN
BRIDGE
HESS
47/7
47/8D
CONOCP
L4-A
49/8B SHELL
SHELL
K6-DN
ATP
48/9B
L5-B
GROVE
K5-D
L4-D
STELIN CENT
48/7A
VOLAN
L5
BRIDGE
TOTAL
49/6A
L5-C
48/6
WINTER
FAIRF SATURN
VOLAN
TOTAL K5-G
BP NEWSHAM
K/4-Z
K6-C
CENT
WINTER
WINTER
DANA
BP
CONOCP
NEWF
BP
BP
CUTTER
ROSE
K6-N
K6-B
47/
48/15B
TETHYS
M08B
CENT
47/13A
49/15B
K07
L8-PWINTER
L9-FF
CARRACK
BRITOIL
BARQUE
L7-H
N07A
N07B
CENT 15B-5
CONOCP
K8-FD
ASCENT
ARCO
HOLYW
NAM
EXXMOB
BARQUE SHELL 48/14A VENT
ATP
NAM
GDF
49/14B
K7-FA
K9C-A
L7-B
L8-G
AMETHYST
AMETHYST
FAIRF
WENLOCK
M7-FA
49/11A
K7-FB
NAM
SOUTH
SHELL SHELL
SHELL 3 48/15A
WINTER
GDF L7-A TOTAL
L9-FE
EAST BP
WEST GDF
CONOCP 49/12A
VOLAN
49/13
K8-FB GDF
AMELAND
NOORD
MALORY
M07
L7-C
M08A
CONOCP
K7-FE
M9-FA NAM
GDF
L9-FB
BRIDGE
CONOCP
L8-H
49/14A
GALAHAD
36
47/13B JULIET
PEREN
CIRRUS
ASCENT
L7-FN
SHELL
K8-FC
K9AB-B
AUDREY
SHELL
GDF
GDF
L9-FA
GDF
VIKING A
WESTGAT
K7-FC K8-FA
L8-A
40
6
MORDRED
PICKERELL
37
NES
41 CIRRUS
M11-FA
SHAMROCK
K12-A
4 5 7 8 9
19
K10-V
GALLEON
AMELAND
38
TULLOW
NOORD
39
CLIPPER
EXCALIBUR
M10
49/20A
42
21
SHELL
K11-FC
OOST
12 11
ASCENT
L11-B
VIKING B
SERICA
NORTH SHELL
GDF 46
K11-FA
SHELL
22
10
47/19
43
45 L10-CDA
L12-FD
NOORD FRIESLAND
SKIFF
49/16
L11C
GUINEVERE
47/18
49/18 20
K11-FB
CARAVEL
18
GDF
13
NAM
L11A CHEV
CONOCP
LANCELOT
K10-C
GDF L12-FA
GDF
47
SHELL
23
49/17 STERLING
HOLLUM
TERSCHELLING
NAM
GDF
44GDF
48
49 GDF
K10A
STERLING
VALIANT 14 17CONOCP
WAVENEY
AMELAND
GDF
NOORD
L10-S4
K12-B
WINTER K10-B
L12-FC
L12-FB
L10-F
BRIDGE
HANSA
16
INDEFATIGABLE WINTER
NORTH
15
ANGLIA
K14-FC
L11-A
K15-FL 50 51
WINTER
SHELL
K13
GDF
K13-CF
VICTOR
TULLOW
48/22-4 ATP 48/23B
56
49/25B
52
WINTER
53
55 54
L14-FA
24
DURANGO
L15-FA
STERLING
CONOCP
K13-DE
WINTER
SHELL
K14-FA
SINOPE
60
25
27
62
L15D
L13-FK
47/25
NAM
58
61
ZUIDWAL
PEREN
SEAN N
BLYTHE
K13-B
VULCAN
47/23B
GAS FIELDS - NL
TULLOW
26 SHELL 28
K15-FC 57
BRIDGE
L13
64
SHELL SHELL
63
GRANBY
K13-A
SEAN
E
48/22C
59
NAM
EUROPA
NAM
48/21B
SHELL
36 L7-D
51 LARK
L13-FJ
31
ZUIDWAL
SHELL 29
HANSA SWIFT
K14-FB
VULCAN
EAST
30
K15-FJ
SEAN
S
37 L7-G
52 L13-FG
LITTLE DOTTY
VERMILION
L13-FH
PEREN
DEBORAH
L14-6
ORWELL
38 K9AB-A
53 L13-FC
K15-FF
48/28B
K17
SHELL
DAWN
BURE
L16B
L10-G
39
54 K15-FG
DAVY
WINTER
DELILAH
STERLING
K16-FB
EXXMOB
K16-5
CIRRUS
THAMES
DEBEN
BIG DOTTY
40 L10-K
55 K15-FB
NORTH
KOTTER
LEMAN
K/17-FB
48/28A
L7-F
41
56 K15-FI
48/29A
32 33 BOYLE
THURNE
FIZZY
PEREN
WINTER
L16-A
CONOCP
49/26
42 L10-19
57 K15-FM
PEREN
48/28C
L16-FA WINTER L16-B
PEREN
K/17-FA
SHELL
YARE
L11-7
WINTER
BROWN
43
58 K15-FD
TULLOW
HEWETT
34
35
44 L11-1
59 K15-FA
DELLA
ENI CONOCP
P1-FB
52/3A
WELLAND S
Q2-A
P02
DAVY
K12-17
45
60 L13-FA
Q01 HAVEN
Q1-NW
DAVY
TULLOW
CAMELOT N
ELKO
EAST
CAMELOT NE
ITHACA
46 K12-D
61 L13-FB
CHEV
SMART
P1HOORN
PEREN
CAMELOT CENTRAL S
K12-S2
P2-E
47
62 L13-FD
HORNE
FA
SCHAGEN
HELDER
P2-1
48 K12-S1
63 L13-FF
ELKO
ABERDONIA
WISSEY
SMART
ARTHUR FIRST
HALFWEG
K12-G
49
64 L13-FI
P2-SE
WREN VOLAN
NORF
SHELL
SHELL
50 L13-FE
HELM
Q1-A
53/ 54/
52/4B
WINTER
P6-NW
10A 6A
IJSSELMEER
TULLOW
52/5B
Q5-2
NORF NORF
NAM
Q4-B
TULLOW
P05
53/8
53/9
53/7
P06
53/6
WINTER
P04
WINTER
EOG
JETEX
EOG
WINTER
WINTER
EOG
54/6
53/10
ASCENT
JETEX
JETEX
P6-MAIN
Q4-B WINTER
P6-D
BERGERMEER
P6-S
TAQA
WINTER
53/13A
P09A
53/14A
CHEV
CHEV
CTURY
Q7-FA
P 8-A
CTURY
Q8-A
53/15
Q08
GROVE
MARKERWAARD
P9-B
JETEX
P08C
WINTER
NAM
53/14B
PCANA
CHEV
SWIFT
HORIZON
CENT

MERCURY

Dimlington
Immingham Easington
Grimsby

TRENT

RAVENSPURN

MINERVA
APOLLO
47/4D 47/5D
PEREN DANA DANA
YORK
VENT

PEREN

KILMAR

VENT

CLEETON

CENT
47/2B
CENTARTEMIS

VENT

ATP

42/25B
VOLAN

42/30A
BP

GDF

44/11B
GDF

43/14B
PA

44/14
44/12A
GDF
GORDON GDF
GDF
43/14A
TYNE
D09
43/13B WINTER STERLING
HAWKSLEY
TULLOW
NORTH
VENT
WINTER
CAVENDISH 43/19A
GDF CONOCP
44/19-3
PEREN
43/17B
RWE
E10
44/16-3
43/18B
PA
TULLOW
TYNE SOUTH D12
RWE
WINTER
43/19B
43/18-1 PA
MUNRO
PA
D12
ANDALUSIET
HARRISON
43/17A
HOLYW KEPLER
MCADAM
WEST
RWE
RWE
COPERNICUS

