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D O C U M E N T S O F T H E A V A 1995 N T - G A R D E . ATLAS PRESS. Alexis Lykiard etc. John Harman.A T L A A S R K H I V T E H R E E ENCY CLOP !EDIA ACEPHALICA Comprising the CRITICAL DICTIONARY & RELATED TEXTS edited by GEORGES BAT AILLE and the ENCYCLOPJEDIA DA COSTA edited by ROBERT LEBEL & ISABELLE WALDBERG Assembled & Introduced fry Alastair Brotchie Biographies fry Dominique Lecoq Translated fry Iain White Additional translations by Dominic Faccini. LONDON. Annette Michelson.

Dictionnaire critique in 1929 and 1930. Antony writers associated with Georges Bataille. The Da Costa Enryclopedique was published anonymously in 1947. S cries Editors: Alastair Brotchie. to the texts on page 166. Jean Ferry A bord du Valdivia© 1953. references in the introduction to the texts. to the French Ministry of Culture and the Arts Council for their con­ tinued financial assistance. indicated by bold type. - This issue of the Arkhive series assembles three sets of texts written by a number of v. granted by . NUMBER 3: GEORGES A. within the avant-garde "anti-tradition" of the last 100 years. Published with the help of 1e French Ministry of For­ ign affairs. and criticising. References in square brackets are to the bibliography on page 164. some of whom were members of his Acephale group. these. for which we apologise. it is italicised only when the latter is referred to. THE ATLAS ARKHIVE SERIES. Where possible they take a documentary format. The second series. - We owe especial thanks to the publisher Jean-Michel Place and to Dominique Lecoq. being members. the introduction. Massachusetts. © of translations remains with translators. Apart from the Chris Allen. A CIP record for this book is available from The British Library. likewise to Edouard Jaguer. or neglected groups. Permission to use the translations by Dominic Faccini and Annette Michelson listed on page 157 in appendix II. and although these texts were published in the main body of the magazine. Since "Acephale" was both a secret society and a magazine. print works by Robert Desnos. ISBN 0 947757 87 2. also comes from Documents. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. ymba/um Patapf!ysicum. in the (highly imperfect) alphabetical order given here. presence of Bataille and his concerns. Published by Atlas Press. originally published in the MIT Press.lalcolm Green. to Michel Fraenkel for permission to ermission for French texts: Works by Georges Bataille :om Oeuvres completes. For other per­ nissions: see acknowledge­ ments opposite. Printed in the UK by The Bath Press. others Melville. tome 1 1 1970. for information concerning the origins of the Simon Watson Taylor and John Lyle for clarifying somewhat its connections with the Surrealist movement. both their form and content relates them to the shorter articles in the Critical Dictionary. to Jean Jamin and Editions Jean­ Michel Place for permission to print works by Michel Leiris. and forthcoming issues. We have re-ordered these entries alphabetically here (p. in French for the Da Costa. or ex-members.Atlas Press. for their help with this project. President of the Amis de Georges Bataille. - The Arkhive series exists to examine and publish previously unavail­ able material relating to issues. of the Surrealist groups in Paris and New York. We have been unable to trace copyright holders for some texts.ATLAS ARKHIVE. separate section of the magazine Documents. Editions Gallimard. to Genevieve Calame-Griaule for permission to print works by Marcel Griaule. to Jean­ Jacques Lebel and Michel Waldberg for generously allowing us to translate the Da Costa. and to preserve its logic we have retained the French titles of these articles. what unites these texts is their form. The first series of texts appeared as the BCM Atlas Press. Cambridge. to Thieri Foulc and Paul Gayot of the Maurice Imbert. are given in English for the Critical Dictionary and &lated Texts. London VC1N 3:XX. Notes to the Introduction are on page 25. on Dada Berlin and French Symbolist and Decadent Literature of the 1890s are still available. are described at the back of the present volume. 4 Encyclopmdia Acephalica October 36 © 1986. Terry Hale. Sous-Direction de � Politique du Livre and The Arts Council of England. Consequently. DOCUMENTS OF THE AVANT-GARDE. or co-edited with the participation of members. to Michael Richardson for reading. to Roger Conover for help with permissions. The first two issues. and to Da Costa. and constituted a which was primarily edited by Georges Bataille with some assistance from Carl Einstein. 157 gives their original order of appearance). © 1995. and October 60 © 1992. Editions Gallimard. THIS ISSUE. being either anthologies based on col­ lections assembled by the groups themselves. &lated Texts.TAILLE & ACEPHALE. which derives from that of dictionaries or encyclopa:dias.

... Camel.... Metaphor. ..... .. Translators and original order of texts IV........ -Angel (1)...-Eye (1...... ... Bonjour Brothers. ..... ANONYMOUS/QUOTED... Man (2). Metamorphosis (2...... Hygiene. Pottery. The Eye at the Acadimie Franfaise)... Benga.. ........ .... - ARNAUD DANDIEU. Slaughterhouse... R E LA T E D T EX T S FRO M DOCUMENTS GEORGES BATAILLE.-Big Toe........ Bibliography & references AUTHORS' & TRANSLATORS' NOTES ...... Factory Chimney...Crustaceans....... Architecture. Eye (4... Cannibal Delicacy)....... Mouth....... Ju-Ju. Spittle-Soul). MICHEL LEIRIS..... edited by Robert Lebel & Isabelle Waldberg Anonymity III.......... Questions of Propriety). GEORGES BATAILLE. Georges Bataille .... .. ... MARCEL GRIAULE. Cults.... Fundamentals of the Duality of Space)... Abyssinian Games)......... MICHEL LEIRIS... .............. Debacle. 157..... .. ..... Space (1. MARCEL GRIAULE.... -Civilisation... The Angel Gabriel)....... Threshold. ZDENKO REICH.I. Spittle (1. Formless... Biographies .. ..............Eye (3... Spittle (2. CRI TI CA L DI C TIONARY edited by JACQUES BARON....... Skyscraper.. Talkie... Work....... Evil Eye)... -Angel (2.. Metamorphosis (1. Metamorphosis (3..... ..... -Gunshot...... ... ... Kali......... Man (1).. Misfortune.... CARL EINSTEIN..... Image of the Eye)........... Pensum.. Materialism....... II...... Dust...... Eye (2... . Nightingale................... Keaton. . 85 Human Face..... 166 ..... Museum............. ROBERT DESNOS..... ..... Wild Animals)...... 9 29 ....... Aesthete. 158. Reptiles.............. -Sun. Out of the Self)................ -Space (2............... . 164.... Black Birds..... 107 157..... -Absolute. .. EN C LOPJE DIA DA CO S TA A PP E N D I C E S .. .... Mouth Water)..............CON T EN T S INTRODUCTION .



Georges Bataille circa 1933. 8 Encyclopcedia Acephalica .

despite the fact that the chief editorial input was Bataille's. had taken charge of reorganising the chaotic artefact collections of the Trocadero museum. authors. after which he embarked upon a large opus of elaboration. Georges­ Henri Riviere. and moves forward into disturbing realms of human life with teeth gritted. its editors. The appearance of Documents coincided with the birth of modern ethnography in France. His basic notions remained remarkably consistent. and the magazine numbered many of its most important figures on its editorial panel. . DOCTRINES AllCllEOLOGIE BEAUX·AllTS ETllNOGllAl'lllE this faction included the magazine's financial backer. DOCUMENTS & THE CRITICAL DICTIONARY. since both sets of texts arose from particular circumstances and events: principally the rise. 1 929." This was something of an under­ statement: paradox is present at every level of Bataille's thought. which developed over many years.PREAMBLE. and in 1938 founded the most important museum of anthropology in France. a selection of museum curators. and to a fairly brief survey of some of Bataille's ideas as they relate to them. This book also gives the first account of the inception of the Da Costa Encyclopedique. consisted of writers. Its editorial committee consisted of two main factions who formed. biographies of the various participants can be found on pp. almost from the start. Before considering Bataille's basic ideas in relation to the texts here. - In his Autobiographical Note. Luckily a third group was able to mediate between the two sets of protagonists. many of whom were ex-Surrealists or had been associated with Paris Dada and the Grand Jeu groups. everything he wrote is vehement. the first issue. dating from around 1958. The second faction was more academic. and then the defeat. centred around Bataille. One of the magazine's founders. or intentions (and no doubt this first account contains both errors and omissions). Apart from the consistency of his ideas. . and the periods of upheaval that preceded and followed the Second World War and the Nazi occupation of France.Documents was founded in 1929 by Bataille and 1 Pierre d'Espezel. the Musee de Introduction 9 Documents. he is convinced that his concern in this world is with writing and. of Fascism. not least because he was convinced that thought. some historical documen­ tation seems desirable. Georges Bataille wrote about himself as follows: "from 1914 onwards. Until now there has been virtually no infor­ mation about the circumstances surrounding its publication. impassioned. in particular. 1 Each issue was something of a compromise. however. I have confined myself in this intro­ duction to a description of the background to. what is also remarkable in Bataille is his consistency of tone. since they derived from a small group of interests that were in position from an early point in his career (evident in his texts in this collection which are among his earliest published works). the texts that follow. was unable to cast even a dim light upon those essential problems of life that he wished to explore. and aims of. The texts in this anthology share these characteristics. professors of psychiatry and art history and. a rather uneasy conception about the direction the magazine should take. also present in many of the texts not written by Bataille: an indication of the powerful influence he exerted upon his contemporaries.158-163. The first. ry its very nature. Georges Wildenstein. both of whom worked in the Cabinet des Medailles at the Bibliotheque Nationale. Despite these reservations he evolved a system (or rather an anti-system) of ideas of immense subtlety and complexity. proprietor of the celebrated Gazette des Beaux-Arts. with the formulation of a paradoxical philosophy.

was to work in the museum for many art review offset by an anomalous (heteroclite) section edited by Bataille under the somewhat remote supervision of Carl Einstein. and Bataille's one line dismissal of the undertaking rather suggests that in retrospect he may have considered it to have failed. sense of the word. and from the start it was actively anti-aesthetic. It attempted a de-coding of European 10 Encyclopcedia Acephalica .l'Homme. as Griaule stressed in Gunshot: ''Boring though it be to repeat it. with Leiris as its official secretary.Michel Leiris. Archeologie. which laid down the ground-rules for field-work which became the basis for all future ethnographic research. playfulness. Ethnographic. Beaux-Arts. a friend of Documents and in later ventures. Document! covers bore the banner: Doctrines (or Varietes)."4 It is obvious here that he saw the function of the Dictionary as offsetting the aesthetic preoccupations of an art magazine. philosophy and writing in Documents was crucial for Bataille.. Paul Rivet. its mixture of insight. Thus the Diaionary. Soon. both beauty and ugliness. from the first issue. Griaule led the Dakar-Djibouti expedition. came into being from the second issue onwards. whose aims were not literary in any ordinary. and for a while Wildenstein tolerated and even enjoyed it. Documents took evidence from all aspects of his culture. however. essays which would have been more at home there began escaping into the main part of the review (the &lated Texts printed here). aesthetics. a contributor to the Critical Dictionary. opposed to the hetero­ clitic elements which disrupted the articles on ancient and modem art and ethnography to which they imagined the magazine was devoted. and consequently a freakish. Marcel Griaule. and articles on the arts rarely overshadowed the other contents. which drew typically outrageous conclusions from the deformations of horses on ancient coins . was the founder with Marcel Mauss and others of the Institut d'Ethnologie. the largest ethnographic expedition undertaken to date. D'Espezel and his more conservative colleagues were. When Carl Einstein suggested a compromise. and made connections appear where they were least expected.3 Between 1931 and 1933. was to become one of its most celebrated practitioners. the creation of a separate section in the magazine specifically to contain these elements. its dictionary format no doubt being Bataille's idea. and eventually he withdrew his backing. the magazine folded after two years and 15 issues." Just as the new ethnography aimed to show all of man. Later he described the magazine as ". but also to criticise aspects of the main part of the magazine. Another member of the editorial board.. An article by Bataille in issue number one - Le Cheval academique. In many ways the Dictionary is the essence of the whole magazine.2 and . since Documents was established to be the exact opposite of an art review. It is however inclined to be suspicious of the beautiful . Bataille realised he would be able to use it not only as the platform from which to present his more outre ideas. NOT ART BUT EVIDENCE. a maga­ zine within a infuriated d'Espezel that he called for the magazine's suppression. He outlined the framework of its methodology in Bataille's and his collaborator both on Documents. event in civilisation. its failure to make a profit being an additional factor. ethnography is interested in in the European sense of these absurd words. erudition and shock indicate what the magazine as a whole could have been had Bataille not been constrained by his collaborators. or even extraordinary.a rare. - The combination of ethnology. Ethnology gave the lead: it was not concerned with the beautiful.

was the main instigator of this document.10 Acephale was both an esoteric "secret society" and Introduction 11 celebrate the guillotining Louis XVI. 85-106 bear an obvious relation to those of the dictionary. Although unsuccessful." THE RELATED TEXTS. No distinction was made between high and low culture. 5 evidence. in impelling Documents to expose all the contradictions. however. led to region of the serious editorial arguments and was one of the reasons for the eventual closure of the magazine. psychoanalysis. The very name of the magazine implied an examination of the given: not art but writing but documents. complete body of knowledge. unacceptable directions: if logic masks the gaping inadequacies of the logos. and this certainly heightened editorial tensions between the various factions. despite disagreements on some issues. illegitimate. Bataille. both Breton and Bataille had followed similarly dispiriting paths in leftist political organisations and their mutual disillusion. Between the collapse of Documents and 1935.7 As I have already noted.Many past Surrealists contributed to Documents. indicated as if by well-placed beacons by photographs of the Big Toe. for all that. 1930. chose both to uphold logic and to UN CADAV'R remove the mask. say. Minotaure (although.9 The hostility was reciprocal since Breton had attacked them with equal vim in the second Surrealist manifesto. only their usefulness to understanding was significant. They differ from the other essays and contemporary reviews published in Documents by the definitional form in which they are cast and this alone seemed to justify their inclusion in this lasted only 18 months. economics.Breton and Bataille remained on good terms. Bataille called upon philosophy. despite later protestations to the contrary. Bataille now turned his attention away from direct political action to concentrate on two connected projects: Acephale and the College of Sociology. Even if.culture on a par with the emerging disciplines devoted to understanding "primitive" social structures. and especial!Y its accompanying photographs) in the main part of the review. . 8 BATAILLE AND THE SURREALISTS. according to Leiris. which featured a photo of Breton crowned with thorns. and their inclusion (in particular Big Toe. intended as an anti-fascist movement outside of Stalinist influence. not to borrow their results but to open up the notions they defined in new. Bataille felt he had not succeeded in making of Documents what he wanted. photomontage by Boiffa formed the nucleus of an anti-Breton group whose most famous attack on their ex-leader was the Below: Leaflet by Contre­ manifesto Attaque for a meeting to A Corpse. Bataille. Many of the writers in Documents took this vigorous relativism to extremes on occasion. often in the service of satire and derision. according to Dominique Lecoq6: "The failure of Documents. -The texts on pp. and they Above: A Corpse. this fact did not escape Wildenstein et al. eth­ nology. and dismay at the rise of Fascism. . yet. allowed them to bury their differences with the founding of Contre-Attaque.. from this point onwards. not In this context the impo�tance of the photographs accompanying the texts becomes self-evident. for they provide another layer of information or ironic comment and yet avoid completely the "art" photography later promoted in. was also the success of a way of writing capable of overturning the code of branches of knowledge without. in retrospect. constituting in itself a closed. having escaped the Critical Dictionary in which the heterogeneous was supposed to be contained. their inclusion was often simply meant to be provocative).

- a. Hans Meyer and Claude Levi-Strauss.). Caillois. one abjuring hierarchy (Bataille criticised the Surrealists as hierarchical. Well. acr!pha!e. and sb. under the eyes of Georges 12 Encyclopa:dia Acephalica . The College examined all areas of social community. for him . made on the spot. as becomes him. The Acephal is headless. Leiris. which it masks with a 'death's head.a heretic exalting the base over the spiritual in a universe in which "man can set aside the thought that it is he or God who keeps the rest of things from being 13 absurd" . The celebrated aphorism of hermetic philosophy "As above. and were attended by many of the leading intellectuals of the time.1 1 Acephale was intended to embody these principles in a conspiratorial association. Nevertheless. The body as trope for society and other structures recurs throughout his writing (e. Fludd etc. and hierarchy is of course the hall­ mark of fascist organisation). This drawing.r. its fortnightly lectures were delivered by members or by invited speakers: Bataille. from which he derived his concept of expenditum. but what to do with this cumbersome and doubting head? .g. totalitarianism or the feeble cohesion of democracies. what we know of its aims point to it as the focus for what the texts published here were intended to facilitate. = also asephal [ a. Walter Benjamin. (. so below" situated man in a universe designed by God in which the structure of the microcosm reflected that of the macrocosm. in particular with regard to the sexual act and orgasm. ad. Andre Masson made the drawing: "I saw him immediately as headless. ac!J. - The drawing of the Acephal. rare. fine so far. and it functioned in the years between the appearances of the two sets of texts printed here. but what to make of the stomach? That empty container will be the receptacle for the Labyrinth that elsewhere had become our rallying sign.) The pectorals starred according to whim.. Its area of study was contiguous with Bataille's thought in almost all respects. Having no head or chief. Caillois in particular contributed lectures on the theory of the secret society. so above. which he saw as a sort of sacred ideological virus intended to infect the profane social body. embodies his reversed hermeticism in the form of a parody or anti-idealist version 12 of renaissance depictions of the harmonic arrangement of the human body (Leonardo. To some extent all his writing is a doomed attempt to encompass the tumult of the sexual act (see the final section of this introduction).) THE FIGURE OF THE ACEPHAL. but a headless organisation. not only man escaping his thoughts.the body is projected onto the world: as below.. while the other kneads a blazing heart (a heart that does not belong to the Crucified. acepha!-u. among others. the reader is referred to that [A22]. Obs. late L. a potent expression of the totality of Bataille's thought. Architecture). including Jean Paulhan. an immediate political task being to define possible structures not based on individualism. the arms? Automatically one hand (the left!) flourishes a dagger. see ACEPHALL] A.' Now. Fr.Irresistibly it finds itself displaced to the sex. (Oxford English Dictionary. Klossowski.a publicly available magazine. Bataille exactly reversed this formula. but to our master Dionysus). ACEPHAL. The College of Sociology constituted the theoretical counterpart of Acephale. Between 1937 and 1939. Theodor Adorno. but this is not the place to discuss it and since Denis Hollier's book reprints all the available material in English. Jean-Paul Sartre. Kojeve. ACEPHALOUS.

Introduction 13 . BATAILLE · et 4 FOIS PAR AN I es FASCIS TES 1. MASSON · J. June 1936. ROLLIN · 1937 J.:v� •• UNE REPARATION P. drawing by Andre Masson. KLOSSOWSKI · A.ACEPHALE RELIGION SOCIOLOGIE PHILOSOPHIE REVUE PARAISSANT :�:::� NIE T ZSCHE 6 frs PAR G. WAHL The first issue of Aceph.

or a creator of false community."1 8 Two texts by Bataille give some clues as to his intentions. four issues of which appeared between 1936 and 1939. The second text constitutes the 11 point programme given to new members. It was not published 14 Encyclopcedia Acephalica .19 (Eglise). the finished. represents only self-interest and the obligation to work. from a world that would henceforth be considered as profane. together with those of his friends who were former members (among them Georges Ambrosino. Bataille's invitation to Patrick Waldberg "announced the constitution of a secret society involving a ceremony of initiation. where he described it in these terms: "Man has escaped from his head just as the condemned man has escaped from his prison. which prefaced the to go beyond the world: "It is time to abandon the world of the civilised and its light. had the good luck to please him." Furthermore: "A world that cannot be loved to the point of death.' Short­ lived. which has led to a life without appeal. and in which I discover myself as him. turning its back on politics. who is prohibition against crime. for example. He is not a man. this fills me with dread because he is made of innocence and crime. and the acceptance of a changed way of life destined to separate adepts. flames like those of a Sacred Heart in his right.16 constituted to some extent the exterior aspect of this 'secret society' (. all of its members withdrew. essentially unviable. time made finite: a prison. The College de Sociologie.) Of the 'secret society. contained an appeal The Sacred Conspira01. he holds a steel weapon in his left hand."14 The drawing inspired Bataille's text The Sacred Conspira01. but a being who is unaware of prohibition. although nothing would be externally visible. rites. of necessity." THE SECRET SOCIETY OF ACEPHALE. - Published information about Acephale is exceptionally scarce. and often deliberately inaccurate. in the same way that a man loves a woman. usually ambiguous. would pursue goals that would be solely religious (but anti-Christian. Bataille immediately decided to form. Patrick Waldberg). Pierre Klossowski." yet this religion is atheological: "The acephalic man Acephale is. Bataille's own few comments appear in his Autobiographical Note15 : 'With Contre-Attaque dissolved. essentially Nietzschean). which is entirely 'the death of God. it is hideous.. in September 1939. first issue of Acephale.. absence of movement. God is the enemy of community." religious. a 'secret society' which. and in this the identification with the headless man merges and melds with the identification with the superhuman.' it is difficult to speak. Absolutely. he states. he has found beyond himself not God. founded in March 1936. and appears as the most failed of all. but it seems that some of its members at least have retained an impression of a 'voyage out of the world. He is not a God either. loses me with him.' " (Ab s olute. If it is compared to worlds gone by. in other words as a monster. asso­ ciated with tranquillity. He is not me but he is more than me: his stomach is the labyrinth in which he has lost himself.Bataille." The actual activities and membership of Acephale are still shrouded in mystery since no member of the group has ever published an account of his involvement. It is too late to be reasonable and educated. Beyond what I am. Its intentions are in part expressed in the journal Acephale. Enthousiasme). ''jerocious!J mythologically expresses sovereignty committed to destruction and the death of God.17 We know something of its aims from other sources. I meet a being who makes me laugh because he is headless. This society was formed.

Some months later the war was unleashed in earnest.. stands a tree struck by lightning. (. in the centre of a forest.) Assume within oneself perversion and crime. a universe which exists in a state of play rather than one of obligation. force them into wars they do not want. Following the creation of a community. where Louis XVI was acephalised by the guillotine. sweeping away what Introduction 15 .. I had written a panegyric to Saint­ Just.. (. and ensure the survival of the community. since this sacrifice would be the foundation of a myth. and a few excerpts are sufficient to convey its apocalyptic message. only the executioner was lacking.) Realise the universal fulfilment of the individual being within the ironical world of animals through the revelation of an acephalous universe. One can recognise in this tree the mute presence of that which has assumed the name of Acephale. including the Place de la Concorde. exit the station in the direction of the train and turn left..) Participate in the destruction of the world as it presently exists. its conscience shattered perhaps by its obvious incongruity in the face of world-wide disaster. stop and wait to be conducted to it one at a time. [the return journey was similarly regimented. undermined by internal dissensions." Bataille then describes the meeting site: "On a marshy soil. including the need to "Lift the curse of those feelings of guilt which oppress men. where turmoil seems to have intervened in the usual order of things.. The most lurid speculations centre on Bataille's interest in performing a human sacrifice. when you should walk in Indian file. Get off the train at Saint-Norn."20 The accomplishment of such a programme seems problematic to say the least and nothing is known of what occurred at Acephale 's meetings. not as exclusive values. and so he imagined that I possessed the necessary severity of character. is to decide to part the veil with which our own death is shrouded. but we know nothing of its rites. This ENCOUNTER that is undergone in the forest will be of real value only to the extent to which death makes its presence felt. with eyes open wide to the world which is yet to be. do not speak to anybody. Bataille asked me to undertake the task perhaps because. and afterwards:] All discussion of the meeting is forbidden. but as a prelude to their integration into the totality of humanity. Follow the instructions of those who will meet you on the road. under whatever pretext."22 Patrick Waldberg attended the last meeting: "The war had burst upon us. without talking. This favour was refused him .. while at college. a few metres apart. At the last meeting in the heart of the forest.. Then remain motionless and silent until the end. and take a seat at some distance from other travellers.. although Bataille's written instructions for getting to them allow one to assess their tone: "Do not acknowledge anybody. there were only four of us and Bataille solemnly requested whether one of the three others would assent to being put to death. Caillois confirmed this project while recalling his refusal to participate: "The (willing) victim was found. until you reach the path that leaves the road. Acephale vacillated. To go before this presence. On nearing the meeting-place. It is a willingness to seek out and to confront a presence that swamps our life of reason which gives to these steps a sense that opposes them to those of others. expressed here by these arms without a head."21 Acephale had other privileged places. asking no questions. walk in groups of two or three at the most.until 1970.. this programme asserts various aims. (.. and consign them to work from whose fruits they never benefit.

Early in 1941 P. The group dispersed. its lack of rigour."23 Bataille in fact. June to February 1944). Georges Duthuit supervised the publication of a selection of texts relating to the College of Sociology and Acephale in Eugene Jolas' anthology Surrealism.hope remained. During his isolation from the New York group he pondered past events and communicated them in a long letter to his wife Isabelle (dated 19 September 1943). The exiled Acephales. 1944. and seriously ill with a lung infection. 1944). under the title Vers un nouveau mythe? Premonitions et defiances. had been deeply affected by the death of his lover. and anyway Bataille had foreseen its failure in his essay The Sorcerer's Apprentice. which he concluded could only arise. and with the exception of Caillois (by then living in Argentina). and not be constructed. the Da Costa. who led him through what he now saw as a pointless labyrinth. seems to be militated against by some general principle. Laure. Waldberg expressed a complete disillusion with Acephale's attempts to create a community based around a new myth. the Musee de !'Homme became one of its principal centres in Paris. even for Paris. and the foreign exiles began returning. Against the background of the ipuration numerous factions exchanged abuse. among them Isabelle Duchamp in May '46. Paris was liberated in August Waldberg in November '45. Sartre and the existentialists attacked both Surrealism and the 16 Encyclopmdia Acephalica . 4. Vertical (1941). could provide the cohesion for renewed group action.isistance was printed in the museum's base­ the group was betrayed. the staff forming one of the first organised cells. Breton the same month. he viewed the problem from the perspective of promoting group action.25 He concludes by proposing that humour. but refused to defend Acephale. and founded a new review VVV (four issues. precluded its success and yet despite its mistakes he does not quite condemn Bataille. together with responses by Georges Duthuit and Robert Lebel. not having been a member. Lebel's (another non-member) response was more interesting. were among the founders of the Resistance. Acephale was valid if only because it succeeded in combating this principle for a while. albeit in a more exoteric fashion. in November 1938. although their activities were constrained by their situation. some travelling to New York. in which polemic and accusation reached new heights. The literary and arbitrary nature of its images and rites. systematically exploited. appeared in the last issue of VVV (no. and yet it possessed an internal cohesion. Other contributors to Documents Critique and. and the underground magazine ment. around the review it now appears. formed alliances and fell out again with alarming rapidity. Duthuit for his part defended Bataille's appropriation of Nietzsche and Dionysus. Ireland and London. Meanwhile Patrick Waldberg's work in the Office of War Information had taken him to Algeria. others to the southern unoccupied zone of France. and the Surrealists organised a group exhibition The First Papers of 1942 the first to take myth as its theme. and most of the men shot (although Rivet and Riviere escaped this fate). They returned to a capital in economic and political chaos. collective activity which. he says. it reformed after the war. ex-members of the College of Sociology and Surrealists met frequently in New York. its Nietzschean bias. its female members were sent to concentration camps.24 An edited ver­ sion of it. he spent the war absorbed in an internal exploration which resulted in the Summa Atheologica.

Tricks and Hoaxes]. Anonymous and deliberately designed so that it appeared to be one fascicle. and enthusiastically stirring so inuch invective into the ideological pot. etc. in the Enryclopedie des Farces et Attrapes et des Mystifications [Enryclopadia ef Practical Jokes. and below. by implication consigning it to Trotsky's famous dustbin. which hardly facilitated the recruitment of new authors. It only remained for the Da Costa to scuttle itself. are still fresh and steaming (we decided not to edit it). particularly since Critique was devoted solely to critical writing. Old fellow-travellers attacked Surrealism: Aragon. Their anonymity has Introduction 17 MEMENTO �NIVERSE� LR·· DA COS'I Fascicule I Above: the first Memento 1 948. "two further fascicles appeared." pointed out its "insolence and immoderate use of sarcasm. assumed a pro-Moscow position against Breton's group. and if some of the attacks today are obscure. they were informed that they were all sold." and the fact that none of the authors had been identified up to the present day (1964). The Surrealist group around the review La Main a plume. the Da Costa has become a bibliophilic rarity. volume IL A few readers wrote to the publisher requesting earlier issues.28 those on the institutions of state." he continues. This gap was partially filled by the Da Costa." This violent expression. refusing to recognise either movement as "engaged" for differing reasons. An even longer hiatus existed for the Acephales between the closure of Acephale in 1939 and the founding of Critique in 1946. Vailland. . -According to the only historical reference available until recently. such as Isou's Lettrism. an advertising flyer for it.27 the Da Costa appeared unannounced in certain bookshops in St-Germain-des-Pres in the autumn of 1947. the result of quarrels long forgotten. nor to evoke the very particular violence whose expression it was. The Surrealists' Minotaure had folded at the beginning of the war. ideological and pragmatic. The author of the article in the Enryclopedie des Farces. THE ENCYCLOPJEDIA DA COSTA. supreme irony. by remaining anonymous (see Appendix I). and suffered rebuffs from all quarters. but mid­ word and bore the heading Fascicle VII. one having been bankrupted.26 Both the groups originally centred around Bataille and Breton lacked a review in which to publish. and not the first. the Party replied in kind. the second dead. The Da Costas. of an encyclopredia being published periodically. whereas in fact they had never existed. who had remained in Paris during the war. Tzara. so immoderately distributed among the definitions of the Da Costa aroused much misdirected anger. and Maurice Nadeau even published a History ef Suma/ism. The blackest humour unites these assaults and the Da Costas constituted precisely that group based on a systematic exploitation of humour that Robert Lebel had proposed in 1944. it began not only in mid-sentence. learning.Communists. "The next year. entitled Le Memento universe/ Da Costa. The extraordinary omission of this publication from all histories of post-war culture in France is not so hard to understand. one "Da Costa. however the time is still not right to reveal details of this enterprise. which it proceeded to do all the more promptly since its two successive publishers had pushed the joke to the limit. as had VVV in 1944. The next official magazine of the group was Neon which did not appear until 1948. arose and attacked everyone. New movements. The cover bore a rebus in place of an author's name: L'iine au nid milt lDonkey in mast-nest] meaning Ano1'!)'mat [Anonymity]. The defection of most of the earlier collaborators led to the abandoning of the principle of anonymity. were obviously not aiming for reconciliation. Church. even given the celebrity of some of its contributors. Today.

Chavy has confirmed that he was also the author of Egouts. Lebel Encyclopcedia Acephalica . also implies that the Licence to Live (Emancipation) was at least inspired by Duchamp. arousing vociferous differences of opinion between the Acephale and Surrealist factions.30 and with Patrick Waldberg acting as a sort of roving emissary (his war work had involved travelling between New York. Duits: Eloge. as well as using texts written during the war years in London and New York and presumably collected by Patrick Waldberg. One of its few reviewers noted that it had been "carefully stifled by both publisher and the bookshops. Algeria and later Paris). it was hard to obtain. Adrienne Monnier's associate at her celebrated bookshop La Maison des amis des livres. and Jean-Jacques Lebel that he was the author of Etc. Not only was the Da Costa anonymous. Enclume. probably because he was not in Paris when the text was put together. Estime. Further delays arose when Breton reacted with fury to some of the texts by Charles Duits which attacked Surrealism and automatism. however. chapters 24 and 37). Brunius: Ectoplasme. with much assistance from Marcel Duchamp. in his mono­ graph on the artist.35 Ferry: Emeraude. Extase. A couple of private readings were held in a hotel. perhaps early 1948. and the press.32 Waldberg's annotations are difficult to read and he seems to have been unsure of some of the authors. with the exception of Combat. Eventually these were resolved by voting for each text individually. Duits agreed to change those texts which most infuriated him (presumably the reference to endives in that remains of the affront). Pataphysician (1911. Estorgissement.33 Breton: Enfantin. Energetic insistence is needed in order to obtain a copy. who caused innumerable delays. when Duchamp returned to Paris from a holiday in Switzerland.34 Chavy: Erotin."31 Editorial work on the publication had begun seriously in the autumn of 1946. It was printed by Max-Pol Fouchet. his first publication. Bataille: Erotisme.29 Since then it has become evident that the Costa Da was edited by Isabelle Waldberg and Robert Lebel.38 (Echecs) is Duchamp's. Waldberg (Isabelle): Eclat According to Michel Waldberg. It fuially appeared late in Although the authors of the Da Costa Examen is all 1947.been a well-kept secret and was only initially revealed by the recent publication of the letters between Patrick and Isabelle Waldberg written during the war. Esquimau. has observed this conspiracy of silence. Epicier. Etoile. editor of Fontaine. A proof of the first page was made available before Duchamp left for the USA but final proofs did not arrive until March. The extent of the confirmed elsewhere: Ambrosino: involvement of Marcel Duchamp as a contributor is hard to assess exactly.36 Lebel: Education. Chenon: Euclide. Robert Lebel. Patrick Waldberg noted down some of the authors in a copy belonging to Maurice Saillet. It included contributions from writers recently returned to Paris. and by December most of the contributions had been extracted from its disparate authors.37 Exposition. and his mother was the author of Encore as well as drawing the rebus on the cover. confirms that the drawing of the chessboard it in his Catalogue raisonni. which must remain tentative unless Enthousiasme. He gives the following attributions.39 and from Da Costa was Duchamp's respon- Isabelle Waldberg's letters it appears that the overall design of the 18 and includes which presumably means the chess problem is by Duchamp also. Engels. The authors of a few of the other texts can be identified. Escrocs. London. . were careful to preserve their anonymity. Enclume is by Duits. Eclipse and Eternite are both extracts from Alfred Jarry's Exploits and Opinions of Doctor Faustrofl.

almost immediately after the publication of the Da Costa Da Costa 1 947. China. Left: a notice from London Galle La Maison and its sequels. MORE DA COSTA NEWS ! December Before settling down in Paris to publish his encyclopredia. Mesens to contribute. and one can only presume the English group's texts were absorbed into the Da Costa. paper. and although Isabelle Waldberg urged E.." 41 A number of the Surrealists and their associates continued to refer to themselves as Da Costas and the habit passed to the Paris and New York groups as members travelled after the end of the war.. - The name of the Da Costa had its origin as a private joke among the English Surrealists during the war. among them the Portuguese artist Antonio Pedro da Costa and the French anarchist Serge Senninger. J. I have not been able to identify the source of any of these. has already been noted. the Philippines and Malaya. The group was planning to issue a publication in the form of an encyclopxdia in 1945/6 but lack of material. According to the latter: "One day. No scarcity of fuel reported. s r� AMlltlCANEWS * * * * * it * * DA COSTA TO l'UBLIS HIS ENCYClOl'JEDIA IN l'AIUS cult. Brunius? or Mesens? made his entrance. Emanuel Peillet. THE LONDON SURREALIST GROUP AND THE DA COSTA. one of the Surrealists. or one very similar to it. 42 Although Waldberg saw members of the English group when he was in London during the war he may not have been actively working on the Da Costa at that time. Various exiles from Europe frequented the English group at that time.sibility since he supervised the printing.. the afore mentioned Antonio Pedro da Costa... G . the name of its founder... THE COLLEGE DE 'PATAPHYSIQUE AND THE DA COSTA. and until relatively recently. Maurice Saillet and "Oktav Votka" in des amis des livres in May 1948. Nevertheless the English group was involved with the project. greeted da Costa and proceeded to greet each of the others in the room with the same surname.3) l\Le . until it was finally abandoned when its editor. he had an important meeting with Max Ernst and Dorothea Tanning at Cottonwood (cables our special correspondent). a new series of London Bulletin The London Bulletin (which had been the London Surrealist review up to 1940). Mar-Apr to Patrick Waldberg who stayed with Ernst in Colorado between Febrn is as secretive about its origins as was the Da Costa. Some of the other texts are evidently extracts from works included for satirical or ironic reasons (Edifian�. Only the entry by Jacques Brunius can be positively identified.) but short of water. everyone was indeed called Da Costa. and may actually have initiated it.. 40 Her letters also establish the fact that her husband did not himself contribute to the encyclopxdia..44 he may have contented himself with the enigmatic references to the Da Costa that appeared in his London Gallery publications: Above: London Gallery N. He is visiting Japan.T. - The College Express. a which he returned to Par . 45 The idea of the College was first proposed during a conversation between Peillet.. Da Costa pointed out he was not far wrong: in Portugal. A Introduction 19 1 945 and January 1 947. Da Costa has undertaken a tour of a substantial part of the world. In the Arizona. Her C'-.. In the heart of Navajo land he visited the Mittens who reside in Monument Valley. The reference is presum' not mentioned in The connection between this bookshop and its secretary with the 1 946. apart from Salazar. and the difficulties of communicating with colleagues abroad to solicit contributions made this diffi­ L. 43 Instead they envisaged publishing the existing material as a running column in returned to Portugal. (London Gallery Express Agency. The never reappeared.L.. nor known beyond its inner circles. was College publications. Korea.

readers of the images used in the various similarities. THE PARIS SURREALIST GROUP AND THE DA COSTA. Only printing problems prevented the appearing at the same time.corresponds to values and necessities that are excluded from the predominant forms of "civilised" culture. political or ethical one) in the accepted sense. Cahier 1. poetry. this is far from being form of the Dictionary was so apposite a rep­ objects and concepts which they define. it is necessary to take a more detailed look at some of them. pointed out obvious. despite the consequent possibility of misrepresentation. New facts about the foundation of the College are still emerging. Here it is enough to note that Jean-Hugues Sainmont was one of the pseudonyms employed by Peillet in Cahier 1 and afterwards. Plans for the exhibition and the Da Costa 1946. THE HEAD OF GEORGES BATAILLE. accumulation/expenditure.. To appreciate why the apparently random resentation of Bataille's preoccupations. both of whom are important members of the College. even the repetition of certain Da Costa. Bataille's ideas are grouped around a set of interrelating notions. as were other ex-Surrealists including Senninger. in many respects the authors of the Da Costa Da Costa seem to have constituted an "occult'' sub-group within the Surrealist movement of that time. - If the texts in the Critical Dictionary (and the Da Costa). Brunius. the only text until recently that shed any light upon the and Amaud cited above Da Costa was [F2]. Lebel. 20 Encyclopr.. that of Caradec The most persuasive connection. Hugues Montsain.47 Its theme was an elaboration of that of the New York exhibition First Papers of Suma/ism (1942) and the discussion continued by Patrick Waldberg in VVV noted above: the search for a new myth. - Breton and Duchamp began planning the Sixth International Exhibition of Surrealism soon after their arrival in Paris in June place a year later. and the heterogeneous character. perhaps tenuous. many taking the form of more or less unfortunate dualities (profane/sacred. Likewise with the texts. All of the Surrealist contributors to the Da Costa also contributed to the catalogue Le Surrealisme en 1947 (Breton. Waldberg)48 as did Bataille. and to present it as simply as possible.edia Acephalica . and it took were undertaken at exactly the same time. Furthermore..connection between these two enterprises is Da Costa will notice the same sort of illustrations. and absolute limits beyond which he cannot pass. Breton and Duchamp finishing their outline scheme for the former in December. However. homogeneity/heterogeneity. The . connections exist: Ferry and Queneau were early and active members of the College. Ferry. and a fuller account should be possible by the time our Arkhive devoted to it appears. thought/eroticism) that are connected principally by the fact that the second portion of each term which approximates to what he calls "the accursed share" . however. this is not the place for a comprehensive survey of Bataille's thought49 and I have tried to limit this section of the Introduction to that part of it which relates directly to the present book." The reviewer. have a definitively accidental.number of other. is provided by a review of the first issue of the review. Duchamp. and when these limits are approached he tends to use images. However Bataille's ideas do not exactly form a coherent philosophical system (nor for that matter a religious.. since he acknowledges as inherent to it both contradictions. that appeared in Paru46: ''We must quickly note the publication of these College 'Cahierl which fill the gap left by the Da Costa Enryclopcedia. late of the English group.

which Bataille himself considered his most important work. "53 This expenditure is the portion of the economy that opposes the forces of production and accumulation. Man (1).. For the first time the excess wealth produced by the whole of society was hoarded and accumulated so as to benefit that part of it which controlled the productive process: the emerging bourgeoisie. but on expenditure and freedom: a world in which codes of immoderation. arts. his other large collection. From considerations of what it is to be human. festivals and potlatch (cf. Its expression is found in "unproductive expenditure: luxury. itself an expansion of Bataille's somewhat controversial interpretation of Marcel Mauss' essay on potlatch. which although written were never collected together into a single work. The Accursed Share bears the subtitle "An Essay on General Economy" but unlike every other book on economics. a more inward-looking work. Egouts): transcribed rituals of waste.beginning in pre-history and moving through various cultures: Aztec. slavery and the destruction of community on the social scale. Monetary economy reduces men and all that is essentially human to the status of objects of exchange. per­ verse sexual activity. it devotes itself to the problem of abundance rather than that of scarcity. the construction of sumptuary monuments. including many of the Surrealists. games. These means include sacrifice. In earlier societies the sacred established social cohesion. alienation. Unlike many of his contemporaries.50 and related texts. destruction and euphoric social disso­ lution. it was prefigured by his essay The Notion of Expenditure (1933). sacrifice and excess maintain a social structure which accords value to being rather than utility (Exces). and gives as its aim the demonstration that "the sexual act is in time what the tiger is in space. homogeneity and stasis. the Summa Atheologica [A8. Among the results of this imbalance he numbers war. Bataille synthesised his ideas on social structures in his three volume work The Accursed Share [A3]. A6 & A 14]. cults.52 Yet a world in which the sacred. The world of accumulation is associated in Bataille's system with profanity. spectacles. but in a society based on accumulation it can only represent its subversion. Evalu­ ation). the heterogeneous and sovereignty are accorded their proper due is one in which relations are not based on the useful. According to Bataille the gradual appearance of capitalism created a profound imbalance in social structures by creating an economy based on scarcity. war. Bataille considers the moral. mourning. Furthermore the texts published here are not straightforward illustrations of one or two of his ideas. Factory Chimney and Slaughterhouse) . to things. and to the economically useful (Debacle. myth. "primitive" and "Indian. systematising and extending the process (Factory Chimney) ." Written between 1945 and 1949. It is principally the former..even fiction to convey his meaning. to whole societies. the gift system of North American Indians. but often cover numerous aspects of the totality of his thought. to economic slavery. in this respect one might almost look at them as a conflation of philosophical speculation and prose poetry (for example." and early European to the present day of the means by which different societies have dealt with excess wealth.51 The central thread of The Accursed Share is an exploration . and loss of communication and intimacy on the level of the individual. explores the position of the individual in another three volumes.54 Introduction 21 . Industrial society followed the earlier merchant capitalism. ethical and political issues affecting the individual within a social context. that are more relevant here. he proceeds to social groups.

includes a wide variety of phenomena. the realities of heterogeneous political action turn about a quite desperate ferocity: ''Without a profound complicity with natural forces such as violent death. conventionally homogenous society. united by opposition to homogeneity. sudden catastrophes and the horrible cries of pain that accompany them. in other words. each man is existence for itself. Unfortunately. there could be no revo­ 5 lutionaries. as its name implies. of collective production (which makes him an existence for something other than itse(f). Nevertheless. he stops being an function. in other words. Indeed.which is enforced by the imposition of a strict homogeneity upon social relations and activities. activities are valued not for themselves. bureaucrat. one might think. to any philosophical 60 system. not to Elegie. terrifying ruptures of what had seemed to be immutable." 55 Bataille associates the forces of homogeneity with the Marxist con­ ception of the bourgeois class "whenever the State is shown to be at the service of a threatened homogeneity. and charac­ teristics. and here Bataille underlines an absolute limit to thought. and democracy being the platitude inherent to homogeneous society. Etat." 57 Thus the proletariat can perform its traditional Marxian role. as well as unlimited time or space." In fact. a conventional political programme constitutes a servile submission to the possible. Eloge). non-subjugated nature. heterology is opposed to any homogeneous representation of the world. Essence. of a non-reduced. arranged within measurable limits. Existence.are engaged in a struggle to increase their share of the economy. the bourgeois consider the worker as no more than filth: "Outside the factory. his "refusal to be ruled" allowed common cause with the Surrealists' attacks on (Escrocs. the fall into stinking filth of what had been elevated . of capitalism . stage left. They impose an order based on work alone . processes. a man of another nature. 22 Encyclop adia Acephalica . stasis.e. State (Emulation). or an exclusion from its rule. Bataille proposes that which is not a methodology based upon negation: "The specific character of faecal matter or of the spectre. The attempt is made to exclude all aspects of the "useless" from existence. a stranger. work) . which of necessity is a method whose very purpose is assimilation: "scientific knowledge by definition is only applicable to homogeneous elem ent s . can only be the object of a series of negations. all is not lost.The forces of accumulation . However. It does not even fall within the field of investigation. Explication). Army Evidence. Extasiee). beneath the grimy banners of the heterogeneous." 8 Later Bataille referred to a 59 "politics of the impossible" : because the heterogeneous eschews completion. a means of assimilation and pacification. the more obvious repressive social institutions of Religion (Emancipation. Bataille's project is impossible in terms of the conventional idea of what philosophy is. Expiation). but for their accumulative worth. "According to the judgement of worth what he produces. of life.). the enslaving of the present to the which means become ends in themselves (i. Education and Philosophy (Education. with regard to a homogeneous person (boss. and a possible way out of this philosophical impasse is offered by Durkheim's definition of the sacred as profane. The our day. he is no more than a measured by monetary value alone. Above all. there could only be a revolting utopian sentimentality. only the revolutionary function remains open to it.without a sadistic understanding of an incontestably thundering and torrential nature. gushing blood." 56 The invocation of Marx allows the entrance of the proletariat. a labourer is. etc. mention the niceties of bourgeois existence (Edifiant.

