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The American Republic To 1877
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Chapter Introduction

Section 1

A New Party in Power

Section 2

The Louisiana Purchase

Section 3

A Time of Conflict

Section 4

The War of 1812

Chapter Summary
Chapter Assessment

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Chapter Objectives
Section 1: The Republicans Take Power
• Discuss how the election of 1800 was resolved.
• Explain how the Supreme Court was strengthened.

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Chapter Objectives
Section 2: The Louisiana Purchase
• Discuss how the United States expanded in the
early 1800s.
• Review the expeditions of explorers such as Lewis
and Clark.

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Chapter Objectives
Section 3: A Time of Conflict
• Explain why Tecumseh built a Native American
confederacy.
• Discuss why the War Hawks wanted to go to war.

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Chapter Objectives
Section 4: The War of 1812
• Describe how the British seized and set fire to
Washington, D.C.
• Explain why Andrew Jackson fought a battle after the
war was over.

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Why It Matters
In 1801 the Democratic-Republican Party took
control of the nation’s government. The
Federalists–the party of Alexander Hamilton and
John Adams–were now on the sidelines and
played the role of critics to the Republican
administration.

The Impact Today
Politicians today operate within the party system
that took shape at that time.
• While the two main parties have changed,
each still worked to win votes and gain power.
• If the people vote to change the party in
power, the newly elected representatives take
office peacefully and the government
continues.

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Guide to Reading
Main Idea
The election of 1800 marked the transfer of power
from one political party to another through a
democratic election.

Key Terms
• customs duties
• jurisdiction

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Abigail Adams in the unfinished
White House

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The Election of 1800
1. The election campaign of 1800 was a deadlock
between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.
2. The House of Representatives picked
Jefferson when one of the Federalist’s changed
his vote.
3. The 12th amendment was passed in 1803
requiring electors to vote for the president and
vice-president on separate ballots.
4. Jefferson was inaugurated on March 4th, 1801.
His goals were:
.
(pages 278–279)
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Jefferson as President
1. Jefferson surrounded himself with men who
shared his Republican principles.
A. James Madison---Secretary of State
B. Albert Gallatin---Secretary of Treasury

2. National Debt reduced--cut back on military.
3. Congress repealed Federal internal taxes
(Whiskey Tax) $ would come from custom
duties, tax on imports and the sale of western

land.
(page 280)
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Jefferson and the Courts
1. Judiciary Act of 1801 allowed for the
development of many “Midnight Judges”
2. “Marbury versus Madison” case was the first
time that the judicial review was used. (system
of checks and balances) (Jurisdiction)
3. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall
usually upheld the national government over
state rights during his tenure in office until his
death in 1835.

(pages 280–281)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.

__
C 1. the right of the Supreme Court
to determine if a law violates the
Constitution
__
A 2. policy that government should
interfere as little as possible in
the nation’s economy
__
B 3. taxes on foreign imported goods

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A. laissez-faire
B. customs duties
C. judicial
review

Checking for Understanding
Reviewing Facts Explain how Jefferson cut
government spending.

He cut the size of the army and navy, reduced the
national debt, and kept the number of
government workers low.

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Reviewing Themes
Government and Democracy How did the
judicial branch under Jefferson serve as a check
on the executive and legislative branches?

With the establishment of judicial review, the
Supreme Court could review and rule on acts of
the other branches of government.

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Critical Thinking
Identifying Central Issues How was the
deadlock in the presidential election of 1800
finally resolved?

The House of Representatives decided the
election. Hamilton swayed the vote in Jefferson’s
favor.

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Analyzing Visuals
Analyzing Architecture Examine the
photograph of Monticello on page 279 of your
textbook. Who lived there? What do you think
gives Monticello its unique look? Explain.

Thomas Jefferson lived at Monticello.

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Expository Writing A letter of recommendation is
written to discuss the positive qualities of a person.
Write a letter from John Adams to Thomas Jefferson
about John Marshall. Address Marshall’s skills and
leadership qualities.

Guide to Reading
Main Idea
The Louisiana Purchase opened a vast area to
exploration and settlement.