43/16
VENT

GARROW
42/24
VOLAN

43/13A
VENT

43/12
VENT
43/11 ESMOND
VENT
43/13A
FURASTA
PREM

42/15
RWE

VENT VENT
ATP ATP

42/22
CENT

GAS FIELDS - UK

BAINS
MORECAMBE
SOUTH
110/9B

CALDER

42/17
RWE

41/25A-1

United
Kingdom

Barrow in Furness
Barrow

113/
29C
NAUT

113/27C
SERICA

113/26A
BURL

Loughshinny

42/8
RWE

41/18
DELTAIC

113/26B
SERICA

Dublin

44/1
WINTER

42/4
RWE

BREAGH

41/19
41/20
DELTAIC DELTAIC

Power Head

38/26
EXXMOB

36/29
VENT

42/3
RWE

42/7
LUNDIN

Teesside

112/14 112/15
IONA
IONA

113/
22A
113/21A BURL
113/28B
SERICA
HYDROC

5504/10
MAERSK

B7
BEB

A12B
CHEV

A15-A

5606/22
ELKO

FORBES BHP

Tees Offshore Base

112/14
IONA

42/2A
LUNDIN
42/
2B
RWE

41/10
TRAP

Hartlepool
Belfast

42/1
TRAP

36/28
VENT

36/27
VENT

STINE 1
STINE 2

5506/02
ELKO

ROAR

B4
WINTER

A18-FA
36/26
VENT

5605/13
DONG

FRANCISCA

VALDEMAR

A15A
VENT

35/21
TGSNOPEC

NINI EAST

CECILIE

5504/07
MAERSK

5504/06
MAERSK

A12A
CHEV

4/5
STAT

5504/03
CONOCP
5504/06

A09
PREM

H18
WINTER

L3
WINTER
L3
WINTER

SEVEN
SEAS

Uithizen

Theddlethorpe

Eemshaven

Emden

Harlingen

Den
Helder

Bacton

Callantsoog

Great Yarmouth
Lowestoft

England

Wales

EL 1/07
PROV

53/19
JETEX

53/20
JETEX

DE RUYTER
P10B
PCANA

48/20
LANSDWN

EL 2/07
PROV

HELVICK
EL 2/07
PROV
49/13
FASTNET

48/20
LANSDWN

ON

EVEN HEADS

EL 2/07
PROV

HOOK
HEAD

KINSALE
HEAD
EL 4/05
SAN LEON

TAQA

RIJN

P15-12

P15C
TAQA

P18-4

103/1A
MARA

Harwich
Milford Haven
Swansea

EL 2/07
PROV

Port Talbot

LO 07/1
PROV

Cardiff

London

Bristol

Canvey
Island

RIJSWIJK
NAM

Q13-FA
P18-2

CIRRUS

The
Netherlands

Amsterdam

Q14
CIRRUS

Q13-FB

Q13
DELTA

Q16A
NAM
BOTLEK
NAM

Gate LNG, LNG 2


Europoort (Maasvlakte)
Europoort
(Hoek Van Holland)

103/10
PROV

DUNMORE

Q13B
CIRRUS

NAM

Q11
CIRRUS

Q10B
CIRRUS

Q13-FC

HoogovensMIDDELIE

Q16-FA
Q16C
CIRRUS

ARDMORE
EL 4/07
LANSDWN

P12-SW

P14-A

P18A
TAQA

EL 1/07
PROV

DRAGON

P12-C

P15-13

PROV

Ijmuiden

Q10A
CIRRUS

P12
WINTER

P11
PCANA

P11B
PCANA

P14A
PCANA

EL 1/07
PROV

EL 1/07
PROV

Rotterdam
LionGas LNG

Germany
North Sea Offshore Oil & Gas
Map

56/11
JETEX

Isle of Grain

SHANAGARRY
FASTNET

Zeebrugge

KINSALE
OLD HEAD

PL 01
MARA

Oostende

MOLLY MALONE
FASTNET

Dunkirk

EL 3/07
PROV

Southampton
Portsmouth
Wytch Farm

98/6A
BP

98/6B
NWE

97/14
INFRA

97/15
INFRA

98/11
INFRA

98/8A
NWE

BP

BEACON

98/11-2

98/13
NP SOLENT

98/14
NP SOLENT

Abbreviations
Blocks

Pipelines

Blocks

Oil

Exploration Licences

Gas

Fields
Oil
Gas

Oil & Gas


Proposed
Pipeline

Terminals
Terminals

Cities
Capital City
Major Town

BAYERNGAS
BHP BILLITON
BLACK SAPPHIRE
BOW VALLEY
BURLINGTON
CAITHNESS
CANAMENS
CENTRICA
CENTURY
CHALLENGER
CHEVRON
CHRYSAOR
CONOCOPHILLIPS
CORSAIR
DELIVERIT
DET NORSKE
ENCOUNTER
ENDEAVOUR
ENQUEST

BAYERN
BHP
BSAPP
BOW
BURL
CAITH
CANA
CENT
CTURY
CHALL
CHEV
CHRS
CONOCP
CORS
DELIV
DETN
ENCNTR
ENDEV
ENQ

ENTERPRISE
EXCELSIOR
EXXONMOBIL
FAIRFIELD
FIRST OIL
FREQUENT
GAZ DE FRANCE
HOLYWELL
HURRICANE
HYDROCARBON
IDEMITSU
INFRASTRATA
LANSDOWNE
MARATHON
NAUTICAL
NEWFIELD
NORFOLK
NORWEGIAN
OILEXCO

ENTER
EXCEL
EXXMOB
FAIRF
FIRST
FREQ
GDF
HOLYW
HURR
HYDROC
IDEM
INFRA
LANSDWN
MARA
NAUT
NEWF
NORF
NOR
OILEX

PA RESOURSES
PARKMEAD
PERENCO
PETRO-CANADA
PETROFAC
PREMIER
PROVIDENCE
ROUNDSTONE
SCOTSDALE
SENDERO
SINGLETON
STATOIL
STAVANGER
STELINMATVIC
TALISMAN
VENTURE
VOLANTIS
WINTERSHALL

PA
PARK
PEREN
PCANA
PETROF
PREM
PROV
ROUND
SCOTS
SEND
SINGLE
STAT
STAVA
STELIN
TALIS
VENT
VOLAN
WINTER

5707/27
DONG

5/1
CONOCP

5604/
31
DONG

5604/30
DONG

5504/01
WINTER

A06
WINTER

5707/26
DONG

4/3
DONG

5604/26
MAERSK

5604/29
HESS

A12-FA
125/18
SINGLE

11/10
CONOCP

RAU

ELLY WINTER

36/15
37/11
EXXMOB EXXMOB

5705/25
DONG

5707/23
DONG

AMALIE

HIBONITE

A05
PREM

39/7
NEXEN

39/6
NEXEN

5707/22
DONG

ARNE SOUTH

5603/04
WINTER

A02
PREM

10/12
CONOCP

5707/19
DONG

11/7
EXXMOB

5604/20
DONG

DONG

SVEND

5603/32
WINTER

5604/20
DONG

ELNA

5604/21
MAERSK

GEYSIR

SIRI

LULITA 5604/22

5604/25
MAERSK

5603/31
SAGEX

10/11-2
TALIS

10/9
EXXMOB

NINI

3/8
LUNDIN

A6/B4

Scotland

11/6
STAT

4/2-2
STAT

3/5-2
DNO

HARALD

5603/28
DONG

HOD

10/10-2
TALIS

5605/10
DONG

3/5-3
LUNDIN

FREJA

5603/
02
ATP

39/2B
NEXEN

39/1D
NEXEN

3
BP

5603/30
SCOTS

FERGUS
37/2
GTO

3/4-1
DNO

2/9

1
BP

10/11-1
CONOCP

4/1
TALIS

3/5-1
DNO

TRYM

2/9
CONOCP

10/10-1
SHELL

3/3-2
TALIS

VALHALL NEXEN

2/10
EDISON

ARDMORE

2/8-3
CONOCP
2/8-2
NEXEN

10/8
EXXMOB

4/2-1
TALIS

3/3-1
RWE

3/7-1
DONG

ELDFISK

30/25A EDISON
LUNDIN

FIFE

EdinburghLeith

11/5
STAT

10/7
EXXMOB

2/8-2
LUNDIN

2/7-1
CONOCP

ANGUS
28/30
GTO

10/4
TALIS
9/6
DETN

DALMORE

Burntisland

9/6
TALIS

9/5-2
EXXMOB

PA

29/18
TALIS

29/22
TALIS

9/3
TALIS

9/2
TALIS

23/16B
CARRIZO
7/7-2
SHELL
7/7-1
22/20B
22/
LUNDIN
BP DANA
18 22/19C
BG
PA JX NIPPON
7/8
7/7-2
MUNGO
TALIS
WOOD MONAN
SHELL
TALIS
BRITOIL JX NIPPON
CARNOUSTIE

