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APAStyle

A Quick Guide

Campus Writing Program
& the IUB Libraries

This is an APA style guide for the most commonly used citation formats. Examples are adapted from
the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
IN-TEXT CITATIONS
Anonymous or unknown author: (Short Title, year, pp.); (“Short Article,” year)
Citation:
It was found that dogs bark when they feel threatened (“Characteristics of Dogs,” 1991).
Reference:
Characteristics of dogs in their natural habitats. (2005, July 13). New York Times, p. B13.
One author: (Author, year, pp.)
Citation:
The author found that cars go fast (Smith, 2000, p. 123). Smith (2000, p. 123) found that cars go fast.
Reference:
Smith, A. (2000). Cars go fast. New York, NY: Good Publishing, Inc.
Two authors: (Author1 & Author2, year, pp.)
Citation:
The study found that dogs bark (Smith & Jones, 2005). Smith and Jones (2005) found that dogs bark.
Reference:
Smith, B. B., & Jones, B. B. (2005). Noises that animals make in their natural habitats. Journal of Animal Science, 4(2), 15-27.
Three – five authors: First cite: (Author1, Author2, & Author3, year, pp.)
Next cite: (Author1 et al., year, pp.)
Citation:
The authors found that cars go fast (Smith, Jones, & Rogers, 2000, p. 123). The authors found that cars go fast (Smith et al., 2000, p. 123).
Smith, Jones, and Rogers (2000, p. 123) found that cars go fast. Smith et al. (2000, p. 123) found that cars go fast.
Reference:
Smith, A., Jones, A., & Rogers, A. (2000). Cars go fast. New York, NY: Good Publishers, Inc.

INDIANA UNIVERSITY
BLOOMINGTON

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2005b).g. 2000.g. 2005. Malone. Quotation: (Author. 4(2). A. B. 2005a. pp. 6(1). “dogs will bark if they feel threatened” (para.APAStyle A Quick Guide Campus Writing Program & the IUB Libraries IN-TEXT CITATIONS Six+ authors: (Author1 et al. 7). list the years in chronological order. year. Reference: Smith. Citation: Several studies by Smith (2000.) Note: In the absence of page numbers. pp. A. year. Rogers. (2005b).. Several studies by different authors: (Author1. 2003. Rogers... Author2. 2005a.b). year. Smith. (2005a). Clark. 15-27. A. ¶ 17). Reference: Smith. 2005) have shown that dogs bark. 2007. Citation: The study found that cars go fast (Smith et al.. A. A. 15-27. 2(2). B. Smith. Studies about dogs.) Note: For six or more authors.b) have shown that dogs bark. A. and the paragraph number to the citation (e. Smith. 2000. 2005a. In citations. 327). year.. Jones.. A. A. Several studies have shown that dogs bark (Smith. use letters to differentiate each study (e. B. A. (2005). (2005) found that cars go fast. A. use et al. Smith et al. the first time and give the full citation in references. year2. As Smith (2005) notes. 4(2). Noises that animals make in their natural habitats. 2005). B. Author3. year3) Note: If an author has published more than one article/book in the same year. A... Citation: It has been shown that “dogs will bark more frequently in their natural habitats” (Smith. 10-21. Noises that animals make. p. A. (2000). add the paragraph symbol or the abbreviation para. 2000. year) Citation: Several studies (Clark. Animals in their natural habitats. Journal of Animal Science. year1. Several sources by the same author: (Author. Jones. B. Journal of Animal Science. 38-52. INDIANA UNIVERSITY BLOOMINGTON 2 . Journal of Animal Science. & Garrett. B. Smith. Journal of Animal Science..