Key Terms
• secede

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Conestoga wagon

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Westward, Ho!
1. Many people used Conestoga wagons to cross
the Appalachian Mts. to get to the new NW
Territory.
2. Use of the lower Mississippi River was
refused to the Americans by the Spanish
because of the transfer of the Louisiana Terr.
from the Spanish to the French in a secret
treaty.
3. Jefferson feared that the French (Napoleon
Bonaparte) would try to develop a great
French empire in America.
(pages 282–283)
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Westard, Ho! (cont.)
4. Jefferson authorizes Robert Livingstone
(Minister to France) to pay $10,000,000
to but New Orleans and Florida.
5. Napoleon cancels his plan to create an
empire in America, because of a revolt in
Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
(Toussaint Louveture)

(pages 282–283)
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An Expanding Nation
1. The United States purchased the Louisiana
Territory from France for 15,000,000 (doubled
the size on the U.S.)
2. Exploration expeditions:
A. Meriwether Lewis and William Clark
(Pacific Northwest)
B. Zebulon Pike (Western America---Pike’s
Peak)

3. Federalist plan to secede. (Aaron Burr-leader)
4. Hamilton/Burr Duel was suicide for Burr
(pages 283–285)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.

__
B 1. to leave or withdraw

A. Conestoga wagon

__
A 2. sturdy vehicle topped with
white canvas and used by
pioneers to move west

B. secede

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Checking for Understanding
Reviewing Facts What European countries
controlled the Louisiana Territory up until 1800?

Spain controlled the Louisiana Territory up until
1800.

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Reviewing Themes
Geography and History Why were the
Mississippi River and New Orleans important to
the United States?

Farmers needed to ship their goods down the
Mississippi River to New Orleans to get them to
markets.

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Critical Thinking
Determining Cause and Effect How do you
think the Lewis and Clark expedition helped to
prepare people who wanted to move west?

Possible answers: It provided maps,
descriptions and locations of landforms, and
locations and information about Native
American groups and distribution of animals
and plants.

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Analyzing Visuals
Geography Skills Review the map on page
284 of your textbook. What was the farthest
western point that the Lewis and Clark
expedition reached? What is the straight-line
distance between St. Louis and Pikes Peak?
The Lewis and Clark expedition reached the
Pacific Ocean. The distance is about 775 miles
(1,250 km).

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Descriptive Writing Accurate descriptions and
drawings in their journals made Lewis and Clark’s
observations valuable. Find an example of plants or
animals nearby. Carefully draw and describe what you
see.

Guide to Reading
Main Idea
Between 1800 and 1815 the United States
experienced rapid expansion as well as the challenge
of war.

Key Terms
• tribute

• embargo

• neutral rights

• nationalism

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American sailors

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Americans Ships on the High Seas
1. Pirates for the Barbary Coast States of North
Africa raided American ships demanding
tribute.
2. Barbary Coast States War (1801-1805)
A. U.S.S. Philadelphia ordeal-Capt. Stephen
Decatur-( Bold and daring )
B. Ruler of Tripoli stops demanding tribute,
but the U.S. must pay a ransom for

American prisoners.
(pages 288–289)
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American Ships on the High Seas
1. America is neutral on the high seas, but the
French and the English were still stopping and
harassing American ships.
2. Impressment issue infuriated Americans
(British seizure)
3. Chesapeake/Leopard Affair:

A. Americans demand war.
B. Jefferson counter war idea with the

Embargo Act of 1807 which was a
disaster.
(pages 290–291)
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American Ships on the High Seas
C. The Embargo Act of 1807 was replace
with the Nonintercourse Act of 1810.
(Another mistake)

D. James Madison succeeds T.J. as the 4th
President of the U.S.

E. The Nonintercourse Act is replaced by
Macon’s Bill #2.

(pages 290–291)
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War at Home and Abroad
1. Napoleon tricks the U.S. into stopping trade
with Great Britain.
2. Problems out west:
A. Britain supplies Native Americans with guns and
ammo.
B. Indian resistance led by a confederation formed

by a Shawnee chief named Tecumseh. (brother
was called the Prophet=go back to the old life)
C. General William Henry Harrison attack Prophettown at the Battle of Tippecanoe ( American
(pages 291–294)
victory=??-murdered innocent women/children)
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War at Home and Abroad
3. Warhawks pushed for war!!!!!!! (Henry Clay
and John Calhoun)
4. June 1st, 1812 Congress declares war on
Britain. Britain had dropped the “Orders in
Council” three weeks earlier.----Word got to
America too late.-----This war could’ve been
avoided but wasn’t because of a lack of
communication.

(pages 291–294)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.

__
C 1. forcing people into service, as
in the navy

A. tribute

__
A 2. money paid for protection
__
D 3. an order prohibiting trade with
another country

C. impressment

__
B 4. the right to sail the seas and
not take sides in a war
__
E 5. Republicans during Madison’s
presidency who pressed for
war with Britain

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B. neutral rights
D. embargo
E. War Hawks

Checking for Understanding
Reviewing Facts Describe the negotiations that
ended the war between the United States and
Tripoli.