29/17
TALIS

29/16
NEXEN

18/11-1
PREM

18/10-2
PREM

17/12-2
PREM

7/3-1
STAT

FULMAR
AUK NORTH
54

Methil

Glasgow

17/8
NORTH

17/7
NORTH

22/21A IDEM 38
TALIS BRECHINSHELL
SHELL
23/21
8/7-1
7/9-1
BP
CENT
BG
22/21C ARKWRIGHT
CENT
CENT
23/21-6Z
SHELL
SAXON
MAERSK
22/23C
SKUA
IDEM
8/
405
42
22/25A
PREM
GDF
8/11-2
SELKIRK
21/27B
GDF
11-1
7/11-1
CENT
BRITOIL PIERCE
CLAPHAM
21/25B
VENT
WINTER
NEXEN
CENT
TALIS
EGRET
SHELL
PIERCE
STERLING 44 PCANA
SHELL SHELL
SHELL
APACHE
7/12-5
50
53 23/26C
GANNET A
43
PCANA
BG
PIERCE
8/10-1
52
51
CAITH CNR
CENT
4721/3048 22/26B 22/27C 49
21/28A 45
STAVA
SCOTER SCOTER
MIME
21/29D
7/12-1
ENTER
22/28C
MAERSK
MACHAR 7/11-2
23/26A
8/10-2
8/11-3
ANTRIM SHELL
BP ULA
ERNE
SHELL
MAERSK 22/29C
CONOCP
GANNET
F
TALIS
SHELL
CONOCP
CONOCP
GANNET E
23/27B
TOTAL
22/
SHELL SHELL
21/28B
MAERSK BG
COD
26C
CNR
ANTRIM ANTRIM 21/30-12
ELGIN
ENQ
22/27A-2
SHEARWATER
MAERSK
BANFF CNR
30/2B 1/2-1
GLENEIG ELF 29/5B 30/1G
TAMBAR
28/5A
2/2-2
ELF MAERSK
29/1C
BG CONOCP
IPSWICH 1/
PREM
28/3A
STARLING
OILEX
FRANKLIN
SHELL
3-1 GYDA
PETROF
30/2A 30/3A 1/2-2
28/4 BITTERN
28/2A
29/4C ELF
2/3-1
2/1-5
BP
2/2
29/2E
CNR
TALIS
29/5E
29/3B
SHELL
LUNDIN
PREM
ITHACA
BRITOIL
GDF 30/ BP
TALIS
2/1-3
TALIS
28/3B
REAP
BITTERN
1/3-2
ITHACA
TOTAL SHELL
KYLE
TALIS
1C KESSONG
ENQ
BLANE DONG
2/3
TALIS
SHELL
PUFFIN
1/3-2
CNR
GDF
BP
GYDA
SHELL
2/2-5
JADE
REAP
CONOCP
1/2-3
PREM
SOUTH
29/03A-6 29/9A
29/7B
29/06A-3
28/10C
TOTAL
29/6A SHELL
30/7B
SHELL
SHELL
2/2-1
30/06-3Z CONOCP
PREM
1/3-3
VENT
2/1-11
FIRST
CURLEW C ACORN
TOTAL
30/6
2/4-11
28/8
28/10B CURLEW
28/9
SOUTH
30/7A
30/8 1/5-1
SHELL
PREM
PREM
PREM
1/6-1
29/
2/5-7
CONOCP TOTAL TOTAL
29/ BEECHNUT
SHELL
2/4-2
29/6B
8C
PREM
29/10A
9B
SAERIMNE
1/5-3
STAT
ENDEV
VALIANT REAP
ITHACA VALIANT
VENT
TOR
2/6
TJALVE
2/5-1
CONOCP GDF
ALBUSKKJELL
30/11A
PREM
CONOCP 2/5-2 MAERSK
30/13-3
VALIANT
TOTAL TOR SOUTHEAST
29/15A
MAERSK
CONOCP
JOSEPHINE
2/4-5
TOTAL
29/12
29/13
FLYNDRE
29/11
28/15
29/14
30/11B 30/12B
CONOCP
2/6-5
ENDEV
1/6-1
30/13A
ENDEV
PREM
ENDEV
NEXEN
TALIS TALIS
TOTAL WEST
CONOCP
2/5-3
29/15B
CAWDOR
EKOFISK EKOFISK LUNDIN
HALLEY
2/5-4
TALIS

21/22
WINTER

28/20
NEXEN

EL 3/06
SAN LEON

17/6-1
TALIS

17/5-1
TALIS

KRABBE

TEAL 21/25
TOTAL
40
21/24A
PCANA 41 39
46

PICT

21/21
WINTER

MONTROSE

Sandnes

17/3-1
TALIS

17/2-2
TALIS

16/6-1
LUNDIN

22/12B BARDOLINO
ENEGI 22/13B
PREM
HUNTINGTON
7/4-2
23/11C SHELL
22/14B
22/15B
CONOCP
STAVRO
E.ON
FREQ

MALLARD
37
36 22/16B 22/17S

Risavika LNG

TALIS

22/9A
BG
NELSON HOWE
22/14A
22/13A-2 BG
ENTER ENTER

21/14A
NORECO

17/1
NORECO

16/5-1
LUNDIN

16/4-2
STAT

VOLVE

17/2-1
NORECO

ALDOUS MAJOR SOUTH/


AVALDSNES

22/9B
E.ON

BRIMMOND 22/8B

21/15A-2

16/3-1
LUNDIN

16/2-1
STAT

16/1-6
LUNDIN

15/6-2
STAT

BG

22/7A CARRIZO
22/6C
SHELL SHELL APACHE
CARRIZO

21/9B
APACHE

KITTIWAKE
GADWALL

22/8B
BG

NEXEN

SEND

21/14B
21/13B VERITAS
LUNDIN
NORECO
21/18A
GROUSE
VENT
DANA

21/17A
DANA
21/17B
ENQ

BG

BACCHUS 22/7B

21/15A
APACHE 22/11B
APACHE

21/12A
DANA

21/16A
VENT

MPX

FORTIES

TORPHINS

DURWARD
20/19
WINTER

21/8B
VERITAS

21/7A 21/8A
ENQ LUNDIN
21/12B
21/13B
EOG
CONOCP

21/6A
SEND

DAUNTLESS

20/16
SEND

21/7B
PREM

SEND

21/10
APACHE

Stavanger

16/1-6
ALDOUS MAJOR NORTH

16/4-1
LUNDIN

EXXMOB

STAT

26/11
NORECO

STAT

EDVARD
GREIG II

GLITNE

SYCAMORE

21/3C
SEND

FIRST

26/10
NORECO

SVALIN

RAGNARROCK

SIGRUN

16/
ENOCH 15/5-2
12A
BIRCH VENT GINA KROG

15/15
NEXEN

GRANE

STAT

STAT

DNO

LUNDIN

16/11A
SEND

15/14
NEXEN

HOOD

KILDRUMMY
15/17A
YEOMAN

21/1B
FIRST

20/5D
BSAPP

NEXEN

20/8
NEXEN 20/9
NEXEN

20/7
CARRIZO

19/10B
MAHONA

St Fergus

OIL FIELDS - UK
36 CHRISTIAN
37 GODWIN
38 SHAW
39 GANNET G
40 21/24-4
41 TEAL SOUTH
42 SHERYL
43 FYNE
44 GUILLEMOT NW
45 GUILLEMOT WEST
46 GUILLEMOT NORTH
47 GUILLEMOT A
48 GANNET C
49 MADOES
50 22/23B-5
51 22/29-2
52 HERON
53 MERGANSER
54 LEVEN
55 NETHAN
56 MEDWIN
57 AFFLECK
58 TOMMELITEN
GAMMA
59 TOMMELITEN A