. any attempt at compiling an and the Enryclopadia of Heterology is a farcical contradiction. ." 6 1 Homogeneous comprehension only destroys what it wishes to seize.66 within the scientific method itself. the parts of the body. the warrior. leaders. " a force o r a shock that presents itself a s a charge . is either absent from the book or tautological. In many of his other works.)" 6 5 This list can be expanded almost endlessly because actually the power of homogeneity is altogether precarious and its opposition lurks in the most unlikely places (for example. " 6 2 The fly on the orator's nose in Human Face. it crumbles when exposed to the exhalations of the "frock-coated" professors. namely: pornography (Erotin). Formless declassifies and is the negation of definition. Bataille "notoriously'' had recourse to that most physically immediate aspect of literature . In fact many of the texts in the in particular are devoted to tracing this leaking of the sacred back into the prof�e. etc. as Bataille makes clear in Formless . in the basic assumptions of physical reality. 6 3 Negation is one approach. An image. A dictionary is never critical. including those here.for which he is still best­ known in the English-speaking world. but in the introduction to The Accursed Share Bataille offers the possi­ bility of defining "a way of thinking whose movement corresponds to the concrete character of the totality that is offered for selection. etc. It must be added that there is no way of placing such elements in the immediate objective human domain. any element of subjectivity would allow in the formless. that heterological gob of spittle. ." One can sense his unease with such an apparently tenuous and arbitrary method which. extracts them from the world and pins them to a page. This text con­ Critical Diaionary. Intro ductio n 23 . different types of violent individuals or at least those who refuse rule (madmen. being a critique of the dictionary itself. or acts having a suggestive erotic value. often takes the place of the term in a discourse (like the spider or spit that suddenly end Formless). Critical Dictionary is not such an attempt. " 6 4 It i s characterised by violence. For these reasons.such as the absence of any possible common denominator. and o f mathematics : Critical Diaionary Euclide. Finally. aristocratic and impov­ erished classes. which is another way of stating vulgarly that a burst of laughter is the only imaginable and definitively terminal result. A dictionary's sole stitutes the core of the purpose is the imposition of form and homology. . . the various unconscious processes such as dreams or neuroses. irrationality.its extreme heterogeneous form in fact . delirium. in the sense that the pure and simple objectification of their specific character would lead to their incorporation in a homogeneous intellectual system. vermin. words. h e recognises i t a s everything other or incommensurate. and he lists "the waste products of the human body and certain analogous matter (trash. etc. he employs altogether more successful means. the numerous elements or social forms that homogenous society is powerless to assimilate: mobs. in · other words. Space. something alien to philosophy. to a hypocritical cancellation of excremental character.6 7 Metaphor) . definition fixes objects in thought. poets. And how should one respond to their efforts? By "the excretion of unassimilable elements. in fact. . No wonder then. Explication. and the photographs in the Diaionary perform this same function in a more literal fashion. excess. a poetic invec­ tive. that Bataille's works must be unclassifiable . or language: Eye (1). persons. Bataille gave many instances of heterogeneous phenomena. the heterogeneous is unassimilable.).

designed by Gerrit tveld in the purest De I manner. bryond utility is the domain of sovereignty (. "* The meaning of these taboos. where the heterogeneous is crucified before a crowd whose only ecstasies are the pale effusions of art critics? Meanwhile. Big Toe. ultimately. etc. .) Children must be taught a horror of filth and excrement.)." 6 9 Without the congruence of these worlds no totality of existence is possible: eroticism must coexist with thought. yet homology opposes this coexistence. death and eroticism are thus intimately connected and fenced in by prohibitions which are. generally mistrusting the body.this appears to be for each one of us the sense of the movement that leads us to represent man independently of filth. it being the "useless. having a deep distrust of what is accidental. that is. excremental activities ."70 its aim being the recovery of a lo st intimacy.) it is seroile to consider present time for the sake of the future. and repulsions. just as it denies death and the present moment." non-productive aspect of sexuality. that condition which separates human from animal: knowledge of death. abandoning the place of our carnal birth. albeit cursed. of the Schroder hygiene. the "cleaner" it is. Museum. killing and torturing. which separate man from his. but they are no worse than the secular philosophies. with the eption of a single room. exiled to some less salubrious neighbourhood. often by considering some topic from the point of view of "primitive" cultures. and a further aspect of its method is a retreat from the animal origins of man. real rites of sacred horror occur daily. The sacred. Excrement. before pointing out the same features in that of the European (eg Hygiene. from nature itself (Hygiene.which is why it is often 24 E ncyclopcedia A cephalica . Civilisation erects barriers between man and what remains of his animal nature (Metamorphosis) : "The polluted philosophies of Christianity tried hard to separate Life from the activity of the endo­ crine glands. Slaughterhouse) . For Bataille all deferment is a submission to the future. ."7 2 (Economie). Gunshot) . nature? Not wanting to depend on anything. let us say. and the primary given for man is nature.the pollution of homogeneity by heterogeneity. The more "civilised" a society. roen. a Museum. This makes us think of those sublime architects who nonetheles s forget 10tograph (1928) . why not visit one of those temples of accumulation. intended to be transgressed during celebrations of heterology such as festivals and sacrifice. 6 8 The worlds of homogeneity and heterogeneity are simultaneously linked but separated. The church associates eroticism with impurity and filth. Homology desires the opposite."73 Man cannot escape his body and its constant reminder of his basic condition (Eye. Human Face. which is what we do when we And. "What then is the essential meaning of our horror of ise. with a bizarre but expedient notion: that of an immortal life to come. not isolation. Mouth. however. to employ the work. or pleasure. . revolting inti­ mately against the fact of dying. etiquette. of the sexual functions and of death. at the weekend. natural. the reduction of man to its tool. is simply a fear of death. history itself being simply a record of the progressive negations of all givens. For Bataille sacrifice is the supreme expression of expenditure . . in wars are capable of burning. by Paul that in a kitchen it sometimes happens that water boils . perishable .71 moral and social status is associated with cleanliness. for example "men who at home are only peaceful and obliging peasants who bounce their children up and down on their knees. "Life duration first. a loss of the absolute freedom in the moment that he defined as sovereignty. and shameful: Slaughterhouse. manifests itself as "a life of communi­ cation. Threshold. (Even its buildings are a repressive imposition of form on nature: Architecture. both metaphorically and actually. pillaging.

the purpose of sacrifice is "to give destruction its due. 6 . Autobiographical Note [Bl . none of this was accidental [C6] : "In issue 3 (of Dor:uments) Bataille gives a first rough outline of the aggressively anti-idealist philosophy he was to embrace. 8). A fac­ tory chimney is nothing but an organ of defecation. 5... vol. and their possible treatment. the final part of a process of production which devours the products of the earth and literally shits them into the sky. the wonder-struck cry of life" and where what is important is "to pass from a lasting order. is here embodied in an impure version of the obelisk (impure because both functional and excremental) . All those who have to do with sacrifice are in danger. As Leiris has made clear. and it seems likely he also suggested subjects. which is accomplished with a view to the future.7 6 and the photograph accompanying this text acts as a potent representation o f Bataille's vision: the order of the detumescent crashing into the mud of the repressive and inhuman useful."7 5 The alternative: Man (2).) it liberates violence while marking off the domain in which violence reigns absolutely. L 'Etude des Civilirations materiel/es. . blocking out the sun. vol. 1 25. archiologie.fleurs (Series I. whose reality derives from a long term operation and never resides in the moment .a world that creates and preserves (that creates for the benefit of a lasting reality) . it is con­ sumption that is concerned only with the moment. to save the rest from a mortal danger of contagion. . I. Not only did Bataille edit this section on his own but he may also have re-written some of the articles in it (Einstein for example 8. to the violence of an unconditional consumption. to other contributors. ethnographie. This is the sense in which it is gift and relinquish­ ment. that machine of accumulation. As I mentioned earlier. 1 3 0-3 4] .the obstinate peasant. Factory Chimney combines a number of his favourite themes: a horror of industrialisation. in which all consumption is subor­ dinated to the need for duration. what is important is to leave a world of real things. 3) and L 'Esprit 3.associated with the most prodigal expender of energy."74 In a society in which the sacred has its share. 4. Two other essays by Bataille could possibly have been included: Le Langage des . 2. -Alastair Brotchie NOTES 1 .J 7 . only the tie con­ necting the offering to the world of profitable activity is severed (. but its limited ritual form regularly has the effect of protecting those who offer it (. . but what is given cannot be an object of preservation for the receiver: the gift of an offering makes it pass precisely into the world of abrupt consumption.decided to put his cards on the table. Intro duction 25 . Yet it was not until issue 4 that Bat:aille . Sacrifice is the antithesis of production. 46 0] . . Illustrated did not write French). some of the texts in the Dictionary so perfectly condense the totality of Bataille's preoccupations that they almost qualify as prose poems. Much of this account of Documents derives from the excellent article by Dominique Lecoq [CS] . yet not let go of his idea . The obelisk is a symbol of permanence. One can only assume that the anti-Bat:aille faction had not envisaged this examination extending to their own milieu. the Sun - the victim is taken from the real world into a sacred and sovereign realm where death is "the great affirmer. Slaughterhouse. VII. His team's work o n the Dogon people o f West Africa modcrne et lejeu des transpositions (Series II. but they did not spanned five decades. seem entirely to embody the spirit of the dictionary.) It does not destroy as fire does. who could appear as though he were not up to anything. [CS. prehirtoire [C l .

Leiris wrote a study of two such diagrams in Documents (I. [C3. George Dussat. Henri Dubief and perhaps Jules Monneret Some of these names are obscure. [FS. The appendices to this book also contain an important letter from Bataille to Caillois about the Acephale project (356-359). Colette Peignot (Laure). [B l . It is not mentioned in the massive catalogue to the Paris. Paris (1937-1957) exhibition held at the Centre Georges Pompidou in 1981. this is because it reminds man. 30] . 21. Essence. Sociitf de psycho!ogie collective. that his life is no more than a 'back and forth movement from ordure to ideal and ideal back to ordure. is perpetrating against the reassuring idea of a human nature whose continuity would imply 'the permanence of certain conspicuous qualities' and against the very idea of 'inserting nature into the order of reason. unpublished text quoted in [F5.] 10. 1 3 . the suicide of the Japanese writer Yukio Mishima was inspired by Bataille's interest in human sacrifice. an unpublished poet. Jean Dautry.] 19. and Keleman a Hungarian refugee and professional translator. taken in 1905. also recalls Duchamp taking an active and important role. According to Tatsuo Satomi. Churrhes [A22. Cited in J. 48-52). 1 2. although from a year or so later. actually men and women who could be our fathers and mothers. of Pierre Dugan). his son Jean-Jacques Lebel. I am grateful to Dominique Lecoq for pointing out a general omission in this introduction. Simon Watson Taylor similarly identified Duchamp as one of its editors both in . Orders. Brotherhoods. Erratum.] 16. Patrick and 26 E n ryc!opmdia A cepha!ica 26. The best English account of these debates. Or three if one includes Bataille's vice-presidency of the 25.] 28. 24. 1965). Such as those on the existentialists led by Sartre: Estorgissement. the others theatre people and other characters dating from the tum of the century at the very latest. Evangelique. Sartre. who was present at the editorial meetings in their apartment. 1 5 . VII.J 20. whose feet are planted in the mud and whose head is raised . SeCl7it Societies. Propositions on the Death ofGod [A20. or physiognomies. with which Bataille took a finn stand (so to speak): full-page reproductions of friendly big toes and a commentary setting out to argue that if the foot is laden with taboos and is an object of erotic fetishism. which proceeds in an associative manner deriving from analysis and based upon "the tasks of words" (Formless). towards heaven. London. omits any reference. [F5. 274]. p. 17. Le Bouler. poses. II. 1 1 . one of which. [F5]. Dominique Lecoq was able to supply some information: Dubief & Dautry were historians. 1 8. and Fouchet were all on its edi­ torial board. but with incredibly antiquated clothing. 84-89.with photographs. 158). nor was it mentioned by Ctitique. Jacques Chavy. Pi=e Andler (pseud. 23 Acephafogramme. 1 959. namely the importance of psychoanalysis in Bataille's work and especially in the Dictionary. Batail/e et Cail!ois. despite the fact that many of its reviewers contributed to it. Pi=e Klossowski. From Le Soc de la charrue [ES] . Pierre or Imre Keleman. in presenting this clownish gallery of creatures with 'madly improbable' appearances. 47]. Bataille. In his Marcel Duchamp (Trianon Press. ibid. 30. 199 & 201 . diwrgences et complicitis [E9. Roger Caillois. (See biographies. 9. Included in [A22. He describes its inception in Un Cadavre [AZ. The Sacred Conspimcy [A20. Rene Chenon. vol. dated 4/4/36 [Bl. 55) Lebel confirms Duchamp's involvement with the Da Costa during his stay in Paris between May 1 946 and January 1 947. 12-23] .' " (Translation by Lydia Davis. shows a lower­ middle-class wedding with impossible embellislunents. 1 4.-P. is to be found in the six issues of Transition 48 Qater 49 and 50'). 9] . vol. Jean Rollin. 29. [F2. A provisional list of members would include: Georges Bataille. Progmmme. 1 80].) Isabelle Waldberg. Dussat.] 22. p. Georges Ambrosino. 27. 8. p.' Soon after came Big Toe. associated with Souvarine's Cerr/e Communiste Democmtique and later Contre­ Attaque. likewise Patrick Waldberg's chronology in his Suma/ism (Il=es & Hudson. 145-158]. Human Face is a real outrage that Bataille. In fact the College dates from a year later. 55.

in its Christian guise. Hector Niel. 50.12. Senninger's version would be the earlier since Antonio Pedro left London for Portugal late in 1945 and stayed there until travelling to Paris for the Surrealist exhibition in June 47. Op. 2. According to Bataille. and he seems to have confused the various appearances of the Da Costa. 37. from Breton in January (unpublished letter from Breton to Brunius. meeting Antonio Da Costa and Candido Costa Pinto in a cafe in Paris (letter to the editor 21/5/9'2:). and Estime later reappeared as A Bord du "Valdivia " in Ferry's short story collection Le Mecanicien (1950) . Waldberg has a question mark after this attribution. 1 8. 39. Peillet's name was first revealed publicly in the novel by Henri Thomas. op. as well as equal adoration in some quarters." Letter from Isabelle to Patrick Waldberg.47). 34. note 45. 43. the author . 40. there is some suspicion that this may be the work of Peillet (See (fhe Complete Wornr ef Marr:el Duchamp. Gallimard. Pam.. I.rta is both threatening and offensive. 1969.1. Ferry's Ms. 1951.. primarily intended to maintain relationships. one of the Da Costa's editors. especially as you seem to see this name as a way of nullifying the Parisian tendency to be over serious. According to Metraux [ES. Letter to Patrick Waldberg. 5 1 . Ectoplasme later appeared under Brunius' name in the Humourpoetique issue of La Nef.2. despite Isabelle Waldberg's letters which unequivocally state the opposite.Paris and New York (letter to the editor). First published in 1925 [Ht] . Erudition. 593) is of the opposite opinion. Letters of 10. 35. people and even intelligence (the deliberate stupidity of Eloge being cited). For such a survey in English see [E3] . Likewise religion. cit. not realising that Memento I is actually the second issue. one imagines that he must be Entite..1 . Dec 1 950/Jan.47. 10.1946. 135 & 141).46. who owns this copy of the Da Costa. Thomas' book describes the foundation of the College. i. 49. Une Saison volie. cit.) 36. My thanks to the present owner of the shop. Duchamp was an experienced typographer and had designed many books for the Surrealists and others since the 1920s. 1 946. Bataille and Mauss both saw economic exchange in moral rather than rational terms. The first Memento was also reviewed in Pam (December 1948. 46. 32. and invitation to participate. 38. 3 1 . 47. received a complete layout. Given the immense critical opus smothering Duchamp it is surprising that his work as a book designer has so far escaped academic dissection. however. 65. 1986. 53-54). Marx's project was the reverse. also Isabelle Waldberg was using the term before Breton's return to Paris in May 1946. Intro duction 27 . Edouard Jaguer tells essentially the same story except that in his version it is Breton Euphorie. but Mauss attributed to potlatch an obligatory aspect that Bataille ignored in his interpretation of it. but is wildly inaccurate in many places. The Notion ef Expenditure is included in Visions ef Excess [A20] . and if Duits was the author of Eloge. (Letter of 30. 45. 52. and 42. Thames and Hudson.e. 680] . ''Your return to the Da Costa family pleases me very much. All were also signatories to the manifesto Rnpture inaugurale which accompanied the exhibition and re-stated Surrealism's Share. 20 Dec. item 192. February 1948.1. Robert Lebel. Examen and Exempt However. 71 /2. However.JJndon Bulletin and directed the activities of the English Surrealist Group from the London Gallery. 12. Maurice Imbert. 34. for example. The review notes that this hostility. Letter of 10 May 1990 to Thieri Foulc.) 48. 33. simply administers. Etendard. July 1950. is because the Da Co. Mesens had edited The l. Unpublished letter from Brunius to Maurice Henry. Patrick Waldberg misspells his name as D19s. perhaps referring to this sequence. Jacques Chavy does not believe that Bataille contributed to the Da Costa. Curiously. of 41. 175. and dis­ plays a total disrespect for ideas. The English Group. political and artistic positions. "to reduce things to the condition of man" but in practical terms Communism could not achieve this (Accur. but he was writing later than Robert Lebel. p. 1 946. of Escrocs was recently discovered at the Organon of the College de 'Pataphysique. 44. Isabelle Waldberg menti� a number of joint texts by Duits and Lebel. Schwarz. p.47 and 7.

but sufficiently fluid to admit the subjective. Although Bataille notes "I imagine that our disgust for excrement. Bataille continues: "The line of development from taboos on incest or menstrual blood to the religions of purity and of the soul's immortality are clear. 1 1 8] . The Notion ofExpenditure [AZO. 68.] formless. which the Acadimie attempts to suppress: 57. [A2.] 54. attached to the original.) thought. . [A20. . and regulates expenditure. [A2. [A18. Bataille soon modified this opinion. de Sade [A2. is because of something other than its objec­ subtitled a Handbook ofArt Knowledge. [A3. vol. 62." rigid image Encyclopcedia Bittanica. . of irrationality. vol.] 75.F. 101] . believing that in practice.) . ticipating a private paradise.Value judgement of a sensitive idealist an- 28 E ncyclopmdia A cephalica stands out against the sky. II. For example in [B l . 73. I. and I don't feel obliged to be convincing DICITONARY where certain pedants in the neighbourhod o of the Einstein's rupture. 66."! [A3. vol. 41. 53. penetrated by the Artaud commented: ''Yes. In Leiris' Glossaire: fy sem mes gloses (which first appeared in Li Rivo!ution S11ma!iste). head held high.] 58. enter the Collection of Drainpipes. [A3. vol. vol.) It did not escape him that writing a book was precisely such an employment.) 63.] not a 76. 58-9. for the elimination of for which he rather between these two domains being Angels. 107] 65. II 198. 142. Cf. 520]. [A2. 1 38. [A2.. and are thus infected with emotion. [A20.. rather than satisfying it. Reaganism etc." 59. Sacrifice [E7. MERDE. 46 & 49. Two of the contributors to the Critical Dictionary had also written dictionaries of their own. II. "Free" market policies of Thatcherism. [A2. Argot being the heterogeneous aspect of language. But my impression is contrary to the one that generally prevails. It is precisely the exclusive and defmitive quality of dictionaries that have made them of interest to various writers and there are a number of obvious precursors of the Critical which have exploited these qualities by subversion. .Take a bit of this and a bit of that. and discourse upon historical continuity. The Use Value of D. a means for madness. 22. a labyrinth on this point.] 72." [A20. 64. [A2. 91) Thus. position in space and make assertions. new meanings are found inside word. as exemplified by exuberance and clearly symbolic of overflowing energy. [A3. Dictionary Eye (4). The P. suggested by their phonetics.J 60. And even today. Cf." 74.. [A3.] 67 . coyly describes as "animated by the movement of general [A3. 69. 139. put forward less radical definitions: SCULPTURE. 72. II.rychological Structure ofFascism [A20. Where the heterogeneous appears as the image of "an ape dressed as a woman"! 56. 99. Bierce's Devil's Dictionary. More or less successful examples include F1aubert's Dictionary of Rcceiu:d Ideas. wherever its Seine channel their spiritual strictures. Communism was bureaucratic and repressive. Likewise Bataille demonstrates the existence of potlatch in Europe.J 55. champagne. 98. from now on language has only one use .A. II. 66) . 6 1 . 71. tive reality. vol. . 1 38] . "The obelisk is without a doubt the purest image of the head and of the heavens. Eluard & Breton's Dictionnaire abrrfgf du S11malisme.polices.] The traditional Christian messengers 70. it seems that sov­ ereign permanence is maintained across the unfortunate vicissitudes of civilisations. III. If lacking in courage. 215. 143. vol.



whose existence is more or less situated in the absolute. because he fears his wandering soul. It is thus that man dies by the absolute which is at the same time his means of freedom. That absolute is identical with the void and with that which has no object. does not seem consistent. The absolute has been man's greatest exploit: it is thanks to that exploit that he has out­ grown the mythological state. man has been obliged to renounce his peculiarity and miserable content. But it was at the same time his greatest defeat. is afraid of himself and of his own creations. The absolute is the greatest expenditure of energy made by man. after having accepted them without due consideration. It should be added that man. - The absolute is the sum of the compensations for human wretchedness.whose frailty is such that. The absolute is powerful because perfectly empty: it is thanks to this characteristic that it represents the perfection of truth. Man has created his own servitude. having no object. The absolute gods were. that is why the qualities ascribed to the gods delineate by contradiction the failings and ser­ vilities of their creators. Man dies. Yet it is precisely this impossibility of proving the absolute which makes it irrefutable. To create so perfect a notion. I believe that man has less to fear. It is undeniable that man invented God so that his wretchedness might be forbidden by somebody greater than himself: God is the dialectical opposite of human imperfections. like the absolute. in instances with­ out importance. he then seeks to recoup the energy expended by means of prayer: from which it is evident that man is unable to en­ dure his own energies. It is impossible to shatter a lie which. Nothing can be demonstrated by the absolute: the abso­ lute is precisely that supreme truth which remains indemonstrable. in the epoch of philosophy. but never the artifice of a construction. It would appear that philosophy is the degeneration of the mythological state: in fact. the interludes can be demonstrated. Things . because he invented something greater than himself. It is in this way that works of art are inde­ monstrable. can be proven only if an object. than faced with himself. because that excludes the object. because he does not know the world. one must still demonstrate them . cannot be related to anything: the lie. killed by his fetishes. the absolute is so enfeebled that it needs to be demonstrated. being obliged to separate himself from them in order to find equilibrium. who deified Critical Dictio nary 31 . to begin with. It is thus that he has done every­ thing to forget his dreams. The lie limited by an object can be proven. but only a little corner of it. which amounts to saying. in effect.ABSOLUTE. faced with the Universe. on account of their being separate. Only the details. the ancestors of governing classes. which is readily and at first glance observed. from the object. imaginary entities he has separated from himself. Ideal entities serve as compensations for wretchedness. above all.are called facts of science or of knowledge.

since they do not possess precise qualities. that way. On the one hand to the mighty and to kings. . madmen. has ceased to be limited by "taboos" and is no longer anything other than abject and ugly. Like money. "). There is a cynical pleasure in thinking about words which drag something of us - along with them into the dustbin. but be­ cause angels change in station. not on account of their wearing out. and notions are the padded cells of the logicians. ANGEL. one is obliged to regard with the same uneasy (or cynical) curiosity as some sort or other of Chinese torture. The absolute belongs to the tectonic-ecstatics. is fated to suffer an improvement which. Everything that. though it may be a fairly disgusting spectacle. it must nevertheless be recognised that this word has seen a development to the same degree and in the same way as artist and poet." or again "I respect Poets. Words. one distances oneself from the "dangers of action. and it is thus that they become immortal spirits like the latter.themselves to enhance servitude and fear. it is by means of notions that duration is conned. . "the delightful rigour Aesthetes bring to their intentions . and the Lord dresses them according to their present manner - 32 E n cyclopmdia A cephalica . responds to an admissible need. they even change them. The absolute belongs to leaders. visible and palpable. It being perfectly obvious that nobody now adopts such a denomination. 1. The power of the absolute shows itself in its identity with the unconditional. to animals and to plants. the contemporary "contortionist" believes only in his own banal and obsequious "I": in this way he has discovered the most obnoxious form of the absolute and a freedom which. created by man. after one has forgotten death. entirely separate from objects and by that very fact from their poverty. ("That man is an Artist. because. "The garments of angels are real garments. above all. become his nightmares." and. In fact. What a fear of death! People must begin by seeing words through death. on the other to those without any power. The wretch who asserts that art no longer functions. the automatic protest against a debased mental form is itself already pretty well threadbare. and it is by means of the absolute that one is immortalised. AESTHETE. On the other hand. the ageing process is the same for a cliche as for a system of car­ burization. you take it to the dustbin. in the category of the emotions. words have every right to overturn things and to inspire disgust: after fifteen years you find a dead woman's slipper in the back of a cupboard." has already made a declaration which really must be considered like the dead woman's slipper. on the other hand. priests. The angels. The abso­ lute has been identified with the essence and with being itself. In the last analysis. the neutral absolute is a means of power: each may be changed into anything whatever.

courtyards.. I have sometimes conversed with angels concerning this. for every time I have spoken with them. "I know from my own experience what I have called angels' dwellings. halls. of being. after having heard from Jesus Christ himself that in his Father's house there are many mansions. living-rooms. I have done so in their quarters and I have found these similar to the habitations of men on earth: but nevertheless far more beautiful.. "The angels live among themselves as men live on earth. more or less magnificent according to the rank of each. flower beds.The actress Bessie Love playing an angel. antechambers. and were reputed as such in the Church and the world were as ignorant as they are concerning this matter. they have lodgings and houses. vestibules. I have myself a thousand times seen them in garments different from those in which I had seen them previously . they told me they were greatly surprised that those who gave them­ selves out as being learned. bedrooms. Critical Dictionary 33 . In them are seen porticoes.

" (Emmanuel Swedenborg.) ove: The angel Gabriel m a 12th century Spanish iiature (Codex Vigilano).) "Note. archangel who came to the Virgin to announce that she was to be the mother of Jesus Christ (Luke. ht: The Negro actor sley Hill playing the . .Occult sciences and Gabriel in the film Green Pastures.The reason Milton wrote in fetters when he wrote of Angels & God. The Marriage efHeaven and Hell. The Angel Gabriel. 34 E n cyclopcedia A cepha!ica . . Genius of the Moon. and at liberty when of Devils & Hell. is because he was a true Poet and of the Devil's party without knowing it. The Marvels efHeaven and Hell.) Scripture cites the archangels Gabriel. 26ff." (Nouvelle Larousse Illustri. orchards and fields. 1. 2. Michael and Raphael as chiefs of the heavenly hosts that vanquished Lucifer and the rebel angels. presiding over the ninth circle of light in the hermetic hierarchy." (William Blake.gardens. "GABRIEL (from a Hebrew word which strictly means the man ef God ).) .

it was he who seduced Eve and taught the sons of men deadly wounds. whenever we find architectural construction elsewhere than in monuments. For that matter. This mas s movement is difficult to explain otherwise than by popular hostility towards monuments which are their veritable masters . in any case. it is in the form of cathedrals and palaces that Church and State speak to and impose silence upon the crowds . Gabriel i s the angel who presides over Monday. one of the guilty angels was likewise called Gabriel. over Paradise and the Cherubim . the latter already displaying all the elements of architecture. . LXIX. dress. we can infer a prevailing taste for human or divine authority. the buckler. whether it be in physiognomy. in any case. increasingly dominant.In the S epher Henoch. whose direction is indicated within the biological order by the passage from the simian to the human form. ch. admirals) . ARCHITECTURE. to the physiognomy of officials (prelates. for over half a century. the latter being only the development of the Critical D ictio nary 35 . in large part. The disappearance of academic pictorial compo­ sition. XX. this com­ parison is applicable. that mathematical order imposed upon s tone is really the culmi­ nation of the evolution of earthly forms. or painting. It is clear. as physiognomy is the expres sion of the nature of individuals . Indeed. Man would s eem to repres ent merely an intermediary s tage within the morphological development between monkey and building. He formed the inhabitants of the arid element down to the consummation of the centuries . The fall of the Bastille is symbolic of this s tate of things . music. " According to the S epher Henoch. From the very outset.expresses itself in actual architectural constructions . by the progres sive transformation of painting. opens the path to the expres sion (and thereby the exaltation) of p sychological processes distinctly at odds with social s tability. who presides over Ikisat. opposing a logic of maj esty and authority to all unquiet elements. the human and architectural orders make common cause. . His residence is in the Little B ear. hitherto characterised by a s ort of concealed architectural skeleton. This. magistrates. However. ch. In fact. "It is he who revealed to the s ons of men how to kill. only society's ideal nature . explains the s trong reaction elicited. the sword. the breastplate. " With Michael a n d Samael. The large-scale compositions of certain painters express the will to constrain the spirit within an o fficial ideal.that of authoritative command and prohibition . we read: "Gabriel. monuments obviously inspire good social behaviour and often even genuine fear. Thus great monuments ris e up like dams. on the o ther hand. - Architecture is the expres sion of the true nature of s o cieties . above all. one of the holy angels. and all things that can kill or avoid death. Forms have become increasingly s tatic.

He is more than worthy of this. Riviere. the deficiency of the white race s tands confirmed. grouping the s ervile multitudes under their shadow. the Black Birds. as much for his remarkable beauty as for his talent as a dancer. at least in the domain of show-business. and the film Hallelt!Jah. which. then drew attention to himself in 1 926 in a parody of J o s ephine Baker. we are witnes sing an intoxicating dementia of dubious and charming will-o'- 36 E ncyclopmdia A cepha!ica . 1 . Before Louisiana.Pointles s to s eek any longer an explanation for coloured people suddenly breaking. BLACK BIRDS. Currently. whose monwnental productions now truly dominate the whole earth. sadly too brief. through the denunciation of human dominance. With all due deference to paleface chauvinism. it is to be hoped will s oon be s creened in public. who is at present s tarring in the revue at the Folies-Bergere. whom he interpreted with Darville. however s trange this may seem when a creature as elegant as the human being is involved.opens up toward bestial monstrosity.The young Senegales e dancer Feral Benga. it is to Feral Benga that the responsibility falls to repres ent his admirable race before the Parisian public. a path traced by the painters . After Habib Benglia. was born in Dakar in 1 906. as it were. order and constraint. today. here is Feral Benga who has recently been revivifying our all but dead music-hall after the departure of the great black troupe. to music by G. He made his debut in 1 925 among the extras at the Folies-B ergere. while the blacks who (in America or elsewhere) are civilised along with us and who.former. Therefore an attack on architecture. tends. the American Negro operetta which will probably s oon be s taged at the Porte Saint-Martin (with Louis D ouglas as man­ ager and Strappy J ones in the leading role) . . a cemetery and common grave of so much pathetic rubbish.H. as if there were no other way of escaping the architectural s traitjacket. it is interesting to note that. Hence. disturbed our torpor. an absurd s tutterers' silence: we are rotting away with neurasthenia under our roofs. of whom nobody today contests that he is one of our best actors. whos e presence last summer. is neces sarily. imposing admiration and wonder. BENGA (Feral) . an attack on man. and undoubtedly the mos t intellectually outstanding. are marshy emanations of the decomposition who are set aflame above this immens e cemetery: so. an entire earthly activity. with an incongruous extravagance. in this direction. dance and cry out. in a vaguely lunar Negro night.

Ozanam. supplicating him to deal them blows with a stick. without rhyme or reason. far from uttering cries of pain. B ONJOUR BROTHERS. which disappeared in the Revolution. they would assemble in a barn during the night. barefoot. from the Biographic CAMEL. it belongs there by virtue of its form. calling their fustigator "my little father. S ome time afterwards a young girl requested the good cure to crucify her. "This execution took place in the chapel of the Virgin attached to the church at Fareins . which seems grotesque to an inhabitant of Paris. The two priests and the vicaire Furlay were locked up or s ent into exile. and ten or twelve persons of both s exes who numbered among the adepts. He s ent the former away in the month of January. After their installation at Fareins. and above all their talent for the pulpit. - These two 1 8th-century ecclesiastics made themselves "commendable by the s everity of their morals.) "The camel. of Father Caffe. o n e Friday at three i n the afternoon. he took refuge in Paris: the crucified girl and another prophetes s came ° there to rej oin him. the vicaire Furlay. and they avidly sought every occasion for these. their charity." and founded the flagellant s ect of the Fareinists. and the penitents. these fanatics would pursue him into the fields. There he would wield the dis cipline to right and left. above all girls and women. not only without causing her any harm.the-wisps. as Jesus Christ had been. and the priest would gain access by a window. "there was talk in the region thereabouts of miracles : a little knife with a red handle of a peculiar construction. indeed. i n the presence of the two cures. " (After F. of the s ort of those described in La Magic blanche devoilee acquired a singular celebrity. These dis orders were interrupted following upon the sudden death of a man who pro­ tested agains t these practices and was found s tabbed with a needle. expres sed their satis faction in cries of j oy. . This definition will spare us any discus sion. with five nails driven into each heel. These miracles produced the desired effect: they drew to the Bonj our brothers a great number of proselytes. vol V. The cure had thrust it up to the hilt into the leg of a young girl. The younger one having meanwhile suc­ ceeded in escaping. without any light. - Universe/le of Michaud and Poujoulat. writhing and yelling like bursts of laughter. pp. by their piety. she had spent an entire Lent eating only a round of toast spread with human dung each morning. They were happy only when their little father had given them a good thrashing." Individually. its Critical Dictio nary 37 . . 1 4-1 5 . but he had cured her of a pain in that place. its colour. Dominican. so much so that it pines away if transported elsewhere. is in its place in the des ert: it is the denizen of those singular localities.

at the s ame time as the pro­ found absurdity of animal nature. Nerval replied: "But what are you 38 E n cyclopcedia A cephalica . 1 923. What would our lovely women say of thos e oriental poems in which the harmonious move­ ments of the betrothed are compared to the measured pace of a she-camel?" Contrary to the opinion of Eugene Delacroix (Etudes esthetiques. p. 40) . that of the camel. The aspect of the camel reveals. One of his friends having asked him why he was making such a fool of hims elf.b earing. Gerard de Nerval went for a s troll in the gardens of the Palais-Royal with a living lobster on a leash. it traverses them at its regular and silent pace as a ship ploughs through the waves of the s ea. The idlers crowded round him. among the forms symptomatic of s tupidity. Launched acros s oceans of s and. Paris. The Orientals call it the ship of the desert. the cataclysmic and fallen nature of that absurdity and s tupidity. indeed. One might. where futility is at its mos t dis tressing. s eems als o the most disastrous. flabbergasted and roaring with laughter at the strange retinue. probably the most monumental. - One day. believe that the camel is s omething that is at the mos t critical p oint of all life. CRUSTACEANS.

a crab enormous as a house. affable and clean. hunting shrimps in a rock-pool for his dinner. none is more so than shrimping. and he is at least familiar with the wonders of the deep s ! " A painter friend of mine s aid o n e day that if a grasshopper were the size of a lion it would be the most beautiful animal in the world. his trousers rolled up to his thighs. graceful and lively as mercury. submarine vampires nourished on corpses and refuse. she flutters in the triumphant fingers. a white pique hat on his head. My lobster is a gentle animal. N p�e: the head of a crab laughing at? You people go about readily enough with dogs. Of all the ridiculous actions men take upon themselves. his s hrimping-net at the ready. She is also a woman.From a film by Jean Painleve (1 929). wearing an alpaca j acket. she slides . Heavy and light. Who has not heard of Critical Dictio nary 39 . Everybody has s een that elderly gentleman. and a shrimp as tall as a tree! Crustaceans. Elastic animal flower. fabulous creatures that amaze children playing on beaches. bearded and red-faced. petal separated from the great bouquet of the waves . a wicker basket on his belly. cats and other noisy and dirty domestic animals . Woe be­ tide the poor s hrimp that lets itself be caught! In desperation she wriggles . animals made of silence and of weight. ironic and grotesque. How true that would be of a giant crayfish. This pa the head of a shrimp.

. 2 Crustaceans are boiled alive to cons erve the succulence of their flesh." the image of eternal sleep.Police carrying out a search of the which was practised one of the mysterious cults so widespread in the city discovered the body in a hermetically sealed chest. There are men who resemble it. They are cultivated like oysters and tulips . They are present at all human ceremonies: political banquets. All these beasts change th eir carapaces. . cellar of a house in - Los Angeles. grow old. It hides under rocks and its mobile eyes watch for pas sing prey with a cruel malice. alongside the bodies of seven small dogs . the shifties t. harden. is the most mysterious. CULTS. The crayfish and the lobster are nobles .La Mome Crevette? Among crustaceans. We d o not know whether they suffer or if they have ideas concerning ethics and the organisation of societies. the crab known as the "sleeper. 6 O ctober.. make love and die. 40 E ncyclopcedia A cephalica . the most deceitful. It walks sideways. wedding breakfa s ts and wakes . According to Jarry it would appear that a lobster fell in love with a can of corned beef. It combines every fault.

its spine of frozen water. the dijeuncr de soleil [flash in the pan] . we feel ourselves more.I mean the word dibdclc. like lumps of wood. Mrs Angling Wieland. this grotesque circulation of petty self-interest that bends us to the yoke and reduces us to worse than domestics.. The rivers of truly human relations are immobile and dead. The body had been preserved in ice for more than a year. the "brainstorm. since. a word quite precisely "thrown together'' [bdclc].) The phenomena of nature are a vast alphabet of symbols upon which we draw to forge many of our expressions. it could pass as prophetic. we make no move. we and DEBACLE. and yet we hope for nothing so much as for the debacle . pedestrians and wagons. when the solidified Seine offered its back. to the passage of carriages. more difficult to support on our spinal columns than whole wagon-loads of market-garden produce or omnibuses chock-full of men of necessarily ignoble countenance. the cold is setting in. "princess" of the cult and adoptive mother of the victim. The presence of the small dogs was supposed to facilitate that resurrection.Mrs Willa Rhoades." and the "avalanche of compliments"? Worn-out as most of these images may be. Employed regarding the war of 1 870 by Zola. in the grimacing poses of shameful paralytics. indeed. social relations are mean and filthy as lice. To escape from this dust-filled lumber-room in which we are mouldering. so to speak. there is none the less one which remains moving. would appear to have acknowledged that the woman whose body was discovered died while following a course of medical treatment prescribed by the cult. - Critical Dictio nary 41 . the air is freezing and. Prisoners of this cold. in the hope of a resurrection. "queen of the order. because of its brutal and implacable concision. boulevards for the tenacious animalculae of a state of affairs in which nothing has any raison d 'etre other than an economic one. the rivers of our senti­ ments are being trans formed into arteries filled with a frozen congealing blood. and popularised above all to designate collapses in monetary value and financial crashes. given present circumstances. all the more powerful. both accused of fraud. (Report in The New York Herald. as mummies are of their rigid bandages. If the river thawed.. Who is not aware of the coup de foudre [love at first sight] . which the most frightful of old men love to recall. we remain inert. this expression is still today very powerful." and of her daughter. The headquarters of the cult was discovered as a result of the arrest of Mrs Blackham. that would be the end of this traffic that confines us. just as in that winter of 1 870-7 1 . in a work which bears it as its title. In effect life today finds itself caught fast and frozen into the thick industrial ice that could turn us all into corpses. with that very haste which characterises disasters .

Meanwhile dismal sheets of dust constantly invade earthly habitations and uniformly defile them: as if it were a matter of making ready attics and old rooms for the imminent 42 E ncyclopmdia A cephalica - . centuries-old dams. at the same time find once more their original violence. be they uncultivated was tes. and expand over every land. nor have they envisaged the sinister spiders' webs that would have been tom apart at the first movement of her red tresses.that of annihilating absolute!J everything. in short. of ice-age cataclysms and tidal waves. our skin resume their natural state. is necessary that our hearts.Seine during the winter 870-71 . The storytellers have not realised that the Sleeping Beauty would have awoken covered in a thick layer of dust. and then itself being changed into a chimerical vapour . towns. that of the times of deluges. drowning in their passage everything that is lacking in humanity. our tarnished cast-offs . our muscles. fields.after having first smashed what was hostile and alien to it. to smash and break the banks. has as its final result .rusty as the old sabre of a Reichsoffen cuitas sier . and in the end evaporate so that this resurrection trans forms itself forthwith into defeat and. DUST.

occupation of the obsessions. even s ummarily. will probably begin to gain the upper hand over domestics. a hole: the eye of a crankshaft. for lack of which we have become such great book-keepers . 1. In metal­ lurgy it tends to be regarded as a cavity. at that distant epoch. it is true." arm themselves each morning with a large feather-duster or even a vacuum-cleaner. phantoms. supposing it persists. invading the immense ruins of abandoned buildings. Because of its poetic virtues� fo r centuries the eye has served for lyrical comparisons and for allegories. deb and dust. - - Critical D ictio nary 43 . and. spectres that the decayed odour of old dus t nourishes and intoxicates. . Image of the Eye. EYE. eyelet (of a shoe) . "maids of all work. deserted dockyards. dust. nothing will remain to ward off night-terrors. compile a list of the writers who have found an analogy between it and the stars. they are perhaps not completely unaware that they are contributing every bit as much as the most positivist of scientists to dispelling the injurious phantoms that cleanliness and logic abhor. mannequins. When plump young girls. One day or another. . One cannot.Attics.

Finally we shift from the whole to the part. that poetic language. has been taken up again in the proper sense to express an abstract state (to be mistaken. I treasure it/him/her like the apple of my eye. comme le gendarme [to sleep with one eye open. Coco be! a:il. to make a blunder) : admirable idea-material property of the senses. The expression a l'a:il.froncer !es sourcils. So it would surely be better to say former l'a:il et le mauvais [close your worst eye] . to be of the opinion that mourirpour beauxyeux. It was rightly estimated that the quality of beautiful eyes was enough to pursue dangerous adven­ tures. One could hold forth as lengthily on the numerous obscene senses of the word. the amorous glance or ogle. brought about by its analogy with the private parts: mon a:il. for your beautiful eyes. Pour vos beaux yeux. alludes less to the organ of sight than to one of its functions. is not an enviable fate. by extension. and accursed. have entered ordinary language and enriched the figurative vocabulary: . se mirer clans desprunelles. Ouvrir l'a:il et le bon. It is the debasement of the ethics of love in connection with the evolution of customs which makes it possible today . Hence the expression tu en as un a:il. to keep a weather eye open. crever l'a:il. pays with the sound of his money. and the famous mettre le doigt dans l'a:il [to poke one's finger in one's eye] . meaning to be on the look-out. which has passed from slang into polite usage. was originally a knightly expression. by extension to the technique of the arts. 44 E ncyc!opredia A cepha!ica . is the paraphrase of a medieval story in which a poor wretch who. to gaze into someone's eyes. l'a:illade. as it emerges from the very formula of lynch law. It nonetheless has a scientific justification. has naturally made much use of the organ of sight: le quart d'a:il (commissariat of police) derives .to confuse cause with effect. an eye for an eye. having been replaced by sight. literally to open one's best have a peep. gratis. having eaten the smell of a roast. by way of cash. to die for beautiful eyes.jeter un cil [flick an eyelash]. to frown.and in the process outdoes it . as a sensitive spot not to be touched without good reason. sockets. of a work] in the sense of appearance. pupils.from the classical proverb ne dormir que d'un a:il. with a certain old-fashioned military whiff about it. rich in poetic imagery.. thus the look. lashes. cils. eyelids. since it is rare for a man to have the same acuity of vision in each eye. then again. etc. orbites. hearing.when "dispassionate" people (in both the exact and the figurative sense) consider love to be a trifle . people have spoken of l'a:il d'une oeuvre [the eye. The eye's fragility quickly led to its being made a term of comparison with something precious: fy tiens comme a la prune/le de mon a:il. Argot. paupieres. takes us back to the vocabulary of the gendarme. to knit the brows. However there is no doubt an allusion here to the need for a marksman who wishes to aim straight to shut one of his eyes. a:ilpour a:il. like a policeman] .Then. which. taken initially in a figurative sense to express a concrete action. free. and the words prunelles. you're looking good. before themselves falling into popular usage.

from whom the eyes of the cows. But this extreme seductiveness is probably at the very edge of horror. That a razor might slice open the dazzling eye of a young and charming woman. in fact. The eye has the same high rank in horror. to employ Stevenson's exquisite phrase. - Critical D ictio nary 45 The eyes of Joan Crawfc . Blood continues to flow. published in Paris between 1 907 and 1 924. but a tree trunk. being more attractive in the bodies of animals and men. sheep. where it devours him after assuming the form of a fish. this young man observed by a small cat. who is by chance holding in his hand a coffee spoon (should he suddenly hanker to place an eye in it) . The fear of insects is doubtless one of the most singular and fully developed of these horrors. it is also for us the object of such anxiety that we will never bite into it. . nothing it seems. the obsessive and lugubrious eye. since among other things it is the rye ef conscience. he made an oak sweat.2. . and pigs that he eats have always been hidden. among which one of the most surprising is the fear of the eye. following an expression that presents a ferocious image to the mind's eye. why on the masthead of a perfectly sadistic illustrated weekly. Cannibal Delicary It is obvious that civilised man is characterised by a frequently inexplicable acuity of horrors. like a cloud of flies. The hands of the victim are raised in supplication. but in vain. this is precisely what he would have admired to the point of madness. the eye of the hideous nightmare experienced just before his death:4 the criminal "dreams that he has just struck down a man in a dark wood. is a cannibal delicary. Concerning these. Grandville writes: "Are these the thousand eyes of the crowd attracted by the rumour of an imminent spectacle of torture?" But why would these absurd eyes be attracted. above various bloody spectacles? Why does not the Eye ef the Police resemble the eye of human justice in Grandville's nightmare. Human blood has been spilled and. . For although the eye. . Victor Hugo's poem is sufficiently well known. perhaps in the end just the expression of a blind thirst for blood? Similar also to the eye of Crampon. . who seeks t o defend himself. It seems impossible. the living eye. This is obviously a strange desire on the part of a whiteman. Innumerable eyes nevertheless multiply beneath the waves. under the murderous weapon. . does an eye regularly appear against a red background. . 5 In fact. pursuing the criminal through space and to the bottom of the sea. to describe the eye without employing the word seductive. it is not a man." And then an enormous eye appears in the black sky. . to something so repugnant? Equally. one might relate the eye to the edge of a blade whose appearance pro­ vokes both intense and contradictory reactions: this is what the makers of Un Chien Andalou3 must have hideously and obscurely experienced when they decided to make the bloody love affair between these two beings among the earliest images of the film. In this respect. bleeding .