doi:10. B. Magazine article Smith. 5. Journal article with DOI LastName. (year. D. A. Title of Periodical. 39(5). (2005. B. Title of article. 8(2). Obesity affects economic. The Economist. volume#(issue#). 225-229. The geographic expansion of Mexican immigration in the United States. Title of article.. 3. Month day). A.. B. 24(2). 47-63. C. Title of article. pp-pp. C. Health Psychology. Title of Periodical. volume#(issue#). & Jones. C. A.xxxxxxxxxx Note: Give the URL of the home page when the online version of the article is available by search to avoid nonworking URLs.xxxxxxxxxx Magazine article retrieved online LastName. volume#(issue#). Journal of Immigration Law. Title of Periodical. Enhancing worker well-being. A. 26-29. (2001. Journal article with DOI Smith. Retrieved from http://nytimes. A. Volunteer support of terminally ill patients.1122/333444555666777 2. (2005). Fed official suggests early end to stimulus effort. (2008. LastName.. pp-pp. C.xxxxxxxxxx Newspaper article retrieved online LastName. magazines.com INDIANA UNIVERSITY BLOOMINGTON 3 . (year). A. Newspaper article Smith. whereas its location and other metadata may change. (year. Title of article. A. pp-pp. The DOI for a document is permanent. Retrieved from http://www. B. 4. A1. doi:xx. February 5). The New York Times. & LastName. (year). Metadata about the object is stored in association with the DOI name and this metadata may include a location. October 15). A. LastName. Journal article without DOI Smith. Title of Periodical. B. A. A. (2008). The Wall Street Journal.xxxxxxxxxx Journal article without DOI LastName. A. & LastName.. May). pp. social status. Online newspaper article Smith.APAStyle A Quick Guide Campus Writing Program & the IUB Libraries PERIODICALS . C. Retrieved from http://www. pp-pp. A. A.Items published on a regular basis (journals.. Retrieved from http://www. A4. A. newspapers) Note: A digital object identifier (DOI) is a character string used to uniquely identify an electronic document or other object. such as a URL. Month). EXAMPLES 1. where the object can be found.

B. Editor (Eds. 1-6]. B. Location: Publisher. B. Title of work. Retrieved from http://www. Electronic version of print book Smith. B.xxxxxxxx. New York. (2001). Perspectives on the freshman year of college. doi:xxxxxxxxxx EXAMPLES 1. NY: Golden Books Publishing. (1960-1973). B. Entire book. A. Title or chapter of entry. (year). A. (2001).. (year). The logic behind mathematics. (1975). A. (year). B. Editor (Eds. Philosophy in the realm of other sciences. Editor.xxx Author. Psychology: A study of science [Vols. Title of work. & C. Title of chapter or entry. A. Title of book (pp. print version Jones. Chapter in book or entry in reference book Author. A. Title of work. (1975).. doi:xxxxxxxxxx Editor. A.. B. & C. Social sciences and their impact on higher education (pp. San Francisco. B. A.). In A. Title of work. INDIANA UNIVERSITY BLOOMINGTON 4 . & Author. Retrieved from http://www. (year). NY: Good Publishers. Title of chapter or entry. Editor (Eds. (ed. 2. Location: Publisher. A. xxx-xxx). A. 6. A.). Jones & C. 5.). A. CA: American Science Organization. IL: Red Brick Publishers. 87-115). New York. B.APAStyle A Quick Guide Campus Writing Program & the IUB Libraries BOOKS. B. xxx-xxx). A. xxx-xxx).). A.). Electronic-only book Jones. Location: Publisher. Editor.). Author. A. (1998). doi:10. & Author. B. Book chapter.xxxxxxxxxx Author. Editor & B. REFERENCE BOOKS. Several volumes in a multivolume work Smith. Author.com/html/asp 4. Reference book Smith.). Editor. (ed. Rogers (Eds. In B. Title of book (pp. A.onlinebooks. The logic behind mathematics [Adobe Digital Editions version]. Retrieved from http://www. AND BOOK CHAPTERS Entire book Author. & Author. (Ed. (year). (year). B. (year). Inc. A. A. In A. Title of book (pp. In A. A. Dictionary of applied sciences. print version Smith. Chicago. A. A. Editor.1122/333444555666777 3.

