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ADHD

BY : JOSHUA NGUYEN

What is ADHD?
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a

psychiatric disorder of brain development in which


there are significant problems of attention,
hyperactivity, or acting impulsively that are not
appropriate for a person's age.
There are 3 subtypes of ADHD:
An inattentive type, a hyperactive-impulsive type,
and a combined type, the most common type.

Statistics
According to the CDC approximately 11% of children 4-17 years

of age (6.4 million) have been diagnosed with ADHD as of 2011.


The percentage of children with an ADHD diagnosis continues
to increase, from 7.8%
in 2003 to 9.5% in 2007 and to
11.0% in 2011.
In Utah according to the
diagnosis of ADHD has gone up
in children from 4.8% to 5.8%
from 2007 to 2011.

More Statistics
Boys (13.2%) are more likely than girls (5.6%) to have ever

been diagnosed with ADHD.


The average age of ADHD diagnosis was 7 years of age,
but it has been reported in children having ADHD earlier
than 7 years according to their parents.
The low is 5.6% in Nevada to a high of 18.7% in Kentucky.
About 3050% of children diagnosed in childhood
continue to have symptoms into adulthood and between
25% of adults have the condition.

Association with other disorders


In children ADHD occurs with other disorders about of

the time
Some common disorders are:
Learning disabilities
Tourette syndrome
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)
Conduct disorder (CD)
Bipolar disorder
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Hypokalemic sensory overstimulation

Causes and Diagnosis


The cause of most cases of ADHD is unknown; however,

it is believed to involve interactions between genetic and


environmental factors. Certain cases are related to
previous infection of or trauma to the brain.
A diagnosis depends on a complete evaluation. Many
kids with ADHD are evaluated and treated by primary
care doctors, but may be referred to specialists like
psychiatrists. These specialists can help if the diagnosis is
in doubt, or if there are other concerns for other
disorders.

Symptoms
Some symptoms od ADHD include:
zoning out without realizing it, even in the middle of a

conversation
extreme distractibility; wandering attention makes it hard to stay on
track
difficulty paying attention or focusing, such as when reading or
listening to others
struggling to complete tasks, even ones that seem simple
tendency to overlook details, leading to errors or incomplete work
poor listening skills; hard time remembering conversations and
following directions

To be considered for a diagnosis of ADHD


A child must display behaviors from one of the three

subtypes before age 12


These behaviors must be more severe than in other
kids the same age
The behaviors must last for at least 6 months
The behaviors must happen in and negatively affect
at least two areas of a child's life (such as school,
home, childcare settings, or friendships)

How to treat ADHD


Current treatments typically involve medication,

psychological counseling or both. A combination of


therapy and medication is often the most effective
treatment.
Medications like stimulants and atomoxetine and
antidepressants help manage ADHD.
Psychological counseling, cognitive behavioral therapy
and behavioral therapy also help in managing ADHD.

Sources
http://

www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/attention-deficit-h
yperactivity-disorder-adhd/index.shtml
http://www.webmd.com/add-adhd/
http://
kidshealth.org/parent/medical/learning/adhd.html
http://
www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/adult-adhd
/basics/definition/con-20034552
http://psychcentral.com/disorders/adhd/