. '. First Dream: we and Expiation. Grandville . _ .�-� - . 46 E ncyclopmdia A cephalica .

205).condemned to death and approached by the chaplain an instant before the blade's descent: he dismissed the clergyman by enucleating himself and presenting him with the merry gift of his torn-out eye. the primitive fears it. These ancient beliefs have survived in our civilisations. vague.The eye. and it is to some extent thus that we must explain the majority of gifts made by indigenous peoples. the curious gaze. such as the gaze of desire. be it strange. to desire is to take. and still is. had a woman who loved him rush to him and cover him with her robe. has always been. above all those that are round and fixed. We speak of "piercing eyes. is above all prophylactic: it banishes a cause of misfortune. this abandonment. o ." of "eyes like pistols. This gift. and the primitive who has noticed a gaze on a possession of his immedi­ ately makes a gift of it." of "devouring with one's eyes. Antoine d'Abadie (Douze ans clans Haute E thiopie. or simply the vague gaze that settles on nothing. the doorway for evil influences.. to enjoy it. 3. Hypnotism is the culminating point of a phenomenon which has lesser degrees. because this rye was made ofglass. The power of the eye is so strong that it is dangerous even when mere curiosity animates it: as a result of being stared at by a number of soldiers. as if the gaze had deposited in the object a force ready to come into play against any stranger. To look at an object with desire is to appropriate it. p. crying: "Your accursed eyes will pierce me before seeing him." Yet the soldi:ers' Critical D ictionary 47 Drawing of the evil eye an Ethiopian amulet. To desire is to pollute. or simply beautiful." It would be easy to compile a dictionary of expressions concerned with the magic of the eyes. among the civilised as among the primitives. Evil Eye. the stereotyped phraseology of our run-of-the-mill novels and our best poems. In all these degrees. He fears the eyes of all animals. They have crept into our ordinary language. he is in still greater terror of the human eye. as if it were dangerous for him to keep it any longer. and we might say that for him every eye is evil.

4. 879). presided over by M. that stone-shattering light­ ning. class under the same heading a "para-eye" I have observed on the shores of the Red Sea.a vaccine compounded with the dead bacillus . One might. a:il de perdix. tape a l' the best fluid­ conductor. thus giving immunity. men have found many techniques. Another means employed in the majority of African countries is the bucrane. written medicines . at Port Sudan. in effect. plays a considerable role in the prophylaxis of the evil eye (Otto Jahn. Bose Blick) . It will capture this gaze. 48 E n cycloptl!dia A cephalica . On the other hand.and wearing this remedy amounts to inoculating oneself with the evil influence. been without influence in determining the choice. the first being the most dangerous and here it seems right and proper to conjure up all the magic of the first time .surround the figure. It has rejected as being unduly colloquial the expression faire de !'a:il. Sciences occultes. as it were a solvent containing the evil . the phallus. in fact. the result of vermin and the sun.or set above a threshold . to wink. which disregard them . A bucrane stuck on a post in a field. representing one or two eyes. will at first sight draw the eye of the passer-by or the visitor. for will suck it in through the two holes of the empty sockets. etc. a:ilpour a:i!. Abel Hermant. its head impaled on a cane switch thrust into a palisade. has carried out revisions upon the expressions: mauvais a:il. In the living creature there is a sort of horn over each eye. then. to defend oneself magic. I believe. in a tree heavy with fruit. to ogle. It consists of the skeleton of a fish.the idea of making it a decorative motif came later . probably of an acanthopterous or spiny species. By ascertaining the power of an eye without evil intent. evil eye. is the symbol of a powerful defence: it recalls the halting of the animal by a wild beast dropping on its head from a branch.our scarecrows have not been conceived only for sparrows. that it dries up cows' udders and kills little children. an eye for an eye.6 This. The commonest consists of an amulet worn round the neck. they form. . The Eye at the Academie Franraise. But this is another question. flashy. far too extensive to expound upon here. II.The Academie. like a flat battery. Magical formulae. soft corn between the toes. Its whiteness. It is essential. the utterance or the putting into words of a formula is itself efficacious . its vaguely phallic appearance has not. showy.curiosity was benevolent. one can gain an idea of the power it wields when it expresses an evil desire. One is not surprised that it "eats the hearts of humans and the insides of cucumbers" (Mignes. on a millstone . leaving the eye. perhaps.

whose next stage appearance is in a French version of New l'I at the Theatre du Chatd Critical Dictio nary 49 .Janet Flynn.

50 E ncyc!opcedia A cepha!ica .

the black smoke half­ beaten down by the wind. true channels of communication between the ominously dull. . within mankind. the empty lots. the piles of slag and dross are the sole true attributes of those gods of a sewer Olympus. and never the terrible projection of that nightmare which develops obscurely. and this for the same reason. who is necessarily blind. I was not hallucinating when. for an abstraction. the most fear-inspiring architectural form was by no means the church. when the truly wretched aesthete. I sensed. in any sense Critical D ictionary 51 . I am. like a cancer. for example. What it designates does not. has invented the contemptible "beauty" of the factory. it is more logical to call upon the little boy.When I review my own memories. which both excited me to the point of anguish and made me run sometimes for my life. Obviously one does not. rather than the technician. That is why. but a term serving to declassify. as each grimace of the pavement's mud or of the human face. Today. the rain puddles at their feet. inexplicable muzzle of a dog. continue to focus on that which is seen as the revelation of a state of violence for which one bears some responsibility. not unaware that for most people the factory chimney is merely the sign of mankind's labour. it seems that for our generation. the terrified witness of the birth of that image of the immense and sinister convulsions in which his whole life will unfold. out of all the world's various objects glimpsed in early childhood. a t a loss fo r objects of admiration. the presence of a fearful rage. . This childish or untutored way of seeing is replaced by a knowing vision which allows one to take a factory chimney for a stone construction forming a pipe for the evacuation of smoke high into the air which is to say. really. - FORMLESS. requiring in general that every thing should have a form. that a chimney is only very tentatively of a wholly mechanical order. later become my own. hardly has the smoke coiled round within its throat. however monstrous. stinking earth surrounding the textile and dye factories . than it has already become the oracle of all that is most violent in our present-day world. the dire filth of those enormous tentacles appears all the more revolting. as a rule. but rather large factory chimneys. in civilised states. as a terrified child. giving meaning to everything spoiling within my own head and to all that which. I discerned in those giant scarecrows. That rage would. or as the hairy. Hardly has it risen towards the first covering cloud. the only possible reason for the present dictionary is precisely to demonstrate the error of that sort of definition. when placing it in a dictionary. looms up like carrion in a nightmare. of course.A dictionary would begin as of the moment when it no longer provided the meanings of words but their tasks. threatening sky and the muddy. as each part of an immense unrest whose order is that of a dream. Now.FACTORY CHIMNEY. In this way formless is not only an adjective having such and such a meaning. It should be stressed.

the admirable benefit of this century of reason. a mathematical frock-coat. To affirm on the contrary that the universe resembles nothing at all and is only formless. coarse language. On the scale of meta­ physical values. Cleanliness had no raison d'etre outside of very limited circumstances. Evil odours attract evil spirits. imagines he is acting with the sole aim of keeping himself in good health. that clean-shaven man with his neatly combed hair. However it seems today that things might be quite the contrary and that our modern hygiene might be a species of taboo. thanks to a properly understood hygiene. who was not forever washing. cleans his teeth with an American product. in effect. and everywhere gets crushed like a spider or an earthworm. on the other hand. contact with those HYGIENE. amounts to saying that the universe is something akin to a spider or a gob of spittle. What clearly demonstrates the ritual. solely because it is dirtier. A man who does not wash is taken by the former for a genuinely inferior being. a wholly moral purification. it is a question of fitting what exists into a frock­ coat. on the difference in clean­ liness . For academics to be satisfied. 52 E ncyclopmdia A cephalica - . next to primitive men. mace or lance in hand. One protects oneself from these by breathing in the incense of temples and churches. The whole of philosophy has no other aim. keeps well. There is something essentially religious in cleanliness and. by avoiding. A coarse mind. And this disgust at dirtiness can be explained in no other way than by the antique and magical notion of impurity. The man who rubs his skin with a friction-glove until it is a vivid red. nature of our practices of cleanliness is the contempt clean people have for dirty people. it would be necessary.whatever. the disdain of the bourgeois for the worker rests. fit to allow him to appear. addressing itself to exclusively mystical forces. in the last analysis. if not immoral. and consequently moral. possess rights. It has long been believed that many of the prescriptions concerning taboos were no more than rules of hygiene in disguise." He hardly suspects. He who knows himself well. or indeed takes a cold shower after some physical exercise. anxious to maintain their people in good health. for the universe to take on a form. that he is accomplishing a magical rite. was none the worse for that." say those in favour of Latin tags. being itself no more than a rite of purification. dirry language. more or less rationalised." "Abstain from eating beans. Should one prefer the simpler wisdom of railway stations: "He who weighs himself frequently. "Be thou circumcised." ''Wash your hands with sand":7 so many commandments that passed for having been invented by wise legislators. prior to carrying out certain rites. Primitive man. matter is situated lower than mind. "Mens sana in c01pore sano. knows himself well. even more than on the difference in culture. means a dirry mind.

Above and below: fortunate enough to travel around the heads of Brazilian dolls coastline o f Africa. are increasingly tending to merge with hygiene. . and with a single word: Djoudjou. who inscribe it in their catalogues in the form ju-ju . By the application of the law of least effort. now that religious values find themselves o n the decline. powerful and strong b ecause their ancestors of genius have invented antiseptics. the gods. Left: the eyes and hair of : Thus the first Portuguese who were doll. medicinal mint-spirit and mains-drainage . of a certain number of African peoples it is pointles s t o enumerate here i f the reader really means t o take the trouble t o finish reading this article. to violate his "hygiene"?) . - Europeans have a marked predilection for striking and compressed turns of phrase and ex­ pres sions who s e convenience does not trouble their habits of thought. t o save themselves. in the gravest way. ignorant of phonetic conventions. I n our time. religions. dispensers of justice or decent fellows. The word qjouqjou denotes. since there are no crimes. The Salvation Army. . the leagues against public immorality.who eat garlic-sausage or have smelly feet. mysteries. . the enemies o f pallor. errors or weaknesses other than against sacrosanct hygiene (to kill a man. in the broadest terms. those who are clean can go on believing they are the pure in heart. That's how the fast-one gets pulled: the workers ' sole ambition is now to have a bathroom. and the successors of the successors were most careful to leave well alone. beneficent and maleficent. temperance societies. so many organi­ sations of a religious origin whose real aim is to create a mystique ef l?Jgiene. forces. gods. JU-JU. res olved them immediately. s elf-aware. thanks to Pink Pills. finding themselves from the collection of the confronted with the immense problems Musce d'Ethnographie du Trocadero. everybody will s oon be moral.which is fairly ugly when pronounced by an average Parisian. And. After a while the Africans themselves made no bones about understanding it. and the w�ld goes on turning. of beliefs. Likewise the little clan of informed aesthetes. the succes sors of the Portugues e took up the term. thanks to Cadum s oap. and evil spirits. is that not. . the benevolent societies. Critical Dictio nary 53 .

such as Devi Shiva appears in the Hindu imagination under (the goddess). Durga (the difficult-of-access). with the avowed intention of disgusting her readers with an ignoble barbarity. pp. In l'Inde avec /es Anglais (trans. The statue of the goddess in that temple is consistent with the 54 E n cyclopmdia A cephalica . KALI. or of exhibition-catalogue pidgin. but very elegant if we put it in its place.1 8). Katherine Mayo8 recounts her visit to the great temple of Kali in Calcutta. 1 2. that is to say if we consider it as being no more than a term of African pidgin. - The wife of various names and aspects. qjoudjou is a ridiculous word.From the p oint of view of ethnography. Kali (the black one) etc. Theo Varlet.

' in a chorus. Half a dozen hairles s and mangy dogs. 38-39) . horribly disfigured by nameless diseases. which gushes towards the idol. Attracted by the din. 'Kali. according to Sylvain Levi. two men of high rank were still immolated every twelve years: they were made drunk." It consists of making skilful and complicated incisions in such a way as to "allow a torrent of blood to escape. raised in menace. extended. her intoxication prevented her from seeing him: she knocked him off his feet. trod him underfoot. her belt consists of a fringe of human forearms. o f cemeteries. moreover. . Rich believers offer her silver forearms. Today they still slit the throats of a great many buffaloes. of destruction. Shiva came running." Katherine Mayo relates. pours out blood. 38) . Dali) has devoted a lengthy study to the goddess Kali: this study. tongues and eyes of gold. and s ome prostrate thems elves face down on the flagstones of the temple." The figure quoted for the number of buffaloes immolated in the nine days of the Durga­ puj a festival in the middle of the 1 9th century is nine thousand (op." In Nepal the orgies of blood are.. from which the blood of the giant she has just decapitated drips. 1 60-98) . hangs completely out of her mouth because she is horrified at having lacked respect for the dead giant.popular image reproduced here. She dances on the corp s e o f her husband Shiva and her tongue. the fourth. p . but since his wife had drunk the blood of the giants. plunge their avid muzzles into the spreading tide of blood. Kali. the third. "an unforget­ table nightmare. Of her four hands. Legend tells how her j oy at having van­ quished the giants raised her to such a degree of exaltation that her dance set the earth shaking and trembling. vol. and danced on his corpse. At the beginning of the 1 9th century. "She is black-faced and sticks out an enormous tongue. II. pp. is empty. Critical Dictio nary 55 . one holds a human head. whose sacrifice is. laps up the blood with her tongue . incomparably more horrible than in the peninsula. dripping blood. Under the title Hindu-Mythologie und Kastrations-Komplex a psychoanalyst homonymous with the creator of the ]cu lugubre (the painter S. pp. of night and of chaos . filthy with blood. "the drums and gongs before the goddes s ring out in a frenzy. Le Nepaul. ''The blood flows over the flagstones. on all fours. The animals are decapitated by the priests with a single blow from a cutlass. Sylvain Levi. their heads were sliced off and the j et of blood directed onto the idols (cf. Kali cry the priests and suppliants . She is the patroness o f cholera. the s econd a knife. but of sacrifices of crocodiles. tigers and lions ." In this temple alone the sacrifices to the goddes s reach a figure of a hundred and fifty to two hundred goats daily. cit. Kali is the goddes s of terror. The ancient texts speak not only of the sacrifices o f human beings and various domestic animals. of thieves and prostitutes . written in English. appeared in German in Imago (1 927. She is repres ented adorned with a necklace of s evered human heads. . A woman rushes forward and.

an inviolable sangfroid such that. To drag one's old p ortraits along in one's wake is to become. MAN. flat on our belly among furs. First-communion photographs. never laughing. even only from the previous year. make it dear to that the only unity we truly possess is p erhaps that of the name. ister Keaton as a child. a be­ witchment. by the very fact o f its existence. without shame. This is the result of his learned res earches: "The bodily fat of a normally constituted man would suffice to manufacture s even cakes of toilet-s oap. placed the proximity (or not) o f a pier-table or a column. tho s e showing us in the form of a baby. It is never more than a spe­ cies of cadaver and constitutes. The phosphorus would provide the Buster Keaton of the films . Was Buster Keaton. to tolerate the sight photograph of a show- unles s we possess ing us as a child. stiffened like a s take by the sword of humour and. friends: that is no doubt c o ur s e the only that occu­ p er­ mits us. Enough iron is found in the organism to make a medium-sized nail. as of­ a ten as one can. to change one's name.200 matches. . and sugar to sweeten a cup of coffee.behaved little boys. . or indeed as well. . as it were. ideas. is always a mockery. imagine him? s erpent entangled in its old skins. - It is curious to observe. set out to establish in a precis e manner what man is made of and what is its chemical value. in dividual. wife. D r Charles Henry Maye.KEATON (BUSTER) . men retaining their childhood names . Better. really in us a p hleg- matic such as today we It s eems to me if it dates that a p ortrait. - 1 . of it­ s el f alon e . we become an axis about which the nonsensical trivialities of shifting events gravitate . appearance. in our civilised societies. "An eminent English chemist. pations. as a child. The magnesium 56 E ncyc!opcedia A cephalica .

In addition. represent an approximate sum of 25 francs.more than thirteen hundred miles of warm. 1 928. costed at current prices. so that they might quench their Critical Dictio nary 57 . 1 3 August 1 929. dragged each day. a little potassium and sulphur.. of the millions of anirr man massacres . they would stretch in Indian file for 1 322 miles .. palpitating living bodies. "If.. " Silver foxes at the Fur Exhibiti< Berlin. M. in a book entitled La Culpabilite sanguinaire de la Chritiente (translated by ]. with only sufficient space between them that they do not tread on one another." (journal des Debats.9 gives prominence to the well known fact that not one of the millions of animals man massacres every year is necessary for his nourishment.) 2. Paris. we set them walking head to tail.. Sir William Earnshaw Cooper.would furnish the light needed to take a photograph. he expresses himself thus: " . In seeking to characterise the red and hideous bloodstain on the face of man. Charpentier. "These different raw materials. but in an unusable quantity. to the Christians' bloody slaughterhouses. Carpenter). taking the animals put to death in a single day in all the slaughterhouses of the Christian countries. as the years go by.

If the principle of things they defined constitutes precisely the stable element that permitted science to acquire an apparently unshakeable position. Most materialists have simply substituted the conformity of dead matter to the idea of science for the religious relations earlier established between the divinity and his creatures.thirst for blood at the red fountain gushing from the veins of their murdered victims . when employing the word materialism. and as flatly as a docile student in a classroom .rather than from long­ dead physicists whose ideas today are remote from their causation -that a representation of matter must be taken. despite wanting to eliminate all spiritual entities. The classical materialists did not really even substitute causation for the must be (the quare for the quamobrem. their need for external authority in fact placed the must be on all appearance. - 1. in other words of exactly the idea by means of which things become intelligible. with a form which approaches closer than any other to that which matter should be.Wild animals play a leading role in African folklore. ended up describing an order of things whose hierarchical relations mark it out as specifically idealist. MATERIALISM. " Most materialists. and not of a system founded on the fragmentary elements of an ideological analysis elaborated under the sign of religious relations. the pure idea. excluding all idealism. Materialism can be seen as a senile idealism to the extent that it is not immediately founded upon psychological or social facts and not upon abstractions. of raw phenomena. They have situated dead matter at the summit of a conventional hierarchy of diverse types of facts. It matters little that the fear of psychological complications (a fear that bears a unique witness to intellectual debility) causes timid souls to see this attitude as an obscure detour or as a return to spiritual values. a veritable divine eternity. "A calculation based o n very modest figures shows th e quantity o f blood shed each year in the slaughterhouses of Chicago is more than sufficient to float five transatlantic liners. this choice cannot be attributed to chance.. . Thus it is from Freud. ). Due to the functional role they unconsciously attributed to the idea of science. . . 58 E ncyclopmdia A cepha/ica - . to assign to it the meaning of a direct interpretation. the one being the idea of the others. such as artificially isolated physical phenomena. The time has come. the past for the future . and God. among others . determinism for destiny. Aryssinian Games . . all in fact answer a question in the same way . METAMORPHOSIS. The cycle of the hyena is by far the most important in the oral literature. the question of the essence of things. without realising that in this way they have submitted to an obsession with an ideal form of matter..a question that can perhaps only be posed by idealist philosophers.perfectly. that is to say. Dead matter.

hands j oined on a stick. to a wonderful degree. the bogey man of young and old alike.that is to say. . 2. and interpreted in pqpular divination.This animal has gathered to itself all the horror of the pitch-black nights which it fills with its sinister plaints. The player goes down on all fours. hindquar­ Marcel Griaule. painstakingly enumerated by the p eople shut up in their thatched houses.Ovid's Metamorphoses and Apuleius' novel The Golden Ass or the Metamorphoses will always number among the most poetic conceptions of the human mind. one's arms. When. Photographs by rious gait . covered by the cloth. the incarnation o r the mount of the s orcerer. his head pulled in between his shoulders.and covered in a white toga fixed to the head by two knots taking the place of the ears . ters almos t s craping the ground . on the contrary. metamorphosis . set on a long neck. In this way one obtains a diamond-shaped head. together with the rest of one's body.forelegs very long. thus. A game among the Wallo consists of imitating its howls and slowly inserting oneself into doorways. Out of the Seif. The personification of witchcraft or o f the evil eye. and with one's wrists bound. on the high plateau of Ethiopia. He lowers and raises his forearms. To this end one wears a toga. body bent forwards Left: Hyena. Critical Dictio nary 59 . supported on his elbows. conveying the to-and-fro movement of a pecking guinea-fowl. it is also. by reason of their very basis . one wishes to make the children and the women laugh. one borrows the form of a good-natured bird whose misadventures are the stuff of legend: the guinea-fowl. below: Guiti in such a way as to mimic the creature's cu­ fowl.

he lies lzke a dog. in one way or another. like the slave finding his way to escape. and yet. and there is a gate. in certain deviant states. borders on metamorphosis. but in no way those consumed by a higher ambition. 3. an animal thus imprisoned. untroubled by any curiosity. above all suspicion). and it lurks in comic disguise within our grandmothers' feathered hats. and the beast acts as a beast. and if we open the gate. There are so many animals in this world. . a chair.that suddenly impels us to cast off the gestures and attitudes requisite to human nature. Man. furthermore. the animals watch the approaching crowds of children tailed by papa-men and mama-women. There remain the office. To remain at ease with oneself. for instance. is a tangible sign of the insupportable bumptiousness that is the most obvious prerogative of the majority of mankind. For in the presence of illegal and essentially free beings (the only real outlaws) the stupid feeling of practical superiority gives way to a most uneasy envy. it takes the form of the totem. that shrill madness which. the opaque monstrosity of eyes scarcely distinguishable from the little bubbles that form on the surface of mud. an existence of bitter servitude. at least once in their lives. dreamt of turning into one or other of the nondescript objects that surround them: a table. a tree­ trunk. Thus man is seen as a prison of bureaucratic aspect. in when. No doubt that is of a nature to satisfy lovers of stagnant bogs. despite appearances. Not to mention the magical artifices that would real/y permit the accomplishment (albeit for a more or less lengthy period) of this metamorphosis. the horror as integral to life as light is to a tree. be it material ingredients or everything in life which.1 feel sorry for those who have not. but not on one's visits to the zoo . like a galley slave. an animal. Human dignity does exist (it is. and conseguently to everything that is really worthwhile. and so much that we have lost! The innocent cruelty. in every man. the animal will rush out. A man in an apartment. with no care for the poetic wonder of the dead man. The man falls dead. They have no desire to get out of their skins.identical. like wine in a wineskin. is liable to create a shattering and violent paroxysm. with all our animal needs . The obsession with metamorphosis can be defined as a violent need . . the identity card. Wild Animals . must know that when he talks of human dignity in the presence of animals. There is. it is certain that nothing counts short of that which is capable of rendering a man genuinely out ef himse!f. 60 E ncyclopmdia A cephalica . will set to grovelling before those around him and eat dog's food. apparently. and this peaceable contentment. for example.Man's equivocal attitude towards the wild animal is more than usually absurd. a sheet of paper . is an attitude contrary to all passion.

A man is a moving tree. (From the Greek µe'tacpopa. that vice is an underhand and pre­ sumptuous abuse of one's wretched person. it is just as much the run that is dogging. which is impossible. It is beyond doubt that everything has been said. at all events something that assumes all the sinister and ambiguous trappings of misfortune. a transfer) is "a figure by which the mind applies the name of one object to another. Moreover. crying -out. or at the very least a figurative expression. written. which connects all known objects to one another in relations of interdependency. groaning that vice is a terrifying misfortune. and vice versa. which would allow one. but the whole of intellectual life is based on a game of transpositions. printed. or indeed when. Even this article is metaphorical. On the other hand. Not only language. Further on. not figuratively but actually would necessitate knowing the very essence of that object. it is hard to know where metaphor begins and ends. knowledge always proceeds by comparison. It i s of n o importance whether o r not this b e taken for a circumlocution: the fact i s that - Critical Dictionary 61 . a police-officer rather than a murderer. anything at all would certainly be possible. writing. Given any two among them. only with this reserve. Moreover. furthermore. . nobody would be able to say where. and one only walks along them with the look of a mangy dog. that vice. . to designate an object by an expression to which it corresponds. to the inspector of police) would find itself subsumed under the form of vice. the earth a denser sky. is a magistrate or a cardinal. the sky is a rarefied earth. which can be described as metaphorical. And if I see a dog running. printing. since we can know only phenomena. that it is never misfortune itself that speaks but some fortunate prattler in the name of misfortune. of symbols. That is why we so often say: let's not speak of misfortune . the streets one· likes have an air of mis­ fortune about them." (Darmesteter). in a red robe. all unknowing. An abstract word is formed by the sublimation of a concrete word. not things in themselves. Nevertheless. It would be a matter of speaking. A concrete word. that is to say that the enigma posed by misfortune (which does so. is itself hardly more than a metaphor. which designates an object only by one of its qualities. to make the ignoble accusation that he is speaking of misfortune in the same fashion as if he were speaking of good manners (one would have the dim awareness of being a pompous ass) . which also of course means that misfortune is everything that is hypocritical and mute. it is impossible to determine which is desig­ nated by the name proper to it and is not a metaphor of the other. because of a shared characteristic that allows them to be set beside one another and compared.METAPHOR. In the same way. - MISFORTUNE. just as much as a tree is a man who has put down roots. cried out or moaned regarding misfortune.

And on important occasions human life is s till bestially concentrated in the mouth: fury makes men grind their teeth. so faithfully reconstructs the image of vice. This fact simultaneously highlights the importance of the mouth in animal physiology or even psychology. the violent meaning of the mouth is conserved in a latent state: it suddenly regains the upper hand with a literally cannibalistic expres sion such as mouth offire. the most terrifying for neighbouring animals . - The mouth is the begin­ ning or. as far as pos sible. However. but the top o f the skull is an insignificant part. But man does not have a simple architecture like the beasts. in other words. in the most characteristic cases. she whom he was to kill one fine day when he saw red. it is the most living part. the mouth has even lost the relatively prominent character that it s till has among primitive men. if one prefers. sought to kill himself with a third blast from his shotgun. who after having killed his mistress and his rival. incapable of attracting attention and it is the eyes or the forehead that play the signifi­ catory role of an animal's jaws . On this subj ect it is easy to obs erve that the overwhelmed individual throws back his head while frenetically stretching his neck so that the mouth becomes. lost his nose and his mouth (he moreover lost the power of speech) . In a strict s ense. in the form of screams. one-time Don Juan and a handsome fellow. the prow of animals. applied in this context. terror and atrocious suffering transform the mouth into the organ of rending s creams. he starts at the top of the skull. and it is not even pos sible to say where he b egins. Among civilised men. applied to the cannons men employ to kill each other. in other words. a prolongation of the spinal column. constitution of animals. it assumes the position it normal!J occupies in the As if explosive impulses were to spurt directly out of the body through the mouth. murderer Crepin on at the Court of Assizes MOUTH. and the general importance of the superior 62 E n ryclopmdia A cephalica . One is lost in conj ecture as to how this infamous phrase from the Assize Court. found himself re­ buked by a magistrate for having eaten chocolate mouth-to-mouth with Madame Delarche.a certain Crepin.

Photograph by Boiffard Critical Dictio nary 63 .

visibly animated with a desire to be in all things at one with the celestial apparitions with which their eyes are still ravished. and sacrifices chickens to what he believes to be thunder stones (fallen from heaven in a thunderclap) . he is obliged to resort to the bestial method of liberation. The development of museums has plainly surpassed even the most optimistic hopes of the founders. by the Convention. the totality of visitors without any doubt represents the most grandiose spectacle of a humanity freed from material cares and dedicated to contemplation. 64 E n cyclopcedia A cephalica . The mus eum is a colossal mirror in which man contemplates himself. Not only does the totality of the world's museums today represent a colossal accumu­ lation of riches but. he is doing no more than prefiguring the attitude of enthusiasm and profound communion with objects which characterises the visitor to a modern mus eum. Grandville has schematised the relations between the container and the contained in museums by exaggerating (at the very least. in all his aspects. above all. in France. at the exit door of the Louvre. the firs t mus eum in the modern sense of the word (that is to say the first public collection) would s eem to have been founded on 27 July 1 793. A museum is comparable to the lung of a great city: every Sunday the throng flows into the museum. The pictures are only dead surfaces and it is within the crowd that the play. in the brain or in the mouth. We must take into account the fact that the galleries and obj ects of art are no more than a container. On Sundays. it is interesting to admire the torrent of visitors. According to the Grande Enryclopedie. like blood. the flashes. the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford. However. the orifice of profound physical impulses: equally one sees that a man is able to liberate these impulses in at least two different ways. on the face of it) the bonds that are temporarily established between the visited and the visitors . The origin of the modern museum would thus be linked to the development of the guillotine. the magisterial look of the face with a MUSEUM. In the same way. Whence the narrow constipation of a s trictly human attitude. as beautiful as a safe. the contents of which is formed by the visitors: it is the contents which distin­ guish a museum from a private collection. bathes in the container. but that as soon as these impulses become violent. in short. the shimmerings of light technically des cribed by the authorised critics takes place. when a native o f the Ivory Coast places polished stone axes of the Neolithic period in a container filled with water. - closed mouth. was already a public collection belonging to the University. founded at the end of the 1 7th century. at five o'clock. and leaves it fresh and purified. finds himself literally admirable and abandons himself to the ecstasy expressed in all the art j ournals.or anterior extremity of the body.

The Lou the Marionettes. Grandville. Critical D ictionary 65 .-].].

a narcotic. star of the lyric repertory. roses. because the nightingale's role is precisely to avoid designating them. the good courtesan's comfort: it is the sign of an eternal optimism. it is the senior element among all those techniques of classical seduction in which we resort to the charm of the small.. and trees that get used. a platitude. as allegory they pass into eternity. but in degenerating. a moral perfection with which one adorns oneself. b) by breasts. no reference to a bird is intended. It is defenceless animals. The nightingale is an eternal prop. petrifications which elicit mechanical reactions in us. Words are. generally. but never by legs. One weeps with the nightingale in hope of a good day at the stock exchange. Allegories and surrogates must hide the failure and ugliness of man: thus the human soul is made of stars. because it is merely allegorical. Symbols die. it is hide-and-seek. It is a means of diversion. etc.that is to say. The nightingale is to be relegated among the classical still-lifes of lyricism. The nightingale outlives the gods. it is considered a means of concealment. Such is the American's winning sentimentality. One attributes to animals. while precision is the sign of threatening and hallucinatory processes against which we defend ourselves with a super­ s tructure of knowledge. a moral phenomenon. plants. one s chematises the defenceless world and projects one's idealised ego onto a Chihuahua. Imprecision is the soul's facade. Save in exceptional cases. They are means to power proposed by the wily and the drunken. committing to nothing. for the most part. Thus what we call the soul is for the most part a museum of meaningless signs. the weak like to juggle with the whole cosmos and get drunk on stars. Nobody thinks the nightingale wild or excessively erotic. robbing it of its literal meaning. The night­ ingale is an allegory. It's cowardice that prevents people from using themselves in allegory. by which we try to suggest the indecent while skirting it. we use words as adornments for our own persons. this animal helps to ward off disagreeable elements. to the paraphrase.ade of actuality. adultery's high point. These signs are hidden behind the fa<. The nightingale helps to avoid thinking and psychic disquiet. . Allegory is. belonging. indolent. a form of assas sination because it disposes of the object. like most words. in any case. an ornamental motif. The nightingale can also be the sign of an erotic fatigue. With words we designate vague opinions rather than objects. It is a cheap utopia that obscures misery. The nightingale is to be classed among those ideals devoid of meaning. twilights. The nightingale belongs to the repertory of bourgeois diversions. The nightingale can be classed among the paraphrases of the absolute. Nightingale can be replaced: a) by rose. in fact. to plants. 66 E ncyclopcedia A cephalica - . The nightingale is.NIGHTINGALE. etc. stupid.

Poets - those gallivanters and embroiderers - transform the nightingale into turbines,
baseball, Buddhism, Taoism, Tchou period, etc.
Mention must be made of the political nightingales, who take their coffee decaffeinated
and practise, through Hegel and double-entry book-keeping, a politics of the absolute, grace­
fully avoiding every danger through manifestos. Song replaces action.
Let us also note that the nightingale sings best after having devoured a weakling.
The nightingale's music conforms to a steady and classical taste; it seeks a guaranteed
success. Its cadences are eclectic compilations: only the nuance changes. It even renders
slightly daring sounds in a routine harmony, because the nightingale even uses sadness, like
pastry. Let us now cite some highly successful nightingales: Mr Shaw, the nightingale of
socialism, of common sense and evolution, for whom drama is a compilation of feature
articles; Anatole France, the nightingale of Hellenism and saccharine scepticism. And we'll
add to the list the scholarly nightingales who engagingly combine the remains of metaphysics
with an optimistic biology. The nightingale plays all the flutes of all time; it is more eternal
than Apollo, but it cannot master the saxophone.

Most forms of activity impose themselves on man as
pensums, even in the case of activities he appears to have chosen freely. Few painters
produce pictures other than by way of pensums, works imposed on them by an alien, and
often hateful, hand. How many writers harness themselves to their novel and voluntarily
reduce themselves to the rank of plough-horses, or asses, loaded, now with cereals, now
with relics . How many people, likewise, enjoy themselves not to enjoy themselves but in order to
perform a species of rite...
Everything is hateful when it is done as a pensum. All white-men are failures, for not one
of them (or as near as may be not one of them) is really capable of enjoying himself. Leaving
aside children who s et fire to haystacks, derail trains or dream up great massacres of animals,
I know scarcely any but sinister pedants who, chewing on their pen holders, sweat blood and
water so as to write out to the bitter end their calamitous pensums . . .


Archaeologists and aesthetes are interested in the
container and not in what it contains, in the pastoral scenes, the animals on the circum­
ference and not in the milk falling directly from the udder; in the colour of the terracotta and
not in the odour it can impart to that milk, the odour of aromatic plants, of smoke, of cow­
dung, at random according to the cultures of fresh or rancid butter. They will admire the
form of a handle, but they will studiously avoid studying the attitude of the drinking man
and asking themselves why, among many peoples, it is shameful to drink while

Critical D ictionary


N arza vases, a coastal
iation of Peru. Bottom
rase from the Peruvian
[ltains. Bottom right:
from Oaxaca, Mexico

from the collection of

1usie d'Ethnographie) .

standing up.
Better still, they do not seek to know
whether the man who kept the pot in his
dwelling did or did not concern himself
with leaving the pot empty or filling it,
leaving it open or carefully dosing it.
They will say that these things are
transient and that their reconstruction
belongs to the domain of the imagination.
But will they deny that they make ample
use of imagination when, in a sketch, they
extrapolate the feet or neck of a vase of
which they have only the bulbous part?
And, moreover, the supposedly pre­
ponderant part of that intemperate faculty
could be greatly reduced if we were in­
clined to take the trouble to look round
us. There is an infinite field of observation
open to the reasonable mind: present-day
humanity, whose beliefs, and even tech­
mques regarding pottery have, on the
whole, evolved so little since the world
For, after all, how many millions of
men still believe in omens drawn from
pots smashed before marriages or after
drinking, empty pots, or those appearing
in dreams? Solomon confined genies in
vases, the Golden Legend contains stories
of demons imprisoned in pots. How numerous are the spirits of Arab magic, still today
called Banu Qamaqim, the "children of bottles"? How many beautiful jars of red day, filled
with inexhaustible and miracle-working water, do the monks of perpetual adoration see
refilled day and night in a certain rite of Christian Africa? And each of them, for its defence,
has no less than a dragon, a troop of real serpents, and a forest of century-old trees whose
fearsome spirits do not permit even the breaking of a branch.


E ncyclopr.edia A cepha/ica

A white serpent
emerging from the right eye-socket
of a skull and re-entering by the left
eye-socket - or vice versa - in
such a way that its head or the end
of its tail are always, one or the
other, inside the skull, symbolises
for some the eternal destiny of
things, the Great Year of the Py­
thagoreans, 11 the general rhythm of
the world with its alternations of
dispersion and concentration. One
is aware, on the other hand, of the
role of the tempter in Genesis and
the phallic significance everywhere attached to the serpent.
In Cairo, in the form of the wooden lizards (or crocodiles?) that many prostitutes hang
over their doors by way of an amuletic sign, I have perhaps seen the trace of the crocodile
sacred to the Egyptians.
The wriggling of serpents, in the depths of swamps and in dungeons, their strange inter­
twinings, their combats with fangs, knots or venom will always be the exact image of human
existence shot through from top to bottom by death and love.


Like everything which has about it a prestige of
exot.lctsm, the tall buildings of America lend themselves, with an insolent ease, to the
tempting amusement of comparisons. The most immediate is, beyond doubt, that which
tr�s forms these edifices into modern towers of Babel. But, trivial though such a comparison
may be, it is nevertheles s of interest (by the very reason of its immediacy) in confirming the
psychoanalytic content of the expression "skyscraper."
One of the innumerable versions of the story of the struggle between father and son is
the Biblical narrative concerning the erection of the Tower of Babel. As in the myth of the
Titans, we find here the attempt to climb up to the sky - that is to say, to dethrone the
father, to possess oneself of his virility - followed by the destruction of the rebels:
castration of the son by his father, whose rival he is. Furthermore, the coupling, rash though
it may be, of these two words, the verb "scrape" on the one hand and, on the other, the
substantive "sky," immediately evokes an erotic image in which the building, which scrapes,
is a phallus even more explicit than the Tower of Babel, and the sky which is scraped - the

Critical Dictio nary


Left: Louis XIV style vas
Palace of Versailles. Abo'
Crocodile and Python,

:w York: the Empire 1te Building under nstruction on Fifth 'enue between 33rd and th streets. This will be the lest skyscraper in the nericas. 70 E ncycloptedia A cepha!ica .

New York. Centre: The
Chrysler Building Right:
Daily News Building. Lef
New York Central Buildi

Critical Dictio nary


object of the desire of the said phallus - is the incestuously desired mother, as she is in all
attempts at the spoliation of the paternal virility.
To that degree, skyscrapers, the grandiose ornament of North American cities and the
instruments of a luxury and comfort as yet unknown in Europe, are marvellous and modem
symbols - as much by their name as their form - of one of the most important human
constants: that which was the cause of Laius' murder by his son, of the final disaster of
Phaeton, indeed of certain social upheavals and a fair number of inventions, the Oedipus
complex which is, without possible contradiction, one of the most powerful factors in
evolution or, if one believes in it, of "progress," since it implies a desire no less for
substitution than for j oyful demolition. 12


The slaughterhouse is linked to religion in so far
as the temples of bygone eras (not to mention those of the Hindus in our own day) served

E n cyclopO!dia A cephalica


two purposes: they were used both for prayer and for killing. The result (and this judgement
is confirmed by the chaotic aspect of present-day slaughterhouses) was certainly a disturbing
convergence of the mysteries of myth and the ominous grandeur typical of thos e places in
which blood flows . In America, curiously enough, W. B. Seabrook1 3 has expressed an
intense regret; observing that the orgiastic life has survived, but that the sacrificial blood is
not part of the cocktail mix, he finds pres ent custom insipid. In our time, nevertheles s , the
slaughterhouse is cursed and quarantined like a plague-ridden ship. Now, the victims of this
curse are neither butchers nor beasts, but those same good folk who countenance, by now,
only their own uns eemliness, an unseemliness commensurate with an unhealthy need o f
cleanliness, with irascible meanness, and boredom. The curse (terri fying only t o those who
utter it) leads them to vegetate as far as pos sible from the slaughterhouse, to exile them­
s elves, out of propriety, to a flabby world in which nothing fearful remains and in which,
subj ect to the ineradicable obses sion of shame, they are reduced to eating cheese.

Critical Dictio nary


74 E ncyclop([!dia A cephalica .>tographs of the :toirs of La Villette by Lotar.

in the behaviour of that s callywag at odds with society: to wit. 1. profes­ sionally or for the want o f s omething better to do. Philosophers. Without one's being able to say why. prefer not to refresh the memory of persons who interest thems elves. moreover. space breaks all obligatory continuity. and it is difficult to enumerate what it engenders . how it is that. that an ape dressed as a woman is no more than a division of space. that it is incon­ gruous to assert that space might become a fish swallowing another. under our modestly averted eyes.. Space will be still more frightfully disappointing when it is said that it takes the form of an ignoble Critical Dictio nary 75 . Questions of Propriety. the dignity of space is so well established and associated with that of the stars. Unfortunately space remains a lout. SPACE. utterance of the word - - the mere being the masters of ceremony of the abstract universe.. I should. It is not surprising that space should introduce philosophical protocol. It is as dis continuous as it is devious. to the utter despair of its philosopher-papa.. it s eems that an ape dressed as a woman is no more than a division of space. In reality. out of confusion or for a laugh. have pointed out how space should behave under all circumstances.

red l!J some Negroes mdi tribe. central 1ganyika). ' ignoble initiation rite rti. 76 E ncyclopfl!dia A cephalica .iace might become afish rllowing another.

etc . romantics and Bergsonians14 who. under the cover of creative evolution. For the present manipulation. Subsidence of a prison in Columbus. Space would o f course be far better off doing its duty and fabricating the philosophical idea in profe s s ors' apartments ! Obviously it will never enter anybody's head to lock the professors up in prison them what space is (the 2.. have initiated the most slipshod spiritualism yet s een. It is to be hoped that Monsieur Meyerson t S has definitively put paid to the evolutionist botch-up . . Fundamentals ef the Duality ef Space. thus reducing it to an abstraction. For that reason it has twice been betrayed: the first time by those who have delivered space over to the geometers. the s econd time by the inventors o f concrete time. . as it emerges from the hands of nature.. Ohio. Bergson him­ s elf said that "our intelligence. as provisionally Critical Dictio nary 77 . . to teach day. subordinating space to time. or the real elements into which we have resolved it. . the dq the walls collapse b� the bars oftheir dungeons. - There is no notion more worthy of being cherished than that of space.. We are aware that intelligence proceeds to two distinct operations . has for its principal obj ect the unorganised s olid . initiation rite practised by s ome Negroes. for example. the walls collapse before the bars of their dungeons) . it is above all necessary for us to take the real obj ect. desperately absurd.

but only. If the time. the very idea of which. . of transitive action by contact or impact. On the other hand we I-here-now and abstract find ourselves in the presence of a concrete space. albeit reduced. the two aspects of space appear as profoundly different. now. outside of its elf. he admitted that "space . and the notion of which survives the ruin of the intelligence. . concrete and limited. The fundamental distinction between these two aspects is strongly demonstrated. the Thus. has nevertheles s retained the notion of the I-here-now. discontinuous and concrete. to the second: continuous and abstract extension. as Ward very rightly says. supposes on the contrary the rationality of the real. the logical and icy monism of s cientists . the reality of the diverse. anterior to any intellectual datum. this is only because between concrete duration and abstract time. cannot refuse without suicide. conceive rational space as a pure deduction. above all. or better. who on the contrary has in no way los t the notion of Cartesian space. we become aware that this purely irrational space is nothing other than individual contact with nature. a homogeneous and empty medium. by the way. on the one hand. . the space­ time of mathematicians. this concrete space s erves equally well as a basis for purely affective pleasure as for purely scientific hypothesis . here appears of that concrete and specific to dominate and condition the now. much against its will. one from the other. The former. has lost the affective notion of the present where. Cartesian extension could just as easily be called mathematical time. the s econd. who on the contrary is afflicted with a morbid geometrism. It introduces the positive notion of an irrational and anti-spiritual reality. If.ryntonz'c and causal. we here-now. The second. in whom the intelligence is ruined. perhaps. . Con­ sulting the observations of Dr Minkowski. following the opinion of Monsieur Meyers on. some contact with the real. he has retained in an essential form. which is nothing other than Cartesian extension. Dr Eugene Minkowski1 6 s ets out in parallel the terminal s tates of the general paralytic and the schizophrenic. not only by epistemology but by the clinical observation of psychiatry.definitive and to treat them as so many unities?" On the other hand (the s econd stage of the intellectual operation).edia A cephalica . But. "it is only conceived. it is a purely theoretical view. it can only be imagined as an impact like that of Hume's two marbles : it is the only pos sible expres sion of the instantaneous. and comparing them in particular with Meyersonian theories. remains 78 E n cyclopr." is never perceived. infinite and infinitely divisible." It is by a utilitarian principle that Bergson explains the transition from the firs t notion of space: solid. a different degree of abstraction. of the discontinuous. appeared historically only after purely spatial infinity. At once . There is no difference in nature between them. which science itself. the s ense of touch does not throw acro s s the fragile and perhaps illusory bridge it imposes between the extension. In one of the mos t important pages of his book on Schizophrenia. we abandon the Bergsonian belief in the primacy of homo Jaber over homo sapiens. of the simultaneous. The first implies an adhesion to a thing.

