Running head: METHODS OF CREATING FRESH WATER

Desalination Versus the Binding of Atoms When Creating Fresh Water
Milen V. Guergov and Tia T. Tinoco
West Career and Technical Academy

Author Note
Milen V. Guergov, Biomedical Sciences, West Career and Technical Academy; Tia T. 
Tinoco, Biomedical Sciences, West Career and Technical Academy.

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METHODS OF CREATING FRESH WATER

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Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Tia Tinoco, Biomedical 
Sciences, West Career and Technical Academy, Las Vegas, NV 89135. Contact: 
tiat953@westcta.ccsd.net
Purpose Statement
This research project is designed to observe which method of creating fresh water would 
be the best and most efficient. Desalination is a process that removes dissolved minerals from 
seawater, brackish water, or treated wastewater. On the other hand, two hydrogen atoms can 
attach to an oxygen atom to create water. The goal of this research project is to determine if 
desalination or the binding of hydrogen and oxygen atoms would be optimal for providing a 
source of clean water. The main objective is to find a way that water can be produced to create a 
new system of processing water. Findings from this project may solve the issue of water scarcity 
in the world.
Should the project find that a particular method of creating fresh water is more efficient, 
results could be used to manufacture water using this technique. This project will serve to expand
the knowledge of how water can be created and processed in order to help eliminate the shortage 
of water in various areas of the world. Determining the efficiency of a specific method of 
creating water will aid in benefiting the health of those in third world countries who lack 
resources of fresh water. In continuation, other factors of water can be tested to see if any 
negative outcomes may result due to faulty processing.
Literature Review

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The shortage of clean water on Earth has drastically affected the world’s growing
population. These limitations to fresh water have lead to the onset of multiple diseases in
developing countries that are often untreatable and deadly. Due to the ongoing water shortage, it
is imperative that an efficient way of producing clean water is discovered, which will benefit
millions of people around the world.
Water pollution and contamination has been a global issue since the 20th century. In July
of 1970, the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare’s Bureau of Water Hygiene reported
that thirty percent of the world’s drinking water contained chemicals were above the appropriate
amount. These high levels of contamination have the ability to damage the economy, habitats of
species, ecosystems, and more importantly the health of those who come in contact with
contaminated water. Despite the knowledge of these drastic effects, little information is known
about the long term quality trend of water. There are thousands of water monitoring stations
around the country, but little information is collected here, which makes predicting water trends
difficult. (Gleick, 1993)
It is suggested that 9.1% of the disease burden in developing countries can be potentially
prevented with the availability of fresh water. Children suffer in greater numbers than adults
because of this situation; the fraction of total deaths relating to unsafe water conditions is more
than 20% in children 14 years old or older. (Ito, 2010) Those in developing countries lack the
resources necessary to release themselves from this burden. However, in developed countries,
improvements in the quality of drinking water benefit health when the source of water is secured
in common households. In communities like this, the value of focusing interventions on securing
the availability of the water is vital. (Pruss-Ustun, 2008)

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Growing demands for water and the increasing costs of water supply deems an effective
solution for the limited resource necessary. Scientists have resorted to finding “a novel forward
(direct) osmosis (FO) desalination process... The process uses an ammonium bicarbonate draw
solution to extract water from a saline feed water across a semipermeable polymeric membrane.
Very large osmotic pressures generated by the highly soluble ammonium bicarbonate draw
solution yield high water fluxes and can result in very high feed water recoveries.” (Ito, 2010)
The new process will allow for a more rapid, extensive conversion of salt water to drinking
water.
If we can solve the water crisis now, we may be able to prevent the youth of America
from suffering unreasonably high water prices for unreasonably low amounts of water. Even
now, “Desalination of seawater accounts for a worldwide water production of 24.5 million
m /day.” (Gleick, 1993) Perhaps the problem doesn’t seem serious now, but it is. The process of
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fusing diatomic hydrogen and oxide is intangible. How Stuff Works described what happens
when gaseous hydrogen is combined with oxygen through spark: “We... have an explosion and -if our experiment was big enough, a deadly one. The ill-fated blimp, the Hindenburg, was filled
with hydrogen to keep it afloat. As it approached New Jersey on May 6, 1937, to land after a
trans-Atlantic voyage, static electricity (or an act of sabotage, according to some) caused the
hydrogen to spark. When mixed with the ambient oxygen in the air, the hydrogen exploded,
enveloping the Hindenburg in a ball of fire that completely destroyed the ship within half a
minute. There was, however, also a lot of water created by this explosion. (Ito, 2010)
If scientific America doesn’t shed light on the impending doom in terms of fresh-water
and universal hydration, instead of thriving in areas of technology, education, and healthcare,

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talent will be wasted in the future on nothing but solving a problem that should have been taken
care of long ago.
Methodology
Procedures
1. Research and collect data on water shortage facts.
2. Research any possible fresh water sources and determine where the source comes from.
3. Research information on creating water using hydrogen and oxygen atoms as well as
information on desalination.
4. List facts in a data table that displays each method of creating fresh water and the
possible effects or outcomes.
5. Research, describe, and provide visual for the process of desalination in a simple manner.
6. Research how much water has effectively been produced using desalination, binding of
atoms, reverse osmosis, and distillation.
7. Research which method has been used most often and has produced the most water.
8. Compare results by listing data in a data table.
9. Investigate the amount of energy consumed when using each method, and if any
technology is needed.
Materials

Computer

Lab notebook or journal

Sources about desalination

Sources about water purification

Sources on Hydrogen

METHODS OF CREATING FRESH WATER

Sources on Oxygen

Camera

Pencil

Internet access

Project Schedule

Week 1: Research the effectiveness and outcomes of binding Hydrogen and Oxygen
atoms together.

Week 2: Research the effectiveness and outcomes of desalination processes.

Week 3: Compare and contrast the different methods and determine which process is
more effective based on the research for observational study.

Week 4: Write script and storyboard for video on water purification.

Week 5: Research facts on methods of water purification and film video.

Week 6: Design new method of water purification.

Week 7: Create model for method.

Week 8: Create advertising and brochure for method.

Week 9: Finalize project and create display for each portion of the study.

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References
Copeland, C. (1980). Water quality implementing the Clean Water Act. Washington, DC: 
Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service.
Efraty, A. (n.d.). Closed circuit desalination series no­6: Conventional RO compared with the 
conceptually different new closed circuit desalination technology. Desalination and 
Water Treatment, 279­295.
The Fresh­Water Biological Laboratory on Windermere, Founded by the Fresh­Water Biological
Association of the British Empire. (n.d.). The Journal of Ecology, 209­209.
Gleick, P., & Development, E. (1993). Water in crisis: A guide to the world's fresh water 
resources. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ito, Y., Koriyama, M., Miyamoto, H., Umetani, T., & Chikushi, J. (2010). Microwave 
Measurement System of Fresh Water Level, Electrical Conductivity of Fresh Water, and 
Interface Level between Fresh and Salt Water Layers. Journal Of Japan Society Of 
Hydrology And Water Resources, 170­176.
Prüss­Üstün A, Bos R, Gore F, Bartram J. Safer water, better health: costs, benefits and 
sustainability of interventions to protect and promote health. World Health Organization, 
Geneva, 2008.

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