14/13
BRIDGE

STAT

WEST
CABLE

STAT

KINGFISHER

LARCH

NEXEN

GRANE C

25/10-2
DETN

DNO

STAT

MILLER

BRAE

25/8-4

BALDER

25/10-2
LUNDIN

GUDRUN EDVARD
GREIG

MARA

Karstoe

25/9
VALIANT

25/8-5
PCANA EXXMOB
25/11-1
EXXMOB STAT

DNO

BRAE EAST

16/7A
MARA

STAT

26//8
VALIANT

RINGHORNE

CLAYMORE
15/9-1
TIFFANY
GTO
12
16/16B
16/7-2
15/20D
TALIS
STAT
NEXEN
15/19D SABLE
14/18-1
14/19N 14/20B
BRIDGE CNR CNR
15/8-1
PIPER
NOR
SALTIRE
PREM
TALIS CHEV 15/16B
14/18B-12
STAT SLEIPNER
15/20A
TONI
13/19
13/20
14/16
LOKE
13/18
NEXEN
WEST
SCARPA
15
16
CHEV
15/18A
ALPHA
15/17B
13
MAERSK
ATHENA
AWE
PREM
NORECO
AWE
THELMA4GEN
DONAN
SHELL
ITHACA
STAT 16/7-2
14/19S
15/19C
14/17
17
16/18C
TALIS
TARTAN
LUNDIN
TALISDUART
SLEIPNER
STAT
MAERSK
ZEUS
DANA
18
TALIS
LOCHRANZA
EAST
MACCULLOCH
14
BLADON
KINNOULL
OILEX
OILEX
PERTH 15/22 15/23A
13/23B ENCNTR
PREM
14/23A
16/23B
MAERSK
TALIS
SIGYN
25
14/25A SCOTT
TALIS TALIS
15/24A
27
ENDEV
PCANA 16/ 15/9-3
PCANA
SHELL
MAERSK
14/22A
23-4 DNO
EXXMOB
21
16/22
14/21A
TAIN
20
19 GALLEY NIPPON
13/25
NICOL
26 16/21A TALIS 28
OILEX
TALIS
ENCNTR OILEX
16/23A BP
22
TELFORD
14/25B
BG
PREM PREM PREM 30 29 CONOCP
14/23B 14/24B
13/23A
24 23
PCANA
STORSKRYMTEN
PREM
BUGLE
BLAKE
FARRAGON
PALACE NEXEN
DANA
BG
35
33 34
ROB ROY
IVANHOE
NEXEN
PREM 31
DNO
16/10-1
16/27A
14/30A
PTARMIGAN OILEX 32
ENCNTR
MAUREEN
13/28A
GRANBY 14/26C
15/27
15/28A NIPPON
PREM
CONOCP
GRANBY 14/27B 14/28A
PREM
TALIS
15/26A ENDEV
16/28
CALEDONIA CYRUS
ENDEV
ENDEV
ZEUS
ALDER
VARG
ENDEV
ENDEV
HESS
BP
BG MABLE
15/30A
CROMARTY
RENEE ENDEV
16/26
TALIS
15/12-3
CHEV
16/27C
14/29C
ROSS
15/26B
CONOCP
CHEV
MOIRA
TALIS GAUPE NORTH
14/26B-5
BOW
PREM
BG
RUBIE
15/29B
NEXEN
ALBA
14/26A
13/28B
16/29A FAIRF
13/29C
14/27A
BRITANNIA
16/10-2
CONOCP
ROCHELLE 15/28C
TALIS
BG
ECHO
BP
SHELL
SHELL 15/26B-5
NEXEN
BG
BG
NEXEN
ANDREW
TALIS
MARIA
REV
CALLANISH 22/1B CHESTNUT
TWEEDSMUIR
HANNAY PREM
19/5C
PEREGRINE 20/3D
BG
22/4D
21/2A NEXEN
CONOCP
VALIANT
MAERSK
WINTER NEXEN
21/1A
MAERSK
NEXEN
GAUPE
VENT
22/3A
PREM
HOBBY 20/2C
21/05ABUCHAN N
TALIS TWEEDSMUIR S
19/3
19/4
SEYMOUR22/5B SOUTH
BG
20/1
6/6Z
19/5B
20/5B
22/2B
NEXEN
BGI
NEXEN
NEXEN
22/1A
NEXEN
21/4B
20/3A
GLENNTOTAL
NEXEN
PREM
20/4A BRIDGE
MAERSK
MPX
BUCHAN
ETTRICK NEXEN
21/5B
SEND
7/1
TALIS
SHELLEY PREM
NEXEN
21/2B
22/4B
19/5A
BG
BUZZARD

Invergordon

15/6
CHRS

25/7-2

STAT

25/9-1
VALIANT

25/8-4
STAT

IVAR AASEN

STRATIC
TAQA

WEST BRAE
14/10
CHRS

15/3-2
STAT

MARA

25/6-1

JOTUN

HANZDNO

CAIRNGORM STAT

BALFOUR

14/9B
BRIDGE

Wick

11/27
CAITH

15/3
CHRS

15/2
CHRS

14/9A
BRIDGE

OIL FIELDS - UK

TAQA

TAQA

Thurso

Stornoway

8/30B
BRIDGE

25/
6-3
VALIANT

NORECO

STAT

24/9-12
DNO

Norway

26/5
VALIANT

25/6-3
NORECO

25/8-2
25/8-1 NORECO
EXXMOB

25/7-2
DNO

24/9-3
MARA

9/28A
BG
BHP
PREM
9/28A
CRAWFORD
FAIRF
9/26
FAIRF
STAVA
DANA
PREM

TAQA

Scrabster

14/20-6Z
HIGHLANDER
PETRONELLA
IONA
CHANTER
15/18A-6
PIPER
15/22-16
15/21A-38Z
MARMION
15/21A-51
15/21B-50
HAMISH
BLENHEIM
BALMORAL
BURGHLEY
16/22-5
16/22-2
STIRLING
BRENDA
GLAMIS
BLAIR
BEAULY
16/23-6

