You are on page 1of 3

UNIT 3 TEST REVIEW

Documents

Articles of Confederation-1st US Constitution adopted in 1781


Constitution-A set of basic principles and laws that state the powers and duties of the
government
Northwest Ordinance of 1787-a system to admit territories into new states

Vocabulary

Bill of Rights-protect individual freedoms from the federal government


Due Process of Law-the government has to follow rules and established procedures in
everything it does. (5th amendment)
Amendment-Official change to the US Constitution
Shayss Rebellion- Uprising of farmers who were protesting taxes; the state struggled to end
the rebellion because according the Articles of Confederation the federal government could not
interfere with state disputes. This led to the need of restructuring of the federal government.
Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams- helped establish the principle of religious freedom.
American Revolution- Causes were mercantilism, Proclamation of 1763, Stamp Act, and
Intolerable Act
John Locke- Helped influence the writing of the Declaration of Independence. Government is
developed by the consent of the governed (people) and Unalienable rights: Life, Liberty,
and Property (Pursuit of Happiness).
Proclamation of 1763- King George III banned colonial settlement west of the Appalachian
Mountains. Colonists upset for not being allowed to expand westward.
Enlightenment-movement when colonists began to question the authority of the British
monarchy
Amendment Process

Proposed by
Congress with a
2/3 vote in both
houses
Constitutional Convention

Ratified by the
legislatures of
of the states

1787 held in Philadelphia Pennsylvania at what is now known as Independence Hall


George Washington President of Convention
James Madison Father of the Constitution
Virginia Plan-Large State Plan-two house congress with representation based on the
population
New Jersey Plan-Small State Plan-representation equal for all states
Great Compromise- Balance of both plans creating a 2 house Congress
o Senate Upper house- states represented equally
o House of Representatives Lower house- representation based on population
3/5 Compromise- agreement that 3/5 of the slave population would be counted to determine
the number of representatives

Important Dates

New
Amendme
nt

1607162017541776-

Jamestown was founded.


Mayflower Compact was signed.
French and Indian War (Seven Years War).
Declaration of Independence is drafted and signed.

Federalist
Favored the ratification of the Constitution

Anti-Federalist
Opposed ratifying the Constitution UNLESS a Bill of
Rights was added
George Mason, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson

George Washington, James Madison, Alexander


Hamilton
Strong National Government
Strong State Government
Federalist Papers: Series of essays written by John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton to get the
people of the US to vote for ratification (signing) of the new US Constitution.

Constitutional Principle
F
Federalism
L
Limited
Government
I
Individual Rights
P
Popular
Sovereignty
R
Republicanism
C
S

Checks and
Balances
Separation of
Powers

Definition
Distribution of power between the state and federal government
Power is limited to that allowed by the Constitution (everyone must obey the
law)
Unalienable rights and those specifically protected by the Bill of Rights
The power to run the government comes from the people
Elected representatives make and enforce laws; citizens elect members of
Congress directly and the President indirectly (via the electoral college)
Each branch can limit the power of the other two. Ex: the President can veto
laws from Congress
Power is divided into three branches-the legislative (makes the laws), executive
(enforces the laws), and the judicial branch (interprets the laws)

Bill of Rights (Amendments 1-10)


Amendme
nt
First
Second
Third
Fourth
Fifth

Sixth

Seventh
Eighth
Ninth
Tenth

Definition
Guarantees the freedom of religion, speech, press, assemble peacefully, and to petition
the government
People are guaranteed the right to keep and bear arms.
States that the government cannot force people to house soldiers in their homes during
times of peace.
States that people, their homes or belongings are protected from unreasonable searches or
seizures. Warrants may not be issued except upon probable cause (good reason).
Guarantees person accused of a serious crime the right to Due Process of Law. Persons cannot
be forced to testify against themselves. If a person is found guilty of a crime, he/she cannot be
put on trial for the same crime again (Double Jeopardy). The government cannot take private
property for public use without giving compensation to the owner (Eminent Domain).
Guarantee a fair and speedy public trial. This trial must be in the state and district where the
crime took place. The accused has the right to be told of what they are accused of. They have the
right to a lawyer. If one cannot be afforded, one will be appointed. They have a right to see and
to question those people who accuse them of the crime.
Guarantees a trial by jury in civil cases. These are non-criminal cases.
Guarantees that excessive bail (money paid to be released to insure appearance in court) or
excessive fines will not be imposed and that punishment will not be cruel and unusual.
States that the people have other rights that are not stated in the Constitution.
States that the people and the states have all the rights not given to the US
government or forbidden to state governments by the Constitution. Ex: The existence of

state governments and marriage is not stated in the Constitution. Federalism