Mouth Water. Spittle-Soul. where the entrance hole glistens from the wax inside. the kis s . while simul­ taneously installing as s overeign goddes s the abolition of hierarchies .in Occidental Africa. But on � can't accept spittle without shame. from insult to miracle. " As i n a hive. for better or for wors e. Just about everywhere. one can similarly be disfigured by a bowl o f vitriol. - 1. 2. whether volun­ tarily or involuntarily dispatched. This is not." and "pneumatic" really signifies "full of soul. the mouth magically the body's chief aperture . . a commentary on the kabyl code.balm or filth. SPITTLE. 17 but a s traightforward rendering of our way of seeing. spittle behaves like the soul . to s eal an oath. one spits . when opening a door that has been long closed. to "sign" a contract. breath is s oul. for protection. which comes and goes in the form of breath. For spittle is more than the product of a gland. suddenly restoring both its whole reality and its hallucinatory force. It is the pure violence which escapes time. spittle is soul in movement. Eroticism releases. which can exit the mouth only when permeated with it.We are so accustomed to the sight of our fellow creatures that we rarely notice what is monstrous in each of our structural elements . In Oriental humid from the to and fro of the s oul. great lightning flashes that. o n occasion. the grandfather spits into the mouth of his grandchild several days after his birth. Thus. We use it to strengthen an action. In Great Rus sia and els ewhere.and this is a startling demonstration of the theory of the spittle-soul .inadmis sible. if it bestows ignominy. the different parts of the body. it is also a miracle-maker: Christ's saliva opened the eyes of the blind. Now. . to give life. as one might think. It must possess a magical nature because. Spittle accompanies breath. over which it thus affirms its prunacy. And we say "to breathe one's last. to impress one's will on an obj ect. one spits in order to cast out the demon of the empty house. ever s o slightly. is a guarantee of peace (to s eal with a kis s) . and a mother's "heart's balm" heals the bumps of small children. so much so that certain peoples have the notion of "the soul before the face.One can be hit full in the face by a truncheon or an automatic pistol without incurring any dishonour. to confer spirit on the child. Mohammed himself1 8 feared the witches' saliva as they breathed on knots and spat a little to work some evil spells . Saliva is the deposit of the soul. Critical Dictionary 79 .19 Finally . this exchange of saliva. reveal t o us the true nature of a given organ.'' which ceases where breath can no longer be felt.those hierarchies within which we habitually grade. To summarise: from evil will to good will.

situated on the banks of the Severaire. SUN.but the organs of excretion as far down as pos sible. To the south. commune of Guillaume-Perouse. given the identical source of language and spittle. in a hamlet in the Hautes-Alpes. century. called Andrieux. in the arrondis s ement o f Gap.which is the visible sign of intelligence . any philosophical discourse can legitimately be figured by the incongruous image of a spluttering orator? Spittle is finally. the very symbol of the formles s . man in general to the state o f those primitive animals which. poisoned by a million s ewers . that guardian of Lord knows what treasures !) . of the unverifiable. subsequently. or for that matter to speech.Some we place at the top. on the other hand. On the one hand. lending it a function o f ej ection even more repugnant than its role a s gate through which o n e stuffs food. spittle repres ents the height of s acrilege. around 1 803. casts the mouth in one fell swoop down to the last rung of the organic ladder. Spittle. . For this reason. Indeed. the mouth occupies a privileged position because i t i s both locus o f speech and respiratory orifice. in the humid vaults of a s ea stagnant with distress. It is the limp and sticky stumbling block shattering more efficiently than any s tone all undertakings that presuppose man to be something . because.s omething other than a flabby. the high mountains form a sort of barrier 80 E ncycloptedia A cephalica . when we consider that. the tongue. like love. - A form of solar cult in the Hautes-Alpes at the beginning of the 19th . below any waterline. others at the bottom (according to the value we attach to the different activities controlled by them) : eyes at the summit. something other than the spittle of a raving the level of the most shameful organs. it plays havoc with the classification of organs .because they would s eem to be admirable lanterns . posses sing only one aperture for all their needs . and consequently to man's presumed dignity. . and.and thereby exempt from that elementary s eparation between organs of nutrition and secretion (to which would corre­ spond the differentiation between the noble and the ignoble) . the relative imprecision of its colour. Just below the eyes . I t i s considered the cave where the pact o f the kis s i s s ealed rather than the oily factory of mastication. Spittle bears clos ely on erotic manifestations. through its inconsistency. what value can we attach to reason. its indefinite contours. splitting his sides at having expectorated such a conceited larva: a comical tadpole puffing itself up into meat insufflated by a demigod. and its humidity. bald animal. Like the sexual act carried out in broad daylight. lurking within its inner reaches.are still completely plunged in a s ort of diabolical and inextricable chaos .A very singular custom existed. of the non-hierarchized. it requires love to restore to the mouth its mythological function (the mouth is merely a moist and warm grotto garnished nonetheles s with the hard stalactites of teeth� and. it is s candal itself. The divinity of the mouth is daily sullied by it. for it lowers the mouth .

again play on their instruments and they set off. "The venerable immediately announces the departure. in an admirably orderly manner. continuously exposed to the sun. The historical festivals. An immens e and immobile shadow hangs heavily over the village for the entire winter. The old man raises it aloft. The festival lasts all day. to make their way to a stone b_ridge situated at the entry to the village. bears the name of the 'venerable. they make their way to the house of the oldest inhabitant. goes to the venerable to tell him that all is ready to begin the festival. who presides over the ceremony and who. by Christianity. makes their way to the square and a deputation. giving all the inhabitants notice to prepare an omelette. In the local language this position on the northern slope of the mountain is called Ubac. where they eat the omelette. after which each goes back to his family. their plates of omelette in their hands. as opposed to the Adret. in this circumstance. they form a chain and execute a farandole about him. which he offers to the day-star. Here is Ladoucette's description of the festival:21 "As s oon as the night of 9 February is over and dawn breaks over the summits o f the mountains. after having p erambulated about the village. between 1 November and 9 February. armed with an omelette. The shepherds. They come together again Critical Dictionary 81 . introduced like that of Christmas. At ten. bare­ headed. the position on the southern side. each deposits his omelette on the parapets of the bridge and they proceed to a nearby meadow where farandoles are danced until the arrival of the sun. after his having announced the object of the festival. They return in the same order as that in which they came. and even extends into the night. "As s oon as the firs t rays of sunlight begin to shine. the dancing finishes and each goes to reclaim his omelette. Arriving there. preceded by the shepherds who again play on their rustic instruments. the venerable leaves for the meeting-place where he is received with many acclamations by all the inhabitants . they accompany the venerable to his home. "Everyone then hastens to carry out the orders of the venerable.20 In this locality the difference between winter and summer is extremely pronounced.which blocks off the sun for a hundred days.' they take his orders and renew their fanfares. fade into the background in Andrieux before the more grandiose spectacle imposed by the vagaries of nature. under normal circumstances all popular practices gravitate. four shepherds of the hamlet announce the festival to the sound of fifes and trumpets. "The venerable takes his place in their midst and. festivals about which. everybody. "The venerable gives the signal to depart. who take the lead. Accompanied by the shepherds.

inspired by the particular geographical least one of which.22 The first rays of the sun indicate the moment they should bring their herds out of the cattle-sheds . and consequently the omelette. The sun has s et. Our Dancing Daughters. it is distin­ guished only by the ritual consecrated to the return of the sun. Laid on the parapets of the bridge. are not s acred in the habitual sense. it attracts its likeness while the inhabitants dance in the nearby meadow. This festival thus falls into the category of s easonal celebrations. But the venerable raises the omelette aloft bare-headed. We recognise here a Christian influence. the sign of a religious act. The whole ceremony pivots about the ritual of the omelette.23 - After a certain number of s ound movies . being the image of the sun. " The role of the shepherds demonstrates the link between this festival and the s easonal life of society. The beginning of the summer period also changes the inhabitants' way of living. TALKIE. all that remains is to feast to one's heart's content. The dance too has an efficacious action. the omelette having been exposed on the parapets of the bridge at the entry to the village. Then everything resumes its orderly course. it possesses a portion of the essence o f the sun. The sun. The consumption of the omelette is also a ritual act for. The role of the venerable demonstrates the unity of the entire hamlet during the ceremony. and many families j oin together to celebrate.towards evening. The festival of the return of the sun is a public ceremony in which the community participates as a unit. This ritual is completely specific by reason of the latent presence of the notion of the sacred. will certainly mark an important date in the history of cinema. They dance only until such time as the sun's rays light up the village. it mus t not be forgotten. not s o much for technical reasons as because it signals the appearance of a totally new form of 82 Encyclopo:dia A cephalica .

Which shows why talkies are interesting. every path. To cross a threshold is thus to traverse a zone of danger where invisible but real Critical Dictio nary 83 . the sea. The narrow-minded have not failed in their grubby task with respect to talkies. the cold and the warm. nesses. from which we should expect everything (as Weary River has demonstrated). in a region where perhaps we know no more about the sun than about the moving barriers of rain. every furrow. Such a film gives the lie to them peremptorily despite its weak- Betty Compson in the ta Weary River. the light and the shade. an oracular speech issuing from the mouth of an amorous woman. with retorts rebounding back and forth that sometimes add a sort of vocal close-up to the visual close-up. a trembling of fingertips. which has travelled every road. a troubling movement of lip or throat. the interior and the open air. at once harsh and sweet. such is the great lesson of Weary River. warning of disaster. with the heart-rending accent of the mountains.The threshold is the node which separates two opposing worlds. to these talking films. unspoiled by any concern other than to show protagonists of a sparkling youth and grace .sentimentality in films. we can at last allow ourselves to be possessed body and soul by scenes of ardent sensuality. with the charm of an easy life. cast adrift on the raft of voices while everything collapses around us except perhaps. Thanks. illuminated only by great gleams of passion now and then pouring out their marvellous at last we have a real talkie. dimly lit taverns and prison bars at midnight. and this is enough to make us forget a scenario of imbecilic puritanism. The English language is the lan­ guage of love. THRESHOLD. in this case the end of cinema. since what saves it is not so much a visual image here or there as the role played by the voices in it. then. a beautiful voice. like they a):ways do..

slowly. all night the house has been closed. and I am well content to have s ome genius and no talent.24 . is indeed a thing of dread. I n east Africa the most dangerous moment of the day i s the opening o f the door in the morning. I say. Convers ely. and that even in dry weather. at the same time pro­ nouncing words of appeas ement. all is well. This goes to show that the threshold. As long as the door is closed. and to play like a child: Work is an o stentatious thing. The same movements are obs erved by the visitor when he presents himself to the household in the early morning. Far from being a con­ venience." 84 E n cyc!opmdia A cephalica - K. and which must be surrounded by every magical protection. . because there it is neces sary to register. when the door will already have been opened and contact established. However he will avoid any complications by not arriving until very late. a painting of Saint Sebastian surrounded with formulae. it has been. with the greatest calm. - "I have no idea what the meaning of work is in our epoch. In effect. the door is a terrible instrument which must be made use of only knowingly and according to the proper rites. but I believe virtuosity is an infirmity. These precautions are innumerable: a horse-shoe.battles are fought out. and finally. which allows me not to work. corpses of enemies buried standing erect. isolated from the world. knowledge a dangerous asset. when the tradesman's representative pres ents himself at the door of an important client. of which it is the visible sign. When it is fully open. he wipes his feet all the more ostentatiously on the mat at the door if the house be imposing. that is to say the doormat. one will cros s the threshold. from the light. one will spit into the gaping opening. One will therefore open it with an infinity of precautions. as it were. from the open air. The door has been the thoroughly watertight lock-gate that has dammed up the threshold. ugly and bogus as Justice. one against the other. looking before oneself. " The assiduity one employs in freeing the stranger from this obligation is in direct ratio to the respect one has for him. Van Dongen. please don't bother. in muddy weather. forcibly or with levity. because there one must manifest or cast aside one's qualities. . To open it is a serious matter: it is to unleash two hordes. from the cold. the rank one occupies in society. keeping behind it. In superior civilisations the doormat has not been created s olely to slow the crossing of the threshold and permit the visitor to collect his thoughts . It plays a far more important role. an animal sacrificed on the threshold. a consecrated sprig of box-tree. WORK. it is to risk being caught up in the fray. above all avoiding displacing the air. it is properly polite to say to an honoured visitor who is endeavouring to remove the mud from his boots: "Oh.



never to return. having atrophied the feet of women. It is stupidly consecrated to corns. situate them at the most excessive point of deviance. regards it as spit. and is all the more beautiful for the correctnes s of his erection. Also. Although within the body blood flows in equal quantities from high to low and from low to high. or gibbon) . Human life requires. this rage of seeing oneself as a back and forth movement from ordure to the ideal. orang-utan. men obstinately imagine a tide that will elevate them. this is especially striking among the Chinese. losing its function as a prehensile hook for gripping branches. there is a preference in favour of that which elevates itself." is no longer as true of the entire human collectivity as it was in the seventeenth century. The secret terror inspired in man by his foot is one of the explanations for the tendency to conceal. mud and darkness being the principles of evil as light and celestial space are the principles of good: with their feet in mud but their heads somewhat approaching the light. alter the low and flat characteristics of the foot." Related Texts 87 . Even the husband must never see the naked feet of his wife. in other words he has raised himself erect in the BIG TOE. ask of their Chinese penitents "if they have not looked at women's feet. gorilla. and if one takes into account turns of phrase that are only now disappearing. a rage that is easily directed against an organ as base as the foot. man. in the sense that no other element of this body is so differentiated from the corresponding element of the anthropoid ape (chimpanzee. having become a tree himself. Furthermore. But whatever the role the foot plays in his erection. to the most loathsome filthiness : the peasant expression "her hands are as dirty as feet. Catholic confessors. on the pretext that he has this foot in the mud. who. adapting themselves to this aberration. - air like a tree.The big toe is the most human part of the human body. a head raised to the heavens and heavenly things. its length and form. and human life is erroneously seen as an elevation. who has a light head. according to the sex. and from the ideal to ordure. as far as possible. and bunions. The human foot is commonly subj ected to grotesque tortures that deform it and make it rachitic. in fact. the function of the human foot consists in giving a firm foundation to the erection of which man is so proud (the big toe. calluses. Heels of greater or lesser height. This is due to the fact that the ape is tree-dwelling. this disquiet is often confused with sexual uneasiness. flattens itself upon the ground in the same plane as the other toes) . The division of the universe into subterranean hell and a perfectly pure heaven is an indelible conception. whereas man moves over the ground without clinging to branches. and it is generally considered incorrect and immoral to look at women's feet. into pure space.

oe. aged 30. male.) 88 Encyclop01dia A cephalica . tographs by Jaques­ :e Boiffard.

male. aged 30.Big toe. Related Texts 89 .

his elation is suddenly pulled up by an atrocious pain in his big toe 90 E n ryclopcedia A cephalica . modesty concerning the feet became excessively developed in modern times and only began to disappear in the nineteenth century. with one exception. he took the sovereign in his arms and carried her down a small staircase. this familiarity being. the toes stupefaction and base idiocy. maj estically imposing silence upon his own waves: yet the clamorous waves of his viscera. Nothing similar can be cited from classical antiquity (except for the use of very high soles in tragedies) . the pullulation of stomachs. worth 1 00. Turks of Central Asia). a path it follows with reluctance due to its hatred of that frenzy to which it is painfully susceptible: of the bloody palpitations of the body. he even touched herfoot. Blind. and the foot. yet tranquil and strangely despising his obscure baseness. like M. Simply allowing the shod foot to be seen. Man is fond of imagining himself to be like the god Neptune. Under no circumstances was it possible to touch a woman's foot. being in love with Queen Elizabeth. a progressive refinement of modesty that little by little has been able to descend to the calf.000 ecus.The same aberration is to be found among the Turks ryalga Turks. in more or less constant inflation and upheaval. drags the imagination into its ebb and flow. the foot o f the queen was the object of the most terrifying prohibition. is not however sufficient if one wants to account for the hilarity commonly produced by simply imagining toes. is in fact such that fingers have come to signify useful action and firm character. ready to call to mind the grandeurs of human history. but he was consoled by the fact that.25 presents a detailed study of this development. for example when his glance falls upon a monument testifying to the grandeur of his nation. profiting from so favourable an occasion. was more or less destroyed. The vicissitudes of organs. The most prudish Roman matrons constantly allowed their naked toes to be seen. The play of obsessions and fears. A young page saw it and reported it to the king. Reinach. more grave than any other. This explanation. of human necessities and aberrations. was considered indecent. according to Mme D'Aulnoy. the ankle. Salomon Reinach's article Modest Feet. Naturally enough. jutting from beneath a skirt. larynxes. brusquely put an end to his dignity. something which was particular!J remarked upon in this country. in part well founded. the Count of Villamediana. Thus. On the other hand." It is possible to see m these obsessions. had the idea of starting a fire in order to have the pleasure of carrying her in his arms: "The whole house. and. and brains traversing animal species and individuals without number. who consider it immoral to show their naked feet and even go to bed in stockings. who took his revenge by killing the count with a pistol shot. There he partially disrobed her and made free of her favours. where women's feet have been the object of the most distressing anguish and were thus the cause of crimes. stressing the role of Spain.

aged 24 Related Texts 91 . female.Big toe.

But we are led here to distinguish categorically two radically opposed forms of seduction (whose habitual confusion entails the most absurd misunderstandings of language) . though the most noble of animals. The form of the big toe is not. if one considers. seduction is all the more vivid when the movement is more brutal. for example. it was human to the point of laceration to touch what in fact was not very different from the stinking foot of an old tramp. he has feet. On the contrary. in other words. given this back and forth movement. that product of the violent discord of its organs. As for the big toe. Now it is most frequently by considering extreme seductiveness that one can account for the ludicrous. and these feet lead an ignoble life. however. is psychologically analogous to the sudden fall of a man. on the other hand. If there is a seductive element to be found in the big toe. Here one submits to a seduction that is radically opposed to that caused by light and ideal beauty: the two orders of seduction are often confused because one constantly moves from one to the other. completely independently from him . 92 E n cyc!opadia A ccpha!ica . supposing that the queen's foot was perfectly pretty. whether it finds its goal in one direction or the other. Since by its physical attitude the human race distances itself as much as it can from terrestrial mud. specifically monstrous: in this it is different from other parts of the body. but. for example. a spasmodic laugh reaches its highest pitch whenever its outburst results in man's own arrogance ending up sprawled in the mud. and they are invisible because of an ignominy explicable by the mud in which feet are found. the case of the Count of Villamediana. another way of talking of death. he nevertheless has corns on his feet. the inside of a gaping mouth. it is evidently not sufficient to satisfy any exalted aspirations such as. his pleasure would still have derived its sacrilegious charm from deformed and muddy feet. classic foot fetishism leading to the licking of toes categorically indicates that it is a base form of seduction. Corns on the feet differ from headaches and toothaches by their baseness. Since a queen is a priori an ideal being. more ethereal than any other. Thus. in practice by the most deformed feet. for example. The hideously cadaverous and at the same time loud and defiant appearance of the big toe corresponds to this derision and gives shrill expression to the disorder of the human body. in most cases. always more or less tainted and humiliating. the perfectly unconsidered taste that. and. which accounts for the ludicrous value that is more or less always attached to the pleasures condemned by the pure and the superficial.because. Only secondary (but common) deformations have been able to give its ignominy an exceptionally ludicrous value. one can affirm that the pleasure he had from touching the queen's foot was in direct proportion to the ugliness and infection represented by the baseness of the foot. one can imagine that a toe. leads one to prefer elegant and correct forms.

a bodily attitude that abruptly relaxes. revealed in these fissures just as hell might be in the chasms opened by earthquakes. without transpositions and to the point of screaming. . geysers. whose revolutions in the cosmic order sunder the fragile skin of the earth's circumference and momentarily bare the fire at its centre. it must be capable of tracing vigorous sulphur-coloured lines upon it.that forms on the surface of calm water and occasionally solidifies into a crust. red and pointed as a ruby dagger (surprisingly the blood has remained in the middle and not run to the tip). is in touch with lava flows. allowing our horrifying savageness to appear in the interstices. without taking into account poetic concoctions that are. ultimately. All our moral habits and our polite customs. to shatter at the least impact (like the insubstantial mirror of a fingernail whose polish cracks or becomes scratched). A return to reality implies no new acceptances. . craters. - layer . but indicates that one is seduced basely. our diverse finery of dark or brilliant fabrics being no different from skin and feather ornaments partially concealing tattoos that depict various mysterious adventures on the body. and everything else to do with volcanoes. civilisation may perhaps be compared not too inaccurately to the thin greenish CIVILISATION. hard tools that murder minerals and reduce them to a constellation of angles. along with those wounds cut in precious stones by ingenious. like the writing in the stars (which offers an aerial forecast of human events . these are precious signs that help us understand our closenes s to savages. murderous in their turn. if we hold up to it a mirror with a suitably thick silvering and a sufficiently sensitive surface. a fleeting gesture as touching as the sudden swell of a sail on a rising sea. which melts stone itself in its wicked and violent heat.are ready to disappear at the slightest turbulence. our very breathing.) We're bored of those utterly insipid theatrical performances uninflated by any potential Related Texts 93 . A woman's fingernail.The meaning of this article lies in its insistence on a direct and explicit questioning of what is seductive.composed of living magma and miscellaneous detritus . and. that delightfully coloured cloak that veils the coarse­ ness of our dangerous instincts.since it is thanks to them that we are able to regard ourselves as "civilised" . so that although we are not dancing or standing on a volcano nevertheless we can say that our whole life. For all that one may dislike proposing metaphors as explanations. Not a day passes when we don't notice some premonitory sign of just such a catastrophe. all those attractive forms of culture of which we are so proud . nothing but a diversion (most human beings are naturally feeble and can only abandon themselves to their instincts when in a poetic haze) . as a consequence. until broken up by some eddy. eyes wide open: open at the prospect of a big toe.

but so far theatre has hardly been capable of giving us such unadulterated satis faction." be it the politeness of the arts. The action is set in a barn. and it is no longer adequate for us to act in ways that are identical. that of the brain. 94 E ncyc!opredia A cephalica . nostalgia. simply a case of snobbery. but the fact is we're sick o f plots that are always the same. if he is not rich enough to be buried in the mountains. seeing in their current poularity nothing but a fad. speak only of slavery. But now. we must have done with all this nonsense. Others. When a poor negro dies. fruit of a s cience that can never receive too much scorn?) . We have had it with all of that. or the melancholy of big cities resembling the vast sugar cane plantations with their stands of pipes and chimneys. primitive violence." It would be a mistake to characterise us as blast!. that of everyday life. in a more immediate and newer world. likewise in the other arts. a passing infatuation with certain exotic forms similar to that of yesteryear for gypsy musicians. why we have so little respect remaining for anything that does not annihilate the succession of centuries in one stroke and put us.or actual revolt against that holy "politeness. the land is at sea level and when a Negro dies.into a vulgar art obj ect: an infinitely deadlier insult than that paid to European inventions by the afore-mentioned savages." Pedants are habitually disdainful of everything to do with American negro jazz and art. all the other negroes in the village gather round his coffin and their singing creates a sort of hysteria that inspires the men to theft and the women to sell themselves to whites. every day more discredited. referred to as "intelligence". For many years the signs of this rebellion in literature and painting have been all too obvious. to the behaviour of certain savages who think the best possible use for a telegraph pole is to turn it into a poison arrow (because is that not. more sentimental and lacrymose romantics. so as to raise enough money to bury the deceased. which is why we would so much like to get closer to our primitive ancestry. derived from our living habits. having seen the Black Birds show. since it attacks a fateful and serious mystical theology and not just mere telegraphy. for example. stammer vaguely about the terrestrial Paradise.originally made for complicated and precise ritual purposes . in short. known as "taste". which appears in the programme of a show everyone will recognise as soon as they read it: PORGY The subj ect of the scene is as follows: "In the Southern States. he is buried in the swamps where his body floats to the surface again. what we do when we transform a mask or a statue . as demonstrated by the following explanatory note. more or les s. stripped naked. which we designate by a word that smells as dusty as the bottom of an old drawer: "morality.

they plunge deep organic roots into us. Negro music does not sing about "the eternal regrets that lacerate our hearts.What is beautiful about such art is not its exotic aspect nor even its highly modem content (this modernism is simply coincidental). we feel a terrible regret. roots whose thousand ramifications penetrate us. and the theatre empties in wild disorder. For this reason it seems the sculptor Giacometti was entirely correct when he remarked one day that the only possible theatre piece would be this: the curtain rises. has not yet been hypertrophied." about Great Art. so dull and ugly in comparison with these creatures. Thus this music and these dances do not linger on the surface. What we may deplore in such shows is that. we are not so far from the Stone Age. all this is as remote as it could be from gypsy sentimentality. Some circus acts. ." a hysteria of such intensity that it would immediately induce the audience to commit sordid acts or indulge in extravagant debauches. who are as touching as the trees. Really. like the unforgettable scene in the Gleich Circus when a whole crowd of acrobats performed high above us. total panic. a regret for our painful inability to acheive this sort of simple and beautiful expres sion. perhaps go a little further than other spectacles. a fireman comes on stage and shouts "Fire!" the curtain falls. we breathe in the sickening odour of death. . j azz and its derivatives follow their own rules and their own logic. however powerfully they move us. but the fact that it doesn't really constitute an Art at all. for living such a mediocre life. regret for our mediocrity. Furthermore. and the thick blood of the ancient mammoths killed by our grandfathers often rushes to our heads again in billows of dark malice. that threat of danger suspended above our passive spectators' heads. it seems quite absurd to inflict upon these lucid and spontaneous productions a frightful capitalised word that one should only write with a pen fille d with spiders' webs . The following passage taken from the Journal of 1 5 August 1 929 provides a simple confirmation: Related Texts 95 . t o a point of human development at which that bastard s on of the illegitimate love of magic and free play. because here something real is happening and." as they say. Revues like the Black Birds take u s t o a point o n the other side of art. in fact quite the opposite. as though we were referring to s ome particular work by an individual who knew (or believed) he was inspired. they still fail to overcome our spineles sness and create a hysteria as intense as that described in "Porgy. a painful surgery that nevertheles s quickens our blood. Obviously. listening to it. Actually. but that does not mean we can talk about "Art. just as on the spot where a murder has been committed or in the vicinity of a slaughterhouse.

at 4 pm. The worst misfortune is that. This. Some have also been exhibited in national museums. America. and a few dealers . is the precise reason that murderers are so popular: a beautiful crime is no doubt terrible. is evidently a long way from living up to the hopes of the rnuve optimists. She has been engaged by the Gardens until th e end of August. All of which is none too flattering for Europe. each day. to sign the pact with the devil! GUNSHOT . despite being surrounded by magic. Boredom is everywhere. cheap alcohol. "Diavolina will perform her death-leap again at 1 0 pm. Inversely.THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS "Mlle Claryse (Diavolina). but at the same time it is unconsciously satisfying to everyone. 1 5 August. in the sixteen-litre oil drums." And so we enj oy seeing other people take risks as we sit comfortably back in our chairs and give ourselves up to the maddening intoxication of danger. the South - Seas. and industries of high and 96 E n cyclopa:dia A cephalica . The second quarter of the twentieth century in which we live. we are no longer open enough to the mystical to have the option. so great and yet so small. Asia. Large stocks of these exist in museums not constructed by this public. beautiful old Europe with her thousand and one arts. This is perhaps the only difference between our times and those of the cavemen: today we hire dozens of scapegoats whose task is to perform for us everything we are too cowardly to perform for ourselves . despite these few glimmers of frenzy. has for some time now taken an interest in the productions of the great "primitive" public which it has come to know through auctions at the Hotel Drouot. the new attraction in the Zoological Gardens' free circus. I suppose. in those outposts or "exotic" centres where whites deign to dwell. and high-quality weapons generously provided by us. will make her debut today. and Africa have been condensed into a few orderly window displays which satisfy this public's imagination. The European public. which take place every day at 4 pm and 1 O pm. so much do we wallow in our lazy tranquillity. and the murderer becomes a kind of sorcerer who has ritually performed the most horrific of sacrifices. while never actually exposing ourselves to the slightest hazard likely to disintegrate our flesh. through private exhibitions. literatures. The great "primitive" public is interested in so-called aboudjedid cotton fabrics. so that all ifParis will be able to admire this beautifulyoung woman as she risks her life in each peiformance ef the free circus. Her leap from one springboard to another will be 8 metres long and 4 metres high.

Detail of a drum. Ivory Coast. Related Texts 97 .

the question is whether the naivete of the black in his indignation over a leaky drum exceeds the white's absurdity in declaring a battle drum impure under the pretext that it's decorated with a man bearing a rifle. however. The height of absurdity is reached. But that is quite another matter. consequently. known as Ludolf. Fine. claiming first that it is European . only a cellarman could give it any value whatsoever. or .low price. born by a Negro. secondly. like­ wise. how many paintings and sculptures would one have to destroy? This would not. Ethnography goes so far as to think that the excessive use of oak in the halls of the Sorbonne signals a peculiar conception of the aesthetic of wood. It is. of course. namely a European one familiar to him. confusing the part with the whole. but such i s not the view of the servicemen who outfit trophy rooms.and. deny value to the superb spearheads from the Djibouti market. nor that of the neo-Byzantine Ethiopian painters whose fondnes s for European weapons leads them to adorn King Solomon's honourable warriors with them. " One could say that a gun i s not a decorative motif. antiquity with ethnography.Deir el Bahari's bas-reliefs of Queen Hat-Shep-Sut's expedition to the land of Punt? Wouldn't we als o burn the work of Ludolfus. It considers the pottery of the average hour98 E ncyclopcedia A cep halica . who. if a black cannot without debasing himself use an exotic element. From a more elevated viewpoint. under the pretext that they were made from fish-plates filched from the Franco-Ethiopian railway? And what are we to say of the artistic efforts of the little Galla boys who run alongside trains to snatch up empty Chianti bottles to embellish the pottery rooftops of their houses? As for the argument of antiquity. And if it took a mere rifle to spoil a work of art. The black is certainly naive in thinking that anything could ever stop a white colonial from selling him a faulty drum. according to an Ethiopian. what is one to make of our blind borrowings from an exotic world one of colour about which we must in self-defence declare we know nothing? Shouldn't we then be pulling up the Queen of Sheba. however. that it looks "modern. inclined to be suspicious of the beautiful .a somewhat amusingly self-castrating remark . Boring though it be to repeat it. It is also self­ doubting (because it is a white science. ethnograpf?y is interested in both beaury and ugliness. when the other party refuses the African the right to "make art" with a European motif. drew an exotic sheep while hauling his own cock along in a two-wheeled cart? Shouldn't one. and therefore tainted with prejudice) and will not deny an object aesthetic value because it is either ordinary or mas s-produced. be tragic. in the European sense of these absurd words. but what an effort! Furthermore. and. a freakish event within a a demonstration of methodical rigor . from the north portal of Chartres Cathedral.a rare.

of those colourless peoples whose habitat lies north of a sea of low tides and weak storms. Seine. w e can cite but a single era within which the human form stands out as a senile mockery of everything - Related Texts 99 A wedding. in any who refuse to be called natives. and whose dictionaries offer Latin explications of unseemly things. the ethnography of those who fear both words and things. real.Marr 1 905. as the result of much prior consideration and negotiations with the bourgeois wife. What of it! I call folklore the ethnography of pretentious peoples.geois to be the result of a choice determined by social deformations over thousands of years. HUMAN FACE. Owing t o our presumably insufficient data. revealing concerns with art that are simple yet honest and. so as to reserve small shameful pleasures for their elites . An informed contradictor might say that I am confusing ethnography with folklore. . the Mediterranean.

every desire is implicated. of that shameful ancestry. we seem to have spent the greater part of our time in obliterating all traces. The mere sight (in photography) of our predecessors in the occupation of this country now produces. the souls of the dead pursue isolated country-dwellers. assuming the wretched aspect of decomposing corpses (and if. a burst of loud and raucous laughter.11y. intense and large conceived by man. Upon our visions of seduction they intrude their contaminating senility. in their comic black mass they submit to exhibition our glimpses of paradise. with Satan cast as stage policeman and the maniac's scream replacing the dancer's entrechat. In this deeply depressing. Here. however.ft: Mademoiselle de 1. they go after the living. The very 1 00 E ncycloptedia A cephalica . Right: Mademoiselle cile Sorel. it is for food) . the unhappy youth who is consigned to mental solitude confronts at every unexpected moment of rapture the images of his prede­ cessors looming up in tiresome absurdity. had been provided for by those vain ghosts. Upon emerging (as if from the maternal womb) from the dreary chambers in which every last detail. even the smallest. including their rank and musty odour. however. every feeling. in the cannibal isles of the South Seas. ghostly clash. In other places. for varying reasons. in appearances that are somewhat misleading and with no possibility of simplification. that sight. is nonetheless hideous.

on the contrary. with its extremities of absurdity and vulgarity. the symbolic Related Texts 101 . let us say. however. always transposed their difficulties s omewhat. consequently.Left: Mademoiselle Lango of the EidlJrado. and the bridal pair as. let us say. Right Mademoiselle Boroni in a scene from V'D'age to the Moon. No decision on thes e grounds can really suit those who persist in their con­ ception o f an order excluding total complicity with all that has gone before. fact that one is haunted by ghosts so lacking in savagery trivialises these terrors and this anger. of a way o f being. in general. Thos e seeking a way out have. we acknowledge the presence of an acute perturbation in. then we place ourselves outside established rules in s o far as a real negation of the existence of human nature is herein implied. Were this a matter of s ome pathological deterioration . and. an accident that could or should be mitigated .then the human principle would be saved. i n relation t o which the group repres ented i n these photographs is monstrous. If.that is to say. we regard this group as repres enting the very principle of mental activity at its most civilised and mos t violent. not aberrant. Belief in the existence of this nature presupposes the p ermanence of certain salient qualities. the s tate of the human mind repres ented by the s ort of provincial wedding photographed twenty-five years ago. I f. in accord with our s tatement.

parents of a wild and apocalyptic rebellion. It is. It is time that we take note that 1 02 E ncyclopcedia A cephalica . It is all too easy to reduce the abstract antinomy of the self and the non-self. more simply put. then its apparition during the discontinuous series expressed by the notion of the scientific universe (or even. This last disproportion has already found some expres sion in the abstract. If. Centre: iane de Pougy. a mere indication of that vulgar intellectual voracity to which we owe both Thomist thought and present-day science. it is as shocking as the appearance of the seifwithin the metaphysical whole. The concrete forms of these disproportions can never be overstressed. It is understood that a presence as irreducible as that of the seif has no place in an intelligible universe. in a way. the Hegelian dialectic having been expressly conceived for this sort of sleight of hand. as that of a fly on an orator's nose. conversely. since the attribution of a real character to our sur­ roundings is. We would do well to restrict the sense of this negation. the absence of common measure among various human entities which is. furthermore. and that. But we attribute greater importance to concrete expression of this absence relation. pointless to exaggerate the importance of this odd decline of reality.eft: Arlette Molier. Right: ejane. which expresses in particular two non-relations: the disproportion. one aspect of the general disproportion obtaining between man and nature. It is no more surprising than any other. to return to the concrete. at a given point of the infinite space and time o f common sense) remains perfectly shocking to the mind. or. then a juxtaposition of monsters breeding incompatibles would replace the supposed continuity of our nature. as always. we consider a character chosen at random from the ghosts here presented. indeed. this external universe has no place within my self except through the aid of metaphor.

in its unfolding. We must recognise the merit of contemporary science in this respect. then reason would. by contradiction. of the Folies Bergeres. It is impossible to reduce the appearance of the fly on the orator's nose to the supposed contradiction between the self and the metaphysical whole (for Hegel this fortuitous appearance was simply to be clas sed as an "imperfection of nature") . 26 This paradox. we attribute general value to the undemonstrable character of the universe of science. if every contra­ dictory appearance were given as logically deducible. however. by and large. rebellion at its most open has been subj ected to propositions as superficial as that which claims the absence of relation to be another form of relation. we may proceed to an operation contrary to that of Hegel and reduce the appearance of the self to that of the fly. was aimed at making nature enter into the order of the rational. borrowed from Hegel. which may pass for a merely logical Related Texts 1 03 . Right: Helene Petit in L :4. The notion of that which is not subj ect to proof is irreducibly opposed to that of logical contradiction. Even admitting the arbitrary character of this last move. If. have nothing shocking to conceive.rsommoir. when it presents the world's original state (and all suc­ ces sive and cons �quent s tates) as essentially not subj ect to proof. Disproportions would be merely the expression of a logical being which proceeds.Left: Mademoiselle Geraldine.

This transformation carries with it. living as Europeans have. only. And it is the specific nature. but we are dealing in those cases with facts common to all times. Human beings of that time. a human face. it is nonetheless true that the expression given the human self toward the end of the last century strangely fits the conception thus advanced. no doubt . of course. As to the tiny cushions which long served to emphasise those forms of extreme plumpnes s. they now haunt only the ghastly brains of those appears thus to our eyes . come to assume this madly improbable aspect (the physical transformation was obviously unrelated to conscious decision) . Right: Jnie Yahne (one of the :formers in Raymond ussel' s Impressions lfrique at the Theatre toine. since then white men and women have. 1 9 1 0). nonetheless.but it requires only that we acknowledge our own interpretation as simply clearer than that of that other time. Certain people encountered today can be seen in exactly this way. tenaciously persisted in their efforts to regain. It was only until the first years of the nineteenth century that the extravagance of involuntary contradiction and of senile paradox had free rein. as we know. at last. in a way that is. of this dated human aspect that is here in question. expiring daily 1 04 E n cyc!oprEdia A cepha!ica .ft: Zulma Bouffard in '. Those wasp-waisted corsets scattered throughout provincial attics are now the prey of moths and flies. This hallucinating meaning is subj ective. the meaning now clear to us . the hunting grounds of spiders. obscure.)'age to the Moon. trivialisation of its converse operation.

Third row: M. Centre Mounet-Sully in Ampl[ytr. Second row: M. Madame Grassot. Molin. Cleo de Merode. Kaiser. Georgi V. Related Texts 1 05 . Godemare. left to right Johann Strauss. M. King of Hanover. Loeb.Top row. Marx. Samary a Got in VfD'age to the Moon Dartois. M. Capoul (sporting the hair named after him). Bottom row: M.

And why blush at that sudden fascination? Why not admit that our few remaining heady dreams are traced by the swift bodies of young American girls? Thus if anything can still draw sobs for all that has just vanished. sordid and deluded. 1 06 E ncyclopcedia A cephalica . more vicious. of a cock's crow. lyrical fumes. muffled but heady nonetheless. like the jingle of the music box. more rank than a hairdresser's shop. libidinous heat. merely half-monstrous individuals seem to persist in empty animation. but mere per­ versity. To us. So that despite all antithetical obsession. nastier than flies. so many strange. who still dream of flabby torsos strangled in the obsessive play of lace and whalebone. running absurdly towards some provincial haunted house. eyes suddenly dimmed and brimming with inadmissible tears. And within the image of the earth's globe seen trampled under­ foot by a dazzling American film star in a bathing suit.beneath their weird grey bowlers. there is absolutely no thought of dispensing with this hateful ugliness. it is no longer a great singer's beauty. and we will yet catch ourselves some day. we may catch the sound. in innocent vice.

E N C Y C L O P JE D I A D A C O S T A 27 Le DA CC O §TA En cyclop edique Fascicule VII Volume I I .


subverts the best-adjusted couples. behind the walls . runs cars into one-another. one finds one has described . the effect is brilliant but rapidly stifled. to the known. The individuals of this group are then the victims of a strange activity."29 proclaims that splendid poster on the walls of Paris.) . splendour rarely makes history. . and on a page written by Seabrook. NOIRS BLAN CS [ECLAT] SPLENDOUR. since the reports of the first travellers. aborts deals on the point of being completed. Basing himself on an account of Sven Hedin. representing a personage in a long. . Its power of per­ turbation is latent. under their multicoloured markings. Professor Prudent has made a rather peculiar remark which none the les s arouses more curiosity than the discovery itself: if. ECLIPSE. and it might well be said that. makes s choolchildren late."L'eclat c'est moi. A being that has splendour and who appears in a public place immediately provokes the clashing together of obj ects and their breakage.Black to play and win. on a planisphere (Mercator's proj ection). from dusk to dawn. The few specimens afterwards found along the riverside genuinely give the impres sion. hand down from one generation to the next the most absurd legends concerning this subj ect. For all that. vacant lots where the m o s t dazzling acts take place: children's frolics. The centre of the cyclone expands with an unimaginable rapidity. the forest is filled with an informal din. . acts which. one j oins in an uninterrupted line all the known points of observation of the phenomenon. Numerous cases of melanism are to be observed and. Needless to say. a novelist-cum-traveller to whose testimony it would be chancy to attribute any s cientific value.In the land where the sun perpetually E ncyclopmdia Da Costa 1 09 .28 . in fact. burs ts into fragments. who view the approach of the critical moment with terror. (Solution 1 . these meteors provide a pos sible explanation for the body of phenomena. of having succumbed to a dry asphyxiation rather than drowning. awakens desire and rage in the most resigned. [ECHECS) CHESS. sucking up literally all the breathable air. and everything momentarily returns to the ordered. in the expectation of the splendour to come. after having passed through all these points to the point chosen for the origin of this ace of hearts . mark the hour of the most vivid splendour. murders and rapes. . We can draw conclusions only of the most general kind. That which has splendour shines. red and curly wig. eS.tip upwards . explodes. for each of the individuals who abandon themselves to them. It dazzles . The inhabitants of the forest's borders. forbidden loves .-festations that are inexplicable in the context of modem s cience. which is in any case doubtful because at third hand. There are. the question has in no way been clarified. tomorrow's advantage or that of the present moment. The principle of poetry is at once that of morality and that of economy: poetry is in the moment. 1 . Part o f the human body. means of transport. in the there is a king of a comparable destiny.for the production of goods that answer to the needs of the moment. sometimes soft. when dry. where once a month. leaving in the hand a residue which. In the lee of such protection the spectator finds himself carefully isolated from any kind of reality or unreality that might be noxious. But he lacks · the time to consider the star which. dangerous even. he has a mirror in his navel which reflects it back. has under microscopic examination the appearance of epithelial cells. Name given by poets to women who are harsh towards their lovers: De VOS ca:urs endurcies a nos ca:urs trop fide/es/ II n 'est qu 'un lien. CORNEILLE. But the king has taken good care not to erect it on the plane of the ecliptic. agricultural equipment. death. he adds a storey. appointed to watch over it. if we arrived at the point of balance. and he enquires after the diges tion of the toad of the horizon. - [ECONOMIE] ECONOMY. [ECOLE] SCHOOL. variable in volume. All moral problems are economic. Usually a quadrangular sur­ face. It is always a matter of whether one should make use of available resources . even when it is more adroit than the right. or simply time . the star in its course will crash into it and there will be a considerable cataclysm. An establishment where people are taught that it is forbidden to make use of both hands. (ek-to-plasm there is a tendency in certain circles to pronounce 'plazm. la mort 0 ecrouelles. presents to the sense of touch a humid and slippery sensation. And the house remains balanced in direct ratio to its height. various goods. existing means would have to be used . making an impression on photo­ graphic emulsion. A quintessential example of this device is the screen utilised in cinemas. for. 30 - [ECTOPLASME] ECTOPLASM. material unimportant. in other respects fleeting and transient. II. energy.' but this usage is to be discouraged) n. from time to time vaporous. if the moment came when it would be impossible to augment the sum of the means of production (mining installations.over and above the maintenance of the work-force and the - 110 E ncyclopcedia A cephalica renewal of plant . When the house has too many storeys. swag-bellied. according to Labiche. occasionally hard. unstable. It is neces­ sary to place the science of poetry at the basis of political economy.sets. [Between your hardened hearts and our too faithful hearts/ There is but one single bond. According to Froissart. 0 cruel­ ones ] . Thanks to the interposed screen no representation of the world ever reaches the viewer. visible only in semi-darkness. whether proj ected or other- . each morning. the left having no right. dams. makes haste into the neighbouring cavern. 2. - [ECROUELLES] SCROFULA.m. cultivated land. curative sessions or levees d'ecrouelles took place in the shade of an oak­ tree at the Hopital Saint-Louis or. without odour or definite taste. The kings of France are reputed to have received from heaven the gift of curing particularly cold women by touch. His one diversion is to build a house of cards to which. [ECRAN] SCREEN. the lords of the transpontine isles come in order to conduct an orgy. and who daily expects death: he believes one night will remain once and for all perennial. in a word. external to it. stretched over a frame and intended to be interposed between a cause and its effect. fac­ tories. an activity linked to caring for the morrow is the only one that cannot be poetic. for himself or for his fellows. the work-force).