15/1
CHRS

14/5
CHRS

154/7A
ENTER

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

8/28
CHRS

VOLUND

25/6-2
DNO

SKIRNE

ATLA

GEKKO

25/7-1
MARA

MACLURE

VALIANT

16/1B
EXCEL

Orkney
Islands

Flotta

BENBECULA

8/27
CHRS

TOTAL

MARA

MARA

BOYLA

BRITOIL

9/22
ZEUS

BYGGVE

HEIMDAL

DNO
HARDING
9/21B
VALIANT
9/22A
SHELL
BP DEVENICK
STAVA

8/25A
ATP

8/25B
CANA

203/21
PREM

202/25
PREM

9/19A
CONOCP

BRORA

9/17
VALIANT

9/16
ATP
164/24A
CONOCP

9/18A
CONOCP

9/17B
ZEUS

MARA

LEADON

NEVIS

9/16
STAT

FROY

25/5-2
LUNDIN

ALVHEIM

NESS

ENI
164/18A
CONOCP

EXXMOB

EXXMOB

MARINER EAST

PERTRA

VILJE

6-1
PCANA

MPX

LOIRSTON

STAT

25/3-2
TOTAL

PERTRA

STAT

9/14A10Z
BOA 24/

APACHE LINNHE

9/11D
STAT

TOTAL

LILLE FROY

VALE

25/4-1
LUNDIN

TOTAL

MPX

25/1-4
PCANA

9/10C
PCANA

TOTAL

9/8A
BHP

BRIDGE
8/15
STAT

TOTAL

TOTAL

26/2
VALIANT

FRIGG

ELF

9/8B
EXCITE
5/6
HURR

LILLE FRIGG
DETN DETN
25/
2-1
FRIGG EAST
FRIGG 25/1-1
STAT
25/3-1
TOTAL
25/2-10 DNO
ELF

9/5B
NEXEN

9/4A
CORS

9/3B
XCITE

NAUT

164/23A
CONOCP

BP

30/8-4
STAT

32/
5-1
TALIS

STAT

TROLL
EAST

BRAGE

30/9-1
STAT

TUNE

30/11-1
STAT

30/10-1
STAT

3/25B
TOTAL

3/24B
BP

31/6-1
STAT

31/4-3
STAT

OSEBERG

STAT

30/7-3
WINTER

NUGGETS N4

Lerwick

205/22B
FAROE

3/24C
STAVA

30/8-2
STAT

30/7-2
MARA

NUGGETS N3

3/23A
TOTAL

3/22
NAUT

TOTAL

3/19A
TOTAL

30/6-2
STAT

30/8-1
STAT

TOTALLINGE

31/5-1
STAT

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Mongstad

32/1-2 32/
TALIS 2-1
TALIS

31/3-3
STAT

STAT

30/5-2
STAT

MARTIN

TOTAL

31/3-5
STAT

TROLL
WEST

30/6-3 OSEBERG
STAT EAST 31/4-2
STAT
30/6-1
STAT

OIL FIELDS - UK

32/1-1
WINTER

31/3-4
REVUS

VESLEFRIKK

30/5-1
STAT

30/4-2
TOTAL

31/3-1
STAT

31/2-3
STAT

30/3-4
STAT

CORVUS

30/4-1
STAT

3/15B
WINTER

35/11-5
STAT

31/1
WINTER

HULDRA

36/10-2
WINTER
36/
10-1
REVUS

ASTERO

30/3-2
STAT

36/7-2
STAT

378
REVUS

ASTERO

FRAM

AFRODITE
35/10-2

30/2-1
STAT

ISLAY

NUGGETS N1

205/26A
CHRS

HURR

3/15A
3/14A TOTAL
TOTAL

35/11-2
STAT

Attachment 4

36/7-2

35/9-2

35/9-4
NEXEN

31/2-1
MARA

29/6-1
TOTAL

SHELL

35/10
WINTER

KVITEBJORN

36/7-1
STAT

35/
9-3
RWE

35/8-6
NEXEN

WINTER

DUNBAR

CNR

34/12-1
WINTER

30/3-3
STAT

TOTAL

GJOA

STAT

FRAM
NORTH STAT

STAT

BRENT
SOUTH

STAFFA

IONA

SHELL

3/11C
ENQ

3/9A
TOTAL

ENI

35/9-2
STAT

35/8-3

SKARFJELL

ALWYN
NORTH

CNR

3/7A
CNR

CNR

34/
9
WINTER

35/9-3

GJOA

STAT

34/11-1
STAT

3/4B STRATHSPEY
TOTAL
30/1-1
29/3-2
3/4A
STAT
STAT
CHEV

NINIAN
10
11

3/6B
ENTER

2/10A-6 ATP

206/7A
BP CLAIR
206/
13A
HESS
206/11A
206/12A
BP
HESS
206/
11B
BP
BP

35/8-1
PCANA

VEGA

VALEMON

STAT

3/03-11
3/3A
CNR

3/2A
CNR

3/1B
LUNDIN

2/05-10

GULLFAKS
SOUTH
34/10-1
STAT

35/6-1
IDEM

35/5
BAYERN

35/9-1
STAT

34/9-1
WINTER

34/11
WINTER

GULLFAKS

GULLVEIG

ZEUS

35/4-1
GDF

NOKKEN

LUNDE

ITHACA

34/8
WINTER

35/5-1
STAT

35/7-1
STAT

34/8-7

GIMLE

LUNDIN

BRENT

35/4-2
STAT

VISUND

34/8-2
WINTER

STAT

BORG

211/28B
EXTRACT

3/2B
FAIRF

35/3-2
AGAT
RWE

35/3-3
ENDEV

34/9-2
WINTER

TORDIS

GULLFAKS
WEST

SHELL

HUTTON

3/1A
TOTAL

2/5
LUNDIN

BROOM

VIGDIS

34/8-1
STAT

34/7-2
STAT

7 33/12-2 STAT

FAIRF

HEATHER

STAT

FAIRF

PELICAN

STAT

AMOCO

TAQA

34/7-1
STAT

STAT

THISTLE

33/9-7
OSPREY
STAT
DUNLIN
2
STATFJORD

1PREM

SHELL

STATFJORD
SNORRE
DELTA

CNR

ELIXIR

DEVERON

BARRA
UIST

206/10A
FAROE

206/9A
CONOCP

TAQA

SHELL

CORMORANT
TAQA
4
NORTH
LEWIS
CLADHAN
HUTTON
NW
CORMORANT 211
SOUTH
211/27C
210/28 210/
26

210/24A
DANA

210/26
TAQA

208/28
DONG

208/27
DONG

EIDER

NEXEN

HUDSON

210/21
TAQA

DON SW
PLAYFAIR
211/
MURCHISON
17

211/16B
TAQA

35/2
STAT

33/3-2
LUNDIN

DON

205/26B
HURR

204/30
HURR

204/29B
DONG

209/14
DONG

208/25
DONG

SCHIEHALLION

LANCASTER

209/13
DONG

210/13
NORECO

206/5A
FAROE

206/16
BP

205/
17B
FAROE

209/16
DONG

35/1
STAT

cgg.com

209/12
DONG

VICTORY

206/5B
VALIANT

206/4
TOTAL

208/18B
DONG

34/2-2
STAT

34/1-2 34/1-3
34/2-3 34/2-4
BG
CONOCP PCANA
PCANA
34/4-2
34/4-1 PCANA
34/5-1
211/8A
CONOCP
211/7A211/8CVENT
PCANA
33/6-1 33/6-2
34/5-3
34/6-2
BP VALIANT 33/5-1 PCANA CONOCP
34/4-5
BG
BG
PCANA
34/4-3
MAGNUS
PENGUIN B
PCANA
34/5-2
PENGUIN WEST
34/4-10
211/13C
211/12A
34/6-3
33/6-3
BG
211/11A
211/13A
211/11B
BP VALIANT
NEXEN
CONOCP
VALIANT
SHELL 211/14
TAQA
34/4-5
SHELL
34/6-1
PENGUIN
EAST
211/12B
34/4-4
210/15A
STAT
MAGNUS SOUTH
STAT
33/6-2
ELIXIR
REVUS
ENDEV
211/13B
34/9
SUNCOR
OTTER
210/20D
STRATIC
WINTER
WEST DON

210/19A
SERICA

208/20A
DONG

33/2-1
CONOCP
211/8B
211/7B NEXEN
NEXEN

210/9
210/10
210/7
210/8
211/6
BAYERNGAS
BAYERNGAS NEXEN
NORECOBAYERNGAS

209/10
DONG

210/23
DANA

208/26
FAROE

207/1A
CHEV

LAGGAN

FAROE

204/
25A
HESS
204/
205/22A
25B
205/21A HURR
HURR
BP

204/ 204/24B
23
BP
BP
204/28A
HURR

205/13A
TALIS

205/
16C 205/17A
DONG
TALIS
205/
16B
FAROE

204/20A
BRITOIL

204/24A
BRITOIL

FOINAVEN SW

205/12
PARK

LAXFORD
SOUTH

206/1A
TOTAL

205/ 205/
4
5A
TOTAL TOTAL

205/9
TOTAL

208/16
DONG

214/29B 214/30A
JX NIPPON DONG
214/27A
TOTAL 214/28B
214/30B
CENT
CENT

TORMORE

208/17
DONG

214/25
DONG
214/23
JX NIPPON 214/24B
208/21
JX NIPPONLAXFORD FAROE

205/7A
DONG

205/11
DONG

LOYAL

214/26
NIPPON

205/5B
NEXEN

205/7B
E.ON

FOINAVEN BRITOIL

204/22B
VALIANT

205/3
NEXEN

205/6
DONG

204/20C
DONG
204/19C
VALIANT

213/30
E.ON

213/29
E.ON

205/4
NEXEN

205/2B
NEXEN

204/10-1

204/15
HESS

214/22
TOTAL

214/
21B
TOTAL

213/28
CHEV

205/2A
CHEV

205/1B
CHEV

204/10
HESS

213/25A
SHELL

ROSEBANK

205/1A
CHEV

204/14A
BP

204/18B
VALIANT

214/16B
BP

214/27B 214/28A
NIPPON JX NIPPON

213/27C
STAT

213/26B
STAT

204/5A
HESS

213/24B
NEXEN

213/23
CHEV

213/27A
213/26A CHEV
STAT

HESS

174/30
FAROE

213/22
CHEV

213/
21
STAT

204/4
HESS

213/20B
BP

214/18
TOTAL

214/17
TOTAL

213/
25C
BP

L008
STAT

212/30
STAT

213/19B
NEXEN

213/18
SAGEX

213/17
STAT

L009
STAT

209/9
DONG

213/8
SAGEX
L013
VALIANT

SUNCOR

21/12B211/3B
BAYERNGAS
BAYERNGAS

The licence blocks featured within this map are a composite of many sources,
with no single source to which sole credit need be given, however operators,
NOC and oil companies web sites have been invaluable and the following
governmental sources should receive credit and to which Infield Systems
are grateful:
UK - DEAL; Norway - Norwegian Petroleum Directorate;
Netherlands - TNO;
Ireland - Geological Survey of Ireland/ Department of Communications,
Energy and Natural Resources;
Denmark - Danish Energy Agency.

Dunkirk

Calais

France

M
A
Belgium

Offshore Magazine 1455 West Loop South, Suite 400; Houston, TX 77027
Tel: 713-963-6200; Fax: 713-963-6296; www.offshore-mag.com

J14
NORTH SEA

Attachment 5

Attachment 6
Q1 Are you familiar with the concept MRM Maritime Resource Management?
Answered: 28

Skipped: 3

Yes

Remotely yes

No

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90% 100%

Answer Choices
Yes

Responses
50.00%

Remotely yes

28.57%

No

21.43%

Total Respondents: 28

14

Q2 As tugs are connected to a jack-up rig choose the options that best describe the
bridge team in terms of Maritime Resource
Management (MRM)
Answered: 29

Skipped: 2

Tug-masters
and tow -mast...

Tug-masters
and tow -mast...

The rig and


the tugs w or...

Each unit or
vessel have...

Comments

I don't think
the concept...

