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The American Republic To 1877
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Chapter Introduction

Section 1

Jacksonian Democracy

Section 2

Conflicts Over Land

Section 3

Jackson and the Bank

Chapter Summary
Chapter Assessment

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Chapter Objectives
Section 1: Jacksonian Democracy
• Explain why the nation’s sixth president was
chosen by the House of Representatives.
• Identify the changes President Jackson brought to
the American political system.

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Chapter Objectives
Section 2: Conflicts Over Land
• Understand how Native Americans were forced
off their lands in the Southeast.
• Explain how President Jackson defied the Supreme
Court.

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Chapter Objectives
Section 3: Jackson and the Bank
• Examine the reasons why Jackson wanted to
destroy the Bank of the United States.
• Understand why the Whigs came to power in 1840.

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Why It Matters
The struggle for political rights took shape in the
1820s and 1830s, when many people questioned
the limits of American democracy.

The Impact Today
In the years since the Jackson era:
• Women, African Americans, and other
minorities have won the right to vote and
to participate in the political process.
• Today every United States citizen aged 18
or older, regardless of gender, race, or
wealth, has the right to vote.

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Guide to Reading
Main Idea
The United States’s political system changed under
Andrew Jackson.

Key Terms
• favorite son
• majority
• plurality

• spoils system
• nominating
convention

• mudslinging
• bureaucracy

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Jackson sewing box

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New Parties Emerge
1. John Quincy Adams elected by the House of
Representatives. (Election of 1824)
-Corrupt bargain between Adams and Clay-

Andrew Jackson the favorite son had a
plurality of the popular vote, but not enough

electoral votes. (No majority)
2. Adams presidency wasn’t very favorable.
3. Congress votes down many of Adams’s
proposals ( Congress=wanted limited federal
(pages 334–335)
government.
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New Parties Emerge (con’t.)
1. Vicious campaign between Jackson
( Democratic-Republican ) and John Q.
Adams ( National-Republican) in 1828

2. New campaign techniques:
A. Mud-slinging=insults
B. Elections slogans, rally buttons and
campaign events and rallies.
C. Landslide victory ( 60% ) for Jackson.

(pages 335–336)
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Jackson as President
1. An American Champion= “Rags to Riches”.
2. Democracy broadened= “Equal protection and
Equal Rights” no matter what your social

status was. ( Eliminate bureaucracy)
3. Spoils System= for personal supporters/.

4. National conventions replaced the old caucus
system.
5. Jackson introduces the new Democratic Party.
(pages 336–337)
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The Tariff Debate
1. The new tariff on imports splits the nation--Northeast ( positive ) the South ( negative ).
2. Discussion for southern secession took place.

3. John Calhoun (VP) argues for nullification.
4. Webster-Hayne Debate= Daniel Webster

argues that nullification would end the Union.
5. The Nullification Act passed in South Carolina
in 1832 leading to the “Nullification Crisis”
and possible secession.
(pages 338–339)
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The Tariff Debate (cont.)
6. Henry Clay developed a compromise bill
which lowered the tariff. ( South excepts it )
7. The Force Bill was passed by Congress which
would give the U.S. military the right to
enforce acts and laws passed by Congress.

(pages 338–339)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.

__
E 1. to leave or withdraw

A. favorite son

__
C 2. attempt to ruin an opponent’s
reputation with insults

B. plurality

__
A 3. candidate that receives the
backing of his home state rather
than of the national party

D. landslide

__
D 4. an overwhelming victory
__
B 5. largest single share

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C. mudslinging
E. secede

Guide to Reading
Main Idea
As more white settlers moved into the Southeast, conflict
arose between the Native Americans who lived there and
the United States government.

Key Terms
• relocate

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Sequoya

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Removing Native Americans
1. The Indian Removal Act ( 1830 )(relocate)
forced Native Americans to move to lands
west of the Mississippi River. (favored by
Jackson)

2. Indians of the Southeast were moved to Indian
Territory in what is present day Oklahoma.
3. The Supreme Court ruled against the Act and
in favor of the Cherokee Indians of Georgia
that they could stay. (Jackson disagrees)

4. Treaty in 1832 was signed by a few Cherokee.
Most refused to move and were forced to
leave on what became known as the “Trail
(pagesof
341–344)
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Resistance and Removal
1. The Seminoles of Florida successfully resisted
the movement. ( Seminole Wars=guerilla tactics. )
Eventually many died from the long war or were
captured and sent out west.

2. Most Native Americans were moved to
western reservations. They gave up 100 million
acres of land east of the Mississippi River for $68
million dollars. They received 32 million acres
west of the Mississippi River.
3. Was it a fair trade?
(pages 344–345)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.

__
B 1. referring to surprise attacks or
raids rather than organized
warfare
__
A 2. to force a person or group of
people to move

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A. relocate
B. guerrilla tactics

Guide to Reading
Main Idea
Economic issues affected the presidencies of Andrew
Jackson and Martin Van Buren.