Tripoli agreed to stop demanding tribute, but
the United States had to pay a ransom for the
release of American prisoners.

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Reviewing Themes
Global Connections How did the conflict in
Europe help the American shipping industry
prosper?

By remaining neutral, the United States could
trade with both France and Britain. Both
countries kept most of their trading ships in port
to avoid capture, so Americans increased their
trade.

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Critical Thinking
Determining Cause and Effect How did
frontier battles with Native Americans intensify
Americans’ anti-British feelings?

The British sided with Native Americans; this
interference angered many Americans.

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Analyzing Visuals
Geography Skills Examine the maps that
appear on page 291 of your textbook. When did
Tennessee gain statehood? Which of the maps
shows the territory gained from the Louisiana
Purchase? In what year was Florida ceded to
the United States?

Tennessee gained statehood in 1796. The 1810
map shows the territory gained from the
Louisiana Purchase. Florida was ceded to the
United States in 1819.

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Art Choose a side in the argument about war with
Great Britain. Draw a political cartoon supporting your
point of view.

Guide to Reading
Main Idea
Beginning in 1812 the United States was at war with
Britain. Fighting took place in the United States, in
Canada, and at sea.

Key Terms
• frigate

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Madison peace medal

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Defeats and Victories
1. America was not prepared for war.
2. The Canadian invasion failed
3. American’s did have some success on the
water:
A. Captain Oliver Hazard Perry destroyed the British
navy at Lake Erie.
B. The U.S.S. Constitution defeats the best British
navy ship the H.M.S. Guerriere.

4. Tecumseh dies and the Indian Confederation
fails. (Jackson’s victory at Horseshoe Bend in Indiana ends
(pages 296–298)

Indian resistance
outbutton
west=
lose
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the their land again)
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The British Offensive
1. Britain defeats France in Europe ending the
Napoleonic Wars. This free’s up more British
troops to come and fight in America.
2. Washington D. C. is burned and destroyed in
August of 1814.
3. “Battle of Baltimore”—stalemate—(Francis
Scott Key-National Anthem)
4. “Battle of Lake Champlain” (Plattsburgh) is
very costly to the British. Should they
continue to fight? The Americans and the
British meet in Ghent, Belgium to work out a
peace treaty. (December 1814) (Turning (pages
Point)
298–300)
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The British Offensive (cont.)
5. “Battle of New Orleans”, (January 1815)
could’ve been avoided. ( American victory )
----Once again a lack of communication---6. Hartford Convention fails.

(pages 298–300)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.

__
A 1. warship

A. frigate

__
B 2. armed private ship

B. privateer

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Checking for Understanding
Reviewing Facts Who won the Battle of Lake
Champlain? Why was it an important victory?

The Americans won the Battle of Lake
Champlain. It secured the northern border of the
United States and persuaded Britain to end the
War of 1812.

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Reviewing Themes
Government and Democracy Why did the
Federalist Party lose support after the War of
1812?

It looked unpatriotic because it had opposed the
war and wanted to amend the Constitution.

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Critical Thinking
Drawing Conclusions Why did people from the
North, South, and the West feel differently about
going to war with Britain?

Possible answer: Westerners and Southerners
thought war might make more land available and
wanted to avenge British actions against
Americans. Northerners saw little benefit in war.

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Analyzing Visuals
Geography Skills Study the map on page 298
of your textbook. On what lake did Perry defeat
the British? Which battle– Lake Champlain or
Thames–took place later in time?

Perry defeated the British on Lake Erie. The
Battle of Lake Champlain took place later.

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Music Imagine if Francis Scott Key had been at the
Battle of New Orleans instead of in Baltimore.
Rewrite the first verse of “The Star-Spangled Banner”
based on what occurred in that battle.

Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.

__
E 1. the right of the Supreme Court
to determine if a law violates
the Constitution
__
B 2. forcing people into service, as
in the navy
__
D 3. loyalty to a nation and
promotion of its interests
above all others
__
A 4. policy that government should
interfere as little as possible in
the nation’s economy

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A. laissez-faire
B. impressment
C. embargo
D. nationalism
E. judicial review
F. secede

Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.

__
C 5. an order prohibiting trade with
another country

A. laissez-faire

__
F 6. to leave or withdraw

C. embargo

B. impressment
D. nationalism
E. judicial review
F. secede

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Reviewing Key Facts
What did Congress do to prevent a deadlock in
presidential elections?

It passed the Twelfth Amendment that requires
electors to vote for the president and vice
president on separate ballots.

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Reviewing Key Facts
How did events in Santo Domingo (Haiti)
influence American expansion?