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90% 100%

Answer Choices
Tug-masters and tow-master form one bridge team in addition to the bridge team inside every
unit or vessel
Tug-masters and tow-master form their own bridge team
The rig and the tugs work together in one bridge team
Each unit or vessel have their own bridge team
Comments
I don't think the concept applies here

Responses
37.93%

11

31.03%
24.14%
17.24%
10.34%
6.90%

9
7
5
3
2

Total Respondents: 29
#
1
2
3

Comments
Don't know whether "Bridgeteam" applies, but a close bond always exist between Lead Tug master and
Towmaster. That doesn't exclude other participating tugs/masters - It's all really a close knit group
-Tow master in overall charge of departure and final positioning, OIM in charge of MOU and tug
masters in charge of their respective units. Possible dispute in interests?
The tow master is in direct contatct with the Rig Management plus crew and the tug boat captain.
This includes the barge engineer and client representative and the positioning team on board

Q3 Choose the personnel you think should


be included in the bridge team.
Answered: 29

Skipped: 2

Tow -master

Masters of the
tugs
Mates of the
tugs
Pilot on rig
(if onboard)

Barge Engineer

Pilot on tug
(if onboard)

Radio-operator

Other (comment)

Rig Crew

Tug Crew

Helmsman

VTS-operators

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90% 100%

Answer Choices
Tow-master

Responses
96.55%

28

Masters of the tugs

79.31%

23

Mates of the tugs

72.41%

21

Pilot on rig (if onboard)

72.41%

21

Barge Engineer

65.52%

19

Pilot on tug (if onboard)

65.52%

19

Radio-operator

37.93%

11

Other (comment)

34.48%

10

Rig Crew

27.59%

Tug Crew

20.69%

Helmsman

17.24%

VTS-operators

3.45%

Total Respondents: 29

#
1

Other (comment)
Each unit will have their own communication with respective crew onboard but the crew should have
access to hear the Bridge teams conversation and also to be briefed

OIM and company man,marine representative if on board

Bridgeteams should be very select and only consist of essentiel members. Too many peoples muddles the
waters. Tugs will have their own team working seperately, but the person on the controls will still be close
connected to the rigs bridgeteam In situations with a pilot on board, the situation is different as mostly
the pilot brings along his own team/boats, which answers to him only. But the pilot will still be part of the
bridgeteam on the rig.

4
5

-Tow-master and Barge engineer might be the same person.


Everyone who has anything to do with any part of the rigmove should be included at some point or
points before or during the operation.
The Rig manager is missing from the list. The involvement of the Rig Crew and the Tug Crew is done via
the management of the rig and the tugs. There are normally two Tow-Masters, One from the oil company
and one from the jackup rig. Prior to the move it is determined which of the two will do the actual move.
The other is there to assist. The Tow-Master ( Rig Mover) from the jackup rig is always in direct contact
with the crew. The Tow Master from the oil company is delegating his commands via rig
management (Barge Engineer).

7
8
9
10

Assistent Barge Engineer Rigmanager OIM


Marine Representative of the Oil Company + OIM + Jacking Engineer, if applicable
OIM, Jacking Engineer
Marine representative from oil company or drilling contractor

Q4 Do you feel the tow-master's actions


are monitored in appropriate way?
Answered: 29

Skipped: 2

Yes.

Yes.
Tow -master's...
Other (please
specify)
No - second
guesses just...
No, the lev el
of monitorin...
No, but in
most cases t...
Yes, although
the lev el of...
0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90% 100%

Answer Choices
Yes.

Responses
41.38%

12

Yes. Tow-master's actions are monitored to a MRM-standard.

37.93%

11

Other (please specify)

24.14%

No - second guesses just create confusion

10.34%

No, the level of monitoring should be more emphasized..

6.90%

No, but in most cases the tow-master will manage

6.90%

Yes, although the level of monitoring should be more emphasized.

0.00%

Total Respondents: 29
#
1

2
3

5
6
7

Other (please specify)


Whether there are a MRM monitoring or not, the towmasters/tugs manage quite well. On the day to day
basis neither towmasters/tugs can do anything that is not seen or observed and possibly remarked upon mostly by third party individuals.
- Tow-masters actions are monitored and approved by OIM, company rep., warranty.
If a marine rep is on the rigmove he should monitor the Towmaster. unfortunately these days most
marine reps are inexperienced. The OIM and barge eng. should be able to question the towmasters
actions if unsure or in any doubt, similarly tug masters.
As decribed above. There are always two Tow Masters. Unless spcificatlly agreed upon during a
rigmove meeting onshore between all parties prior to the rigmove. With two on board here is
sufficient monitoring between them.
During positioning of a jack up there is always a marine representative on board which monitors the
actions of the towmaster.
Tow master is busy as the flight control, he does not have extra time for small talk.
Tow masters actionist are monitoren by the marine representative during rigmove operations.

Q5 Do you believe the duties of a towmaster could be further delegated?


Answered: 29

Skipped: 2

Yes - at least
during high...

No - overall
situational...

No

Other (please
specify)

Yes

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90% 100%

Answer Choices
Yes - at least during high workloads

Responses
48.28%

No - overall situational awareness is better maintained by one person

27.59%

No

13.79%

Other (please specify)

13.79%

Yes

10.34%

Total Respondents: 29
#
1

Other (please specify)


Like on a vessel, there is only one captain! The same apply in this situation - otherwise it would be
chaotic - and the all over touch with the present situation would be lost.

2
3

- 2 Tow-masters during high performance moves.


Clients reluctant to pay for 2 towmasters. In fact due to shortage it is unlikely 2 experienced
towmasters will be on same job. Possibly a trainee might act as second Towmaster.
Occasionally some of the tasks could be shared between the two Tow Masters. There is normally a
good working relationship between them to agree on this.

14

Q6 As a tow-master I would be interested


in...
Answered: 29

Skipped: 2

Who are the


tugboat mast...
Tug
capabilities
Bollard pull
and other...
What kind of
crew the tug...
Purely
operational...
Who's at the
controls of ...

Any additions?

The tugs daily


rate
I don't care
any of the...
0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90% 100%

Answer Choices
Who are the tugboat masters and any reference to earlier working history with them

Responses
96.55%

28

Tug capabilities

89.66%

26

Bollard pull and other features of the tugs

82.76%

24

What kind of crew the tug has, nationality, age, experience etc..

72.41%

21

Purely operational aspects e.g. whether the given tug configuration would meet the towing or anchor- 44.83%
handling requirements

13

Who's at the controls of a tug should it come down to the performance of an individual

41.38%

12

Any additions?

17.24%

The tugs daily rate

0.00%

I don't care any of the above, as long as we understand each other.

0.00%

Total Respondents: 29
#
1

Any additions?
Operational, the 3 above mentioned items are most important. Adminstrative, Features and aspects are the
important issues there.

It will very soon be evident whether the tug controls are in the hands of a professional. Most of the
questions raised are already covered by to days exchange of paperwork between tugs and
rigs/towmasters.

3
4
5

Tugboat response to seaconditions


Anchor handling experience and performance
Nationality no mater.

Q7 The safety and fluency of a tug - rig


interaction is best assured by focusing
on...Click and hold to drag the boxes - top
being high and bottom being low in priority
or use the drop down menus to prioritize
the following:
Answered: 24

Skipped: 7

A)
Communication
C) Briefing on
what the nex...
F) Testing the
equipment, a...
G) Being open
and ready to...
B) Read-back
of instructi...
E) Following
written...
H)
Transparency...
J) Creating
plans that...
D) Successful
delegation
I) Proper
utilization ...
0

10

66.67%
16

16.67%
4

4.17%
1

4.17%
1

0.00%
0

4.17%
1

0.00%
0

0.00%
0

4.17%
1

C) Briefing on what the next phase of work


will include

8.33%
2

20.83%
5

16.67%
4

16.67%
4

16.67%
4

12.50%
3

4.17%
1

4.17%
1

F) Testing the equipment, and making sure


it's func tional

8.33%
2

20.83%
5

25.00%
6

8.33%
2

12.50%
3

8.33%
2

4.17%
1

G) Being open and ready to receive


suggestions

0.00%
0

8.33%
2

16.67%
4

16.67%
4

12.50%
3

20.83%
5

B) Read-back of instructions over VHF

0.00%
0

16.67%
4

12.50%
3

12.50%
3

8.33%
2

E) Following written procedures as far as


practical

8.33%
2

12.50%
3

12.50%
3

4.17%
1

H) Transparency in reporting any potential


or existing problems

0.00%
0

0.00%
0

4.17%
1

J) Creating plans that leave some room for


human and automation errors

8.33%
2

0.00%
0

D) Successful delegation

0.00%
0

I) Proper utilization of automation (tug


management system, following vectors,
autopilot-systems,planning maneuvers on
screen etc...)