Der Kampf um die Materialisation­ Phenomene by Baron von Schrenck-Notzing. SYN. etc. TERAT." a new mechanical leg for war-crippled mediums (ibid. Endoplasms are visible with art endoscope. Daisy and Violet. calves'-pluck. but far more prestigious and attractive than anything of the sort produced today (Mario Praz. Eus­ apia). Gk. by Dr Geley. How emaciated he was.Greenaway hen Dacosta (the Second) [EDIFIANT] EDIFYING. Term in statuary art. in the garden. EKTOL outside. and IIAALMA.). HIST. My little sister was very fright­ ened when.wise. The endoplasm of the camel is found at the base of the throat (Buffon) . of uncertain temperature. thread. "l love you. bewailing the fact that she had not one of her own (journal de Blondin. Les Phinomenes p!Jchiques by Dr Max­ well. etc. boluses. And broken words forced themselves to his lips. great French­ men. The ectoplasm of Gernande was abundant. tragidie en cinq actes et en vers by John Root and Georg von Kirikau. "The Ectoplasm. Vie de sainte Therese la Philosophe). This assertion is given the lie by the fact that one can cite many Siamese brothers and sisters presenting different endings (Chang and Eng. This has been refuted by the best grammarians. Les Phenomenes de Materialisation.. The ballet d'ectoplasmes is one of the high points of metachoreographical art in its purest spatial. an ecto­ plasm. in Rita an ectoplasm o f Christina. made up of an assembly of gauze. something moulded. HOM. - E ncyc!opmdia D a Costa 111 . tetes de . fragments of illustrated magazines. in Radica an ectoplasm of Doodica. our great friend! That feeble effort sufficed to exhaust him. b y Juliette Alexandre-Bisson. XVIII. L 'Etre Subconscient. Materialisation Phinomene by Baron von Schrenck-Notzing.fromage. cod-liver and guts. taking our hands in his . red and steaming. burning-hot and thick as porridge (Marquis de S . quite simply. of Saint Francis (Boyer d'Argens. fond of music. I love you!" he murmured. Fish-and­ game-birds' intestines. Craven A. Ectoplasme et Andromaque. The Romantic Agof!J) · ETYM.. Guarabai and Guangabai. There is no known synonym. Ectoplasmic hammer for thumping visions into the head (Catalogue de la Manufacture d'Armes et de Cjcles de Saint-Etienne). The bleeding nun3 1 was. When ectoplasm is mani­ fested inside the body it is called endoplasm. His eyes closed again. LIT. celluloid collars. . she saw my ectoplasm and started crying. 2. but his hand firmly gripped my own. . for the first time. Compte rendu des Folies Ber:geres). great Francophiles etc. goatee-beards. ). cod's innards. .). . and numerous mediums whose names do not present the same characteristic (Willy S. . Work of sculpture in relief or plane. Moreover it has been proven that the medium and the ectoplasm do not derive from the same ovum (Dr Baron von Schrenck­ Notzing) . aged 9. REM.) . Hectoplasm. even inflated with a bicycle-pump. pince-nez ribbons. CENT. Their argument is based on the remark that the majority of me­ diums have fore­ names ending in the letter a (Eva. epiploon. are not ectoplasms. Simplicio and Lucio. patriotic and religious expressions (Andre Levin­ son. Les Forces inconnues de la Nature by Camille Flammarion. Certain authors have chosen to see in Rosa an ectoplasm emanating from Josepha. pork-brawn. cited by Freud) . The exuberant exondance of ectoplasm has sometimes given rise to a belief in exhi­ bitionist ectoparasites. Father Dirag held in his hand the Great Ectoplasm.

s on in whose eyes. who king. . a weaker tone: . . with a s till vigorous grip. . the especially when this concerns the authority an humiliated and degraded man he mus t finally adult arrogates in the name of experience or age become. and justice . . others becaus e . Justice. . one's abominate nothing as greatly as an attitude of To applaud. . . challenge and already decrepit. the taste they have for our they excuse. their allusions to what they as sure us are our limits. at this very moment.'' he murmured. There is not enough justice . ordure. he continued to hold my hand in his . " Then the words faltered in his mouth. . of this old-age pension-scheme that of this long-term authority wherever it s ets itself up. o n e becomes a parent: such i s the disgusting contradiction to be observed a t every turn. to emphasise the e s sential role played in all It s ometimes happens that one encounters in s o cieties by the myth of the execution of the the s treet two old p eople. . . to exalt revolt in all of s olutions. unblushingly to demand this o f one's own child a s s oon as. their conniving smiles.. to be since child and parents are in s hort and in fact p ersuaded that in any case they cannot operate j oined otherwis e than in the most inauspicious way and edifying dis courses on their long and intimate together and exchange in all equality that a p erson is revealed as worthy of living only experience in the exact measure that they resist. "kindnes s . thanks the father who previously break free of them. . in equal proportion with kindness ." and "When you're a grown-up.'' to the per­ prison-warders. . . . Cease to addres s . .I love you . Let our sages spare us their knowing looks. personally broken s ome shackles. . more particularly. police-informers. . s ome because they explain. yes . more worthy of a great man? one's refusals.'' he modestly 112 E n cycloptl!dia A cephalica of the s ame filthy mire. nevertheles s . outside o f and within oneself. Enough agains t its own family. . Kindness . EDUCATION.. Justice is not great enough in the world. . And justice . to value one's rebellions. preoccupation: there mus t "Justice. one with another. . The s on. m t" "71 . J ust1ce. you are degrading yourself. " Then. judges . . 1 Yl aman.32 of resemble each other.What were tho s e words? The mystery of dying moments ! They were the very words that had woven the thought of his life and formed the breviary of his activity. . Enough of this "You'll understand later towards a younger p erson. s chool-ushers. its odious or farcical fruits. and. overbearing pedants. nor to s eek in ontology. to submis sion and obedience and yet. A s trange household. Enough o f this complicity in degradation which welds the generations. tacit understandings. to calculate the disastrous effects interests from which they are constituted. and despots. enough - defiances. being father and s on or repres sive morals. that of the child common ruination. b e. but they s erve. irremediably. preachers. b y way o f the child that confronts you. p sychoanalysis or psychology the profound reasons that are never lacking to justify every­ thing. of a rendezvous fixed of shameful for ultimate its forms. to hate and despise on. the accumulation of lies and s ordid such is the degree of the triumph of education.. Thos e were the last words I was to hear from his mouth while. "Kindness. . . and the shame of which we can no longer escape. . We do not intend here to resume the familiar trial of the human race. to combat and to deride speculation. bullies . . but even in their faltering they bore witness to his constant kindnes s . to pride ones elf on having s everely corrected him: "It was. justice. closely connected. . . Was there ever a testament more noble. denouncing its goes by the name of education. . absurdly. unjustifiable nature. to understand the sinister ends mother and daughter. . There mus t be kindnes s ! . Justice .

At No. Each of the paved in stone. while the future. unnumbered. Continuation of apologise for having to cross. Length 1 80 m. As for the past. Between Nos.admits.Today's utbanists believe bricks.. . If the sewer manifests • Metro: Danube. who meet itself today in the form of banal and complicated pipework. It is generally accepted that [EGALISATION] EQUALISATION. . 6 ''Villa Renais sance.The end­ increase of vital energy among the faithful . dealer. that he does not wish to ANDRE (P.) WINES OF BURGUNDY OUR SPECIALITY ALOXE-CORTON PURVEYORS TO DA COSTA know about. width 1 2 m. "the means by which you made a man of at fixed times on a pretext that they do not con­ me. is all sweetnes s and light. II. They submit to distinct exchange an old-master painting for a bicycle. But at all times man has had a hostile attitude towards his excreta and waste products and has always sought to be rid of them. subj ect to a characteristic fiction according to necklace of fine pearls. Also employed as a term to designate a group of indi­ viduals. fairly steep becomes an obj ect of sentimental regrets and but regular slope from the Rue de la Ftatetnite to noble sighs. which past and future. going uphill. On the other side. On the left side. [EGLISE] CHURCH. " sider entirely futile. appropriately enough. A street totally devoid of interest. in former times matters were mote sophis­ ticated." to which access by the public is forbid­ den by a notice. This is true if we consider only the means employed and their efficacy. EGALITE (Rue de I'). Thry have dared to bomb our churches - MAURICE BARRES & OTTO VON SCHULZ. were it not for a house: to modem science. Man has increasingly sought to reduce that part of himself which disturbs him. odd which. basilisk. . No.A. a shady double­ the Rue Mouza1a. On each side a pavement and faithful sees the church as the opening of a lock charming villas. A fair Examples : To exchange you might think. sewers represent progress in hygiene attributable which is locked. and the variety of that which was to be rej ected was greater. An apple = a serpent.1 9th attondiss ement. restrictions concerning their external appearance To wear a wreath o f table-knives instead of a and their conception of time inevitably becomes I. and to vehicles by a stone bollard. takes the form of a numbers to 33. a wall of dirty red [EGOUTS] SEWERS. with a small wooden door. III.A building that attracts blessings in peacetime and missiles in times of war." Before the bend in the toad is the ''Voie du Ptogres. at the very least by persuading himself that this is the domain of hygiene. 27 has been divided into two dwellings. Between Begins at the Rue de la Ftatetnite (see that word) . reduce the present to a simple transition. However the result is pretty E ncyclopt11 dia Da Costa 113 . . even numbers to the very fact of being so constituted causes an tesult must be the equalisation of all values . A street neither s traight not horizontal: very pile of filth. 20 and 24. whether religious ot otherwise. however of their lucidity. it pronounced bend at the beginning. symbol of centuries of faith. . both gros sly over-valued. and to distance himself from that part of himself he no longer wishes to recognise as his own. the expense. the Golden Age and Paradise the moment is terminates at merely an insignificant bridge which one must 57 Rue Mouza1a. that the Rue de la Llberte. sacrifices and magic constituting a s ort of sewer we no longer know.

. " the brother of the one who's marrying my sister ''Your sister. . the brother of the one who's marrying my sister Pauline says: 'Maybe we could sit down to table. Me too. [ELEGIE] ELEGY. . " "Nice of you to s ay so . the brother of the one who's marrying my sister [ELIE] ELIAS. but which artists. . He said to me: 'You go first. I see him and I don't see him . as is its tendency. - "How long since you seen Boirot?" "At the roast beef he's touching her up. . I'll be there for watched over by his daughter or his wife.:ois Bonj our33 and . Pauline says : 'I reckon your mate's late. "He doesn't give a tos s about me.' "Me." "Then the feather-merchant from the comer. today he carries out the same "Nice of you to say so . the morals of the working class . his mother and me were pregnant together. Perhaps the swing-bridge on their own domains.' August 1 14 E ncyclopmdia A cepha/ica 1 792 - "The Miracle Child": born of the cure 18 Frarn. torture and war maintain the complexity of a world in which shit is as indispensable as roses. . Me too. I go first.'' work without fatigue and in the same time. "Ever since then I don't see Boirot no more. seven.' "I really should have screwed her. at eight." "I says to him: They're marrying off my sister. ''Boirot. there's Ma said to me: 'I want Boirot at the wedding. "Then the feather-merchant from the comer. writers and financiers have. now I can bugger off. ' "Right away. Maybe you should make tracks. which . In the corner. n o Boirot. "My sister Pauline. no Boirot. "Quarter past seven. which one?" Pauline says to me: 'I reckon your friend's over­ "My sister Pauline. is strictly contrary to the expres s instructions of the Ecclesiastical Authorities . Its brevity is generally to be deplored. no Boirot. Thanks to the electric motor harnessed to his "Well. I'll tell you. These are thorny questi9ns of conscience which arise for all the faithful. Boirot arrives. ' " his loom by hand. "Me. there's Ma wants you at the wedding. "And in the last one I finds Boirot. the weaver limits himself to having it " 'Wednesday evening. - the canal was against him. ''When it comes to my sister marrying. in "I reply: 'We'll have to excuse him. in former times. His mother and me were pregnant together. "At the starters he talks dirty to her. I/lustre. I says to Boirot: 'I reckon you've made your little impression. ' great benefit to the manufacture itself as well as to "Seven o'clock. "Quarter to eight.' "I went with him. maybe he's got the time wrong." weaver was subj ected to fatiguing toil in working - " 'I really should have screwed her.' "Finally.' " Whilst. resolved in terms of the strictes t economy.' According to the "Half-past seven. .) doing it. the " 'Your sister. loom.' "He says to me: 'You're right. M a says: 'We won't sit down to table without Boirot. which one?' " ELEVATION. like a good sort. Luckily insanity. in certain circles. EJACULATION.' "So then I went round all the brothels in the town. They sit him beside my sister Pauline.unconvincing." (Pronounced Poline. ''We sit down at table. "At des s ert he shoves his hand up her skirt. no Boirot. Petit Larousse a short prayer uttered with fervour. to be frequently repeated. it's for Wednesday evening at seven. " ''When i t comes t o my sister marrying. . to the sure.

Let us add by way of parenthesis that change might well be the fundamental principle of civi­ lised peoples. and that is to relate . there is but one way that might be truly striking. But. fashion is no more. o ma bien-aimee. he was welcomed as the renewer of the world and. [ELOGE. The coming of Elie Bonj our was greeted with innumerable hymns of a frankly progressive character: La croix n 'est-elle pas le lit Oil l'epoux a l'epouse dit: Venez. who at his majority. financial and political machinations. And I am persuaded that it will suffice for me to recount to you the misfortunes of Monsieur de Fondpierre for you to agree with me completely . when the massacre of the priests began)35 Elie. 0 my beloved / Come. and even given precocious tokens of his divine mission (not having ceased to cry from a week after his birth.Tragic. who would for all that have been a man of merit had he not been bald.34 By him the true chosen people must be constituted. all things considered. along with freethinking. But. I greatly regret that the wearing of the periwig should have fallen into desuetude. was to have been trans figured into the Holy Spirit. and restoreth all things" G. to be sure slanderous tongues have a good opportunity to make a mockery of it. and from this it follows that France is the leading nation in the world. it is to a French king that the world owes this admirable artifice. and I do not suppose I need remind you in this connection what Samson's secret was. the black market.] After having promised much. receive the dew / That must fecundate your womb. / I wish that my divine seed / Shall encompass our nuptials. was the fate of Monsieur de Fondpierre. would not have been any the less fatal if he had consented to purchase a periwig. under Louis-Philippe. sporting the uniform of a colonel of the Garde Nationale de Paris. doubt reigns.. qualified to cleave the Beast in twain: "Elias verily cometh first. he abruptly fell silent on the evening of 2 September. from whom the Catholics shall be set apart and to whom the Jews shall be called. when all is said and done. in France. The hair has throughout history been the guarantee of a man's strength. for my part. if I wish to show you that it is regrettable that the fashion of the periwig should have fallen into desuetude. whereas among barbarians the laws must remain immutable on pain of no longer being respected. and the only laws people deign to obey are those promulgated by a code which. they never cut their hair. among barbarians people are tattooed. both pregnant by his exertions.C. ]e veux que mon germe divin Environne notre l?Jmenee Is not the cross the bed / Where the husband to the wife says / Come. Moreover his baldness. in passing. without a of the two women he had brought with him to Paris. is no more than change established as a divinity. DE LA PERRUQUE] EULOGY (OF THE PERIWIG) . as such. precocious though it • was.) . that the periwig was not in universal use in Europe until after it had been adopted by Louis XIV. I am happy to point out to you. re­ established in their ancient faith. or that it was under a laurel-crown that Julius Caesar concealed the nudity of his occiput: on the other hand. Now that the . to some extent disappointed the fervour of his faithful by devoting his entire activity to the linen trade and. religion is of an unexampled severity. where an ancient culture is triumphant. Died 4 September 1 866.with all the precision one is entitled E ncyclopmdia Da Costa 115 . Venez recevoir la rosee Qui doitftconder votre sein.

after long years. not touching it at any point. regrettable since instinct not [EMERAUDE] Aphanipterous EMERALD. adapting an obj ect to the taste of the greate s t number. to favour after the war of created. appeared. a s ort of green halo. and then that. Fallen into desuetude after the Revolution. and if I com­ that the day was especially hot.37 - to a comparison I have reas on to believe would be harmful in my I would willingly walk in the was quite unsparing in my efforts and. although the basins of fountains are ordinarily . I f I did not fear to expose mys elf regard. fate had pity on me and granted that I open the [ENCLUME.36 s ome of its sparkle by reason o f this over-use. People today frequently expres sion: j'ai make use of it is. I foots tep s of Memoires (published clandes tinely in 1 7 1 3) of the Chevalier de Sainte-Epine. th e admirable Riv­ the fancy took his Maj esty to go and see it. above it. albeit arol. important s ervice to the French language. after him. belle epoque. although the torch of my ambition burns low. parallel to the whole of the Hermant. under the times fallacious pretext that it was open to change. Greek extraction. it is not yet extinguished and. the endowed at night with an intermittent phos­ expres sion. inventor - French critic. a the un spectre d'enclume devant mesyeux [I which is supported by a degree of erudition does not suffice. of which mention has already been made: I shall first show how the precocious baldnes s of which he was the victim was the cause of mis fortunes. (See - turns of phrase available to the writer concerned for the elegance o f his style. o f of the rules of pro s o dy. Only. if I am not mistaken.the down­ fall of Monsieur de Fondpierre. LE SPECTRE DE L'] SPECTRE OF THE ANVIL. Marvellous as ins ect. equal at least to that it enj oyed in the luminous phenomenon persisted. over the origin of the expres sion in ques tion. if he had worn a p eriwig. who was one of the most polished courtiers of Louis XIV. my lack o f merit not­ withstanding. a of s econd eulogy the French language. Permit me to quote the pas s age that treats of the obj ect o f my curiosity: "Since we were speaking in the King's presence of the new fountain cons tructed at Marly by the celebrated architect Monsieur l'Enclume. The object that is beautiful in itself does not exist.38 individual. It there and to Monsieur Abel then knew a great and it is now in such constant use that white in its natural s tate. None the les expect of a quasi-scientific study . Curious to dis sipate the mystery that reigns EMMENAGOGUE (Constantin) . I would 116 E ncyclopmdia A cephalica "The waters in the basin of that fountain were intended to s erve as the theatre for the graceful and amorous gambols of the royal swans. plant p eculiar to central Scotland. pos ed. parasite of the Caledonian Wintergreen. his mis fortunes would not have befallen him. I flatter mys elf that I can render an Entite. owes its return 1914 phores cence which. thanks to the I cannot but warn young persons to moderate reflection of its nimbus.) [EMBELLIR] EMBELLISH. of a rich emerald shade their enthusiasm for it. for fear that it might lose that justified its name. the animal. certainly not have rested till I had s et forth for the admiration of nations the variety and richness of Act of smoothing. For as long as this popularity. regularising. At following see before me the spectre of an anvil] . its origin is not known. It mus t be voted such.

to divert a frivolous court. Cliton is not at all courageous. contented himself with responding. even for a swan. by way of recompense. although at that time he was angry with him. by way of a paren­ thesis. they had no inclination to do. one which I flatter myself will divert those curious to know how the victor of Namur conducted himself when the eyes of the world were not upon him. How­ ever that may be. la Grande Mademoiselle and Monsieur le Prince de Conti. in the chapter devoted to the King's amours.paved with stone. "Cliton (such is the name of the valet to whom I owe the telling of this anecdote) entered one night by mistake the chamber where His Maj esty was accustomed to converse alone with Madame de Montespan. an anecdote told me by a valet de chambre attached to the Royal House of France. which was a pleasing spectacle. an agreeable fate to be haunted without respite by one's own image. A brilliant and numerous company was following him. which none the less was considerable. "Chance brought it about that the King. then. The King had on his arm Madame de Montespan. If my memory is not deceiving me. For that reason the ladies were hesitant to step over the border of the foliage: and Monsieur. then at the height of her favour. They do not fail to give me a good opinion of his gallantry: when Madame de Montespan cried out that she had no idea of what name it was seemly to give the monster with which her eyes were dazzled. fearful of spoiling the freshness of his complexion. his brother was there. who wished to see the supposed marvel before taking his luncheon. The uneasiness of the swans when first they were placed in it is readily to be imagined. since he had lately forbidden him to wear women's dress outside his apartments. Monsieur. as well one may imagine. any inclination to escape had been ably anticipated: they were incapable of talcing flight. that chance brought it about that the King came to the goal of his promenade just before noon. short of leaving the bed. with the effect that his basin was in truth a large concave mirror. it had been enough to remove from the wings of each of them one or two of those large feathers called quills which are the principal support of the creature in the air. It is not. according to what Cliton informed me. he ran no risk since they could not know. Let us get back to the point. What is more. to all appear­ ances. but I cannot mention the King's mistres s without the desire overtaking me to relate. few indeed were the swans that did not lose their wits. in the manner of the nymph Echo: Louis. "I was saying. He has since as sured me that it was unwillingly that he allowed curiosity to carry him beyond the bounds of decorum. he was not at liberty to observe anything of their frolics. that they were not alone. his curiosity had barely carried him away when it gave way to prudence. none thought to complain of the heat. ''No doubt I am presuming greatly upon the attention the reader condescends to lend me. began inveighing E ncyclopmdia D a Costa 117 . To tell the truth. and that. thanks to the shade provided by the trees that bordered the way they had taken. But let us leave it at that. he leant an ear to some of the words His Maj esty was exchanging with his favourite. he was on the point of with­ drawing when he heard the sound of laughter and words that seemed to come from the bed where the couple were: the curtains being drawn. the King. As you might well imagine. reached the goal of his promenade shortly before noon. and most suitable. far from it. we shall speak of this elsewhere. excited as much by curiosity as by the desire to please. all those present were disap­ pointed when they saw that the fountain was in a clearing bathed in sunlight. greedy for novelty. likewise present were Monsieur le Prince. Despondent victims of the illusion the malevolent genius of man had procured them. but. Monsieur l'Enclume had had the witty idea of replacing the stone with silvered glas s.

You are not unaware that he had all but lost his sight in a bloody encounter that took place during the Fronderie. the King responded that it was shameful to be so fastidious. he promised him satisfaction. who hastened to follow him. cooked to a turn. we perceived that the heat produced by the combined brilliancy of the sun and its reflection had meant that all the water had evapo­ rated: at the bottom of the basin lay the swans. Of this sad fate he made. The Haute-Cour took proceedings. That silenced the complainers. It was as if by their ringing they wished to warn us of the risk we were running. he suffered more than ever he had done until that time. he gave thanks to heaven that he had once more been granted the opportunity to remember the forbearance His Majesty had shown in his regard. but. none was more to be pitied than Monsieur de la Rochefoucauld. if I may so express it. every time one looked down. very far from complaining. The brightness was such that all those present were for the moment deprived of the use of their eyes. father of the 118 E ncyclopmdia A cep halica present Due. The Grande Mademoiselle in particular who. if I am not mistaken. The King was much . addressing some young noblemen who were there present. although she was no longer of an age which passes over follies in silence. and it was. And Monsieur l'Abbe de Fenelon. who was then very young. before the sentence was completed. the next day that the unfortunate l'Enclume. We were the more especially disconcerted that the impression left upon the optic nerve was not so quickly effaced. He would seem to have had his share of ill-fortune.against Monsieur l'Enclume. in a morose solitude. since Archbishop of Cambrai. ''You may have some notion of the agitation into which this event threw our minds. The King was grieved to learn this and. a sort of back-handed glory which fitted well with his proud and valetudinarian mien. who lived in close re­ tirement. he was not afraid of the sun. He claimed that his star had willed it that he should go to Marly precisely on the day the King had the whim to see the new fountain. was convicted of the crime of /ese­ mrfjeste. informed them they should be pleased that Monsieur de la Rochefoucauld should provide so fine a lesson in gratitude and politeness. ''Nevertheless. and held that it would be impious not to recog­ nise how baleful was the omen of which the Court had just been the witness. Monsieur de la Rochefou­ cauld told him that. and that he was a disgrace to the Royal House. Nettled. that he was at liberty not to follow but that. More. I recall that His Majesty was a couple of paces distant from the fountain when we heard the bells of the neighbouring church ringing. for his part. I am told he died of resentment and shame. with the result that the fellow soon found himself condemned to the galleys. did not fail to be uncommonly wild in her utterances. who he said was a crazed eccentric unworthy of his reputation. since he made it plain that he was not at all indifferent. it was as if a livid blotch were dancing before one. hardly had they fallen silent than an extra­ ordinary thing occurred: the basin of the fountain suddenly became blazing with light. since the promenade. and who showed himself only to the extent that it was necessary that he was not wholly forgotten. arraigned before judgement. was none the less touched by her discourse. for. As soon as we were recovered. he added that his eyes were still so delicate that. with the result that. thought to go one better. The King accepted this most graciously and. as if the sun had fallen into it. if he showed himself more reasonable.

We are aware that the efficacy of these measures is based on the creation. As soon as the Authorities relax their control. I have nothing to add to this. and that he was haunted by a spectre d'enclume.O. and which I have reason to believe was written by the Cardinal de Retz. by unanimously ratifying it on the 1 4th July following. and instructive.N. it does not lack charm. gave the force of law. who like nothing better than to ridicule persons of merit. Post-war periods are EMANCIPATION. Similar measures have been taken in a number of foreign countries following upon a recommendation presented by the French delegation at the plenary session of the U. foresee the definitive triumph of democracy upon the face of the earth. As to the truth of the story. generally characterised by a certain disorder. everything indicates that this malady is the same as that occasioned by the spectre of l'Enclume of which the Chevalier speaks. If ever writers bethink themselves to take as their example the illustrious Malherbe. .. The Ucence to Uve is.which leaves something to be . Once again we have not failed to experience this. according to his habit. the expression impressed a footman present in the hall. "A few mischievous wags. and that it was of having been the occasion of that death he was complaining when he complained. that his eyes were troubling him That was certainly by no means agreeable. I doubt whether Monsieur de Saintes intended any harm. so that we may. and Monsieur de la Rochefoucauld was careful not to harbour any ill­ feeling against him However. and who constantly commits faux pas. in effect. which our legislators have called a Ucence to Uve. That is why we can the applaud unreservedly measures proposed in the decree of 23 May 1 946 to which the National Constituent Assembly. desired . at short notice. who is the son the Marechal de Bassom­ pierre had by Mademoiselle d'Entragues.I find them on the whole most inter­ esting. to the extent that before very long this expression was very widely used. in which there is mention of a malady of de la Rochefoucauld. of a new identity-document. that the livid blotch of which he was speaking was nothing other than the spectre of l'Enclume. the veritable comer-stone of French security. It made its way among the common people. I possess a letter which I will be publishing before long. said to Monsieur de la Rochefoucauld one day when they were dining together at the Hotel de Conde. who was haunting him ." Without prejudice to the style in which these pages are written .distressed at this. I wager it will find its way to Court. and go and learn the proper usage of the language among street­ porters. the unfortunate Monsieur de Saintes. whose arrogance they claimed did not impress them. to divert themselves at the expense of Monsieur de la Rochefoucauld. contrived to put it about everywhere that the death of l'Enclume weighed upon his con­ science. as of now. but none disputed with him that he was right the better to esteem the tranquillity of a courteous man than the life of a knave. and in thoroughly suspect taste. it is by no means the case that the wits of a footman should be so lively as those of a person of quality: thus it was that he did not fail to repeat in the kitchens that Monsieur de la Rochefoucauld saw visions. other than that I am proud to present to the learned public the solution to a problem which has so long occupied them. the culmination of a long series of efforts which have had as their E ncyclopmdia Da Costa 119 . for. murky elements emerge from the shadows where war and the constraints that accompany it have temporarily kept them. bizarre as it may be. Be that as it may. aside from the Chevalier's in no way being suspected of bad faith.

the precious heritage of twenty centuries of Christian civilisation.main object the consecration of the inalienable rights of the individual and assure the latter. Those who have fired the weapon. to go into the matter in more detail. the official American report on the war ob­ serves with astonishment the low proportion of fatalities experienced in the U. now that they may well no longer be destined solely for savage popu­ lations at war with British civilisation. we reproduce a facsimile on pages 1 32-3. We are aware of the alarming rumours that have gone the rounds with regard to small-calibre rifles: it would appear that they are ineffective at killing. 1 20 - E n cyclop(l!dia A cephalica · some. animated with a powerful and joyful faith. they would even seei:n to be incapable of inflicting serious wounds. For their part. whose accuracy leaves much to be desired.S. Delivered. the riflemen of the polygon39 view these lamentations greatest with the scepticism. that the disappointments of the English in India could well rather be attributed to the imperfections of their Lee-Metford. so they claim. from that fear which maintains in men's minds that unwholesome independence which goes hand in hand with the weakening of administrative vigilance. and it has never been claimed that . who miiy not have preserved the coolness necessary to regulate their fire against a fanatical enemy rushing headlong at them with insane temerity. Our readers may study it profitably and without further delay prepare themselves for the preliminary tests and checks which will take place throughout France as of the forthcoming 14th of July. we will at last be at liberty to lend a truly attentive ear to President Roosevelt who. henceforth. on the eve of his death. a liberty none can derogate. An absurd legend. today. we recognise that the Italians in Abyssinia were not armed with small-calibre rifles. have once and for all swept away. and the time will come for their renewed appraisal. adjured us again to "go forward. It is not admissible. these findings are unduly at those variance with obtained on the firing­ grounds of France and Germany in numerous experiments carried out on the corpses of animals. say EMULATION. within the strict limits of his obligations. As to the proportion of Americans killed. that bullets that readily shatter the bones of oxen and horses should have so little effect on the human body. inspired by the spirit of the Atlantic Charter. Italians in Abyssinia. Besides. For us. Contrary to the monstrous doctrines which totalitarian regimes have sought to make prevail and which the victory of the United Nations. that many of our troops in Dahomey had the old rifle and finally. very re­ cently. a harsh reality. the principle that has presided over the elaboration of the Licence to Live bears the hallmark of a humanism at once generous and clear-sighted. which before very long will be made obligatory. the question of the new English bullets is a matter of painful and quite pressing interest. For them. it does not noticeably differ from that recorded in the course of recent European wars. claim they have experienced grave disap­ pointments with their new armament and. army compared with the number of wounded. According to others. the English in Chitral. Frenchmen in Da­ homey. and also to the emotion of their soldiers." The Prefecture of Police having been kind enough to provide us with a copy of the Licence to Live.

One recalls the enthusiasm with which the English have proclaimed the magnificent results of their new devices: the flesh was hacked. in the Indian village of Dum-Dum. estab­ lished a factory for the new deformable bullets . It was asked whether the use of such bullets was not a flagrant infraction of the Geneva Agreement. I would gladly be the paranymph and encomiast of your praises. the English have preferred to admit the relative innocuousness o f their bullets. Up to now our engineers have concerned themselves only with increasing the useful power of firearms. they necessarily involve combat at a greater distance: and so a balance is maintained. and forgot their terrible invention. it is a deform­ able bullet. it should be borne in mind. It is true that. from one point of view. to render unto England an eye for an eye. a tooth for a tooth. placed in a situation of self-defence. If they are more lethal. would appear to have removed the extremity of the envelope of their bullets by abrading them so as to expose the lead. mushroom-fashion. Our own bullet can pierce several bodies placed one behind the other. making a simple flesh-wound. It is said that the initial idea came from their s oldiers in India who. shredded: the wounds were untreatable: their heroic enemies. it contains no lead. the mass of the core is propelled forwards. expands. this deformation is obtained at the cost of the power of penetration. howling and writhing in agony. . and martyr for God. the bullets no longer passed through them. they have yet given no thought to finding a way to aggravate wounds: here is a field for fresh investi­ gation. dean and easily treatable: it would buckle."40 ENCORE. England officially adopted the soldiers' idea and. Today's new English bullet hardly differs. [ENCOMIASTE] ENCOMIAST. given the doubtful circumstances. at least.the perfection of arms inevitably leads to an increase in the number of victims on the field of battle. hitherto so inured to suffering. to save appearances. This recalls the ancient practice of chewing the cartridge to make it more death-dealing. speaking of Jacques Clement. now fell as s oon as they were hit.The Archbishop of Lyon. but it rips it apart terribly. cried: "Blessed confessor. . but they have modified it so as. The English realised they had said too much. their "kiddies ' rifle" as the Affridis called it. In a word. be easy for France. In any case. Among children the word reaches maximum frequency and the sound is of an intense vibration and. But the inventors could not refrain forever from speaking of their discovery. The English bullet remains in the one it has struck. But closer inspection reveals that the anterior part of the casing is empty. In this way. in general appearance. The barometer is equipped with a s ound-receptor and registers all the nuances of the word. frequent. and aggravates the wound. from that used by other European armies : it has a core of hardened lead surrounded by a nickel casing. Others would seem to have made longi­ tudinal slits in the nickel casings. the lead would escape from the envelope.Barometer-word which serves to measure the vitality of different ages and peoples. a dum-dum for a dum-dum. The result is that. They fell silent. The mercury remains at its highest E n ryclopmdia D a Costa 121 . It would. bursts the casing. on striking the target. so disdainful of death. Magnificent! In Europe public opinion was aroused. Does that mean they renounced it? Not at all. on coming into contact with bodies. it is true. smash against the tissues and tear them cruelly. and they have employed all their ingenuity to make them more dangerous. cylindro-conical in shape. alarmed at seeing the feeble effects of their weapon. as it were.

predias trouble themselves a great deal about marians words fallen into disuse.Encyclo­ where. which which is flaking away like dead skin. here a n d there. but the movements exces sively variable. be it only in snatches. in a chance sally. It is by must be does not already exist and that the the very reason of its obscurity that we are able to division of time into past. there . but p o s sible for us to catch. the have gram­ not yet flies up a whole swarm of of us is ready to exchange everything he knows of vaporous expressions. tenuous as to coincide. exactly. from a realm [ENCYCLOPEDIE] ENCYLOPlEDIA . But just as each as yet. from which they brought back thanks to incursions into the future? Words tell him. patois which will enable us to reach where other. but equivalences. not what he is. his present existence is the result of that constantly renewed contribution in prefiguration of his future existence. that which too rapidly becomes not to familiar can come only from an imm ediately embrace everything in a single glance. not Who. revealed to him in advance by words.p oint. as the be invented. we would imme­ contrivance o f mirrors yet to diately become men of more than one time. it is polyglot is a man of more than one country. for him. It is thus that. pres ent. for example. the key. To be sure. never about words still established their p olice. it does of leading u s . succeeded as a what he will be. will deny appear beyond realisation empirically to isolate certain terms already acces sible. But. firmly anchored from behind. without dropping very much. Thus. realisation of the present but foreknowledge of distant lands. We do not chance also they may s trike know all that well what we are. This translation. which is only just escaping stagnation. but trophies. burning to be uttered. the method due s olely to our pres ent incapacity neighbouring zone. in terms o f urgency the analysis of a faded idiom we can catch in flight. It is not with impunity which is not his own but to which a text gives him that one becomes initiated into a foreign language. the language of the since it is by no means proven that that which future is by definition unintelligible to us. if it s eems ambitious disciplines show themselves incapable entirety a language that s till does not exist. more presumptuous to dream of putting together in its of the next village. Place the Adulthood is defined as that age at which the instrument among adults: the s ound will often be gap between behaviour and words becomes s o s hrill. the which. just as one easily learns the we envisage is p erhaps an expedient. butter­ history for a single glimps e of his own future. . the flies study of languages to come s eems to us to surpass s ometimes. and every one 1 22 E n cyclopcedia A cephalica of the future words one pro . perfumes and women. He mimes it The effect of these words on behaviour is outwardly like an actor expresses a s entiment likely to be considerable. By of language. unknown. and future is recognise it. but if i t were s eemingly indecipherable. observing a child. in the manner of a las s o mark your you forehead with a and sign. a short cut. s o much does our agains t vocabulary define us. the discovery of language is not the that the Ancients. Old age as that at which one finds oneself confronted with only one word: death. or at least the reduction to a system of justifiable to envisage the enterprise will app ear foolhardy to s ome. However. fairly Pointles s to make trials in refuges of all s orts and in cafe s : there the reaction of the barometer is nil. by means of a wily language that is yet to come.

1 1. 1862. Christova!Acosta. 13. 7. 1647.[EMPREINTES DIGITALES] FINGERPRINTS. 1947. 1939. 1889. 8. Didio IratymA. 1676. foam Dacosta. Heinrich von Costa. 6. Labriol da Costa. 14. 1804. Agostino "Rebello da Costa. EmmanuelMendes da Costa. 1 789. John Dacosta. Paul d'Acosta. Urie/Acosta. 1879. 5. 9. Jean de la Coste. 1404. Benjamin Franklin da Costa. Manuel da Costa. Gaston da Costa. 1896. 2. A certain da Costa. Margherita Costa. 10. 16. 1. 1586. known as Costa. - E n cyclopcedia Da Costa 1 23 . 1572.ffonsa da Costa. 1 176. 15. known as Gara4 1881. 4. 12. 3. 1838.

for Egypt in search of the Woman-Messiah.. charged with outrage to public morals before the Cour d'Assises de la Seine on 27-28 August 1 832. every means at our disposal is justified. 2. Certain persons. B . it goes without saying. nor the universe in which it will be currently understood. the father: we are beginning to see that there is no duality more important to resolve. by the same token. whose good faith is in no way in question. FREDERIC] ENGELS (FRIEDRICH). and it is beyond any doubt that its scientific value will be measured by the number of future words and expressions to which it affords space. in fact. The message of Enfantin. led by Enfantin.not in ideas (Hugo wrote to him in 1 856: ''You are one of the visionaries of universal life") .. the future word. It has a duty to remedy so striking a deficiency. but which by this very fact retains all its vividness.42 Even if he had to end his days as a man defeated by life . were it to remain totally undeciphered. - [ENGELS. all the premises of Enfantin's activity are aimed at proclaiming the need for a sharp change of direction affecting the psychology every bit as much as the history of societies (if it is clear that this change in direction has not yet occurred. as the saying goes. At the most it is permissible to deplore the harmful influence of radioactive elements on flesh: it is feared among informed circles. and it is not the peril presented by a new weapon that must alarm us. [ENERGIE] ENERGY. our interpretation cannot but be hypothetical. called FATHER). at all costs the Christian anathema on the flesh must be lifted. Germany (1 826). exist. in these two precepts: 1 .none has more supremely. could not fail to exercise an influence comparable to a comprehensible injunction. against all opposition.- 1 24 E ncyc!opmdia A cephalica P. that the corpses will not be edible. the wholly new meaning that glimmers in the distance. the absolute negation) . The meaning of each term.nounces will necessarily break some link with the time of the effective present. - [ENFANTIN. with a violence worthy of a more noble cause. - Born in Barmen. dit LE PERE] ENFANTIN (B. this must at all costs lead to the liberation of women by women (of which the recent so-called conquests of feminism are. a message which all comers have constantly obscured and whose transmission they have. out­ side of any precedent and. in effect. all its vigour." How does it come about that the only man to have tried to act upon this maxim. any etymology. and we cannot claim to verify for ourselves its approximate exactitude since neither the language we are striving to speak. more definitively outfaced the vile political and judicial apparatus than Enfantin. but if a word of traditional magic never provides any access other than to a world fallen in ruins of which it is a vestige. To make such a fuss about so little seems to us exceedingly puerile. But an encyclopaedia worthy of the name cannot trouble itself with realistic considerations. by raising us up towards that which is still intact. Few human adventures are anywhere near as pathetic as the departure of the followers of Saint­ Simon.41 "The eternal feminine calls us from on high. In the absence of any valid lexicon or of any known fairy. The precious gains the struggle carried on by the democracies against Fascism have won us must be defended.-P. Goethe's supreme testimony. obliges us to invent. against the proposed use in the next war of atomic energy. For all that. down to our times. should today be so forgotten that his very name offers an ideal target for every groveller and deviant of left and right alike? The child. celebrated military theoretician whose conceptions exercised a decisive influence on the . died London (1 895). are protesting. is contained. obstructed. nobody is taking it upon themselves to imagine that this is anything other than a case of match postponed) .

We do not allow that National Socialism serves feathers. we know what becomes of it. revelation ought to have robbed him of the very it requires of you perpetually to find again the desire for such a satis faction. reason to live. There is. initial revelation. it fills us to the point of suffocation. But everything E ncyc!optedia Da Costa 1 25 . with its imperative demands. But he bore it as a burden and lightened insensate j oy. without there is nothing more hollow on earth: an empire. It is true that this experience is comprised of for then one would only have to roll over and go two stages. More often than not he looks for is aroused. covered m Indian's without the slightest restraint. like a donkey-driver there. ideals . The experience of universe without conceivable meaning. but be misrep­ that this discovery was accompanied by a truly resented. We [ENTHOUSIASME] ENTHUSIASM. but which is entirely abandoned and forgotten after its masterly refutation at the hands of Messieurs Etiemble and Jean-Paul Sartre. Too alive. - man imposes upon himself tasks. it implies . of a stances willed it that a people followed this route with an implacable logic. an excuse. I am convinced only that it is not confusion. hope of a fmal satis faction to his quest. It forbids you all political action. no its light you are never justified. in effect. What will happen to us. beyond illusions. under some these conditions. This When the passion for the void possesses you. The breaking of a circle in which man's fate is played out is an illusory operation. to be sure. In seem disappointment itself. Nevertheles s beauty is there. Christianity or its lay as a proof either of substitutes. It is against his will that he than what we were seeking.43 - suitable duration. A fairly general wretchedness . can back to sleep. It is a fact the void cannot. Historical circum­ works order. but we have not balked at it. or too oppressed by the weight of you call "beauty?" I am at least as ignorant of that days. probably leads also indebted to him for philosophical and social ENNUI. purely negative. In that the unique foundation of his own values in a he misrepresented experience. better do not imagine we have encountered anything other than that. We know only too well the solutions on offer to us: God or humanism exert themselves in this regard Nocturnal bird. Here we are now in the circle: a nation bases its existence on the gratuitousness of values. he lacking. of a notably the exposition of a doctrine formally known under the name of dialectical materialism.plans of the Prussian General Staff. The human animal at last emerged. duties. And leading his donkey. is in him. of which the first. The result was National Socialism. who rej ect this example and who have encoun­ tered the same void? This paradox is inevitable. and I will bend myself to any contortion considered it as definitively established and then that it should be so. After the helples s as you are. his load by building something the like of which with his unique life. h e could not shut his eyes. conducted himself with the relative good One day man discovered that he himself was conscience an unbroken certitude permits . It is not given once and for all. We are to this con­ clusion and to the consequences which. Lucidity has Beauty is perhaps led us into the void. the passion for the void liberates beauty. he settled down i n his experience. The Nazi was driven back to the edge of the ready to pounce like a beast of prey. What is it void.

protected by the rampart it has set up. one is not unaware.. the honour of his country. the leading nation of the world. is beauty.. "I was thoroughly ready to be a poet. and thereby gave an example of true and profound filial piety. devoted spouses. their only daughter. In this sense Stendhal is the epicier par excellence. develops more freely its frenetic violence. " . incessant efforts exer­ cised upon himself. All my life long. in 1 799. This acceptance does not permit cruelty to be ignored. it revels therein... and it is immediately to be admitted that they are in no way remarkable. but I have learned to conceal all that under an irony imperceptible to the vulgar. There. In renouncing ostensible poetry. to the family of Monsieur de Fondpierre. Pancourterie.. love has always been to me the greatest of matters. thus imitating her mother. as we know. It is made up of five persons: Gonzague and Cesarine. "Nothing is more lacking in him than lyric genius.that falls within your vision is. in truth. the honour of his native village. truly. the sensibility. I was being constantly inflamed. and I flatter myself that I need not press his case. such I still am in 1 836. (see Eloge and Erudition. Anatole and Gonzague. Gonzague senior was for a long time the chief of the constabulary of his native village. I have never spoken of the thing about which I was most impassioned. from her earliest youth a lover of - 1 26 E ncyclop{l!dia A cephalica our Lord. It is only a matter of facing up to the world and.. Stendhal does not thereby in any way distance himself from the sources of poetry. their two sons. I lacked only the boldness to write . who had given up the ghost in her arms.:otte. that sinister bedbug of letters. I was in 1 799. far from suffering under a constraint. [ENTITEJ ENTITY. she was never seduced by the world's baneful delights and. Such. an excellent citizen. in recommendations which he addresses to himself ("keep well in mind that varnish offreddo"44).. Our examination will initially be directed." We know what that mask of impassivity cost him in terms of obstinate.need it be said? . As for Louise. and finally Louise. to the point of the ultimate incon­ sequence of wishing it always for itself. and even in some measure symbolic of those fine French families thanks to which France has become. For . efforts whose slow and arduous progress find expression in his Journal in remonstrances. From the outside his sensibility could appear to be engaged in a merci­ less struggle against his will but we must not lose sight of the fact that the two contrary tendencies always remain in collusion. you are too. or rather the only one . morality and aesthetics. besides.. as is right and proper. logic and justice died with him . of the qualities with which a good constable should be endowed. God dies when man avidly desires his own existence in this real and indifferent world.. he seems rather to be closer to - ." affirms Andrea Suares. The contrary of poet in the ancient literary language. the heir of the virtues I have just praised." Stendhal writes in Henri Bmlard. Whereas Gonzague senior was a constable. he knew no rest until his own had surpassed them. not only does it not reject inconsequence. he was a man filled with good sense and probity.. Cesarine. and as a con­ sequence. When God died. became his bride only a few months after reaching her puberty. Gaston Perdric.) [EPICIER] GROCER. It is never the dupe of its repression. who took the veil following upon the decease of her last lover. his son Gonzague was a soldier. . in bouts of vexation when he catches himself weakening. in short.

them. To cast doubt here upon the reality of his
gifts would be quite pointless. Having been
capable of being a poet - good or bad - the
point is that he decided not in any way to be one.
The Beylism45 which people have, suc­
cessively, sought to make a species of positivism,
an analytical romanticism, a method of conquest,
a flattering complicity, is evidently a dandyism,
but a lived dandyism.
For Baudelaire, it is too often forgotten, the
Dandy is an other. It is fairly easy to seek to pick a
quarrel with him by opposing the aspiration to
dandyism, as he advocates it, to the manifest
failings in his behaviour. But it is precisely these
failings which maintain him in his rank as a poet.
For Stendhal, caught between the ingenious
vapidity of the Abbe Dellile46 and the earliest
reactionary and plaintive romanticism, the poetic
attitude rapidly becomes untenable. In his eyes
every poet is no longer anything other than a
solemn imbecile, a courtier like that Racine whom
he has come to detest. Besides he despises
"charger" rather than "horse." He calls that
hypocrisy. Sentimental effusions, though at their
beginnings, seemed to him supremely ridiculous.
As for "the abominable song of the alexandrine
line," he was still one of the few no longer able to
tolerate it.
But the time for that poetic revolt, the
necessity for which he demonstrated fifty years in
advance, had not arrived. His lyricism, always
present, always repressed, will be caught out only
in brief flashes in the language ("The landscapes
were like bows playing on my inmost being"). It
will before long slip into the choice of situations.
It is here that Stendhal's undertaking inaugurates
the essential attitudes of dandyism by dissociating
lyricism from words and transferring it, not into
acts, which would still be too visible, but to their
The central theme of Beylism is the secret.
Every Stendhalian character (Stendhal included) is

reluctant to express his real feelings until the
moment when, placed in the presence of the
beloved being, he discovers that communication
is possible. Love is a secret society, for two.
No sooner, however, are the lovers thrown
together, than an irresistible force separates them
anew without their being in a position to say
everything and, in their pursuit of a happiness
fortuitously caught sight of, they thenceforth
come up against increasingly insurmountable
obstacles. With Stendhal, as with Roussel, the
lyrical allusion resides in the complex and irre­
mediable mechanism of an internal plot. Every
character, despite the meticulous plans they pre­
pare to take possession of the world through the
beloved, is implacably carried away at the very
moment when they seem to succeed. Stendhalian
love, all the more wildly exalted because it is more
clearly doomed to failure, is an outrageous
challenge thrown down before plausible reality.
Clelia and Fabrice,47 who come together again
without ever seeing one another, but who com­
municate, accomplish this assault against the night
in the most rapturous form.
The poetry of words is not always possible. It
is not even certain whether it is always desirable.
When it dies of ecstasy in Telemaque-style48 land­
scapes, in a creamy universe where the storm it­
self is a sweetmeat, it is then that the anti-poet
appears. Not only does Stendhal detest it, he
exists against it.
Stoic philosopher,
whose name is broken down as follows:
Pie [pick] , curved iron instrument; Picadae
(woodpeckers), bird of the order of climbers,
which pierces the bark of trees; term in the game
of piquet;pique [peak] , summit of a high mountain,
Tete, part of the body which j oins the neck to
the hairy leather.
E, first and last letter of the name, Epictete.