The revolt in Santo Domingo was costly in
terms of lives and money. The revolt was a
major factor in the sale of the Louisiana
Territory to the United States.

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Reviewing Key Facts
How did the Embargo Act of 1807 hurt the
United States?

It stopped American commerce with other
nations.

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Reviewing Key Facts
Who were the War Hawks?

The War Hawks were a group of Republicans in
Congress from the South and West who urged
war with Britain.

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Reviewing Key Facts
What effect did Tecumseh’s death have on Native
Americans?

It had a negative effect. With the death of
Tecumseh, hopes for a Native American
confederation died.

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Critical Thinking
Analyzing Themes: Government and
Democracy Summarize the importance
of the Marbury v. Madison decision.

It established the Supreme Court’s right of
judicial review, in which the judiciary branch
could review the acts of other branches of
government.

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Critical Thinking
Analyzing Information What were the
boundaries of the Louisiana Territory?

The boundaries of the Louisiana Territory were
the Mississippi River on the east, British Canada
on the north, the Oregon Country on the
northwest, and Spanish territory from the
southern boundary of the Oregon Country to the
Gulf of Mexico west of New Orleans.

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Geography and History Activity
Study the maps on the following slides and answer the questions
that follow.

Geography and History Activity

Geography and History Activity

Geography and History Activity
Region What three Southern states were
admitted to the nation between 1810 and
1820?

Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama were
admitted as states between 1810 and 1820.

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Geography and History Activity
Location In what year did Mississippi
become a state?

Mississippi became a state in 1817.

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Standardized Test Practice
Directions: Use the map below to choose the best answer to the
following question.

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Standardized Test Practice
Which of the following statements about the election of 1800 is
true?
F

Federalists won Georgia’s electoral votes.

G

New Hampshire supported the Democratic-Republican
ticket.

H

Connecticut had seven electoral votes.

J

Pennsylvania was one of the states that split its votes.

Test-Taking Tip Double-check all answer choices to make sure
that you have chosen the best answer. Make sure that your answer
choice is supported by information on the map. Check each choice
against the map. Only one is correct.
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As Lewis and Clark traveled down the Columbia
River, they knew they were getting close to the
ocean when they saw salmon in the river. Why?

Salmon are an ocean-dwelling fish and travel
only in freshwater to lay their eggs.

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Explore online information about the topics introduced
in this chapter.
Click on the Connect button to launch your
browser and go to The American Republic to
1877 Web site. At this site, you will find
interactive activities, current events
information, and Web sites correlated with the
chapters and units in the textbook. When you
finish exploring, exit the browser program to
return to this presentation. If you experience
difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually
launch your Web browser and go to
http://tarvol1.glencoe.com

Wagons with wooden wheels gave passengers a bumpy
ride over rough terrain. When the wagons came to
especially rocky stretches, people often had to get out and
walk.

Embargoes Throughout its history, the United States has
used the embargo as a political weapon. In 1980 President
Jimmy Carter placed an embargo on the sale of American
grain to the Soviet Union because the country’s troops
had invaded Afghanistan. The embargo was meant to put
pressure on the Soviet Union to withdraw its troops.

Uncle Sam During the War of 1812, Samuel Wilson, an
army meat inspector from Troy, New York, stamped
“U.S.” for United States on the barrels of salted meat he
approved. One day government inspectors asked a meat
packer what the initials stood for. The worker did not
know, so he said that the initials represented his boss,
“Uncle Sam.” “Uncle” Samuel Wilson soon became a
symbol of the federal government.

Embargo

Conestoga
Tecumseh

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Embargo Americans enraged by the embargo made
anagrams of the word embargo that reflected their anger:
“O Grab Me,” “Go Bar ‘Em,” and “Mobrage.” One
cartoon of the time shows a snapping turtle (the embargo)
clenching a merchant’s trousers in its jaws, preventing the
man from loading his cargo. The merchant’s speech
balloon reads, “Oh! This cursed Ograbme.”

Conestoga Conestoga is the name of a Native American
group whose population was reduced by epidemics from
about 5,000 in 1600 to 20 people in 1763. White settlers
massacred these last few.

Tecumseh Tecumseh is the anglicized version of Tekam-thi, which is Shawnee for “Panther Passing Across.”
His father chose that name because Tecumseh was born
just as a shooting star of great brilliance passed overhead.
According to Shawnee legend, shooting stars were
panthers looking for a deep hole or cave in which to
sleep.

The Conestoga
Wagon
By the mid-1700s, sturdy Conestoga wagons
transported settlers and their freight over the
Appalachian Mountains. These wagons were first built
in the Conestoga Creek region of Lancaster,
Pennsylvania. As people pushed even farther
westward, the Conestoga was seen rolling across the
plains toward Oregon and California.