0.00%
0

A) Communication

10

Total

Average
Ranking

0.00%
0

24

9.08

0.00%
0

0.00%
0

24

7.13

8.33%
2

4.17%
1

0.00%
0

24

6.96

16.67%
4

8.33%
2

0.00%
0

0.00%
0

24

5.96

4.17%
1

25.00%
6

8.33%
2

8.33%
2

4.17%
1

24

5.54

12.50%
3

4.17%
1

8.33%
2

12.50%
3

20.83%
5

4.17%
1

24

5.38

20.83%
5

16.67%
4

8.33%
2

16.67%
4

16.67%
4

8.33%
2

8.33%
2

24

4.63

8.33%
2

8.33%
2

8.33%
2

12.50%
3

4.17%
1

16.67%
4

16.67%
4

16.67%
4

24

4.38

4.17%
1

0.00%
0

8.33%
2

12.50%
3

12.50%
3

12.50%
3

20.83%
5

8.33%
2

20.83%
5

24

3.83

0.00%
0

0.00%
0

0.00%
0

0.00%
0

12.50%
3

8.33%
2

4.17%
1

29.17%
7

45.83%
11

24

2.13

Q8 Given the rig is approaching standoff


position and the tow-master is in
command. Describe your perception of the
balance in influence between these two
roles (tow-master / tug) by selecting values
on this ranking scale.
Answered: 26
Tow mast er

Outcome of the executed


maneuvers (for example carrying
out maneuvers to comply w ith the
commanded line heading
regardless to the vessel heading)

Overall responsibility
Pointing out deviations to the
planned maneuvers (as an
example to point out the need for
shortening the tow ing lines in time)
Correcting deviations to the
intended track, rig heading or
speed of approach

Skipped: 5

It ' s t eamwo r k

T ug

11.54%

3.85%

11.54%

3.85%

38.46%

3.85%

0.00%

7.69%

7.69%

11.54%

10

57.69%

11.54%

11.54%

3.85%

11.54%

3.85%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

15

7.69%

7.69%

11.54%

3.85%

34.62%

11.54%

3.85%

3.85%

3.85%

11.54%

48.00%

8.00%

12.00%

12.00%

12.00%

4.00%

0.00%

0.00%

4.00%

0.00%

12

#
1

Comments
There can be no doubt that the overall command of any operation jack up/tug lays with the towmaster.
The tugmaster will be in overall control with what happens to/with his vessel. Therefore again, a close
knit operation between Towmaster/Tugcaptain is essential for a successfull operation.

2
3
4

Ultimately towmasters responsibility but any input from tug should be fully considered
Tug Captain should always be in charge of his own vessel, Towmaster can only suggest deviations to
get his vessel in the right configuration
During the approach to a stand-off position / final position the towmaster should be in full control.
Motions to be monitored / feedbacked from 'bridge team' to be given. Commands / comms should be
more or less one way. During anchor running this is somewhat more 50 / 50 concerning the control.
Commands / comms should be more two - way.

Tugboat should warn in time reaching his limits

Of course the start of the approach is an interaction between the towmaster and the Tug captains.
Usually way in advance of arrival the arrival plan has been discussed and the time of shortening up
has been agreed between tug captains and towmaster.

Q9 Does commercial pressure have any


impact on your working performance?
Answered: 26

Skipped: 5

No

Other (please
specify)

Yes, I find it
challenging ...

No,
operational...

Yes

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90% 100%

Answer Choices
No

Responses
53.85%

14

Other (please specify)

19.23%

Yes, I find it challenging to compromise between commercial and operational requirements

15.38%

No, operational needs should be tailored to the preference of commercial requirements

15.38%

Yes

11.54%

Total Respondents: 26
#
1

Other (please specify)


Normally commercial pressure doesn't have impact on the operations. But when the rig is waiting
on weather for weeks it sometimes happens that the required weather window is implemented
more creative

2
3

No impact on safety. Has anyway to be kept on mind


There will always be pressure on the Towmaster. Mostly from the rigs clients, who can't get on location
early enough, and also trying to minimize any waste time spent on manouvres with the rig. At times
the rigs manager will have issues as well. In these situation towmasters will succee if they possess
some degree of diplomatic ability, without loosing the fact that the rig must be brought in position the
safest possible way.

4
5

All jobs should be done as well. The customer who pays the tug has right to get good job for the money.
The end goal will be bring the rig safe and responsible from position a to b.

Q10 The rest period regulations are strictly


followed.
Answered: 26

Skipped: 5

No

Compromises
are common b...
Other (please
specify)
Compromises
are common a...
No, just like
every...

Yes

No one bends
the rules fo...
Compromises
are common a...
0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90% 100%

Answer Choices
No

Responses
38.46%

Compromises are common but not desired - and I'm ok with it.

19.23%

Other (please specify)

19.23%

Compromises are common and I wish my superiors would act on it.

11.54%

No, just like every regulation implemented in maritime industry - it takes time to adapt it in practice.

11.54%

Yes

7.69%

No one bends the rules for no reason.

7.69%

Compromises are common and I often find people bending the rules, but I'm ok with it as long as I'm
compensated

3.85%

10

Total Respondents: 26
#
1

Other (please specify)


When the situation allows rest periods is adhered to. Unfortunately, there will be situations where this
rules is bent, i.e. weather issues, mechanical isues etc -but in general, it is sought to avoid such
situations where the rest period is jeorpardized.

Compromise to a certain extent but if safety of rig, vessels or personnel are at risk then no compromises

The rest period regulations are not 100% clear to all involved. Therefore it is difficult to state if and when
the rules are violated. In the 20 years I have been ofshore, no rigmove was ever placed on hold due to
rest period regulations. To ensure that we comply at all times, it would be necessary to employ two tow
masters. As indicated before, as there are normally two tow masters on board, (one from oil company
and one from the jackup rig), resposibilities could be shared so all can have decent rest.

No, Especially during short moves from platform to platform long hours are made. Never the less I always
try to let the people have at least a few hours rest before we commence the final move in.

The rest periods for officers are carried out fine. Captain and the deck crew do exeding long periods
of work that does cause severe fatique.

Q11 Should normal rest periods be


compromised; on- duty rest for a short
period of time during non-critical phases of
the job should be widely accepted and
duly acknowledged.
Answered: 25

Skipped: 6

Yes. It's for


the greater...
Absolutely, as
long as it's...
Everybody does
it, allowed ...

Yes.

Other (please
specify)

No.

No. I wish it
was so, but ...
No, sleeping
is not part ...
No, chances
are - sleepi...
0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90% 100%

Answer Choices
Yes. It's for the greater good, to be able to stay more alert when really needed.

Responses
40.00%

10

Absolutely, as long as it's done in turns and no work performance is reduced.

24.00%

Everybody does it, allowed or not. There's no need for a new regulation or guideline

12.00%

Yes.

12.00%

Other (please specify)

12.00%

No.

8.00%

No. I wish it was so, but I would be offending my employer by doing so.

4.00%

No, sleeping is not part of one's duty

0.00%

No, chances are - sleeping will make one even more tired

0.00%

Total Respondents: 25
#
1

Other (please specify)


With jack-up moves, specially if you are to operate in close proximity of offshore constructions - the rig
is 100% weather bound - depending fully on present wind- and sea state. At times this will jeorpardize
ever so well laid plans for the individuals rest and time off.

Normally a Tow Masted has no fixed on duty time. The weather, tide and location of the rig determins his
duty schedule. He takes breaks wherevere he feels he can take them based on his planning so he is as
rested as can be during critical parts of the operation.
As a towmaster and tug master you have to sleep short hours in between the hectic hours. This will
always compromise your normal rest period. Of course I will delegate the job when I go for a little
rest.

Q12 How would you describe the safety culture in your working
environment?
Answered: 26
A g r eed

So me what
ag r eed

Safety is important, and no rushed


actions should be carried out.

84.62%

15.38%

22

Safety is important, however


exaggerated to some extent.

36.00%

10

Safety should be incorporated to


routine work - not the other way
around.

64.00%

16.00%

20.00%

0.00%

0.00%

16

8.33%

29.17%

16.67%

16.67%

29.17%

"Safety related" accidents are real, too


much concentration on safety and
guidelines tends to draw the focus
away from the work, increasing the
likelihood of accidents to happen.

15.38%

38.46%

11.54%

11.54%

23.08%

10

The prevailing safety atmosphere can


be sensed when working with
complete strangers and the attitude is
transmitted even through VHF.

30.77%

30.77%

34.62%

0.00%

3.85%

I trust every colleague and outside


operator to be fully qualified and
trained to one standard.

19.23%

15.38%

23.08%

26.92%

15.38%

The objectives of safety and


productivity do not meet.

#
1

Skipped: 5
C o nsid er it
neut r al

So me what
d isag r ee

D isag r ee

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

40.00%

8.00%

0.00%

16.00%

Comments here
Safety is important. But it often influences the efficiency of an operation, given a potentional hazard a
longer time to materialize. Some personnel develop an attitude problem because of safety, they hide
behind it, when there is something they don't like doing they state that they can't do it because it is not
safe.
Safety cannot be breached. If it collides with produtivity, time-out, another way to be found. A towmaster
cannot afford to trust individuals too far/too much. He needs to check, check and check again to ensure
his commends contain the correct amount of safety mixed with progress needed. A towmaster cannot
work 24/7, hence there are now 2 towmasters present to share the workload during a rigmove. The trust
is 100% between the towmaster - shoud be.