blog posts. A. for “no date.] Location: Repository. Retrieved from http://www. B. (Director). When the date is unknown.facebook. Twitter Twitter handle (Author). Title of song [Recorded by B. use ca. A. Country of Origin: Studio. Year. Month Day of tweet). Full text of tweet [Twitter post]. (year. etc. etc. and a bracketed date. (year. (Producer). (Producer). Month day). (Copyright year). Artist.d. Non-fiction video Producer. Retrieved from http://www. Month day). Title [Audio podcast].xxxxxxxxxx Note: If the author’s full name is available. B.xxxxxxxxxx Podcast Producer. (year). (Role of artist). Retrieved from http://www.]. Facebook Motion picture Prodcuer. Artist if different from writer]. A. Title [Medium: painting. (year). A. Title of post [Description of form]. etc. (year.] Location: Repository. A. Retrieved Month Day.APAStyle A Quick Guide Campus Writing Program & the IUB Libraries AUDIOVISUAL MEDIA & SOCIAL MEDIA . from http://www.motion pictures. B. year / n. cassette.xxxxxxxxxx Blog post Author. static objects (maps. Available from http://www. audio or television broadcasts (including podcasts).d. photos). Facebook Username or Group Name. Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. (Producer). If only a screen name is available. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD. image. A. Title [Medium: painting. A.xxxxxxxxxx Music recording Writer. (year).xxxxxxxxxx. A.] Location: Label. [ca. Twitter. Video title [DVD/VHS]. use the screen name. Retrieved from http://www. image. artwork. (year). record.com/xxxxxxxxxx Note: When the date can be reasonably certain but isn’t stated on the document. (Role of artist). In Facebook [Page type]. & Director. (Date of recording if different from song copyright date) Artwork/Photos Artist. use n. A.” INDIANA UNIVERSITY BLOOMINGTON 5 . list the last name first followed by initials. A.

(1855). [ca. July 15). United States: Warner Home Video.com/group. Map retrieved online Monroe County Geographic Information Services (Cartographer).com/images/men_pray. IL: BigBoy Records. (2010). On Simple songs [CD]. Retrieved from http://www.com/ 9. Retrieved from http://boxesandarrows. August 2).onlineimages. OH: Cincinnati Art Museum. 2009]. Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Online image Smith.php?gid=2207893888 INDIANA UNIVERSITY BLOOMINGTON 6 . (Producer). Population density [Demographic map]. A. (2007). Facebook When I was your age. blog posts. Available from http://www.gov/maps/pop-dens. Twitter @BarackObama.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366 11. Boy sitting on a porch [Painting]. Painting retrieved online Jones.monroe. Americans graduate college by 2020: http://bit.org/images. static objects (maps. Dog days of summer [Motion picture]. Retrieved from http://www. (2005). Chicago.. Facebook EXAMPLES 1.html 6. Blog post Smith. 5. A.com/eight_IA_principles. & Rogers.apa.co. 2. (2009. B. In Facebook [Group page]. (Producer). (Artist).in. Retrieved from http://cincinnatiartmuseum.pdf 8. B.motion pictures. A.html 7. Men pray [Photograph]. Boy sitting on a porch [Image of painting]. Podcast Smith. January 8). (2007. Retrieved from http://twitter.facebook. Responding to therapy [DVD]. A. Non-fiction video Jones. B. (Producers). Cincinnati. Dogs like to bark [Audio podcast]. Painting Jones.org/videos/ 3. Pluto was a planet. C. photos). (2009a. OH: Cincinnati Art Museum. Cincinnati. (Artist). (1985). (1987). Music recording Smith. B. from http://www. artwork. The eight principles of information architecture design [Web log post].ly/gcTX7 [Twitter post]. A. Retrieved from http://www. (1855). Motion picture Smith. Retrieved December 16. audio or television broadcasts (including podcasts). 2009.APAStyle A Quick Guide Campus Writing Program & the IUB Libraries AUDIOVISUAL MEDIA & SOCIAL MEDIA . B. Shadow of the bird. Twitter.php 10. (Photographer). A. (Director).podcastradio. 4. B. Jones.