E ncyc!opcedia Da Costa

1 27


Angelica of the Far North, devoid
of flavour but of an unparalleled hardness. Who
will restore to us those windows of spring in the
black night? To the confusion of solar souls,
although for better times. To Neptune, by Le
Verrier's penholder telescope. Emblem of
passional acrobatics. To be engraved by a

To seize
a patient by the right emfle and emarcillate him in
a fixed arstene while keeping the free end of his
pelin a short dis tance from the emorfilator. The
verb is als o used in the sense of dispersing fallions
with blows from a charn.

[EROTIN, L'] .
If, obscure as any denuded of their
mask, evanescent as venturesome rockets, leaving in
memoirs only traces soon dimmed but in other
respects astonishingly durable, inexplicably frozen in
the set and imperious rictus of defiance, the authors
none the less of novels perused with an enthusiasm
which, circumspect though it may be, is for all that in
no way inferior to that which welcomes immaculate
works of genius, there are in the annals of literature
certain beings of whom it is permitted to affirm that
they are yet more mysterious than those Ancients
who only the sword of a legend or the shield of a
magnificent death defend against profanation. Such a
one was l'Erotin, an enigma among the enigmatic,
and whose obscurity appears almost miraculous if we
consider that this writer published no less than 7 1
volumes between 1 89 1 and 1 9 1 0, not counting 4
works presumed posthumous as well as 7 volumes
announced, of which it is unknown whether they
ever saw the light of day.
Faithful to the rules of that literature which
some think to blacken by calling it pornography
- an appellation which, for our part, we are
inclined to apply to all literature, since whoever
speaks of writing speaks of obscenity - l'Erotin
allows himself only occasional psychological

1 28

E ncyclopmdia A cepha!ica

digressions, confining himself to descripti ms of
an erotic nature which specialists praise as much
for their exactitude as for their frenzy. Th �re, all
strange, lies the glaucous serpent of despair,
darting at the nocturnal passer-by in quest nf sen­
sual pleasure its tongue of flame, its ven )mous
tongue into the wind, on which, like a sif;h, the
butterfly of spasm settles. Of literary forms
l'Erotin neglects none, whether he chaos es the
supremely lugubrious mould of the no vel-in­
letters, that veritable Iron Maiden and, lil:e her,
worthy of being exhibited in the muse 1m in
Nuremberg or, on the contrary, adopt� that,
supremely flexible and subtle, of the na uralist
novel or theatre, indeed of the social nov �l. On
occasion, carrying to its height the parm:ysmal
volubility that precipitates the reader in :o the
alternation of systoles and diastoles, while
devoting himself, regardless of the most sacred
pledges the dreary desolation of balance imposes
on the spirit, to the perilous play of prolixi ty and
the deliberate spreading of confusion, l' Erotin
exhausts in a single work, albeit of monu: nental
proportions such as The Epic ef Gerando, the whole
rainbow of shared sensual delights, aga inst a
background of coruscating and lustrous b ronze­
tinted palaces.
dissimulating his i1 lentity
from the insidious . nvest­
igations of literary ustor­
ians, our author delights in
throwing even his most
faithful readers of f the
scent, those who, n the
closest intimacy of their
apartments, have sig 1ed in
blood and in sperm the
diabolical pact concluded between their £ �rvour
and the Word, that pact which no blasphemy
annuls and which is, properly speakin g the
condition, unique, whole and supreme, of all


parapets of Paris .

Pan-pan, Trix, Zephir, Tip-Tap, Clic-Clic,
Bibi, Lena de Maurergard, Fuckwell, A Journalist of the
Previous Century, Mercadette, such are the titles,

contrary to unequivocally expres s ed wishes - the

Let obstinate exegetes, eager to unearth -

sometimes not especially fanciful, wherewith he is


honoured and whose lack of ostentation one

circumstances, take pleasure in an occupation that

would deplore if, for him, ostentation did not

inspires in us only contempt. As for us, our


pleasure in no way lies in disputing with l'Erotin












affirming himself, making himself mischievously

the privacy in which he so meticulously wrapped

elusive while giving ris e in the reader to the most

himself. The very pseudonym by which we most

haunting of habits.

usually know him seems to us rather significant by

Raised characters in purple that stand out
from the vellum like the silvery arm, adorned with

reason of the play on words it contains: Erotin,


- proud bearing - what a challenge,


sumptuous veins, of the drowned man on the

thrown down at the slovenly rabble of writers


who sign their names.


of the



of a

poisoned yellow that swallow up the words like
the deceptive eddies of the s ea, the corpse still


adorned with its rings and its memories, with its

chosen obscenity, recognised in obscenity the






misfortunes and its pitiful human j oys, the waves

presence and the shock of poetry, and, more inti­

permit us to gather, just above the surface of the

mately, the elusive brightness of a star, is not

sand, the admirable titles of certain works, which

worthy to die and their death will extend upon

by a miracle escaped the vigilance of the censors,

earth the industrious anxiety of priests.

thos e beacons whose cold light penetrates to their




consecrated to

sensual delights :

Her Son 's Mistress, The Judge 's
Widow, The Lover of Young Bqys, Mother and Mistress,
The Woman Who Liked Dogs, The Power of Petticoats,
Man-Eater, titles about which it is no doubt fitting
to have certain reservations as much on account








unhealthy curiosities, forever latent in the inmost
being o f the s troller, curiosities that the slightest
caprices of a thought abstracted from reality can







innocently undertaken, along the ancient


shaded by age-old oaks, that line the sweetest and
most enigmatic of rivers, that which bathes the




Outrage committed against Poetry.

Ex. : After having affected an indifference towards
poets which some judged to be offensive, the

Les Temps Modernes



at length published in

admirable verses


congratulating themselves on this happy event
when they observed with stupefaction that

Temps Modernes,


whose high literary tone in other

respects was well known (but does this review
res erve its best attentions for philosophers?) , had
presented a scandalously disfigured version of the
poem by Monsieur Ollivier Larronde. Judge for


At line

1 3: Seule une eclipse desaltere l'astre
au col

Seule une eclipse dtfsaltere l'astre au col

At line

25: Du seulpoivre la plaie stfraphique se gorge
Olivier Laronde

Du seulpoivre laplaie seraphique sa gorge
Olivier Larronde

Finally the signature:


Ollivier Larondde. Sensitive souls were already

Encyc!opcedia D a Costa

1 29

more emetic than that which has been written about Kafka and his work since people began its exegesis. of Klos sowski. vigilance was not found wanting. 1 3. faced with the vast movement of reprobation to which their conduct gave ris e nation-wide. he to believe. and a pack of others who se names I hoax? a stroke of bad luck? or rather. in a minimum of tempted pages and under a delightfully appropriate title. of Marthe Robert. One thinks with horror of the mortal blow so total a corruption of our literary morals runs the risk of inflicting upon [ESCROCSJ CON-MEN. if no mention has yet been made of certain Georg Salter. But what is one to conclude from the note that. put together a collection of the commentaries of Max Brod. as much poses to offer in the near future as a spectacle for physical as moral. He immediately demanded that the poem be published again in its original version.) (See Entite and will be nobody at the first night of The Trial to rain down from the gods onto the intellectuals in 130 E n cyclopmdia A cepha!ica . which note. let him abandon it now.:ois Leger. that man. for long years. in no. Ecuries Mondaines. were obliged to do so without delay. I have no doubt that it are not unaware - will suffice for our purpose. who it would be unjust not The Trial (the work of a the way of life he adopted. At the risk of misrep­ of the nature of the play. with all due respect to certain pedants who make a moment I am giving him this valuable advice: we virtue of their prolixity. - If. was in no way inferior to that of his American edition of parents and. dreams of resuming her rank a t the head of civilised nations . Alas the days of had explosive rages s eem to have passed. more abject. under the pretext of correcting the mistakes committed. after reading these lines. anything more stupid. and Les Temps Modernes. as we are forget. whom we imagine as being engaged in Stupidiry. that are the shame of our the smart and literate public of the Theatre des society. extracted by Monsieur Andre Barrault from The the play Monsieur Jean-Louis Gide pro­ resenting it. I guarantee to him that. accompanies the poem at last restored in its entirety. faced with such crass errors perpetrated at a moment when France. Let him. whoever chooses the career of arms Trial. But in that connection too all The spiritual health of our subj ect. In effect. sews a confusion which is painful and of a nature to render suspect any future publication? Is this a he has in vain imposed upon himself a useles s of the s cissors and a final corrected proof. of Carrive. of Marcel Lecomte. on top of that. Anatole de hopes are permitted.One imagines oneself to be dreaming. or of ever finding. burn the immense card-index in which. At the risk of our plunging him into despair. A few snips prestige. Brief as our survey may be. cannot be exempt from its blemishes. of Groethuysen. rising painfully from her ruins. compiling an Anthology ef Human stands no chance of having found. as if we did s olidly established: which is that his misfortune not already know perfectly well. and there no shameful cause. So let him. he has amassed notes and references . And the same goes for religious orders. without tiring himself. And. Etendard. s omewhere in the world. we must warn him that With the utmost good fortune the author's labour. of Frarn. an undertaking against poetry?49 will have brought together the maximum of texts repres entative of the most stupid infamy that can be dreamed of. His work i s a s good a s over. someone is buckling down to the work of which we are about to speak. at the ERUDITION. The illustrations to the Fondpierre. that is because it was to cite in our roll of honour) would s eem to my desire in the firs t place that my claim be afford us a glimps e of what to expect.

appears as a genius of the rarest and most distinguished sort) was given the privilege of sharing in the life of Kafka! And without understanding a thing! A striking feat.the stalls a flotilla of leaflets printed with this necessary warning: It is forbidden to deposit rubbish on the Kafka. when he is made man and comes down into the castle. Monsieur Carrive. oh why. proposing to bugger them. the total moron who served as Eckermann to Sherlock Holmes. you may well say it. of blind cops. or Germaine Beaumont. but also. What. all the same. it is to write to the girls of the village. - And here is the whole sentence in which it occurs: If however he disowned his work. Splendid. in your world where there's any risk of my running into you. fortunately. after all. here it is: (without ever having said it). and. and never forget it: MAX BROD Posiface to The Trial. there's no place. God remains unnamed and does not appear (or bare!J at all. " with negativity. in obscure allegories). And imagine it: this cretin (beside whom Dr Watson. For. haven't you exer­ cised your interpretative talents on Bernanos. but to see Madame Marthe Robert counting the hairs on the beast of the synagogue is downright revolting..r thought finds itself engaged: Man at grips with the Transcendent. that is to sqy. that he remains unnamed. But that.. it was you made him say it. gives him the right to hold back until such time as he sees fit to release them. the bastard. p. 2 1 . to the very best of appearances. because (without ever having said it) he wished his work to have the scale of his religious preoccupations. with that of Lewis Carroll. has set a cattle-brand on all those. in advance. what a shame there is no God! With what fervour should I have thanked him for making Lewis Carroll untranslatable and Roussel frankly insufferable! How sweet it is to think that Madame Marthe Robert will never turn her attention. which communicates through broad subterranean channels with that of Roussel. independent!J. some unfinished chapters of The Trial. 1. we owe a debt of gratitude to Max Brod for an eloquent admission. himself among them. Ah yes. in some measure the Transcendent. 275. with Kafka. it seems. with that erudition which complements her powerful philosophical culture. to remove two from Amerika. But. it's something to cry over when one sees a certain Monsieur Carrive penning the following pretty thoughts in his introduction to a rather bad translation of The Great Wall of China: Thefragments that remain to us reveal one of the farms of the question with which. Read the phrase in parentheses carefully. of literate warrant-officers. you couldn't understand a thing about him. He has betrayed himself.51 to extract therefrom the Kierkegaardian marrow. to allow himself a few minor adjustments wherever he deems them necessary. as here. But was it necessary for you to force the sombre wonders of Kafka's world. in a particular!J intense wqy. your God. to the Jabber­ wock or the "patter-songs" of Furdet. and. who were going to fall upon Kafka so as to tear him apart for personal and shameful reasons. It is always tiresome and untidy having pigs in one's salon. 50 Ah. Gallimard edition. this was first!J because of certain sorrows which impelled him to se!f destruction and encouraged in him nihilism in matters of publication. who offer so many oppor­ tunities? Admit it. you gang of philosophical cures. Thanks very much. He never said it. in the Nietzschean period of "the death of God. But you really should explain to us why. for he could not often (what! with Max Brod always at E ncyclopredia D a Costa 131 . It is a terrible pity that Kafka should be dead. at a pinch. Kafka '. did Kafka do to you? You never understood a thing about him. 52 All the more so since we never asked anything from any of these louts! The ineffable Max Brod didn't burn Kafka's works. to fit the hatter's block of your stupidity? Why.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Licence to Live Nos. . . . . . Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Licence to Live No . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eye s : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mode of acquisition of that nationality: birth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . at . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Length : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . naturalisation (delete where inapplicable) Family situation: unmarried. . . . . . . . . . . at . . . . . . . . . Identity-card no: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prefect of the departement of. Military Status: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SIGNATURE OF PERMIT HOWER Affix monthly stamp here J F M A M J J A S O N D 1 32 E n cyclopt!! dia A cephalica . . . . . . . . S o cial Assurance Reference n o : . . . . . . . . . .R E P U B L I Q U E F RAN C A I S E Year Liberty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of children (if applicable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Licence to Live No. . . . Nationality: . . . . . . . . . . Profession: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b orn the . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DESCRIPTION Height: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hair: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weight: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Valid for the territory of: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medical certificate n o : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b orn the . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distinguishing feature s : Nose : Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elector's card no: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Egalite . . . . . . . . . . . . divorced (delete where inapplicable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of . . . . . . . Licence to Live No . . . . . . . ___ LICENCE TO LIVE VALID FOR ONE YEAR Prefect of the departement of In view of the decree of 23 May ________ 1 946 b earing upon rules regarding the existence of individuals subj ect to our c ontrol and especially its Article 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FINGERPRINT: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In view of the favourable opinion o f the departments o f health. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Place of residence at time of granting of Licence : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . this document licences M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . married. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . widowed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overall shape of face : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Blood group : . . . . . Granted on condition of the strict observance of the instructions listed overleaf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ration-card n o : . . . C ephalic index: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fraternite ___ No. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b orn the . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . at . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . censuses a n d p olice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . C olour: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of spouse (if applicable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . marriage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moustach e : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

as well as American citizens of colour (by virtue of the Franco-American convention of 28 October 1 946) and all indigenous nationals of the French Union53 can obtain only a temporary Licence to Live. without prejudice to the other p enalties provided for in article 486. Every p erson changing domicile or residence. the p arents' Licence to Live in no case b eing valid in its plac e . Hungary. c omprising nationals of the following countries: Albania. section 1 2 of the Penal C o d e . V. even free of charge. must before their departure have their Licence to Live countersigned by the C ommissaire de Police (failing u.11. Foreigners in c ategory A are subject to weekly checks . within the limits of a departement and who c annot produce a Licence to Live granted by that s ame departement will be considered as being without any Licence to Live. The Licence to Live i s issued for one year only and is not valid unless it bears the control-stamp of the current month . even within the limits of the commune. or who rent him unfurnished premises. which they must h ave stamped daily. Any p erson w h o for reasons o f health h a s b e e n unable to go a n d have their Licence to Live stamped is obliged to provide themselves with a medical certificate countersigned by the C ommissaire d e Police (failing that by the Maire) . Poland. the control C ommissions remaining free to make a ruling not subj ect to app e al if new facts seem to them to justify the withdrawal of the Licence. Facsimile of Licence to Live (left: recto. E ncyclopcedia Da Costa 133 . Parents are invited to provide their children at birth with a valid Licence to Live. for whatever reason.NOTE I . IV. Movements. All p ersons who find themselves . Romania. above : verso) . VI. see Emancipation. subj ect to the gravest penalties. No infant aged more than one week can e scape the s anctions provided for by law if found without a p ersonal Licence to Live. Foreigners in category B . Bulgaria. even in transit. immediately to report any individual whose p apers are not in order. IL The b e arer must at all times carry the Licence. present it whenever s o requested by Agents of the Authority as also to p ersons sheltering or lodging him. to b e carried out immediately at the expense of the interested party. Foreign citizens will in addition b e subject t o deportation. The issue of the Permit does not necessarily mean that it will be validated at the time of the monthly checks. Greece. Italy. VIL Every French citizen not in possession of a Licence to Live or whose Licence to Live is not in order will b e liable to c apital punishment. beyond the limits of the habitual departement of residence will be authorised only after the interested party has obtained a Licence to Live in each of the departements through which they will have to travel to reach their destination. Interested p arties are warned that domiciliary checks will b e c arried out at any hour of the d ay or night by Agents of the Authority. even temporary. III . these persons b eing held responsible to check the validity of the s aid Licence and. a t by the Maire) specifying very precisely the place to which they must go and stating exactly the reasons leading them to effect the change.

that old-world gallantry that i s p eculiar to myself. we do him the kindness the animal. the story The C ares of a Family Man. -J.that: "In Our Synagogue " represents in Kafka 's work a veritable legend ofamnesia. s tuck to Kafka like crab-lice to a but it wasn't me that s tarted it. . The Transcendent (the Emperor and Peking) would appear to be blended into these two Infinities. 1 4: 6. the Family Man is has drawn the argument of the story New Lamps from his experience as an employee of the insurance compa'!Y which. As H. [The beast with Carrive keeps company with J o s eph de Mais tre. p. . However.. of surpas sing himself. as it were. that: J o s eph de Maistre! Kafka ! ! Together! ! !54 One could laugh. just what is that refetee. Monsieur Carrive. after you. the Family Man here is God. is Kafka . . . Kafka lovely head o f hair. pedants who don't understand the usage o f the 134 E n cyc!opcedia A cepha!ica . For the best texts o n Kafka one should perhaps perus e Mademoiselle Marthe Robert's Introduction a la lecture de Kafka. its realism of the Essential. . reads Freud. with its formalism. It's not funny.. See in Metamorphosis. I can only set it beside that eminently useful tome which contains an introduction in French prose to the p oems of Mallarme. . no. My sense o f propriety.Monsieur S choep s as well. . suppose I unearth the formal contents . Madame Richard. c'est la grande pensee oubliee que l'homme a refete loin de lui. Odradek o f course. don't's so pleasant when teacher speaks nicely to her pupils . seeing that Monsieur La Bete a la face monstreuse. By virtue of its antiqui[Y China is contiguous with the very sources of Time. N ote 6 of the s aid preface. l:y reason of its immensi[J. But. Schoeps has pointed out. that's for sure . is the great forgotten one might rather hope that an exhalation of thought man has cast away far from him. leaving that Well. moreover. or go and murder Monsieur Carrive. Madame Marthe. and suppo s e I explain to you. . . . is capable. didn't do anything to them. it commingles with Space. . what I 'm up to at the moment.-J .his side!) have had a laugh. Gallimard edition. .a fart probably . Schoep s . God . or weep. I'm not there's enough for everybody. . . I have them here before me. Thank you for explaining to us . the monstrous face. and. there you are then. laid bare to him the other side of the world of work. the younger generations. . I repeat. the fear of distressing her or suffering her disdain restrain me from proclaiming all the good opinions I have of her eminently concili­ atory work. simultaneous moreover. as regards the Emperor and the Laws of the "Council of Chiefs. . neither what Monsieur de Poiton means in L 'Invite des Morts. don't you think? Ah. He's mine. eh? You really ought to have an idea o f app ending the name o f the ingenious Monsieur . So ma'!Y reasons for the present affabu­ lation. all thes e tight-arsed mine. if you don't mind. . . Thank making any of this up: you. in some! handling such filth.might Anyhow I think that ought to read come and asphyxiate Monsieur Carrive before he But tell me. even the Christian Scientists . a breath ofJoseph de Maistrelj humanity. this generation no longer H. has time to breed. these remarks through which therepasses. these near-biblical meta­ phors. and consequently the late when it Monsieur Carrive! Our courage fails us comes to aside. but how he'd have split his sides reading this: We are well aware of the impermeability of the Chinese mind to Revelation and to all theology. Pending the accomplishment s tick the sacristan's grandfather takes up to expel of that happy cleansing. on the table. . nor the fact tl1at Kafka And that's it . notab!J. " and the revolutionary nihilism of. an honorary Chines e. there are tasks one owes to (Hence.] Joseph de Maistre . nothing escapes her. .

Painter of historical and - E ncyc!opmdia Da Costa 135 . . Having thoroughly stirred up the dunghill of idealism. For him health. one last effort . Kafka '. at once lucid and delirious. or is a political satire: andfor all such questions I have but one answer. there's no mistake about it. there was a moment." All the same. But no . we're almost there.:ois Leger's conclusion to his article FromJob to Kafka (Cahiers du Sud.. This simultaneity isfaith. here and now. bawling out shit at the top of one's voice . I am aware that this haughty retort is well beyond their comprehension. none can over� estimate that which still escapes everyone: health will then be sanctity. alone. now.. now translated into Franco­ Swiss .. and at the same time eternity. one bright summer day.. . The Son brings separation from God. I think I can do no better than to hand over the fork to my very dear friend the Reverend Charles Lutwidge Dodgson. when sudden!J there came into my head one line of verse .. can one . Kafka the existentialist. at odd moments during the next year or two. . without cancellation. when it comes to the crunch. . lzke see. you must first put it the prose of a Master Klossowski.SS Kafka '. Gallifet died com­ fortably in his bed . that being its last line: and so ry degrees. cheer up. Zarathustra. .1ossowskis56 from performing their religious duties57 where they see fit. And there are fifty-three pages like that. .without. and at the same time his possession. and since the Kingdom has not yet come for mryone. . and it will clear the atmosphere: I was walking on a hillside. that being its last stanza. too extra­ ordinary. Admit honestly that to find that in Kafka. for sainthood. faced with the Diaries? Where is it they go to find it all? Where do they reckon to have read that in Kafka? But they churn out their texts.. Periodical!J I have received courteous letters from strangers begging to know whether The Hunting of the Snark zs an allegory. 58 The Penal Col01ry.why not? I undertake to demon­ strate that Amerika (less the two chapters no doubt judged obscene by Max Brod and con­ sequently suppressed for that reason) is the impassioned search for a specimen. . Let him once and for all give the answer to the verminous scapulars cited above. Not a sick man who.Kafka 's expectation? After that it remains only to write an inter­ pretation of Kafka taking as its basis ornithology. " I knew not what it solitary line . Here's a certain Frarn. Man can never sqy he has Faith. then: I know not what it means. in mint condition. in the Father's Kingdom: we cannotpossess God. But he desires health for the full expansion of the resources he senses within him. sin. But there is no law to prevent the I<.word "dream.. I haven't the strength to open the book. Kafka expecting the Messiah. " I DON'T KNOW1"59 ESENPLUSH or ESENPLOSH (KASPAR VAN).. merges f:y degrees into his sickness: Kafka does not admit tragetfy as a solution. Anyhow. and at the same time redemption: anguish. some­ time afterwards. but I wrote it down: and. in my personal life. or philately . of the 1 874 two­ cents Cape of Good Hope. or contains some hidden moral. . those pustular holy-water-font-haunters. the rest of the poem pieced itse!f together. let's dig just once more at random into the heap.. known as THE ELDER. . Kafka the candidate for marriage.. . Does Christ bring to man af!)lthing other than an expectation . and that the lines that follow are beginning to be well known. a'!Y more than we can be total!J separatedfrom him. coincide with the coming of the Kingdom."For the Snark was a Boojum. Kafka the Jew. the rest of the stanza occurred to me.r work in its entirety breathes the expectation of the messianic Kingdom. culminating in a brilliantly senile couplet about Don Quixote and Sancho Panza.r Diaries arefirst andforemost thejournal of a sick man in search of healing. but also the justified enjqyment of health. But they cannot too frequently be quoted. March-April 1 945): We cannot live. I can't take any more.

a corona borealis. Mademoiselle Lapompe However de Beaugremard. par excellence. 1 9 1 6) draws attention to the s tylistic analogies (curvilinear treatment of loose-ends of draperies. its enormous brothels . The Eskimo. devoid of religious intent." We know little . At most it has been tentatively sugges ted that many of their masks. rut in all its power. is the sculptor. and even the use of the various types of Eskimo masks admirable above all others. via Fort Yukon. the first effect of which will be to unleash on the planet. died Hoogeven after 1 649. the ivory-bespectacled Eskimo in the sempiternal snowstorm. To escape religious persecution Esenplush would appear to have fled the Low Countries at a very early age and s ettled in the outskirts of Mantua. Kaiserhauses. might do well to make this their - ." "Old Jonah's" where the native beauty. the sage. Everywhere the puny human systems will fall apart.of the meaning. but none the less having to a certain degree undergone an italo-franco-catalan influence. six months under acetylene-lighting. more discernible however in the geometry of funnel-pleats than in the typology of persons represented."The Great Bear. from antiquity to our times. protuberant eyeballs. diagonal jawbones) that link Esenplush with Rafael Sanguineto and concludes that the two painters are in fact one and the same person. Vol XXXVI . One of the affecta­ tions of the corona borealis will be to manifest itself and make itself felt first and foremost through the windows of the meeting-place of the Leningrad Writers' Committee (cf. poet . plunges us into "forgetfulness of existing in an epoch that survives beauty. Without entirely falling in with the opinion of Mademoiselle Lapompe de Beaugremard. the idol macerated in piss is vainly to be pursued. engraver. 136 E n cy c!opredia A cepha!ica [ESQUIMAUJ ESKIMO. Unless.genre pleces and of portraits. Magritte's painting "A Panic in the Middle Ages") . in a learned study she devoted to Esenplush (jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen allerh. that is to say an immense aurora borealis no longer merely lighting but providing heat. According to some authors it might even be possible that Esenplush and Esenback never existed and that the paint­ mgs that figure under their names in collections and museums might be the work of ] ohan Osenplick..what does one ever know? . have been con­ ceived in such a way as to provoke a reaction on the borderlands of laughter and fear and have been the object of tournaments of black humour between villages. There is no reason positively to despair of seeing born.who. known as the crocodile of Haarlem. 60 Predestined from the start for the future Phenomenon. Europeans. as soon as the earth is exploited beyond the line that j oins Nounivak and Farewell. The works of this artist are often confused with those of J oost Esenbeck. surprised f?y their wives during divine service. Professor ] olilooloo and the Abbe Requin are inclined to recognise in Esenplush an artist from the North firmly attached to his iconographic tradition. Tomorrow the Grands Boulevards. recently affected by a harsh winter. Mademoiselle Lapompe de Beaugremard expressly recognises his s tyle in an altarpiece in the church of San Francesco at Metesila: Magistrates plcrying at cards with womenflower-sellers in a tavern.. born (probably) at Bewewyk about 1 596. gifted to the highest degree with magnetic power and the vigour to eclipse all other specimens of the art of imagi­ nation. is he who quietly awaited the middle of the twentieth century to make the transition from the upper gallery to the first-tier boxes. in conformity with the prophesy.

that is to say the amplitude of the Jqyeux farceurs. It is also essencifies itself since it has no cessation whose astonishment how the church of the Sacre Creur senses it has not subjected to census. volatile substance extracted from books of piety and philosophy. the Obelisk. one and the Eiffel Tower pierced the s ea of clouds like senses.on believes he could Rousseau. . does not happen without accessory offence to that innocent who imagines one assays it in censing knowledge.61 November was complete. it is as well to assure oneself. Henri manner. greates t elevation above the horizon. activated by two artillerymen. The s econd is to les sen. in effect. that that point in envisages using the new means of locomotion for the celestial canopy possesses. unusually opaque.own p erspective. By giving astronomical balloons the shape of a pear. s een from that view­ point. Two precautions are necessary. by lengthening the suspension-cables in a suitable Might last: Might not last the balloon. construct astronomical balloons the Moebius s trip. but it was only 200 metres in depth. Alfr­ angles would not reach twenty degrees. Marcel Du­ champ's griffe volante. the radiant point was not s een except Main forte. in the zone where the According to certain recent authors essence does sky was admirably clear. Although th e heavens the three-toed had been observed from a large number of ai (or sloth). it will be neces­ effectiveness .The bicycle will be employed not only for the dispatch-rider [ESSOR) SOARING FLIGHT. The success of the in which experiment the of 14 Avagadro's number. The first is to provide the aerostat with a small portable electric lamp of at most a fifth of a candlepower to light the draughtsman who traces the traj ectories with­ out depriving his eye of the exquisite sensitivity it acquires in the darkness . Benjamin Peret's stations." Disappointment was general along a band obliquely crossing the entire surface of the earth. at the time of its the transport of artillery and munitions. to establish a precise discrimi­ nation between that which. two standing pricks. the Maxim's Company. If this is not s o. has just sary for the astronomical balloon to be launched carried out in England a very interesting trial: it from a station closer to the equator for the ascent has manufactured a tricycle-cannon. by the lethal resolution of a horary triangle. This. might not last and might last. Monsieur Besan<. a sufficient zenith-distance. [ESTAFETTE] DISPATCH-RIDER. red Jarry's La Dragonne. Arriving. in its One of the most ingenious armaments-plants of our epoch. as far as possible. the hind-carriage of which carries two Maxim guns along with their mount­ ings and ammuni­ tion. &c. aboard the balloon "Alliance. the three aerial travellers not exist. but also to allow detachments of infantry an aerial voyage with the aim of observing a to manoeuvre with the cavalry and augment its tum. Germany. it is said that it occupying the nacelle of the "Alliance" noted with born. radiant point. The weight of the whole vehicle E ncyclopmdia Da Costa 137 . This is a tan­ to be carried out successfully.Before undertaking service. In Paris the fog was Extremely ESSENCE. what we might call the angle of dem-tricycle. . small circle situated about the zenith and which occupies a part of the celestial sphere.

aesthetic activity as it is currently practised. I'd like to talk to you. the first shot fired. the force of the recoil to open the breech. along with the prerogatives of religion and morality. as it wasn't time for his watch and I hadn't been expecting him. One of the most remarkable peculiarities of the Maxim gun is some utilitarian activity. I asked him why he had left his bunk in the middle of his sleep and he said. in proportion to these new obligations. introduce a new one. but not here. He is seated on a saddle fixed to the rear leg of the tripod. in effect. and to aim the weapon. Has inherited. the barrel of the gun is encased in a water-filled cooling-jacket.which can have no end but the life of the emotions . For firing. The prospect of hauling such a weight would cause many a cyclist to pull a wry face. and when he suddenly flung himself on the ground at my feet. But no attention is paid to this truth: "there is nothing superior to intensity of emotion. cap­ tain. To prevent overheating. My first mate is a very tall. even those of political sovereignty." especially if they have re­ sponsible jobs. of advancing along roads at a lightning speed not to be expected of horses. fire can continue uninterrupted and automatically. which can be folded for transportation. I haven't closed an eye for a fortnight. I'd have been quite justified. At last he got up. I went back to sit in my armchair as if I were tacitly giving him permission to kneel there weeping as long as he liked. the gunner having as his sole preoccupation only to keep his finger constantly pressed to the trigger. I wasn't asleep. and the mate and I went down below. The first mate came on to - the bridge. He was an old friend of mine and I tried to make him stand up. at. although nobody has quite realised this. NAVIGATION A LA] NAVIGATION BY DEAD RECKONING . Naturally. An ingenious mechanism utilises. is untenable: the attitude of art for art's sake because in actuality it is the abandonment of obligations. A man who never touches drink! He wept copiously. I told the first lieutenant to fetch me from my cabin if I was needed. He drew me aside against the handrail. and I could see his by dishevelled hair and his puffy eyes that he had just woken up. - 138 E n cyclopredia A cephalica [ESTIME. but we'd been in love with the same woman twenty years earlier and he'd not been quite so lucky as I had. Imagine my surprise when instead of speaking he burst into tears. to my great embarrassment. rather than seized as an exigency. they will have a piece of equipment able to render considerable services and. and fire. very thin man with a dense black beard. "Excuse me. I don't like people to go sleepless for a fortnight on board the "Valdivia. This somewhat resembles the ar­ quebus of former times and its support. once a satisfactory mechanism has been adapted for the system. A single gunner suffices to operate it. But. to extract the case of the spent cartridge. and again he came . I might have lost my in the region of 1 50 kilos. capable in cases of urgency. to my great surprise. [ESTHETIQUE] AESTHETIC(S) . the attitude of engagement because it in fact sub­ ordinates the life of the emotions . What an awkward fix for the captain of a passenger-carrying cargo-boat! But I behaved with great propriety. the piece is placed on a mounting shaped like a tripod." The steersman was in the way. I didn't know what to do with myself." since it is confused with a vitiated taste. all events.

I admit . We shall find out when we arrive. they've even got a little temple with sticks burning in front of it. It must have happened a couple of nights before we arrived. I've been deceiving you. in the dark? Why was I so afraid of making a fool of myself. they can't have eaten it all. the way. and he went to sleep.yellow rats. Captain. but they're there. My only mistake .was not to have told you earlier. They're so cunning! Nobody on board knows about them. dragging along sacks of dead leaves. suddenly. you find yourself transporting China­ men without knowing it. I don't care about anything. I heard them on the other side of the wall. why didn't I dare tell you earlier? Now do what you like.towards me with his eyes downcast and took me by the hand and said: "Captain. But what could I have done all on my own? And if I'd told you it would have been still worse. for sure. live ones. they've chucked it all away. we shan't. he's been asleep for three days now. like a man at the end of his tether chucking down sacks of cement. Captain. and he began to talk very fast. listening." And yet they are there. I shan't wake up in a hurry. That's why Mexican piastres were flying about when we called at Mormigao. or rather. it's hardly the s ort of cabin for a first mate. At first I thought it was rats. And I didn't see the Chinamen embarking either. but neither did you. I swear it isn't. it's true. gaping. That's what life is like. I can't stand the sight of a Chinaman and maybe there are three hundred of them in there. But I walk up and down on the bridge. my cabin's so close to the fourth hold . but it's not my fault. and nobody understands why. though. together with the ship-chandler from Banjoevanjie. And now I wonder how I could have been so long without guessing. For the last fortnight. " I've had the corners o f the tarpaulins lined. with the tear-marks still on his cheeks and on his beard. I didn't see them at it. At least I suppose so. a real horror. if I can help it. Captain. and he'll deny everything. In the dead middle of the night. I'm going to be able to go to sleep and they can burst their lungs yelling the other side of the wall. except the cold-storage engineer of course. but they must have put the cargo somewhere to make room for their Chinamen. even from here . empty coffins for the live ones when they die. the cold-storage engineer will take off his Chinamen quietly and nobody will be any the wiser. a dangerous loony not fit to be first mate on the ''Valdivia. For forty years you're respected by all the ship-owners and then. and I daren't look towards the stern of the ''Valdivia. For the first mate's crazy. And all the Patna rice we had so much difficulty in stowing. two men all by themselves could never have emptied a hold without being noticed. The cold-storage engineer did it all. what are they planning in there. And now the fourth hold is full of Chinamen. Captain. for you'd have had the hold broken open immediately and if those Chinese hadn't been there I'd have been taken for a loony. but then it's not for me to say so. which only goes to show how quietly they must have s et about it. and I can't rest. dead ones in coffins. they've fixed up everything in the hold in their own way. whenever I've not been on the bridge I've stayed with my ear glued to the wall. but on the third night I knew by the smell that came through a crack in the wall that they were Chinamen . and why it took two men each to bring those two on board again. I saw nothing and heard nothing." And that was that! He'd got it off his chest.they're whispering away as fast as they can in Chinese. There's no end to their tricks . And what are they thinking about. when E ncyclopredia Do Costa 1 39 ." I s tared at him . The rice must still be there. "Yes. I shall shut my eyes. It began soon after Mormigao. they were rustling about all night. yes. the fourth hold is full of China­ men.and it's a shocking one. I can hear them the whole time. but they're on board none the less . and the stink's dreadful.

I'll have the hold opened up. on the other hand. After all the first mate never saw them. civil status. an Abschattung. It is plain that the non-state is the only state that can henceforth be tolerated. against this with the least premature assertion and relates estor:gissement to Auseinanderse!Zflng. rises up. It is thus that the state. which was interrupted by the premature death of the author. I shall feel easier in my mind when we've left Vancouver. which initially in no way existed. - That which parents do not wish to tell children. became de facto the state. the woman passenger in cabin six is eight months pregnant and we knew nothing about it. einander (together. Anatole was a man of letters.. and he aptly adds: "The ontico-ontological parallelism of the conatus - 1 40 E n cyclopa:dia A cephalica bases its otherness on an eristic incompletion with regard to the known-knowing-known. government." Whence. the clarification of which about 1 970 would initiate a long series of perceptive troubles and cognitive disturbances? But Monsieur Jean Wahl. [ETAT] STATE. Etym. if men's immemorial experience of the state. Now.nobody can see me. between ether and etui [case. in a celebrated sonnet. but I can't hear anything at all. Perhaps there are no Chinese in the hold. the few examples of non-state. from the tendentious association of two words. p. made up of the words aus (Lat. Nevertheless. - ET CETERA. [ESTORGISSEMENT] ESTORGISATION. [ETENDARD] STANDARD. - [ETATS-UNIS] UNITED STATES. In every generation the Macaw clan bestows upon one of its members the sacred name of "Medicine-Flower" or Etase Zuni. like many others. The desolate tundra that echoes to the laughter of the Eskimos is an impressive example. the winds are against us. holster]. central power. is found etase. It's a terrible lot of worry for one man to bear. but then he manages to hear such a lot of things. act. much later on. and itat civil. a disposition of total cheerfulness among individuals. it is revealing to note that. as Monsieur Jean-Paul Sartre writes: "that which links the anterior with the posterior is precisely nothing" (L 'Etre et le Neant. following Husserl. absence of government. We apologise for being unable to provide any definitive clarification of this term. Souvenirs d'un existence triste. Monsieur Gabriel Marcel establishes a similar comparison when he links the moi orant with the orant itant. a situation. the importance of which nevertheless is perfectly obvious. box. Is it. And I've got nobody to complain to. Literature has always been honoured in France. But Vancouver is still a long way off. with state. The concept of the state has arisen. reduces them to a state. a state of mind. it's all very sad and depressing. less and less bearable. and now I've got to find somebody to take the first mate's watch. and later on. we find the following thoughts which throw a searching light on the sentiments Anatole held dear regarding his vocation: - . 64). would have it. administration. a neologism employed by Heidegger. coincide with a state. In his posthumous work. as Monsieur Merleau-Ponty. ex). and this latter term has by degrees acquired the ineluctable character of a natural necessity. mutually) and Se!Zflng (the act of placing) . with good reason. we're burning too much coal.. manner of being. People have chosen to confuse state. In the cosmology of the Indians of Arizona to the right of ecstasy. For his part. I lay my ear against the wall.

The priest points out to the reverential people the altars where the Lord is enthroned.) [ETERNITEJ ETERNITY. the effluvia. disdaining to be a secret stockbreeder. From this it follows that the poet. prodigiously fine. in contact with the appointed star which. it is the mind of man E ncyclopcedia Da Costa 141 . as a constable he defends it against those wretches who dare take those liberties with it which. against its citizens. those great head-hunters universally famed for their art of shrinking them . as a soldier he defends our language against neolo­ gisms. The aim of the operation was to place the subject. is the veritable Prince of the state. the man of science would. No state merits the name that is not sustained by the con­ joined efforts of priest. there was none that had exercised a greater fasci­ nation over them and that seemingly provoked a more lively desire for possession than pins. their clustered mass. at that period. employed a procedure peculiar to the individual in inscribing their name onto the nape of their neck in the form of a monogram. and thus shed precious light in the seat of thought. and in such a way that many of the interested parties discovered them. constable and soldier.Must be held responsible for a lengthy machination of subtle virulence. constituted the desired figure. [EUCLIDE] EUCLID.Eternity appears to me in the form of an ether which is immobile and. This glorious geometrician. are none the less prejudicial to gallic decency. for their entire life. would protect and guide them. . whose peaceable temperament history ironically reports. which is. who incarnates them in one person. whilst not subject to the rigours of the law. following a singular custom. visible below the epidermis. in the great majority of cases. . a province where. is not luminous. 62 - Roland de Mendebourg was born into a noble family in the Bourbonnais. as everybody knows. would have to pass through the brain before reaching the needles. into the skin at the back of the neck and perpendicular thereto. The nape of the neck was chosen because. as a consequence. seeking out the star that presided over its coming into the world. did not recoil before any effort to compel men to recognise the truth of polyhedra. As priest he fills the chasm between the various classes of society with a sublime song that exalts the secret fraternity of all Frenchmen. [ETHIQUE] ETHICS."The soldier defends his country against foreigners." (See Erudition and Euphoric. every infant of distinction was placed at birth in the hands of an astrologer who.An explorer returning from a long stay among the Jivaro Indians of the Amazon. barely a ligne in length and magnetised at the point. one by one. attracted by the magnetised points. With a perfectly lucid and patient malice. [ETOILE] STAR. falling from the heavens. Being away for a day. by means of its magnetic effluvia. Employing a wary delicacy. Luminous ether I shall call circular mobile and perishable. the most subtle of our qualities. he had been curious enough to leave a great many of these lying about in plain view in his shelter (not without having duly counted them). . with improvised instruments. On his return he was able to ascertain that visits had been incessant: yet not a single pin was missmg (an incentive for an edifying ethnology) . And I deduce from Aristotle (On the Heavens) that it is becoming to write etherniry. thenceforth forever fixed. introduce minuscule needles.which lends a new dimension to the "to be or not to be" of our ancestors . the constable. so arranging them that.told us that of all the objects he had been in a position to present to them. at the end of the operation.

how to find the restricted form of communication he needed. Apart from that. or else. The mind is the place where metamorphoses are metamorphosed: an enterprise such as his could not ignore this. is irremediably delivered over to polyhedra. some centuries later. that is because they endlessly contain their own and identical supercession. in full awareness. chess had an . to cite an example familiar to all. Axioms and Postulates . they would thereby have to call the staircases of the temple columns. was to demonstrate the meanest and simplest of figures . the twelve books of geometry construct. and transform the statue of the god into the door. Euclid's audacity. if. that is. so obvious is the attitude they imply. every­ thing is permissible. not to concede them to him It is to invite them to construct other geometrical edifices in which certain axioms would be changed into signs. Euclid finally dares to name these primitive elements of the 1 42 E ncyclopmdia A cepha!ica emerging fascination. is to have demanded that we grant as true only properties so evident and humble that nobody other than he would have dared to mention them. their own and identical destruction. well before the 1 3th book. by its example all mathematics. This pedant entreats us. a considerable edifice of superimposed levels: the very tree of science. He therefore wrote twelve books of geometry. It is to perceive that only a single necessary condition is sufficient to support the whole geometrical construction: it must not contain a contradiction that would cause it to collapse upon itself. The dear labyrinth of Euclid does not unveil the richer design of Euphorbus before the 47th and last proposition of Book 2. It is probable that he traced out interesting and complicated figures there. T o achieve his ends. "the well­ nourished. The base is at once so frail and so solid that it seems like the dream of a dream. If the mind then. to become a game in all ways comparable to chess. . A logical and deductive form whereby the mind bewitches itself. What makes Euclid's endeavour so propitious is having finally led geometry and. as if in a set of mirrors which Euclid was the first to make axiomatically parallel. tossed into it the ravaging double infinity of right-angled triangles . To demand with such insistence of pupils that they concede to the master as true a small number of propositions which he does not demonstrate is to incite them either to demonstrate them for themselves. Jhe diabolical craftiness of this Greek is to have. none of which treat of polyhedra. but each of which bears witness to his brilliant culpability. reposing wholly upon itself. Euclid's true pupils are the architects of non-Euclidean geometries. if that is not realisable. that words of scandal. Beginning with a few axioms. he knew moreover. that we permit him to draw a straight line between two distinct points. In "truth" it 1s the sole nourishment that suits them. in effect. To turn Euclid's thought against itself allows one to understand it properly. The considerable ambition of Euclid. by rigorous logical deduction. Legend has it that Euphorbus. Who would have had the impu­ dence to refuse him that request without being thereby removed from the company of geometricians? Poetically unveiling his method.that he has sought to deliver over as nourishment for polyhedra. In the domain of the mind. of dis­ respect and insolence are emptied of meaning and realistic usage." was the first Greek to have traced out some shadows of geometrical "Ideas" on the sands of Ionian beaches. The absence of any secret and transparency of procedure are the essential conditions of his tenebrous artifices.

with the aid of a finite which is infinite. The problem to of the realisable be games. Which plainly shows that he mus t construct his infinite ches sboard at the same time as he teaches himself to play correctly. would be to find realisable in the theory two contradictory propositions . lines and planes. s eated at the geo­ metric chessboard. it is true. of the manipulation of a finite language. cannot suppressed. It is curious and meaningful the problem of non-contradiction again poses that this first part of the method should be readily itself for the metalanguage. Thus. signs written on paper. that is to say recognisable necessary in its tum to transform the syntax.infinity of pieces and. speaks of the syntax and not at the level of the in its modem form. It consists. as a consequence. He does not accept that the game should at any moment be "given" to him. only one translation method offers itself to the player's pride: the syntax. To get the better of this problem. Striving towards that trans cendence he wishes unique and inevitable requirement is to be able to play each determined game without in any of them encountering a wall reflecting its own derision.p oints. on the other hand. divers e . to the finite conduct of the game. form s olved. language. that one could play without knowing the rules of the game. and it is indispensable to show this . This infin­ mind an infinity and a confusion from which ity there is no escape. This new Tower in an infinity of of Babel introduces into the transparency of the ways . in effect. of two contra­ dictory propositions. be but Until 1 929 the majority of axiomaticians it is not an ob­ believed however in the possibility of a radical stacle finitude. " But and possible moves . The study of the different correct sentences of this language. as it did for the initial practicable and fruitful. he can manipulate only a finite number of obj ects with certainty." it should be shown that such a catastrophe will never take place. a simultaneously to reduce and create. into a finite number of signs and number of rules of the game. The signs and the rules of the game constitute very exactly a language which makes the geometrical universe a discourse. These symbols rules of the game. It must be treated in the same way. it is number of symbols. pronounce reasonably only a finite number of words. which he would have infinite. but. roughly speaking. We The infinite reappears in so far as the signs can be then see metalanguages and the metasciences they manipulated define indefinitely superimpos ed. which would be devoid of interest. What makes Euclid's endeavour so infernal has finally led to the present situation: the player is a finite being who knows and wishes himself finite. The s ole obstacle. The logical rules that make u p part of the game have as a consequence that. Which means. thus to formalise that syntax replace without ambiguity the infinity of pieces into a finite and manageable "metalanguage. it results that both propositions are true and both are false. for such a game to "exist. is thus posed in a discourse which basis of Euclid's constructive thought. did not exist. The It was hoped that the metalanguages might be amenable to being translated into a unique and E ncyclopt:edia Da Co sta 1 43 . of non­ its axiomatic formalism whose origin is precisely the contradiction. The pieces in the geometrical game are not. he neverthele s s insists upon playing and winning all the games pos sible by methods entirely trans­ parent and finite. they are not finite in number.

since he never deigned to greet her. the cattleman's wife. and in that at one with all the boys of the village.devoted to the praise of some boxer or other �mong his acquaintances would free him on the spot from any thought for the morrow. . The eulogies to mathematics contained in Les Chants de Maldoror are not alien to the work. Human acts are desires. What is more. His concierge regarded him as a god. that any metalanguage is infinitely richer than. Soon married.simple language. Anatole. in the syntax of a language. intentions to have . 63 This theorem is the result of efforts under­ taken to find what. The failure should be interpreted as both the condition and the meaning of the game. then the demonstrable absence of a proof of non-contradiction no longer leaves the geometrical dream based upon the dream of that dream. he entered the literary life of Paris the hard way. (See Etendard and Examination. to isolate him so strangely. for the mind. The rigorous desire for an absolute trans­ parency is transformed into an abandonment to the night. I am particularly anxious to stress this point as proof that the falling out of his hair was the cause of his moral downfall. This is decisive: the mind cannot seek to close itself in upon itself without being swept away in a vertiginous destruction. In this way he spent ten years.) [EVAGINATION] EVAGINATION. were pub­ lished in all the reviews. Now it seems proven. not without reason. as a liberating time-bomb? 1 44 E n cyclopadia A cephalica [EUPHORIE] EUPHORIA. and it is timorous to wish to limit its destructive power. modern to the tip of his sex. candidly regarded love as an abomination and held that that sentiment was prejudicial to pleasure. If the truth of polyhedra is to be a game of signs devoid of meanings other than those deriving from the structure of the rules of the game. he found himself short of money. by chance. wavy and sweet­ scented. And then a theorem of mathematical logic came upon the scene to scupper the hopes of those who had not appreciated Euclid's true greatness. After his divorce. It is to believe in God to think of Lautreamont that he might have been the first to deposit a time-bomb in the human mind. Monsieur Anatole de Fondpierre incurred the blame of no party while his hair remained magnificent. the articles he . a fierce and respected democrat. his life was spent between the fashionable bistros and publishers' offices. inversely. Is it not encouraging to recognise that the structure of the mind is such that any device placed in it . the saturnism of which was praised by specialists. it must be remarked that he drew no attention to himself until such time as he began to lose his hair. and when. Deflowered at thirteen. and as irreducible. as much at his ease as he pleased. who had the bad taste to love him. A poet of some standing. by Madame Pilou. he was quickly divorced from his wife.The eyes are cortical evaginations. .It surely suffices to glance over the fragment earlier to be persuaded that Anatole de Fondpierre had in mind nothing less than to ride roughshod over the fine tradi­ tions of his family. was expressible in the lower formalism of the language. as the initial it even a pure mathematical crystal . The truth of polyhedra coincides with the infinite liberty of a player whose finitude is at that point so insurmountable that only the demon­ stration of that finitude escapes him.should finally reveal itself. thanks to the good offices of the famous dramatist Jean Cocteau he was soon famous in his turn and his poems.