It depends a lot on the operator / rig owner. UK rigs tend to, as you say it, exaggerate the safety. While
on Danish / Dutch rigs there is a much more 'common sense' attitude, as to my experience.

Off Shore is due its nature professionally and safely carried, avoiding accidents keeps business running..

Q13 I am ready to hand over my duties and


controls to my second in command officer,
junior officer or trainee, to promote training
and share responsibilities with future
prospects.
Answered: 27

Skipped: 4

Yes, as I
remain...
Yes, when the
time is righ...
Depends of the
other person

Yes.

Yes, "do it
yourself" is...
Absolutely,
I'm seasoned...
Yes, as long
as I hav e...
Other (please
specify)
That's a nice
thought,...
I would, but
mentoring j u...
At least a
verbal appro...
No, as I carry
the...
No, one can
learn j ust f...
No, there's a
hierarchy fo...
No,
responsibili...
0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90% 100%

Answer Choices
Yes, as I remain available and ready to jump back "behind the wheel"

Responses
48.15%

13

Yes, when the time is right and challenge is feasible for practice

48.15%

13

Depends of the other person

44.44%

12

Yes.

37.04%

10

Yes, "do it yourself" is the only real way of learning

29.63%

Absolutely, I'm seasoned captain / tow-master / etc... and "talk through" as a mentor is my next
challenge
Yes, as long as I have enough recent experience myself to cope with the situation.

22.22%

22.22%

Other (please specify)

7.41%

That's a nice thought, however I reckon real operations are no place for practice

3.70%

I would, but mentoring just doesn't work for me

0.00%

At least a verbal approval from a superior to hand over controls would be required

0.00%

No, as I carry the responsibility and possible consequences - there must be other ways.

0.00%

No, one can learn just fine by monitoring

0.00%

No, there's a hierarchy for a reason, I worked my butt off to get into this position.

0.00%

No, responsibilities must be officially exchanged and I need my superior's approval.

0.00%

Total Respondents: 27
#

Other (please specify)

A Towmaster always ensure that the next person to take over command of a jack-up rigmove, is
adequately brought up to date, and fully understand what he is undertaking. The towmaster always
make sure to inform of his whereabouts on his time-off - should his precense be needed on the bridge.
At times where a trainee is present, unfortunately, he will often be allowed to observed
only, due to the nature of the present situation.

Delegating duties to other officers is an essential part of the work. Trainees are onboard for learning,
not for carrying severe responsibilities.

Q14 Building a good confidence to use the


full array of bridge / pilot house equipment
takes practice and should be utilized as
often as reasonable
Answered: 27

Skipped: 4

Yes, all this


automation a...

Yes

Yes, it's a
large part o...
Yes, there's
no time to...
Yes, once it's
in your...
Unfortunately
yes, it take...
I don't need
to memorize ...
Other (please
specify)
No, the more
complex the...
No, it is
sufficient t...
No, in the
past w e used...
I'm convinced
some sort of...
0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90% 100%

Answer Choices
Yes, all this automation and equipment is there for my assistance

Responses
51.85%

14

Yes

48.15%

13

Yes, it's a large part of my job to know how they work

40.74%

11

Yes, there's no time to study the manuals during high workloads

33.33%

Yes, once it's in your backbone, it's like riding a bicycle

29.63%

14.81%
I don't need to memorize all the knobs and functions, as long as I know what's relevant and remember 11.11%
the essential stuff by heart

Other (please specify)

7.41%

No, the more complex the design the less it should be observed.

0.00%

No, it is sufficient to have "somebody" onboard able to manage it

0.00%

No, in the past we used to do this with a fraction of the equipment with no problems.

0.00%

I'm convinced some sort of magic is involved. Malfunction or strange behavior is a nightmare, and I'm 0.00%
happy to pass the problem to be solved with the professionals

Unfortunately yes, it takes time and effort to keep up with the development

Total Respondents: 27

Other (please specify)

When operation rigs instrumentation/propulsion etc it is always good to have a crewmember at hand,
should you feel uncomfortable with the set-up. If you are on a particular rig for the first time, require a
crewmember to be of assistance, or a proper training session before utilisation in earnest.

The traditional methods are good to keep in fresh memory, it helps also understanding new technology.
Modern technology is a great help!

Q15 Jack-up rig move procedures


Answered: 27

Skipped: 4

Should be
followed as ...
Provide an
excellent fr...
Describe the
details,and...
Are extensive
and contain...
Serve their
purpose as...
Should be
feasible as...
Should be more
compact for...
Other (please
specify)
Are too
extensive an...
Are extensive
to cover all...
0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90% 100%

Answer Choices
Should be followed as far as is practicable

Responses
62.96%

17

Provide an excellent frame to carry out the common practice

51.85%

14

Describe the details, and leave room for individual solutions

44.44%

12

Are extensive and contain everything one would need to know for the move

37.04%

10

Serve their purpose as guideline, although actual implementation cannot be written on a piece of
paper

18.52%

Should be feasible as written, otherwise integrity suffers and deviating the procedures becomes
"normal"

18.52%

Should be more compact for clarity and leave mandatory legal or chartering information in the office. 11.11%

Other (please specify)

11.11%

Are too extensive and difficult to apply in real life operations, I just read the essential pages with
operative details
Are extensive to cover all the legal issues, and therefore it takes practice to find relevant information.

7.41%

0.00%

Total Respondents: 27
#
1

Other (please specify)


Rigmove procedures is as different as the people who writes them. Hence always study the procedures
carefully, and never trust them to be fully correct/workable. Remember it is a piece of work-paper,
albeit it should be followed where possible.

range of detail depends on who and why the procedures are prepared by and for, range from extensive to
serve their purpose

Note that there can be enormous difference between RMP's and RMP's.

Q16 General verbal communication


Answered: 25

Skipped: 6

VHF chatter
should be ke...

Creates
an extra
challe...

Poses
challenges, ...

Needs more
standardized...

Is always in
favor over...

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90% 100%

Answer Choices
VHF chatter should be kept to a minimum and only use direct commands which can be reviewed
preferably against procedures or a written plan (email, etc...)
Creates an extra challenge when working with multiple nationalities

Responses
68.00%

17

60.00%

15

Poses challenges, as offshore vocabulary is rather extensive and unique

28.00%

Needs more standardized phrases to avoid confusion

4.00%

Is always in favor over written instructions (email for example)

4.00%

Total Respondents: 25
#
1

Other (please specify)


The combination of procedures and verbal instructions is the right way Procedures so everybody
involved know there role and what to expect. Verbal communication is needed to confirm the
understanding of he procedrures and to discuss deviations and improvements and to discuss operaional
matters like how to make a connection or how to transfer an anchor.
Communication is always a challenge, often the biggest problem is to find a "quiet" channel.
Communication is a very important aspect of the job, and will/should be brought up at every "tool-box"
meeting prior to a job task. This should include channel nr. - way of talking/responding - and how to
ophold a proper and healthy invironment on the VHF.

Working in the North Sea sector, my experience is that english language between different
nationalities is not an issue that influences a safe execution of the work.

There is always time to do the personnel vhf chatter offline, even over vhf. During situations which need
full concentration, keep the communication short and to the point.

Some of the english is unclearly articulated. Specially for the towmasters the clarity of speech should be
an item of monitoring.

Q17 Risk assessment and toolbox


talk
Answered: 27

Skipped: 4

Should be
carried out...
Should be
carried out ...
Are excellent
ways to brin...
Is useful as
long as it...
Are a good
tool if...
Genuinely
reduces the...
Other (please
specify)
Does not need
to be w ritte...
Just generate
extra...
0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90% 100%

Answer Choices
Should be carried out prior to commencement of work.

Responses
77.78%

21

Should be carried out for every project involving risks.

62.96%

17

Are excellent ways to bring everyone on the same page

44.44%

12

Is useful as long as it serves its purpose preventing accidents and providing a plan if something
goes wrong.
Are good tools if utilized as a checklist

33.33%

25.93%

Genuinely reduces the potential risks involved.

25.93%

Other (please specify)

14.81%

Does not need to be written and signed.

0.00%

Just generate extra paperwork.

0.00%

Total Respondents: 27
#
1

Other (please specify)


They are good tools to increase safety as long as it is done before non routine jobs If it is done
forstandard jobs it is just extra paperwork. Also during the time I was still working on vessels it was extra
paperwork as we were with a small crew only (7 to 9 crew) and things were already discussed during
coffee time.

When working with the same crew and doing the same works you don't need to point out the same
things with every move you take.
Risk assesments and specially Toolbox meetings are important, as they bring various parties face to face
who normally only have contacts via VHF, they bring various tasks up front for all to see/hear.
Some RA are not fully taken inboard by rig crew just signed and filed

3
4