This feature can be found on page 293 of your textbook.

The Conestoga
Wagon
1

Six to eight draft horses or a dozen oxen
pull the wagon. The driver rides or walks
beside the animals.
3 toolbox

4 wagon bows

2
1
5 wheels
This feature can be found on page 293 of your textbook. Click the
mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

The Conestoga
Wagon
2

The boat-shaped wagon’s high front and
back keep goods from falling out on steep
mountain trails.
3 toolbox

4 wagon bows

2
1
5 wheels
This feature can be found on page 293 of your textbook. Click the
mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

The Conestoga
Wagon
3

A toolbox attached to the side of the
wagon holds spare parts for needed
repairs.
3 toolbox

4 wagon bows

2
1
5 wheels
This feature can be found on page 293 of your textbook. Click the
mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

The Conestoga
Wagon
4

A white canvas cloth stretches over the hoops or
wagon bows. This cover protects passengers and cargo
from heat, rain, and snow.
3 toolbox

4 wagon bows

2
1
5 wheels
This feature can be found on page 293 of your textbook. Click the
mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

The Conestoga
Wagon
5

Broad wheels help keep the heavy wagon from
being mired in the mud.
3 toolbox

4 wagon bows

2
1
5 wheels
This feature can be found on page 293 of your textbook. Click the
mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

The Conestoga
Wagon
The average Conestoga wagon was 21 feet long, 11 feet
high, and 4 feet in width and length. It could carry up to
12,000 pounds of cargo.
3 toolbox

4 wagon bows

2
1
5 wheels

This feature can be found on page 293 of your textbook.

Writing a Journal
Why Learn This Skill?

Journal writing is personal writing with a casual style.
What you write on is not as important as what you write
about–your experiences, interests, and even your feelings.

This feature can be found on page 301 of your textbook.
Click the Speaker button to replay the audio.

Writing a Journal
Learning the Skill
A journal is a written account that records what you have learned or
experienced. In the journal you can express your feelings about a
subject, summarize key topics, describe difficulties or successes in
solving particular problems, and draw maps or other visuals. To
help you get started writing in your journal, follow these steps:
• As you read your textbook, jot down notes or questions about a
specific topic or event. Then look for details and answers about
it as you continue reading.
This feature can be found on page 301 of your textbook. Click the
mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Writing a Journal
Learning the Skill
• Describe your feelings as you read a selection or look at a
photograph. Are you angry, happy, frustrated, sad? Explain why.
• Ask yourself if drawing a map or flowchart would help you
understand an event better. If so, draw in your journal.

This feature can be found on page 301 of your textbook. Click the
mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Writing a Journal
Practicing the Skill
The following excerpt describes the burning of Washington, D.C.,
during the War of 1812. Read the excerpt, then use the following
questions to help you write entries in your own journal.

This feature can be found on page 301 of your textbook.

Writing a Journal
Practicing the Skill
“[T]his was a night of dismay to the inhabitants of Washington.
They were taken completely by surprise. . . . The first impulse of
course tempted them to fly. . . . [T]he streets were . . . crowded with
soldiers and senators, men, women, and children, horses, carriages,
and carts loaded with household furniture, all hastening towards a
wooden bridge which crosses the Potomac. The confusion . . . was
terrible, and the crowd upon the bridge was such to endanger its
giving way.”

This feature can be found on page 301 of your textbook.

Writing a Journal
Practicing the Skill
1. What is particularly interesting about this description?

2. What are your feelings as you read the excerpt?

This feature can be found on page 301 of your textbook.

Writing a Journal
Practicing the Skill
3. Draw a map or other visual to help you understand the situation
described here.

This feature can be found on page 301 of your textbook.

The True Story
of Sacagawea
Objectives
After viewing “The True Story of Sacagawea,” you should:
• Be aware of the difficult requirements of the Lewis and Clark
expedition.
• Appreciate the importance of
Sacagawea to the expedition.
• Acknowledge the help that the
Shoshoni Indians provided Lewis
and Clark.
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The True Story
of Sacagawea
Discussion Question
Why did Lewis and Clark need horses?

Horses were essential to help the expedition to
cross the Rocky Mountains.

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The True Story
of Sacagawea
Discussion Question
Even though Clark never paid Sacagawea, why
did she still like and value him?
Sacagawea recognized the value of the
education that he provided for her son.

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The second pen made the copy.
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The Embargo Act was established because of the Chesapeake-Leopard
Affair.
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