Agri­ Detailed study of these prices highlights a cultural workers have a different measure to fix serious underestimation of a human cadaver in the price of wheat from that of major producers. Every part of the body is evaluated in figures. already difficult as regards - Said of a achieving an advance over Catholicism. threatens to be prejudicial to world markets . organisation. eyes. who was living until he died. a disciple of the Protestant theologians Kierkegaard and Karl Barth. so many customs. eunuch) . in fact. . mixed beforehand with tar. removed while speaking to anybody. An amputated leg is What woman has had the idea . legs. we arrive at the price of a portable crematorium. take into account the difficulties to be surmounted in preventing the sharks from con­ suming that wheat. the component parts come from Nothing is more edifying than a study of the Social Assurance catalogue regarding the price of woman? man in his component parts . Efforts the right. then. - all stable and regular currencies. The evaluation of the price of agricultural products varies these same along with the destruction of products when their abundance chromium-plated microscope. E ncycloptl!dia Da Costa 1 45 . The sum obtained for the los s of the made at contriving to regularise the fluctuations right eye falls far short of the price of an up-to­ of values have remained fruitless. The instinct of revolt is thus canalised towards socially inoffensive ends.) manufactured price. On the other hand. it is difficult to equipped with a rear-view mirror and regulation estimate the exact value of Evaluation. . while looking at a man or a fish. Contrary to The loss of two legs is worth a 250cc. but also that for fish. lungs. more or less hasty. kidneys etc. sexual character of his skin. arms. What man has had the idea of having the secondary products such as wheat The most contentious evaluation of all is that of man in his component parts .sexual relations. Why. All things included.Man. The left arm is evidently not as valuable as stability renders evaluation superfluous. of his eyes. In the like workers injured in industrial accidents. with living creatures and obj ects. nalled by radio to the Chicago Stock Exchange religion which still passes in certain quarters as and the price of wheat immediately rises by a point. Nowadays. the fact is sig­ [EVANGELIQUE] EVANGELICAL. All women have hundreds of sexual relations with women and men in the course of the day. As soon as a convoy on the high are not worth the price of a few kilos of lime? seas has succeeded in j ettisoning its cargo of wheat. for the los s of two eyes one could acquire a self-adjusting So many countries. The appreciation thus created is scarcely in keeping with the effort expended. date microscope. the value. Evaluation. This is the same notion that we find laicised in Heidegger. lights .. All men . of his voice (speaking a or becomes excessively problematical when it con­ event. cerns creation's crowning achievement . price o r number of things . grain­ the prices of scrap-metals. . Estimation o f equivalent to a bicycle with a spare inner-tube. which would bring about not only a fall in the market for wheat. One should. is it that the These latter have at their disposal an ultra-modern remains of a man. motor-cycle [EVALUATION] EVALUATION. . This results from the disproportion between supply and demand. which merchant or speculator on the cereals market. relation to (Major realise more than fifty per cent of their newly producer = great landowner. In fact the notion it opposes to totalitarian paternalism is that of a mankind free but irremediably damned.

� . Irrumate. Recommence. 25. Gallivant. 24. Lesbianise. Pedicate. Ensnare. Accost. Urticate. . 26. 1 6. Cunnilinguate.. 13. 4. .. 1 4. 1 46 E ncyc!opcedia A cepha!ica . . 20. Yonirise. . 9. Jismify.:.3 5 � � . . 2 1 . Burgle.. 17. 6. Waggle. Violate. 1 0. Tup. 22. 1 2. Occult.. 5. Zoogonise. 2. . Fuck. Quench. 27. 1 5. 3. .. 19. Ream. Syphilise. 1 1 . Nidify. Xiphoidify. 7. Harass. 8. Deflower. c ��. 27 [EROTISME] EROTISM. Masturbate. Kink..1 . . 23. . 1 8.

Such is the ill­ freedom as a s ort of day off work and strolls nature of men. "Resolved to bear up agains t misfortune. my forehead pressed to the windowpane. stupidly around gazing into the empty shop windows of what is s elf-evident. so maj estic under the carmine-bordered shawl of fine days. . . not long ago. we owe this testament was assuredly qualified to convey every nuance of despair. "That morning was very overcast. rolled my first cigarette.Nothing is coffee to boil. were barely visible in the fog. above was him: in Souvenirs d'une from which the passage quoted taken. it seemed to me a grave voice was whis­ Collection EVIDENCE. to ask him to read you dirty­ toothed. between two that it finds itself before an absolute that cannot an empty stomach so as not to have time to be transgres sed. and it must be recognised that consciousnes s . On the other hand. . It never completely had mixed a small quantity of gunpowder into my forgets its previous role as a s ervant. the Venus 's comb. and with a trembling hand that I E ncyclopfl!dia Da Co sta 1 47 . I rolled myself a second cigarette and waited. for my [EXAGERATION] EXAGGERATION. Philos ophers. called in the trade the all was the ray of sunlight which. I always smoke on and. . When I memnonites' Fan.this is a habit I formed in my adolescence when I feared I might consists precisely in having no more conscious­ not know that bitterness which is the condition of nes s than one wishes it to have . with the result that I had scarcely lit it respect owed its former masters. inadmissible to tell the truth. Absent above "Thus it was hesitantly that I approached the washbasin. the most dramatic of all moments is the subj ect of an extremely beautiful page. however. . say "to be. another. When it is a serious matter. rightly. The pen to which essential to the poem I was conceiving. . nor the tobacco. the bitterness ness that was threatening existence triste. an uncertain light reigned over the city and the proud and gloomy brows of the women selling violets. hard-won though it was. to fatal day when Anatole became aware of the bald­ which allusion has just been made: and it was brush my teeth. you will surely be delighted to read it.At length came the would be dissipated. one so beautiful that I cannot deny myself the pleasure of copying called ironically since its role delude myself regarding life . I doubted it was wise to demand too much of the reader. employed.Shell of the pecten genus. . had gilded the portrait of General de Gaulle pasted to the mirror above my washbasin. " I slowly slipped my feet into my only too all deep thought: unfortunately a practical j oker willing thus to p ersuade itself. of appearances necessary to maintain the world as it is. an account at second hand aims vainly for exactitude and it is not to be compared with the original. I feared. awoke. endives . It is one thing to demand of him complete attention. the word "truth" tends to be pering in my ear this sibylline word: Endives." donned my dressing-gown The essential thing is to persuade consciousness sighs.[EVENTAIL] FAN. thoughts : I was not certain whether I should [EXAMEN] EXAMINATION. for all that. and it uses its when it exploded in my mouth. a doubt was sowing disorder in my exaggerated.

4. Lovers are warned that they j oyed. my stupefaction? What words are capable of conveying my horror. RACINE. According to the moderns. - That which goes beyond an ordinary limit. I effusions. do not think ill of me if I keep it a secret. thry alwqys punish you with the excesses thry cause you to commit. . endlessly concluded. open-mouthed in dismay at my image.-]. quickly repressed. d'Ephr. Liv. CORNEILLE. p. At the deals moment when despair was dashing down my question.seized the tube of toothpaste that slept. Le Cid. Such are the blessings of poetry: though blows with which one has frivolously skimmed its they be on the point of perishing. my despair? I stood there. the excess of only one is a threat to all the rest: things which are not spoken of. And. it always offers surface. 5. III. wrote a possess each other without belonging to each falls immediately endlessly under called in a tacitly long p oem on the vanity of things human. results became aware of a subtle change that was taking purely and simply from pathology: place in the skies. I wished to address him a sort of morning prayer. The rain was no longer falling and the sun was showing its ruddy face through the clouds . How to express. quietly shaded by the silvery necks of the taps. allowance made for a few romantic I contemplated my misfortune in the mirror. I was bald. hardly marked at all by the cation. one which sufferings . words were rising to the surface of my with the world: Who knows indeed.) [EXCES] EXCESS. on account of a couple of overworked 1 48 chosen-ones something E n cycloptedia A cephalica to palliate their . in all haste." (See Euphorie and Exempte. prestigious and sonorous words. bloated with mediocre perfumes. on the marble slab. Our literature alreac!J concerns itself to excess with these matters and recent!J Jean Schlumber:ger right!J deplored the place love occupies in it. Iphigenie. The excesses to which human beings abandon themselves regarded of rationalism.. Excess is also a source of comic effects: And alwqys from one excess you throw yourself into the others. CORNEILLE. in which my image was painted. Over­ respected interdict. V. 29. In the face of such a disaster one can but stay silent. "The noble countenance of General de Gaulle attracted my gaze. 4. suspended between my distress and a hideous incredulous laugh that was forcibly wrinkling my lip s . which. Interviews Imaginaires. N. all excess becomes a n assault one directs against oneself: Sanctijj your passions as you will. My heart began once more to beat: like fish issued from the depths of the southern seas. With the progres s must not on any pretext be divulged: there are "After s everal minutes of stupor. just as Michael Kohlhaas64 does not its hesitate. ROUSSEAU. ANDRE GIDE. N. a miracle! Poetry was saving me. who knows if the angered heavens have been able to tolerate the excess ef my happiness. By virtue of a similar principle. 2. Alzjre. during which are reprobation by the mysterious powers that govern in excess. I. seemed manner of a hired mule which must be returned to me. "I shall not dwell upon the turmoil into which the discovery I had just made threw me. the body one embraces never being any­ embellished with thing other than loaned by the world after the a few thoughts which had occurred to me about the atomic bomb. all things considered. but at that precise moment I know not what demon caused my eyes to settle on the mirror itself. a common measure: An excess ef pleasure makes us whol!J languid. . I fell upon my pen and. Every excess leads to crime. Tartuffe. Intense as might be the pain the recollection of that most melancholy of moments causes me. ]. thought. Le Cid. 6. 3. otherwise than with three suspension-points. VOLTAIRE. worthy of publi­ in good condition. So it is that every state that does not amply make room for daily life and its hurly-burly of memory. Classical good taste condemns excess as an impropriety: You displqy a grief that ver:ges upon excess. other. MOLIERE.

Finally. entitled The Vendome Column? . That was by no means his only worry: a police-spy noticed that Anatole was no longer voting. decayed teeth. from the young poet of genius he was at the time of his first flight. because. and decided no longer to ask him to write fulsome articles for them. especially to a sensitive soul. . all the more intense since she claimed to have long been the victim of his contempt. thoroughly offensive as regards his person. nobody any longer mended his shoes. to complete the horror. and that it is to this strange sentiment that we are indebted for the fine poem to which he alludes. this is often the case. there succeeded a timidity which presaged no good. according to some of the best commentators. Shut firmly in his quarters. if it does not seem to deserve to be made a fuss of. For all E ncyclopi:edia D a Costa 1 49 . However. amputees'-stumps. Metal rod terminating in a ball. I fur­ ther flatter myself that my reader is now persuaded that the only way to forestall other downfalls. at the risk of being the cause of France's ruination. However. as you are aware. The exciter is brought into communication with the natural reservoir and the fluid is transmitted by the intermediary of the instrument. A word to the wise. (Baill. They found it odd that.horses. How is one not to notice. musical. in the twilight hours. was fobbing them off with empty promises. As soon as the euphoria had passed. rhythmical. that which we know. suspecting that in secret their virility was not to his liking. after he quit his paternal roof. This was occasioned by his baldness and by that alone. displayed towards him an inex­ plicable hostility. became. Anatole was thenceforth the subject of many a threat: his mail abounded in anonymous letters. every contravention of the rules of measured. He no longer showed himself at the cafe. From time to time. a madness aggravated by frothing at the mouth. [EXCITATEUR] EXCITER. transcendental and courtly love is punished by the plague. 65 It only remains for me to tell of the moral downfall of Monsieur de Fondpierre. . serving to draw sparks from an electrified body which one wishes to discharge without receiving a shock.This did not last. dementia praecox. Anatole de Fondpierre found himself face to face with his new misery: an unbearable spectacle. although elections were . is that the periwig be restored to favour. Witness Rimbaud who. I flatter myself that nobody will dispute this. Anatole no longer ventured out in the daytime. a false beard glued to his chin.) EXEMPT. that initially he defended himself therefrom by euphoria. . wrapped in a grey overcoat. similar to this. he spent his time meditating on the wretchedness of his fate. it is none the less frequently distressing to its victims. in passing. from one day to the next he should cease keeping their company. always offering by way of a reason a cold which excused his being present at fights. his concierge who. no digressions: only the most sober of narratives can do justice to our subject.Soon Monsieur de Fondpierre was the prey of the most terrible anguish. Such was his misery that his literary production suffered grievously: he reached the point of writing only one poem a day. However. those of his friends who went in for boxing did not know that he .as always important and the big-wigs of all parties had let it be understood that all available votes should be cast in their favour.Pf?ys.This magnificent text was no doubt written shortly after Monsieur de Fondpierre had lost his hair. used to venerate him. put-out eyes. which shows that baldness should not afford matter for hilarity and. he would wander about the city's most melancholy streets. After the splendid impertinence of the balmy days. his eyes gleaming behind the smoky green of his spectacles. to unleash a massacre.

and even the French flag. wrote: "If one could avoid inadvertently exposing one's own troops to extermination. (See Examination and Eloge. It was then that the difficulty came to light which was in the end to prove insurmountable. According to official estimates.that. as they say. pederast. which made it possible for him to mock at his ease any flag whatever. when approached. But changing uniforms. His whole dignity therefore depended upon his hat. finally he became a pederast and in this way accounted for the lack of politeness he displayed towards women. They are covered indistinguishably in leaves and mud. And that was the final step. armbands or flags is an elementary ruse. General Comte de Caprivi de Caprera de Montecuculli. he might have purchased one of those splendid wigs which are. on the whole war would offer only advantages. From this short account I conclude. spiritualist. Any deep incursions or. barely appearing in public and. out of an excess of ardour.) [EXHALAISON] EXHALATION. he would utter obscenities. Anarchist. so it is claimed. or ordinary clumsiness. that there is only one way to 150 E ncyclopcedia A cephalica save these men. Anatole soon joined the anarchist party. But Anatole bought a hat. Anatole was prejudiced against wigs and shared his prejudice with his contemporaries. a reputable general will in the course of a campaign of medium duration.. It was a matter of finding a way of removing it only in the privacy of his room. and was the reason why Monsieur de Fondpierre. Position in itself has ceased to constitute a convincing item of intelligence because sudden movements of motorised units make it no longer possible to know for certain whether the enemy is in front of one or at one's rear. In his Memoirs. must not the first principle of the military art consist in distin­ guishing friend from foe? Unfortunately." And. The hat on his head. For that reason it frequently rebounds upon its author.. to take it off was to expose himself to the gibes of the first comer. inattention. and that is to return the wig to its former favour. and I believe the reader will share my opinion. previously. in addition he became a spiritualist and claimed. Anatole seemed a young man with a great future. a torment Anatole was above all things anxious to spare himself. in fact. indeed the secret agents. raids into enemy territory bring with them analogous risks: is one not going to do away with precisely those prisoners or hostages one has happened to cap­ ture. In fact his habit was to haunt obscure corners. a consummate strategist. he was supported by certain persons at the Trois Obus who had caught sight of him in one of those questionable cafes which. too weak to bare their shame in the public gaze. he had made it a point of honour to ignore. That was not all. spies and sycophants one maintains at great expense and without whose action no victory is henceforth conceivable? The conclusion to be drawn from - . that there was no call for him to uncover for a box in which there was nothing but a handful of ashes. we massacre our own and miss the adversary. he had forgotten all human respect. touched the bottom of the cloaca of baseness. Chancellor to Wilhelm II after Bismarck. when a coffin went by. If he had not chosen to smirk at them. What is more. so as to be secure from ridi­ cule. so well made that even an expert is incapable of detecting them. it is not unusual that. and which for all that is not with­ out its merit. The rest is easily imagined. uniforms tend to resemble one another since their principal object is to merge into their surroundings. It is seemingly in vain that we endeavour to limit such regrettable errors by agreeing upon signs whereby belligerents can no longer be mistaken for one another. but he had only to remove it to be no more than an elderly nonentity who turned out bad verses. He had reached rock bottom. elimi­ nate two thirds of his effective forces. . despite his brilliant antecedents.

because my brother or my cousin do not have the same odour as myself. However. to reverse the proposition. which the eugenists likewise dream of reducing to a pure communication at a distance. That one might be able to recognise somebody by their odour does not astonish us: we know that our dogs recognise us in this way. the future of war is linked to that of love. the combatant will remain the prey of a paralysing perplexity. whose point of impact. in each case. often helpless to prevail over the noise of the waves. which a glorious tradition has once and for all determined. to unify their odour. an inventor at the end of the last century envisaged the replacement of lighthouses. as a consequence. their sense of smell with an appropriate regime of training. By providing the projectiles with a E n cyc!opredia Da Costa 151 . What. to achieve this end. which must be made selective. some have been led to study closely the resources offered by odours as recognition-signs. for practical pur­ poses. often hidden by fog. As far as war. they are immediately shocked and irritated by the unusual odour of a stranger and punish it with death. But a more complex problem remains to be solved: that of projectiles.66 It suffices. Among mammals the individual variations are too great. even after many months of separation. Anxious to avoid maritime collisions and runnings aground. to tell the truth. By applying with an increased rigour the rules of military discipline it is perfectly possible to sup­ press the individual variations among soldiers in the same army and. would point out to mariners their proper route. be eliminated. the vigour of his morale and his fighting capacity will be reduced. whereas keenness will be increased. are not troubled by it and. It had already been grasped in high places that modem strategy was well on the way to becoming dispersed into confusion and abstraction. are the possibilities for exaltation in a war in which the blows are exchanged blindly? The importance of this question has not escaped the vigilance of General Staffs. Among the numerous scientists who have given their attention to this problem. the odour of the newcomer does not concern them in the least. Indeed one asks oneself whether the appearance of new. with smell-buoys which. that is to say his entire personality. one may by degrees teach them to reco­ gnise each other even in the darkness. to seem essential. whatever their appearance or dress might be. Like it or not. by means of a special perfume. to prudent minds. In this way the chances of mistakes will. Here again we could usefully draw inspiration from certain scientific undertakings where applications have been crowned with success. it is important that this contact be re­ established at the earliest opportunity if we are to preserve for conflict its stimulus and its raison d'etre. accustomed to their special odour. long separated from them. On the other hand. pay no attention to it. and sirens. more particularly. mechanically directed projec­ tiles. By drilling. But the experiments of Huber and Sir John Lubbock on ants have made it possible to establish that. But my dog does not recognise my brother or my cousin without ever having sniffed them. does not mark the end of the offensive spirit. that is to say sensitive to odours. when one presents them with one of their sisters. the element of physical contact continues. actual effect and ultimate destination still remain indeterminate. A man's personal odour provides a precise indication of his quantitative chemical nature. there exists a famify odour by which ants from the same nest recognise each other. The import of these observations is plain. Let us emphasise that what we have here is not a phenomenon of memory: ants from the same nest.this preamble is evident: as long as we have not discovered the means of immunising ourselves from our own attacks. individual variations being as near as may be nil. on the other hand. is concerned.

the electric chair did not work. 68 . It possesses. wholly distilled from the exoniroses of French womanhood). . VOLTAIRE. kille d a pharmacist while robbing him of four dollars and a second-rate watch.Assiduous priest at the Divine Service or puerile corollary. EXONIROSE. 1 June 1 739. The impeccable organisation of individual existence is the basis of any serious community. that is to say the most vulgar form of ostentation. also called rose de songe. Rosaceous plant. C'est une piece d'amour. EXPIATION.. . flowering for preference by night or at dawn.Willy Francis. Lett. on the contrary. is in the last analysis determined by the merit and the probity of those who have conceived these theories or systems and those who apply them. EXISTENCE. which had been fixed for 3 May 1 946. as well as the superfluous. From then on the pleas for clemency on behalf of the adolescent multiplied. or a hero to obey those of society. the curious property of reviving after having been dried. which is God. adopted the prescribed odour) . by its laboured clazomenae. no longer exploding and scattering death at random. To be recognised. according to Ausonius.sort of olfactory organ. Cueillons l'exonirose au matin de la vie (Let us gather the exonirose in the morning of life). The time is therefore not so far distant when. 69 . 1 52 E n ryclopredia A cep ha/ica It is within the power of anyone to organise their existence. Definitions of this term vary according to the degree of premeditation each of the partisans of this method advocate. . but the appeal . render them inoffensive to friendly and allied soldiers (those having. was condemned to death. exuding a white latex. under his two aspects. EXIGENCE..For some time now there has been a lot of talk about a managed economy.A kind of hymn or song intoned at the end of meals. Let them consult the model fixed once and for all by the Ten Commandments. But the efficacy of any system or theory having as its object the production and distri­ bution of the necessary. it will be relatively easy to direct them at will towards an enemy whose odour will act as a magnet or. LAMARTINE. and young Francis was taken back to his cell. dream rose.Bot. Only the individual who is capable of imposing upon himself a plan and who carries it out with a meticulous rigour wins the right to establish plans for others. On the day of his execution. au pr. it is an exhilarating adventure in which one daily reaps new material rewards. Everything is clear if one aspires to become a saint in order to obey the exigencies of God. 67 EXOLETE. thanks to a previously established international agreement. aerial torpedoes will come and settle amicably beside the combatant isolated in the night. de Pr. But suppose God. . rqy. An existence thus regulated is never drab or routine. 2nd Meditation. what are the supposed values in whose name one stubbornly persists in governing or governing oneself? There remains only the inward exigency which impels the indi­ vidual to offer himself as an example. like the Rose of Jericho or .. like fraternal messages launched across space. collapses. [EXODEJ EXODUS. The exodus was gay and frolicsome.It is easier to define moral exigency than to justify it. at the age of fifteen. a young Black from Louisiana who. the executioner and his assistants happening to be drunk.ifrose. but the spirit also finds its share. tout distillie a l'exonirose des dames franfaises (It is a lovely thing. On the contrary. Not to be confused with the dog-rose or rose cochonniere.

the belonging bandit made there?" The question anthropomorphic. five have side the prison to await news of the execution. saving your and numerous trained specially dogs was reverence. most of them white. that of the hundred divinity's friendship. declared that he in question had been awarded to himself: had he was tired of living in a state of anxiety and wished not accomplished a brilliant victory over the to go to God. the production of a certain herd place in them. advances possible and This is the disappointment occasioned by the desirable. I shall not dwell on the persons. faced with the Truth. he realised that. is wanting and that. You are free to find fault with my success. they do not hesitate to make number of facts having been achieved. - Nobody is most honourable. struck no longer fulfils this role. as After he had deprived God of the privilege of well as his observations. which he was declared Almost dead. After a year's delay his wish was Almighty? When the momentary commotion had granted and he sat down in the electric chair at six died down. flag. At ten past six had lost his most precious illusion. they have so little influence that. which once was the [EXPLICATION] EXPLANATION. possessing the Truth. and a liberty to make some observations and to assign shameful alliance between Progress and Truth has to them a significance which. near Verlhac-Tescou. conclusions. now unaware of the adverse situation of the devotees that he must answer for the disorder which he of Truth. who had escaped. man had so high an opinion all bearing the stamp of Encyclopmdia Da Costa 1 53 . has become his shame. if he three opened fire and Wazelewsky collapsed. the scientist represents the human mind and this role. The same day. he was at use of the most suspect of worldly illusions. man. he o'clock (G. a dangerous murderer. was regarded I certainly do not presume to explain the rea­ as a valid interpretation sons for this. willingly or unwillingly. d'etre. but there is one instance I can point which made new out which I flatter myself is not lacking in interest. is to recognise that the unit of machine-guns measurement itself. at the same time. from the pose that my reflections are worthy of your prison at Montauban. if I speak. organised at about appearance. I am not answerable to you. 111 rema111g about the mansion eleven-thirty "Who goes unanswered. Today. s ome twenty armed peasants chosen to run this risk and that. uruverse. it must be added.) on 9 May 1 947. Willy of himself that he knew no rest until the privilege Francis had. To recognise that it is his not.M. I do not necessarily sup­ two.was finally rejected by the Supreme Court. not to cease to merit the confidence the vulgar In days gone by. clude is for his forbidden him.T. To be sure science is not Wazelewsky. to That was an unprecedented defeat which the Monsieur Prebasc. so as slips. the subject of every other poem. as they say in their barbaric vocabulary. and the the police-officers s ent in pursuit of Stanislas delight of philosophers. the hopes of already long been the conversation of pedants. if nothing sub­ been celebrated. aged twenty­ my line and. were crowded out­ metaphysical consequences of that loss. A posse comprising eighty gendarmes. raison In his laboratory. into his experiments. after a long chase. science loses its down by seven projectiles. to con­ dis covery of the paltry place man occupies in the . audacity. his feet shackled. were at last crowned with attention. sequently intervened to refute him. but you are answerable that I have forty-five inspectors. A police­ scientists endured when they hauled down the trap was laid in the grounds of the mansion and.

523. thry condemned it to perish and had it exposed ROLLIN.are none the les s obliged to reco­ When this result is obtained.which. anc. As Act far as I'm concerned. on condition that. in man affords matter for laughter. likewise consoles gnise that it is the reason the disorder they wished a splendid satis faction and a legitimate pride. in return for RICHELET. never­ EXPOSURE/EXHIBITION. Plaid 7. although it is rather unlikely that the disfavour of the one may not immediately entail that of the other. In the same way certain individuals this s olution . are now suspect. contingencies of chance. Deformed children are exposed as a that he is in no way deprived of the right to form matter of preference: experiments. the charming simplicity of certain persons who. - And even his instruments. But it quite common herd distressed at the lugubrious aspect often happens that none of the passers-by pass supposed triumph. he shows they are not subj ect to the If thry [the Spartans} found a child malformed. the artist experiences of the modern world. Hist. Oeuvres. unlikely as it may seem. It is entirely up to you to beg for mercy. and thus it counts as two. have equally been vigilance constantly been on the alert. The this is an apotheosis . defended against criticism by a multitude of than a stopgap adopted for the lack of anything custom by which they place their works before better . and if thry judged it would not be healthy and strong. How come? In vain has their abandoned to the passer-by. that this moment they take posses sion of the abandoned the works. We note. everything that humbles thoroughfare: The exposure ef children is cmel and customary among Christians. I am not a humanist and. it would regularly to repeat this exploit for him to achieve signal for that very reason the inauguration of the fame. I often ask myself why Vol. receive the title of art-lovers . 1 54 E ncycloptEdia A cephalica . He who exposes is then the tangle of observations is inextricable. it matters little to me.his personal genius. the works thus placed leaving the scientists who . to avoid by this expedient is today pretty well at which is easy to understand since the work he has its highest point. though. And any obj ect of religious ceremonies called private views number of problems are insoluble only because in the course of which he personally exposes him­ the answer is lost in the labyrinth of documents. LE MAITRE.perfectly inevitable though they passer-by who prefers to pass them by impassive. hold it to be . enthrone foolishness. In order to expose without pause or repose. in actual fact. p. 7 1 theles s the unfortunate situation in which science [EXPOSITION] finds itself is rather diverting. they mental without its triumph being celebrated. is no more called artists (see entry for that word) have a hypotheses. the exposure is double. dismal as mankind's destitution might be. I can't help it. something abandoned by the latter. perfected organs. self to the vermin. It suffices for an artist by s ome wonder the list were complete. reign of confusion: what am I saying? the reign of some even propose to the poor that they pose: confusion has already long been with us. the consolation of the for an art-lover. always escapes it and if. I will certainly be tax�d with cynicism. abandon their works to passers-by who. like the dictator Sulla70 when he abdicated his dictatorship. at the It is far from being the case. In other words. are thereby blemished with inexactitude. crazy as they might be. but take care that the universe does not promptly avenge itself on your vanity which allows you to believe that you merit its deference and respect. II. If the scientist of abandoning a child on the - public consents to resign his prerogatives. as soon as reason falls into disfavour. delicate and weak. by way of parenthesis.why everybody says it's so marvellous : the eye of the public when these are particularly no mention is made of the science called experi­ distressing or ridiculous .


Bird song being, as we know,
of Orphic origin, it is perfectly legitimate to
consider it as a properly human means of
expression. What, in fact, would remain of it if
men did not exist to hear and interpret it? True
bird song is that which the poets (sic) untiringly
sing but, among those latter, daring innovators no
longer hesitate to substitute for classical
paraphrase in plain language a literal transcription
according to the principal principle set forth by
Charles Dickens in the Animal Alphabet. In this
way Lenz has noted eighteen different songs of
the chaffinch, to which he gave distinct names.
Here are the main ones:

1 . The Schmalkalde reduplication: tz!tz!tz!tz!
tz!tz!tz!tz!tz!tz!tz!tz!mrenttzaipiah, to/o/o/oloz!sss-cout­
z!ah. This song is, as we can see, interrupted by a
pause and ends in a ringing manner.
2. The piercing song of wine: tz!tz!tz!-wi//i//i//tih,
dappldappldappl de wingihai.
3. The unpleasant song of wine: tzitz!tz!tz!-lli//i1/r//i//i.[}ib.[}ibg·b[j iwihdrai.

4. Pine-oil: tz!tz!tz!tz!tz!mreZP'oifZP'oifz?voifz-oijfih­
5. The crazy happy-new-year: titititititi totozai­

subject of sparrows. These creatures, chatterers if
ever there be such, utter a dieb, dieb when flying,
and schlip, schlip when they are perched. At rest, or
when eating, we hear a continual repeating bilp or
bioum is always audible. Durr and di, dz; di are their
cries of tenderness. Terr, pronounced forcibly and
rolling the rr indicates the approach of a danger. If
the danger increases, they utter a cry which can be
noted: te/terelte/tel. When the time comes for fights
for possession of the females, the males emit the
sounds tel, tel, spli, de/, de/, dieb, sch/ik etc., which
pour from their throats in a noise often deafening
and disagreeable.
This notation of bird song is very difficult to
understand. It is, however, very widespread in
works on ornithology. We give here a few
examples which are of interest in showing how
birds assemble letters.
The tree-creeper pours forth a vivacious tsigtsig, tsig-tsig.
The missel-thrush: trai-trai, trai-trai.
The magpie: plieu, plieu.
The amorous chaffinch sings: tchi-tchi-tchi-rah-i­
ts... iu. To which the female responds: si-si-si, and
together they repeat trr-trr-trr.
Cry of the female oriole: yoo-yio-yo-o.

6. The happy-new-year in Harz: tz!tz!wi//wil­
7. The common happy-new-year: tz!tzitz!tziwi­
8. The common cavalcade: tz!tz!tz!tz!mriht­

9. The cavalier: tz!tz!tz!tz!tz!tz!zullu//u//-ioqob­
10. The glass: tz!tz!zeutzeuzeuwo//i//i//i-woftz!ah.
Certain remarks have also been made on the

E ncyclopcedia Da Costa


The male oriole begins with hi-de-lu and
continues hi-de-lu-a-i-a.
The song of the nightingale was noted by
Dureau de La Malle thus:

Tinu, tinu, tinu, tiau
Spretiu, z-qua,
Querrec, pi, pi,
Tid, tio, tio, tix,
Qutio, qutio, qutio, qu '-tio,
Zquo, ZfiUO, ZfiUO, ZfiUO
Zi, z!, zi, z!, z!, z!, zz;
Querrer, tiu, aquiz.i pz; pi, qui.
As long ago as 1 787, the journal Les Affiches de
Sen/is had provided this phonic reproduction of
the nightingale's song:

Tiuu, tiuu, tiuu, tiuu,
Lpqy tiuu zqua;
Tio, tio, tio, tio, tix;
Qutio, qutio, qutio, qutio,
Zquo, zquo, zquo, zquo,
Zi, z!, Z!; zi, Z!; z!, z!,
Quorror tiuu zqua pipiqui.
Spoken by an Italian, this imitation is, it seems
remarkable. Professor Isidore Isou is a past
master at this kind of exercise.
Sensibility in a pure state,
deprived of any intelligible element, reduced to
the condition of a sewer in which rapidly flowing
waters converge (but the sewer is a bottomless
chasm); sentiment of evasion and of infinite
hilarity in which absurdity runs riot and abandons
itself, with its contrary, to instantaneous
exchanges which go astray in space. Joy that is
insupportable, useless, impossible - and joyless.

1 56

E n cycloptedia A cephalica

On the night of 23
October 1 8 1 6, the cure of Lignan and others,
being in the room of Marie-Ange, who was in
ecstasy, heard the kisses imprinted on her lips by
Our Lord and Our Beloved Mother and recorded
that each kiss produced a small quantity of fluid
which Marie-Ange swallowed. When she had
swallowed a fair quantity, the kisses continuing,
she allowed some fluid to escape from one corner
of her mouth. The cure then approaching, he
gathered it up with his finger and swallowed it.
When he had swallowed a fair quantity, the kisses
continuing, he gave a lick thereof to each person
who was in the room. The kisses continuing, and
the fluids still escaping from the lips of Marie­
Ange, the cure had the persons who were in the
kitchen come upstairs; all tasted it and found it
delicious. The cure soaked a white handkerchief of
Rauen linen in that fluid, which I possess, along
with relics of Marie-Ange ... The kisses beginning
More ardent than ordinary kisses, the loud
kisses the young girl received were often each
accompanied by a pretty bon-bon. It might be
said that never had a saint been seen or known to
have received from Our Lord and his divine
mother so many kisses as Marie-Ange! As the
letters she received said, Marie-Ange was the
veritable spouse of the Song of Songs: is it any
wonder, then, that she received kisses? We should
rather see in those kisses the irrefragable proof of
what the letters affirm.
One day in July 1 8 1 7, at Cazouls, in the room
of the cure Monsieur Julien, we were eight persons;
Marie-Ange was in ecstasy, and we heard the
kisses on her lips. We approached, and we saw
that each kiss produced in her mouth a bon-bon
the size of a pea. She received nearly a hundred.
When her tongue was covered in these, Marie­
Ange extended it; and what was our astonishment
at seeing those bon-bons, of all colours, set out in
line in an admirable manner.



Thefirst supplemement to the Da Costa, published in February 1948, began with this unsigned text.

There is perhaps some point in devoting a few lines to an enterprise today fallen into
abeyance: the Da Costa Enryc!opedique. Its most grievous fault (there were plenty of others) was no doubt to
be founded upon a fairly uncompromising anonymity. It took the risk of having done with those
signatures which flaunt themselves on every picture and at the end of every text, to the point of
constituting, de facto, their sole exchange-value. That programme was undoubtedly far too arrogant, and
the position it indicated was soon judged untenable. The collaborators in the Da Costa Enryc!opedique
before long reckoned themselves more directly conspicuous in their anonymity than the late Monsieur
Valery, present at the Sorbonne at the elucidation of his own verses. Was that once again the finger of
God, the eye of conscience? Each of them wound up considering himself personally responsible not only
for what he had written but also, equally, for the entire enterprise and the corpus of misunderstandings it
threatened to engender. It was a perfect outbreak of scruples.
How can such a warning be regarded as negligible? Let us then set out this principle: one signs an
article in a review, less to pride oneself on being its author than to distinguish oneself from all the others.
For that reason only a qualified anonymity will be observed here. We put this backsliding on record, but
let it not be imagined that one is so easily let off the hook as regards the anonymity that remains the most
stirring of watchwords, the only one capable of inciting us to pronounce, come what may, the final
rejoinders in a dialogue that is coming to an end.



(Translators & Order of publication) :

All translations are f?y Iain White except those indicated f?y
*: Annette Michelson, :j:: Dominic Faccini, if: John Harman. This list gives the original order ofpublication of the texts in
Documents; volume I appeared in 1929, volume II in 1930.

Volume I, no. 2: :j:Architecture, :j:Nightingale; no. 3: Absolute, �aterialism, �etaphor; no. 4: Black
Birds, Man (1), Eye (1, if2, 3 & 4); no. 5: Camel, Cults, Man (2), Misfortune, Dust, Reptiles, �alkie; no. 6:
*Slaughterhouse, *Factory Chimney, Crustaceans, Metamorphosis (1 , 2 & *3); no. 7: Spittle (:j:1 & :j:2),
Debacle, Formless.
Volume II, no. 1: Space, Hygiene; no. 2: Pensum, Threshold, Work; no. 4: Benga, Aesthete, Keaton,
Pottery; no. 5: Bonjour (Brothers), �outh, *Museum; no. 6: Angel, Ju-ju, Kali; no. 7: Skyscraper, Sun.

The Related Texts appeared asfollows:
Volume I, no. 4: -,rcivilisation, *Human Face; no. 6: ifBig Toe; Volume II, no. 1 : :j:Gunshot.

The Da Costa is translated f::y Iain White exceptfor thefollowing entries, which are f::y Alexis Lykiard:
Eglise, Ejaculation, Erotisme (A to Z), Evidence.

Appendices, Notes

1 57

He then published the first text bearing his name: a six page pamphlet entitled Notre-Dame de F." Bataille wrote. GEORGES BATAILLE (1897-1962). - GEORGES AMBROSINO (1912-1984). In 1920 he spent some time in London. - Critique and was a guiding informant to "is also largely the work of Ambrosino. where he met Bataille. of the College de Sociologie.) Georges Bataille was bom in Billom. As a philosopher he displayed a universal curiosity. It says nothing about the agony of Bataille' s life or his experience of the impossible. a small medieval town east of Clermont-Ferrand. In 1921 he met Breton and joined the Surrealists.heims. Boris Souvarine said of him: "he was at the origin of my relations with Andre Breton and his entourage. Ambrosino wrote scientific articles for Bataille in the writing of The Accursed Share ("1bis book." To eam a living Baron became a merchant sailor. The father died alone the following year. when his family moved to Reims in 1900. He took a lively interest in the problems of translating into French the concepts of psychoanalysis. He was a dreadful student at the the founding members of the Grand ]eu fycee in that town. the school for the study of ancient documents. and fled with her son to her remaining family at Riom-es-Montagnes. He left the Auvergne at an early age. the second son of a syphilitic father who had gone blind and was to become paralysed. He left the Ecole with a brilliant thesis. this being the period when Bataille discovered the works of Nietzsche and of Freud. became one of the editors of Documents and joined the Cercle Communiste Democratique. Caillois and Klossowski. and to the reader wishing to receive that message I recommend his works. �: Malcolm Green. The Russian philosopher had a profound influence on Bataille. :Mme Bataille left her husband when the town was threatened with bombardment by German artillery. with Bataille. and even instructed Lacan on Hegel. Gilbert-Lecomte. Rene Chenon. He thought of taking up an ecclesiastical career and in 1917 enrolled at the Saint-Flour seminary where he spent one year. Andre Masson the painter. where he met the philosopher Henri Bergson. In 1916 Bataille was called up. He broke with Breton in 1929. At this time he also started lifelong friendships.(Biographies): All biographies are l?J Dominique Lecoq except those indicated 1?J *: Alastair Brotchie. Le V�age en Grice. Critique sociale and Minotaure. some memoirs. - L'Allure poetique. then with Michel Leiris. In 1937 he was one of the founders. :j:: from information provided 1?J Michel Waldberg. first with the ethnologist Alfred Metraux. From 1923 to 1925. JACQUES BARON (1905-1986). Along with his fellow-pupil from the Cercle Communiste Democratique Lycee Chaptal. he joined the Contre-Attaque. He published many collections of poems. But he gave up the seminary.") Baron started early as a poet: he published his first poems in 1921 in Aventure and participated in the Dada movement. and fell in love with bull-fighting. and Theodore 1 58 E n ryclopo:dia A cephalica . Vailland) . Ambrosino devoted himself to the study of the atomic structure of Commissariat a l 'ener:?Je atomique. and a novel. but his illness caused him to be definitively rejected by the army. and moved to Paris where he entered the Ecole des Chartes. L'An 1 du Sumalisme. he was close to Leon Chestov and worked with him on the translation into French of his book The Idea of Goodness in To/st� and Nietzsche. He then took part in joined the secret society Acephale. then a radio-journalist. He relied on literature to transmit its sense. APPENDIX III. and after its dissolution. and became an archivist/palaeographer at the Bibliotheque nationale in 1922. matter and worked with the - A physicist. La and collaborated on such reviews as (Note: 1bis biography concerns itself only with social references. After the war. In 1914. In the same year he was sent to Madrid to the Ecole des hautes etudes hispaniques. and a visit to Quarr Abbey on the Isle of Wight put an end to any idea of a religious vocation. the fycee where some years later group came together (Daumal. among them Charbon de mer.

He wrote Le Coupable. Bataille was a member of Boris Souvarine's Cercle Communiste Democratique. They had one daughter. He reacted with implacable hatred towards Bataille which he maintained up until his last writings (in 1 984) where he inveighs against him as a "sexual lunatic. He met Maurice Blanchot "to whom he was bound immediately with admiration and agreement.rychologie collective which included both anthropologists and psychoanalysts. though they were not officially divorced until 1 946. The editorial board brought together Georges Bataille and a number of dissident Surrealists." He became ill and left the Bibliotheque nationale in 1 942. took part in the creation and organisation of the Societe de p. The two couples continued friendly relations based on mutual esteem: Lacau invited Bataille in the late fifties to contribute to the seminar he held at the Hopital Saint-Anne. as was the practice of those days. In 1 958 Bataille made one last attempt to start a review: he put together a contents list for Gencse with the help of Patrick Waldberg. Critique des Jondements de la dialectique hegelienne. First a text entitled WC.. and L'Histoire de l'oeil. In 1 926 Bataille underwent an analysis with Doctor Adrien Borel: it was brief. . In the course of the fifties several works appeared which Appendices. absurd medieval poems). a pamphlet directed against Andre Breton. That year he published Le Petit under the pseudonym of Louis Trente. From 1 934 he followed Alexandre Kojeve's famous lectures on Hegel. whose manuscript he destroyed. which was published in 1 93 1 with illustrations by Andre abbreviation for Aux chiottes. His meeting with Andre Breton resulted in mutual hostility. In 1 934 Bataille separated from his wife. Laurence. a priest!). In 1 946 he founded the review Critique which is still in existence and he published in its pages numerous critical articles which were collected in several of his books such as La Part maudite or Le Litterature et le ma/. he could at last write. he kept apart from the Surrealist movement. with whom he had a daughter. writing articles for scholarly reviews such as Arithuse. L'Experience interieure and Madame Edwarda which was published in 1 940 under the pseudonym of Pierre Angelique. among them Theodor Adorno and Walter Benjamin (whose manuscripts were hidden by Bataille in the Bibliotheque nationale during the war). with Raymond Queneau.! [On the shit-hole]. Bataille was active as a numismatist. In 1 93 1 ." In the mid-thirties. The following year he founded the secret society called Acephale. then moved out of Paris to Vezelay. des Sciences et des Arts. In 1 928 Bataille married Sylvia Makles who became a famous actress (she was directed by Jean Renoir in Une Partie de Campagne.. then L 'anus solaire. they further collaborated in publishing Un cadavre. In 1 929 he was one of the founders of the review Documents in which he attempted the impossible: to put official science up against texts that radically questioned it The review was closed down by its owner at the beginning of 1 93 1 . born in 1 930. or La &publique des Lettres. but dissolved in 1 936.Fraenkel. Notes 1 59 . he started a liaison with Colette Peignot who was then the companion of Souvarine. and contributed to the review La Critique Sociale where he published important articles including La notion de depense and. Colette Peignot's death in 1 938 shook him for some time. and with Leiris and Caillois set up the College of Sociology which assembled some remarkable minds. published in 1 928 under the pseudonym of Lord Auch . and Georges Bataille appears as an extra in the film dressed as . Julie. Alongside this black erotic writing. Apart from one single anonymous contribution to La PJvolution surrialiste (a transcription into modern French ofjatrasies. That year." and an "acephalous writer fixated on an apparently cosmic anus. Sylvia then married the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan and Georges married Diane Kotchoubey de Beauharnais. Bataille began an activity imposed by the danger of fascism: he created the Contre-Attaque movement which was joined by Breton and his friends.. After the analysis. but the publisher Maurice Girodias cancelled the project. who became a highly-regarded psychoanalyst.

translator. When his father died. Between 1941 and 1945 he was Ici Londres: Les Voix de la liberte." unlike most of the other ex-members of the English group and. he is buried in Vezelay.Boiffard began medical studies. he turned to La I\ivolution surrealiste. That same year he was abruptly expelled from the Surrealist movement after taking a series of photographs of Simone Breton. the official group having ceased activities in 1967 which he had helped to organise. his illness and then death prevented him from taking up. collagist. . and Le Mort. 1949 he became librarian at Carpentras. then in 1951 at Orleans which he left in 1962 for a job at the Bibliotheque nationale. and received financial assistance from Georges­ Henri Riviere and the Vicomte de Noailles. led by the Prevert brothers. and various other English authors and playwrights (Pinter. but died on the eve of the Exeter Surrealist exhibition of several hundred articles on aspects of cinema under at least half a dozen pseudonyms. *JACQUES BRUNIUS (1906-1967). as do the shots of Paris taken in 1928 that accompany Andre Breton's Nadja. Carroll. In the thirties. and translator of art books (from English and German into French). Two further books appeared posthumously: Ma Mere. JACQUES-ANDRE BOIFFARD (1902-1961). indeed. Un cadavre. he contributed to appeared in Documents. He lived in Paris and London alternately after the war. He dedicated himself thereafter entirely to Surrealist researches. but died in Paris on 8 July 1962. in 1935. and remained loyal to Breton's faction during the "Carrouges affair. he had managed to finish Les Larmes d'Eros (1961) the last book published in his lifetime. which he broke off in 1924 after a meeting with Andre Breton arranged for him by Pierre Naville. actor. Author of In the late fifties he made futile attempts to revive Surrealism in the 1947. with Bataille. Contre-Attaque with Bataille and Breton. Boiffard then specialised in radiology: it was to be his last relationship with photography. a friend from his youth. His best known photographs Boiffard then joined forces with Eli Lotar. Suffering increasingly badly from arteriosclerosis. which was its author's first commercial success. He wrote a biography of William Beckford and a study of Lewis Carroll and was a prolific translator of Saki. which Bataille ran out of money and was forced to take up employment again: in however. and Manet. He lived in London from 1940 and ran French programming on BBC radio. radio broadcaster for the BBC. Participated in the in ':Amis de Monde"with Henri Barbusse. and also Lascaux ou la naissance de /'art. and he was also the English editor of the exiled journal and publishing house the broadcaster and author of the radio programme Fontaine (Algiers).Poet. the Da Costas. cineaste. Boiffard was a member of the the Association his doctorate Octobre group.. and showed his work in the exhibitions of des Ecrivains et Artistes IUvolutionnaires.An architect by training. . His photographs of Nancy Cunard date from this period. JACQUES CHAVY (b. such as L'Abbe C.had been written earlier. . The two photographers set out on a world tour. UK. the Cercle Communiste Dimocratique with Boris Souvarine and Bataille. 1912). Le Bleu du ciel. the pamphlet attacking Andre Breton. a time of hectic political conflict. Brunius was active in the Surrealist movement from the thirties when he worked in the cinema with the Prevert brothers and contributed to Minotaure. 1930. Leiris. then in the secret society Acephale and the College de Sodologie. In Limbour et al. participated in the work of the preface to the first number of Bureau des recherches sumalistes and wrote the However. He had planned to re-work La Part maudite. he resumed his studies and gained in medicine in 1940. accompanied by a rich Spaniard: the venture was a flop and came to a halt in Tangier. Dylan Thomas). He was the managing 1 60 E n rycloptEdia A cephalica . photography and became Man Ray's assistant. in Provence. He continued as a broadcaster on the French service of the BBC until 1963. not much attracted to literature.

the first two being available in English from Atlas Press: Deuilpour deuil (1 924). In 1 936 he left for Spain where he fought with the legendary anarchist Durutti Column.editor of the review Aciphale and contributed many articles to Critique and the Da Costa. apart from co-editing Documents. he joined Bataille and Documents and was one of the authors of Un cadavre which attacked ''le boeuf Breton. A lover of music. He published many novels. he collaborated on J olas' Transition. .A fellow pupil of Ambrosino's at the Lyde Chaptal in Paris. There he met Bataille. and he became friendly with Artaud. La Revue d'Allemagne. Dandieu contributed to many reviews: Documents. interrupted only by five years captivity during the war. he founded the movement Ordre Nouveau. . and therefore of American citizenship. In 1 9 1 9 he co-edited two of the most political of the Dada journals with Grosz. and also Hemingway and John Dos Passos. . who introduced him to the Paris Dada group and to Andre Breton. CHARLES DUITS (1921-1991). Mouvements. where he died of exhaustion following typhus a few weeks after the camp's liberation. His "cubist" novel Bebuquin.. wrote a major work on Braque and the screenplay to Jean Renoir's Toni.. La "Revolution sumaliste. ARNAUD DANDIEU (1897-1933). La "Revolution nicessaire (1 933) to which Bataille contributed anonymously. He wrote for many reviews. He was active in the Resistance during the war.One of the most important writers and art/literary theorists of his time. ROBERT DESNOS (1900-1945). Dandieu also published a collection of poems and an essay on Proust. epistemology and sociology. published in 1 9 1 2. born in Paris of Dutch/American parents who had emigrated to the USA. then Terezine. La Liberti ou /'amour! (1 927) and Le vin est tire (1 943) . No tes 161 . was highly influential for Dada and illuminated his call for an end to the realistic or psychological novel.A writer. and was arrested in 1 944 and deported to Buchenwald. He died prematurely. and Varietis. He met Bataille while a member of Souvarine's Cercle Communide Democratique. He met Breton in New York during the war where he had returned to study at Harvard. which denounced the vulgar materialism at work in liberal societies. and a memoir of Breton curiously entitled: Andre Breton a-t-il ditpasse. He published one of the first monographs on African art. The two men published a book-length manifesto entitled Le Cancer americain. and of cinema. He was an active member of the Surrealist group while remaining a journalist on Paris-Soir. interested in philosophy. . RENE CHENON (1912-1993). . and left with Bataille to become a member of Acephale. Negro Sculpture (1 9 1 5). of complications following a minor operation. In Paris. including Litterature. " His career in radio began in 1 932. His role in the Da Costa was important since he did not hesitate to re-write various texts in order to accentuate their provocative nature. he wrote many critical texts on film as well as numerous scenarios. After splitting with the Surrealists. periodicals that fiercely attacked the spirit of the Weimar republic.Primarily a poet.Dandieu initially studied law and became a solicitor's clerk before taking up a post at the Bibliotheque Nationale in 1 925. which he abandoned for France in 1 928. Esprit. especially jazz. including erotica. his first works appeared in 1 9 1 7. La Revue Mondiale. and his Art ef the 20th Century (1 926) was equally important. with Robert Aron. In 1 930. but also Europe. psychopathology. a second followed. Picasso. two years before he met Benjamin Peret. His principal publications include various poetry collections and three novels. Rene Chenon followed a career as a professor of mathematics. �CARL EINSTEIN (1885-1940). with whom he had many discussions: deeply Catholic. He was arrested for his part in the civil war on returning to France and committed suicide in 1 940 when he Appendices.

Lebel first met Breton in 1 930 but his involvement with Surrealism really began in New York during the war. MICHEL LEIRIS (1901-1990). in which he played a major role until his death. In the course of the mission Griaule encountered the Dogon of the Bandiagara cliff-faces. Robert Desnos.Having taken his baccalauriat in philosophy in 1 9 1 8. and left in 1 930 to become the secretary-archivist in the ethnographic mission Marcel Griaule led from Dakar to Djibouti. with Bataille and Roger Caillois. Jean­ jacques Lebel. Georges Bataille. . backed by Rivet and Riviere. . meme in 1 957.. in addition to gathering ethnographic data. ) was born in 1 936. and written his first book. . He was active in the movement until the late fifties. he led from Dakar to Djibouti. entretien avec Ogotemmeli (1 948). Meanwhile he had married Louise Godon. Aurora (published in English by Atlas Press). he was a meml:ier with Sartre. step-daughter of Picasso's dealer Daniel-Henri Kahnweiler. a painter. he was especially close to Duchamp and wrote the first monograph on him. travelled in Egypt and Greece. *JEAN FERRY (1906-1976). turned ethnologist. 1 950. Andre Masson. Along with his activities as a research-worker with the Centre national de la recherche scientifique. starting in 1 93 1 . he was actively involved in the events of May '68. This experience furnished material for the unclassifiable Afriquefantome (1 934) .A linguist by training. a book which brought about the definitive break with Griaule and which was pulped in 1 941 on the orders of the Vichy government. Between 1 921 and 1 924 there came a series of decisive meetings: Max Jacob. of 1 62 E n ryclopa:dia A cep halica . the aim of which. between 1 928 and 1 929 Griaule conducted fieldwork in Ethiopia. also a contributor to the Da Costa (Et cetera. His fiction. in an important mission to the Ivory Coast which led. He wrote short stories (Le Mecanicien et autres contes. He joined the Documents team as sub-editor. poet and polemicist. Jean Dubuffet. Dieu d'eau. which he was discovering at that time. he decided. in particular L 1nventeur du temps gratuit which first appeared in Le Surrialisme. was quite outstanding. he changed it to Ferry. organised the ethnographic expedition which. to the suppression of forced labour in the French African colonies. to found the College de Sociologie. was to augment the collections of the Musee du Trocadero. He took part. A writer on art principally. A Surrealist in 1 924. *ROBERT LEBEL (1904-1984). In 1 942 he was elected to the first chair of general ethnology at the Sorbonne. MARCEL GRIAULE (1898-1956). whence he returned with a curious and magnificent book. Georges-Henri Riviere. In November 1 937. and was a promoter of happenings and translator of the American poets of the time. even acted in various films. Silhouettes et grciffitis alryssins. although infrequent.realised he would be unable to escape from Fascist persecution after the German invasion. in collaboration with Germaine Dieterlen. stayed in Paris during the war and fought with the resistance during the liberation of the city. as a result of the report it submitted to parliament.Born Jean Levy. prefaced by Breton). a people that became the chief object of his researches. Documents 34 etc. He worked in the cinema with the Frevert brothers and the October group. and finally. he broke with Breton in 1 929. published in 1 933 with an introduction by Marcel Mauss. His association with Surrealism lasted between 1 932 and 1 950 when he joined the College of Pataphysics. he contributed to Surrealist reviews (Minotaure. Leiris made half-hearted beginnings in the study of chemistry but showed more interest in jazz. several studies of Roussel.) under that name before the war when. On his return he joined the Documents team as sub-editor (at the same time as Michel Leiris) and. screenplays (including that of Malpertuis). ethnologie des Dogons. in 1 945. His son. Among other writings he published Les Masques Dogons (1 938). Michel Leiris accompanied the expedition as secretary-archivist. "Renard pale. for obvious reasons. in response to the current international situation.

Bifur and Documents. was demobilised in late 1 940. both his parents died while he was still a boy.A Romanian by birth.uel. He frequented cinematic circles . Aubervilliers. He was a founder of the Voice of America." and it takes in autobiography. La RBgle dujeu. and splitting with Breton over the "Carrouges affair" in 1 9 5 1 . A sculpture student in Zurich between 1 933 and 1 935 she came to Paris in 1 938 and met Patrick Waldberg. son of a celebrated poet.the editorial committee of Les Temps modernes and was involved in various political struggles. in particular. joined Acephale and became the secretary of the College de Sociologie. on whose painting he published numerous texts. Paul Painleve. Luis Bufi. and Jean Renoir. he fought in Algeria and from Normandy to Paris. on the one hand. as in Au Verso des images or Francis Bacon face et profil. His political activities caused his expulsion from France (he was an American citizen). supported by the friendship of Giacometti who took Lotar as a model for his later sculptures. as in Operratiques. his "official" name was Eliazar Lotar Teodoresco. His final years were particularly sombre. The reportage on the slaughterhouses of La Villette remains one of his major works: it was closely akin to Bataille's current preoccupations. he worked as a set­ photographer or as a cameraman in many films with Jacques Brunius. His powerfully original work partakes. notably against the war in Algeria. as in L'Age d'homme. Roger Vailland and Roger Gilbert-Lecomte. Joris Ivens. Isabelle holding numerous exhibitions.Biographical details remain few: before publishing in Documents he was a part of the Grand jeu group centred around the magazine edited by Rene Daumal. ZDENKO REICH. . Lotar took part in many exhibitions alongside Andre Kertesz and Germaine Krull After involvement in the theatre with Antonin Artaud and Roger Vitrac and with the Octobre group. of literature . Both Waldbergs returned to Paris - after the war. Educated in France he moved in leftist and Surrealist circles in the early thirties and met Bataille in Souvarine's Cercle Communiste Democratique. ELI LOTAR (1905-1969). and music criticism. with whom he remained friendly. Isabelle was born Margaretha Farner in Switzerland. Patrick Waldberg was born in Santa Monica of Irish immigrant parentage. Equally it incorporates science. In 1 926 he became a French citizen and the companion of the German photographer Germaine Krull . He volunteered for the French Army in 1 939. but in 1 937 he returned to France. and joined the American forces. :j:ISABELLE WALDBERG (1911-1990) & PATRICK WALDBERG (1913-1985). Lotar published his photographs in Carlo Rim's review ]az:?J Varietls. He was assistant to Marc Allegret and director of three films. as in La Langue secrete des Dogons de Saga or Race et civilisation. No tes 1 63 . was chosen for the Cannes . Patrick writing. and through him the other members of Acephale.those of Rene Clair and. Appendices. one of which. art criticism.albeit "considered as a bull fight.. of which she was one of the two female members. festival in 1 946. In 1 966 Leiris became friendly with Francis Bacon. chiefly on art.

Austryn Wainhouse (as A Tale of Satisfied Desire). (References & Bibliography) : English books are published in London. GEORGES BATAILLE. NY. 20. Ambiguiry of the Sacred. trans. 9 . Guilry. The Tears ofEros. Twentieth Century Ethnograpf. I. 22. Manet. Leslie A. vol. Includes the Manifesto [in A22. trans. Denis [ed. Lapis Press. The Predicament of Culture. The Absence ofMyth. Vertical. Harvard University Press. Marion Boyars. New York. trans. whether currentfy available or not. Marion Boyars. 1 9 85. 7 . Alastair Hamilton. 1 8. 1 972. Inner Experience. B ooks. [B l . UK: Manchester University Press. San Francisco. Austryn Wainhouse. 2. 1 977. L'Abbe C. Mary Dalwood. trans. 1 99 1 . UK: Marion Boyars. Zone Books. 1 987. 1 2. On NietZfche. 13. 1 993. trans. 1 9 88. trans. US: Urizen Books. trans. French in Paris. 10. 1 941 . 1 99 1 . University of Minnesota Press. Oeuvres completes. Peter Connor. 1 955. ed. Madame Edwarda. ON DOCUMENTS. (reprinted in two volumes) .!JI. 1 99 1 . vol. The Impossible. Richard Robinson. 1 983. trans. 19. US: Skira. Georges. Austryn Wainhouse (as The Naked Beast at Heaven 's Gate). Vols. Olympia Press. 1 972. 4. trans. Eugene [ed. 273] . Los Angeles. Jean-iichel Place. Bataille. The Story ofthe Eye. Calder & Boyars. Theory of&ligion. - A. Bataille. Paris. 21. UK: Cape. Section A is intended as a complete list of book-length translations of Bataille into English. 1 953. City Lights. Zone Books. 1 973. The Sacred Conspirary (from Acephale.f!Y. Boldt. 1 9 89. Eroticism. US: Urizen Books. The Trial of Gilles de Rais. 8. C. 9-1 1 ] . 1 980. 4. II & III. 1 994. UK: Marion Boyars. City Lights. Selected Writings. For a Sacred Art and a selection of Masson's drawings from Acephale. 1 64 E n cycloptedia A cephalica & Art. 1 9 89. trans. 6 . 16. 1 992. Bruce Boone. 1 979. Lascaux. Olympia Press. Bataille. San Francisco. 1 978. 1 9 88. Literature 2. Amok. 1927-1939. FRENCH TEXTS. Blue ofNoon. unless indicated otherwise. The College of Sociolo. State University of New York Press. Documents. 277-8] . Athlone Press. US: Skira. 1 5 . Austryn Wainhouse & James Emmons. trans.APPENDIX IV. 1 953. II. Literature and Evil. trans. C aillois. San Francisco. Gallimard (12 volumes published between 1 970 and 1 9 88) . John Calder.] .] . ed. 1 9 83. B. 1. ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS. & trans. Paris. II. Duthuit. 1 979. Philip Facey. Vol. J olas. US: Grove Press. Programme [B l . 1 1 . trans. or the Birth ofArt. NY. 1 4. 3. Instructions pour la rencontre en faret. 1 9 88. . J ames. Verso Books. Clifford. GEORGES BATAILLE. NY. 1 962. Hollier. The Story of the Eye. Austryn Wainhouse. NY. 1 9 85. 1 955. My Mother. trans. UK: Macmillan. Visions ofExcess. The Accursed Share. Georges. Penguin 1. 17. 1 . Allan Stoeckl. New York. 5 . trans. trans. Robert Hurley. 1). 1 9 88. 1 9 82. NY. Robert Hurley. USA: University of Minnesota Press. iichael Richardson. UK: Macmillan. Joachim Neugroschel. 3. Bruce Boone. trans. Bataille. Gotham Bookmart Press. the other sections list titles cited or consulted. Writings on Surrealism. Los Angeles. Harry Mathews. Georges.

Notes 1 65 . La Mort a 1'03uvre. Introduction to the "Reading ofHegel. Surya. June 1 98S. Seghers. 1 979. 60. Les Astiro'!'Jmes. From the Impossible Bataille to the Impossible Do&11ments. Cambridge. Dossier Georges Bataille [ed.. 36. Kojeve. Frans:ois & Arnaud. Paul Buck (no publisher given). Michael. ON THE COLLEGE DE 'PATAPHYS/QUE. The Gift. 3. 4. :MIT Press. ed. in Brisees: Broken Branches. Waldberg. Dominique. Appendices. ON GEORGES BATAILLE. Caradec. 1 . 1 . L 'Histoire du College de 'Pataphysique in Monitoires du Cymbalum 'Pataphysi&11m. Cornell University Press. 9. Yale French Studies. trans. Mesens. translated by James Nichols. Andre. Cambridge. 1 980. Dominique Lecoq]. 2.. Georges Bataille. E. 2. On Bataille. :MIT Press. Various. ON THE DA COSTA. Betsy Wing. Une saison volee. Isabelle & Patrick. 1 988. Mauss. Mass. de la Difference. London Gallery. Deguy. trans. G. Denis. March-April 1 947. Connecticut. 3. Cymbalum 'Pataphysicum. The Writings of Georges Bataille. 1 9S-6. Cohen & West. 1 994. Against Architecture. Adphale (reprint of the magazine). 7. 1 9 84. Thomas. 1 . 1 989 (first published in Critique [ES]). Cambridge. Georges Bataille. 1 964. 78. :MIT Press. E.rterdam. Richardson. Hollier. Launoir. 1 992. Coll. Hommage a Georges Bataille [ed. Mesens. F. I. 6. S. Le soc de la charrue. 1 4 July 1 98S. 1 986. 243. Lecoq.L. Mass. Masson. Marcel. Mass. Lydia Davis. Critique: Batai/le autour des revues. (ed. 7. A Do&11ments Dossier.. 4. Anon. Enryclopedie desfarces et attrapes et des nrystifications. August /September 1 963. 1 . North Point Press. Forms and Function ofExchange in Archaic Societies. 8. ff. Routledge. Gallimard. D.). Pauvert. 1 980. Actes du colloque d'Am. Adphale.T. ON ACEPHALE. S. Celebrating Georges Bataille. Ruy. special issue of October. Leiris. Mass. London Gallery Express. Michel. 3 .L. London Gallery. Various.]. E. Clefspour la 'Patapl!Jsique. Un Amour Adphale. Various. edited by Allan Bloom.. Noel. Eds. London. Alexandre. assembled by Raymond Queneau.T. Violent Silence. Barthes. Michel. 1 986. special issue of Magazine littiraire. Henri. Introduction to Escrocs. special issue of October. Anon. 6. trans. 1 9S4. OTHER. Allan Stoeckl. 3. London Gallery News. 1 992. 1 . Seguier.). pp. 2. 1 969. in Critique [ES] . Cunnison. December 1 946. Jean-Michel Place. 1 1 7-1 30. reprinted 1 99 1 . Do&11ments. 1 987. 1 990. 2. Correspondence 1940-1949. Various. 1 992. Jan Versteeg [ed.Cambridge. special issue of Critique. (ed. New Haven. Various. in Georges Bataille. 1 . ed. S. San Francisco. Foucault]. June 1 987.

Victor Hugo. how can one not appreciate the extent of horror's fascination. both published in 1 847 (pp. 6. p. a school 'imposition. The Platonic. Laius was Oedipus's father. also (U. a school-task or lesson to be prepared. with which one might be tempted to confuse it. Several very explicit facts follow one upon the other. Its sensationalism provoked the indignation of Indian nationalists and British anti-imperialists. Zeus saved the world from being destroyed by fire by shooting him down. The English original. - 1 . a reader of Le Magazjn pittoresque. 230). 1 0. In The Magic Island. was ill for a week (and he then had to film the scene of the asses' cadavers in a pestilential atmosphere). 1 3. Pensum. Britain for the Briton and Spiritual Science. The followers of Pythagoras were forbidden (among other things) to eat beans. the son of Helios (the sun-god). that only an obscure and sinister obsession. but is also argot for killing someone (i. probably the most beautiful of Grandville's extravagant compositions. Bucrane or Bucranium: an architectural ornament taking the form of an ox-skull. borrowed from both the admirable dream narrative Crime and Expiation. or Perfect year (Annus Magnus). was estimated by early Greek astronomers at about 26. Here and Hereafter. however. Socia/ism and its Perils. The Blood-Guiltiness of Christendom (M. will go? .] 5.e." at the Moulin Rouge. Great.' " 1 1 . or allotted task. sought to drive his father's chariot. how far the authors of this film or people like them. duty. they . [Author's note. See the excellent stills published by Cahiers d'.] 4. The quotation is from page 33. Faire suer un chine has this literal meaning.000 years. sand may be used. S. came a cropper and thereby turned Llbya into a parched desert and blackened the inhabitants of Africa. 'Patapfrysician. 1 05) and by Varietes Quly 1 929. The book was first published in Britain in 1 927 as Mother India. We owe to Pierre d'Espezel's erudition and generosity our awareness of this curious document. are caught by the throat. at the end of which all the heavenly bodies are imagined to have returned to the places they occupied at the creation. [Author's note. June-September 1 929. after filming the slitting open of the eye. by the importance given to the screenplay. [Author's note. and not a cold memory. 21 1 -1 4). American journalist (1 868-1 940). 1 2. Islam enjoins ablution before prayer.) a lesson or piece of work imposed as a punishment. the story of the pursuit of a criminal by an obstinate eye: it is scarcely useful to observe. This film can be distinguished from the banal productions of the avant-garde.NOTES.charge.] 1 66 E n cyc!opO!dia A cephalica . but penetrating so deeply into horror that the spectators are caught up as directly as they are in an adventure film More precisely. in fact. which seems to have been a group of militant nationalist vegetarians.Art Quly 1 929. p. and the director Luis Buiiuel. can explain this resemblance. according to the OED: "A . the oak fears being made into a coffin) . If Buiiuel himself. p. and from the unprecedented drawing of Grandville. without logical connection it is true. 8. and without artifice: do they know.qy We S!try For Food?). 209).] 2. by Bifur (August 1 929. Other works include: The Murder ofAgriculture. 3. 9. In ch. was published in 1 922 by The Order of the Golden Age. 26 of Exploits and Opinions of Doctor Faustrol/. and that it alone is sufficient to shatter everything that stifles us? [Author's note. This article concerns the Negro revue "Lew Leslie's Black Birds. in the absence of water. 7. This extraordinary film is the work of two young Catalans: the painter Salvador Dali. Phaeton.

] 1 8. 1 5 . 733-6. Apropos of Weary River. We may even suppose that once this treachery was committed.which is to say. most felicitously exacerbated certain agreed-upon difficulties. however. Arch. 1 820. Kal!Jlie.1 968) associated with the anarchistic satirical review L'Assiette au Beum around was a painter. See an essay on the relationship between festivals and the seasonal life of Eskimos: Hubert & Mauss. give some idea of the general idealist direction of his thought. [Author's de &li!)on suisse. Lausanne. unless a pun is involved. III. p.] 22. CLX. It is impossible. No tes 1 67 . and this pun betrays. Despite the fact that these vulgar inclinations have. " lived time. when Tristan Tzara acknowledged that the absence of system is still a system. opposed to the positivist and empiricist views of many of his colleagues. pp. Moreover. Sept-Oct. But this is no matter for joking. pp. F. For the same phenomenon in the Swiss Alps: Ch. Later an associate of Picasso.] "L'Adret et l'Ubac dons /es Alpes occidentales. Lt 2 1 . series. but of the most sympathetic sort. Creative Evollltion.literally to have throttled Tzara. 111. 1 93. Essai 111r la vie dons 11ne haute vallie des Alpes suirses sous l'infoence de /'altitude. he then became a somewhat celebrated "society" portrait painter. the introduction of Hegelianism soon to follow. Ch. Marcelle Vessereau. 8vo. Lt Uvre de recettes d'Nn dabtara al!Jssin. Baron de Ladoucette: Histoire. Bulletin de l'Arl ancien et moderne. Biermann. Paris. by which I mean the sordid thirst for completeness in all things. the titles of whose main works. really. Sura 1 1 3 . There is really no difference between humility. 1 903. The step from this admission to Hegel's panlogism is an easy one. the need to serve anything that is determinate. wretched senility. Philosopher of science. could then be expected. In L'Anthropolo!Je.] 24.] 1 9 . [Author's note. 1 905. before the Idea . 111ages des Hautes-Alpes.Jthes et reli!)ons. [Author's note. Hanoteaux & Letoumeux. du climat et du relief. Philosopher. Annie Sociolo!)q11e. Emile Meyerson (1859-1 933) .] 23. a fundamental. By 1 92 1 . before the SYS1EM . Eugene Minkowski (1 885-1 972) . 1 05-10. reprinted in Cultes. showing at the Clichy-Palace cinema. 1 67) . originally the tum of the century. Appendices. 15 Sept.hie de ce dipartement. I. 25. Fantin. holding that hypothesis is necessarily prior to research. Val de Conches-en-Valais. and the word systematic is understood in the common sense of mechanical obstination. 208pp. Paris. [Author's note. 1 9 1 6. of the slightest degree. 1 921 (XXXe Annee. to see what can be systematic in the savage opposition to all system. no further reason not to reconsider the futile betrayal expressed by Tristan Tzara. [Author's note.] 20. antiquites. in compromise with a diametrically opposed impulse. This statement appeared as an epigraph in a book by Louis Aragon (Anicet.and with reason . and Matter and Memory. Their results are applied in a study of the popular festival that preceded Christmas. ultimately. pp. Koran. 1 7. September 1 929. 8vo. there was no way of avoiding this panlogism and its glaring consequences. since it is consistent with the principle of the identity of contradictory terms. Henri Bergson (1859-1 941 ).. and. a blind hypocrisy. 1 929. 321 -3. precedes d'un essai 111r la topoua. 1 6. [Author's note.] Dongen (1 877. for once. Institut d'ethnologie de Paris. [Author's note. no. Marcel Griaule.14.and the fear of God. [Author's note. "this concession to insignificant objections still apparently remained inconsequential. (the inspiration for which derives from Bergson) follows in the philosophical tradition of French psychiatry. old note. "Anna/es de Geoua}hie. [Author's note. J. 338. Psychiatrist his work on schizophrenia and ''le temps vicu. 1 907. from this point on. vol. there is.] 26. this lamentable statement seems . who has since displayed a complete sluggishness. p.

1 68 E n ryclopa:dia A cephalica . which Praz describes as a "coarse piece of pornographic fiction" by Darles de Montigny (17 48).1 921). 36. 37." 28. but who did not resist the impulses of her 'warm and voluptuous character' and abandoned herself to all sorts of excesses. still convinced of the accuracy of his convictions. a common expression for France. On 2 September 1 792. committed murder. 3 1 . Novelist. and was herself murdered. This text." while echec means "check" in chess. ch. thus often a euphemism for an abortifacient. is a groomsman or bridesmaid. This myth being one of those featured in the exhibition First Papers efSurrealism. the reference remains obscure." So called because built on the site of a former deer-park." "I am the state. Mark 9. alludes to chapter six of Roussel's novel Locus Solus. . essayist and critic. 33. His Grammaire de /'Academic Fran.aise (1 932) provoked hostile criticism and fell quickly into oblivion. in fact. The story of The Bleeding Nun was incorporated into Chapter Four of Matthew Lewis' gothic novel The Monk (1 796). See Mario Praz. here. 40. twenty-five priests (1 6 in other accounts). Echecs means "chess. the sense is a friend of a candidate for the licentiate in medicine or theology who. 58: "the Bleeding Nun was the ghost of a woman who was forced by her parents to become a nun. 1 2. and the leader of the followers of Saint-Simon after the latter's death. An encomiast is an utterer of fulsome praises. Another reading of La Da Costa Enryc!opedique would be "The Complete Da Costa. His crime: extending the Saint-Simonian demand for the total emancipation of women to that of the destruction of "the tyranny of marriage. 35. A paranymph. Enfantin also makes an appearance in Breton's Arcane 1 7. in English. Barthelemy-Prosper Enfantin (1 796-1 864). 41. Le Pare aux Ceifs (at Versailles): described in the Oxford Companion to French Literature as "the notorious seraglio of Louis XV . An emmenagogue is. were subjected to summary execution by an enraged crowd in the course of their being transferred from the Hotel de Ville and the Abbaye prison. The movement declined after this and his journey to Egypt. he spent his later years in various low-paid positions in the the state bureaucracy. were spared. the movement grew rapidly under his direction and was eventually suppressed when Enfantin was convicted of outraging public morals. On this occasion the Abbe Picard. 3. 38. The Romantic Ago'!)'. 34. 30. undoubtedly by the Roussel scholar Jean Ferry." We have been unable to discover what the poster question advertised." The same work casts light on Therese Philosophe mentioned a few lines earlier. accompanied him to the examination and solemnly complimented him on his admission.] 27. Who has already appeared in The Critical Dictionary (Bonjour Brothers). Polygon presumably meaning hexagone. and his assistant. held in New York in 1 942." and preaching the androgynous nature of the deity." 29. Abel Hermant (1 862-1950) . A charismatic character. As to the critic pilloried here. 32. and also "failure. head of the Deaf-and-Dumb Institute.. n. 39. in ancient times. a medicine intended to stimulate menstruation. Allusion to Louis XIV's "L'etat c'est moi. French "utopian" socialist. [Author's note. suspected of involvement in royalist plots and collusion with the invading Prussians.

painted in 21 French general infamous for his bloody suppression of the Paris Commune of 1 87 1 . 55. Catholic philosopher. Allusion to 5 1 . Martinique etc. In the French faire leurs besoins religieux also refers to the polite expression faire ses besoins. His Le Mythe de Rimbaud attempted to demystify the poet. subject only to his supporting the pope's authority. (1753-1 821). was shared by many other literary figures. Jacques 47. French West Africa. attend to a call of nature. "coldness" in Italian. Document to Serve as an Outline by Raymond Roussel F2. 5 9 . by Fenelon These events actually occurred. but headless. Algeria. it must be said. is based on his retaining his Catholic faith. of the classics of French literature. A monarchist. Fredtki: 45. 43. died in 1 965. Gaston de Gallifet (1 830-1 909). was approached.] Ferry's scorn of Klossowski. 58. No tes 1 69 . Secretary of the Central Committtee of the CPSU of the "decadence" and "formalism" of Soviet writers (he named Akhmatova and Zoschenko). T o b e found o n pp. 56-64 of the Atlas Press edition of Selectionsfrom Certain this article so outraged Robert and her family that they spent several months verbally abusing various suspected authors.42. but failed to identify the one actually responsible. The star-crossed lovers in Poet. From the efHis Books). Delille (1 738-1 8 1 3). a pair of figures dressed in doublet and hose. in the process criticising the Surrealists. his insipid works had a brief popularity. critic and essayist. See the same author's Sade mon prochain. 46. despite professing an admiration for Sade etc. In French ces pustu/eux du binitier. A supporter of papal infallibility. Apparently [cf. Appendices." sixth 52. thrash about in an empty room while another. o f The Annotated Snark (Penguin) edited by Martin Gardner.g. born (1 699). This is presumably an oblique reference to the 1 946 denunciation by Andrei Zhdanov. [Author's note. the notice: "It is forbidden to deposit rubbish on the public highway. 48. insisted on the corrections being made. 44. 56. Rene Etiemble. 57. an old member of Acephale. rather similar figure enters menacingly by the window. Breton and the Surrealists were the only left-aligned intellectuals (with the exception of Souvarine's group) to attack these abuses at this time. and In the picture. Aventures de Tilimaque: A "didactic romance" 49. e. he held that the king's sovereignty was absolute. perhaps rather unwillingly. an extra richness is added to the phrase by the fact that binitier not only means holy-water­ font but is one of the many slang expressions for the female genitals. 1 6 60. the explorer and Arabist. among other places. in which he singled out members of the Leningrad Writer's Union. 229] (pp. Joseph de Maistre for citizens of French overseas territories. 50. and Sartre complied. One legend has it that Lady Hester Stanhope. Stendhal's real name was Beyle. but declined the role. Administrative jargon 54. one 1 927. 1 927. For this and other actions he earned their continued hostility. which. The Charterhouse efParma. 53. Olivier Laronde.

Roman dictator. proved that if mathematics was consistent. effete. 62.6 1 . 66. 63. The article exploits this double-meaning of the French Exposition. 69. around the turn of the century the mathematician David Hilbert attempted to make the foun�ations of mathematics consistent by establishing them on an axiomatic basis similar to geometry and then formalising the whole deductive system by "draining" mathematical signs of meaning and describing them in a mathematical meta-language. All went swimmingly until an unknown mathematician. 64. Eponymous hero of the novella by Heinrich Kleist (1 810). birthplace of the philosopher Anaxagoras. A system first proposed by Alphonse Allais in his story The Smell-Bul!J. The birds' songs do indeed bear a strong resemblance to the bizarre poems in this book in which !sou's megalomania was first committed to print. 6. dilices et orgues (1 898). 1 70 E n cyclopredia A cephalica .. who retired from power and restored constitutional government in order to devote his last years to his memoirs. The word is not in standard French dictionaries. In other words. between Smyrna and Chios.e. would evoke not so much the Bible. 72. rue de l'Echiquier 75010 Paris. in Amours. died 78 BC. it would not be able to demonstrate that consistency either mathematically or meta-mathematically." Put briefly. 68. "The Star" is Arcanum 17 of the Tarot pack. a wet dream. Duchamp's griffe volante remains obscure: Breton praises his picture Coeurs volantes in Arcane 1 7. more the flight in 1 940 of countless civilians before the Nazi invaders. a 24 book apologia for his past excesses: they have not survived. especially at the time this was written. To French readers. obsolete. Cornelius Sulla. pour une nouvelle musique (Gallimard) . As the final sentence makes plain. 7 1 . 67. The OED defines it as meaning gone out of use. Clazomenae according to Lempriere's Classical Dictionary was a city on the Aegean coast. Les Amis de Georges Bataille may be contacted via Dominique Lecoq 1 6. insipid. the principal linking theme of Breton's Arcane 17 written around this time. and derives it from the Greek E� (out ot) and OVEtpo� (a dream). this text is an attack on the sound poetry of Isidore Isou's Lettrist movement founded in 1 946 around the review La Dictature lettriste and !sou's manifesto Pour une nouvelle poesie. 70. exodus. The 1 863-72 Littre Dictionnaire classes the word as med. Possibly a reference to Verlaine's epithet for Rimbaud: l'homme aux semelles de vent (the man shod with the wind). the word exode. nocturnal pollution. 65. The word has vanished from 20th century dictionaries. certain fundamentals of mathematics remain unprovable within the system of mathematics itself. This article presumably concerns "Godel's Proof. definition: pollution nocturne.023 x 1 023. i. and perhaps this is what is meant here (there are a number of typos in the Da Costa). Kurt Godel.

304 pp. still thrilling. just the thing to give a neurasthenic idlerfor Christmas. one of the foremost Dadaists from the very inception of Dada to its end. This annotated version ofthe Almanac.. Illustrations. de Gourmont's prefaces to each volume. between Catholic piety and right-wing nationalism (Claudel.) THE BOOK OF MASKS was published in two parts in 1 896 and 1 898 and consists of essays on the most important of his Symbolist contemporaries by the foremost critic and author of the period: Remy de Gourmont. biographies. -The Guardian..99. not only does it present the vast range of Dadaist literary production and experimentation on an international scale.99/$19. (In print. with authors' texts selected l?J Andrew Mangravite. and aimed at an intense examination of the borderland between inner and outer life. £ 13. -Artforum. it also reveals many of the apparent contradictions which lie at the heart of the movement. -The New York Times Book Review. The Dada Almanac is an excellent place to experience Dadaism in its own terms and in all its contradictions . and photographs have been added to this edition. Illustrations. . £ 12. -The Spectator. is a cmdal documentfor af!Jone interested in the history of the 20th century avant-garde. Extra editorial matter. many never before translated into English. still weird. thefirst to appear in English. Iain White. A chrestomati?J of enchantmentsfor readers whose capad!J for wonder is rarefy exerdsed l?J what passesfor literature todqy. Containing a wide range of poetry. THE DADA ALMANAC was assembled by Richard Huelsenbeck. its authors veered between an aesthetics based on simplicity and asceticism and the decadent debauches forever associated with Huysmans and Wilde. (The "masks" referred to in the title are the series of remarkable portraits of the authors drawn by Felix Vallotton. Barres) and the anarchist individualism of Tailhade and Feneon.P A S T & F O RT H C O M I N G I S S U E S O F T H E A R KH I V E ARKHIVE I : DADA BERLIN Edited l?J PJchard Huelsenbeck. finely tuned. .) Each author is represented in this edition by texts from the period. What united these disparate writers at their best was a fierce literature based on a renewed use of language.. Appendices. 1 76 pp. texts. 1920. often astonishingly lush. Terry Hale & others. biographies. Symbolism was a strange amalgam of the social turmoil of the time. Notes 171 . A rich cache of relativefy unknown writers . Translated l?J Malcolm Green. it can undoubtedfy be discovered here. etc. If there 's a reason that the Dadaists appeal to our own cultural coefusions. manifestos and deliberate confusions.. Berlin. Introduced and annotated l?J Malcolm Green & Alastair Brotchie. Translated l?J Andrew Mangravite.99. (In print. . polemics.99/$19. Their political associations were equally split. and overviews of the Symbolists and their preoccupations are included. Essqys l?J Rt"!)' de Gourmont. Barbara Wright & Derk W)'nand. ARKH I V E I I : F R E N C H SYM B O L I ST & D E CADENT WRI T I N G O F T H E 1 8 9 0 S THE BOOK OF MASKS.) THE DADA ALMANAC. -Los Angeles Times . The works of forty-seven authors are featured. essays. and published in Berlin in 1 920 at the high-point of Dadaist activities in the German capital: the Dada Almanac was and is the most important single Dadaist publication.

It not only personifies the whole Fluxus spirit. Jean Dewasne. Jean Lescure. Daniel Spoerri. for the first time in English. What is the Topography? Hard to explain the resonance of such a simple idea so brilliantly executed: Spoerri maps the objects left at random on his table one day (the map appears inside the original edition's dustwrapper) . The group has met monthly for 30 years now and 70 publications) as well as anthologies of their collective activities . biographies. limited to 100 copies and signed l?J all cumnt members of both groups will be available. originally to investigate the possibilities of combining mathematics and literature. extra photographs and texts. games. Michele Metail. limited to 100 copies and signed l?J Spoerri. FLUXUS was a loose association of American and European artists operating throughout the sixties and seventies. Willli ams. and the present book is the result of a long-term collaboration between four of its most perceptive and good­ humoured participants. Williams. The Oulipo has spawned numerous versions of itself devoted to constrictive form in other areas : the Oulipopo (Ouvroir de litterature potentielle po/icier = ''Workshop for potential detective fiction''). Stan� Chapman. Oskar Pastior. in collaboration with Robert Filliou. the annotations of Dieter Rot.99. maps. asides. the Oupeinpo applies similar methods to painting. 1 72 E n cyclopmdia A cephalica . Translations l?J Harry Mathews & The OULIPO was founded in 1 960 by the author Raymond Queneau and the mathematician/ ches s-player Frans. Edited in collaboration with Harry Mathews others. Rot & Topor will be available. Artists (Oupeinpo) : Jacques Care/man. Franfois Caradec. who anecdoted the German edition while translating it. Dallas Wiebe. £ 13. etc. to which we will add. recollections. Marcel Duchamp. his friends write about what he writes. This compendium will also include examples of Oulipian methods used b y various American authors (Gilbert Sorrentino.ois LeLionnais. There will be a new introduction by Spoerri. their associations. 1 76 pp. Harry Mathews. Luc Etienne. Georges Perce. from simple forms like the sonnet to an entire novel written with words lacking the letter "e" (Perec's publishes its own Bibliotheque Oulipienne (more than La Disparition) . Jacques Roubaud. ARKHIVE V (SUMMER 1996) : THE OULIPO & ITS OFFSPRING AN OULIPO COMPENDIUM. Authors (Oulipo) include: Noe/Arnaud. Rqymond Queneau. Claude Bens. Emmett Williams and Dieter Rot. but also constitutes a semi-autobiography of an important section of the movement. anecdotes. witty and congenial members of the human species. e A numbered edition. Latis. Aline Gagnaire. FranfOis LeLionnais. Paul Fournet. in a different cover and slipcase. Illustrations.ARKHIVE IV (AUTUMN 1995) : FLUXUS AN ANECDOTED TOPOGRAPHY OF CHANCE. The group's preoccupations soon widened to include all aspects of "constrictive form" in writing. footnotes upon footnotes proliferate: it is life itself in all its chaos as revealed by four sharp. & Thieri Foulc. Italo Calvino. Thieri Foulc.) .99/ $19. Keith Waldrop. Jacques Jouet. in a different cover and slipcase. Oulipo stands for Ouvroir de litterature potentielle (roughly ''Workshop of Potential Literature") . illustrations l?J Topor. approx. manifestos etc. e A numbered edition. 180 pp. Marcel Benabou. The Atlas Press edition will be a reformatted version of the famous Something Else Press edition of 1 966. He writes about them. Rot & Topor. recipes.

A new series offull-length biographies will begin in 1996. No tes 1 73 .. 27 OLD GLOUCESTER ST. LONDON WC1N 3XX Appendices.qymond "Roussel.O T H E R ATLAS P R E S S P U B L I CAT I O N S Atlas Press has published texts by over 200 authors from the avant-garde "anti­ traclition" over the last eleven years. available from: BCM ATLAS PRESS. Atfred Jarry and P. Some titles are available only by ordering direct: further details are in our free catalogue. The first three will be of Georges Bataille.


even its membership is only vaguely known. Documents. sociologists and ethnologists (among the most important of their time) in a literary and philosophical project. The Acephale group was more mysterious.The ideas of Georges Bataille (1897-1962) are being increasingly recognised as offering vital insights into whole areas of human existence. Work. however. is not absent from these remarkable redefinitions of the most heterogeneous objects or ideas: Camel. Skyscraper. the aesthetics of the formless. death and the erotic. The Documents group was celebrated for joining together artists. Both cover the essential concepts of Bataille and his associates: sacred sociology. sacrifice. The origins of the Da Costa only became known in 1993. Spittle. The first series of texts here. scatology. the second series of texts. base materialism. Isabelle Waldberg and Marcel Duchamp. The Critical Dictionary appeared in the magazine edited by Bataille.99 USA $19. ISBN 0 9477_45 87 2 Translations by Iain White name but a few. Humour. the festival and the politics of tumult etc: a new description of the limits of being human. Dust.£12. Church. the present volume reveals for the first time its principal compilers: Robert Lebel. the Da Costa Enryclopidique was published anonymously after the liberation of Paris in 1947 by members of the Acephale group and writers associated with the Surrealists.99 . in the form of a dictionary. and his books make few concessions to the reader. and over the last few years most of his important theoretical and fictional texts have appeared in English. the identity of the authors of a large part of it remain unknown. were written for a wider audience by Bataille and his friends. Threshold. poetic and concise introduction to his ideas. Museum. Yet Bataille's thought is complex. and its activities remain secret. authors. and they provide a witty. albeit sardonic. even so.