Key Terms
• veto

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Bank note issued in
the mid-1800s

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Jackson’s War Against the Bank
1. Pres. Jackson challenges the Bank of America
(made for the wealthy) and veto’s the bank
charter in 1832.
2. Jackson wins his second term in 1832 because
many people supported the bank charter veto.
3. Jackson officially kills the “bank” when he
transfers the $$$$$ to smaller banks.
4. Jackson is succeeded by Martin Van Buren as
the 8th President of the U.S. Van Buren
defeated the newly developed Whig party
canididate.
(pages 348–351)
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Jackson’s War Against the Bank (cont.)
5. Panic of 1837 ( Depression )
A. Land values dropped
B. Investments fell off

C. Bank failures
D. Massive unemployment

E. Van Buren believed in a laissez-faire
attitude, so he didn’t do much to help
the economy. ( loses popularity )
(pages 348–351)
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The Whigs in Power
1. 1840 Election---Van Buren ( Democrat ) vs.
Harrison ( Whigs---supporters included labors
and farmers ). Slogan=“Tippecanoe and Tyler,
Too.”----Log Cabin Campaign----

2. 12 years of Democrat rule gave way to the 1st
Whig Party President William Henry Harrison.
3. Harrison died 4 weeks into his term from
pneumonia. VP Tyler completed the term.
( wasn’t all that well liked by the Whig Party )

(page 351)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.

__
A 1. to reject a bill and prevent
it from becoming a law

A. veto

__
D 2. name given to William
Henry Harrison’s campaign
for the presidency in 1840,
from the Whigs’ use of a log
cabin as their symbol

C. laissez-faire

B. depression
D. log cabin
campaign

__
C 3. policy that government should interfere as little as
possible in the nation’s economy

__
B 4. a period of low economic activity and widespread
unemployment

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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.

__
G 1. a period of low economic
activity and widespread
unemployment
__
F 2. to leave or withdraw
__
B 3. an overwhelming victory

__
A 4. largest single share
__
E 5. to cancel or make ineffective
__
C 6. the right to vote

__
D 7. more than half

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A. plurality
B. landslide
C. suffrage
D. majority
E. nullify
F. secede
G. depression

Reviewing Key Facts
Which Americans were prohibited from voting in
most states before the 1800s?

Women, African Americans, and Native
Americans were still excluded from voting.
Only white male property owners could vote
before the 1800s.

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Reviewing Key Facts
Why was the South against high tariffs?

The South, with little manufacturing, bought its
manufactured goods from abroad. The tariffs
made them expensive.

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Reviewing Key Facts
Who did the Seminoles join forces with as they
fought against removal from their land?

The Seminoles joined forces with escaped
slaves.

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Reviewing Key Facts
How did the Panic of 1837 affect the nation’s
economy?

Businesses closed. Many people lost their jobs.

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Reviewing Key Facts
Why was Harrison’s log cabin campaign
successful?

By focusing on the “common man,” it appealed
to the same voters that were attracted to
Jackson.

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Critical Thinking
Drawing Conclusions President Andrew
Jackson promised “equal protection and equal
benefits” for all Americans. Do you think he
included Native Americans in his promise? Why
or why not?
No; he supported their relocation, showing that
he did not consider them to have the same rights
as other Americans.

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Critical Thinking
Analyzing Themes: Groups and Institutions
What agreement did the Cherokee Nation make
with the federal government that Georgia refused
to recognize?

In treaties of the 1790s, the federal
government acknowledged the Cherokee in
Georgia as a separate nation with its own
laws.

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Geography and History Activity
Study the map below and answer the questions on the following
slides.

Geography and History Activity
Region Which
general areas of
the United States
voted for Andrew
Jackson in the
election of 1828?
The West and the South
voted for Andrew
Jackson.

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Geography and History Activity
Location Which
candidate won
more votes in
Adams’s home
state of
Massachusetts?
Adams won the most
votes in his home state
of Massachusetts.

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Geography and History Activity
Place Which three
states divided their
total electoral
count between the
two candidates?
Maine, New York, and
Maryland
divided their total
electoral count between
the two candidates.

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Standardized Test Practice
Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question.
Which of the following statements expresses an opinion about
Andrew Jackson?
A

Jackson served two terms as president.

B

He spoke out against South Carolina’s Nullification Act.

C

Because of Jackson, the United States has the best system of
filling government positions.

D

Jackson supported the Indian Removal Act.

Test-Taking Tip An opinion is a person’s belief. It is not a proven
fact (such as answer A). Opinions often contain subjective words,
like easier or best.
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Who was the first president to be born a United
States citizen?

Martin Van Buren was the first president
to be born a United States citizen.

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Explore online information about the topics introduced
in this chapter.
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1877 Web site. At this site, you will find
interactive activities, current events
information, and Web sites correlated with the
chapters and units in the textbook. When you
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http://tarvol1.glencoe.com

Economics The Cherokee Nation in Georgia enjoyed
economic success. The nation owned 22,000 head of
cattle, 2,000 spinning wheels, 700 looms, 10 sawmills,
and 1,300 enslaved persons.

During his presidency Andrew Jackson surrounded
himself with a group of trusted advisers. Because they
met in the White House kitchen, Jackson’s critics referred
to the group as the “kitchen cabinet.” Martin Van Buren
was the only member of this influential group who also
belonged to the president’s official cabinet. Like Jackson,
many later presidents–often mistakenly–put their trust in
their kitchen cabinet of friends rather than in officially
appointed cabinet members.

Political Terms Caucus probably is derived from the
Algonquin word caucauasu, which means “counselor” or
“adviser.” The first recorded use of the word to mean a
meeting of political leaders came in the 1770s.

Analyzing Primary
Sources
Why Learn This Skill?

Historians determine what happened in the past by
combing through bits of evidence to reconstruct events.
This evidence–both written and illustrated–is called
primary sources. Examining primary sources can help
you understand history.

This feature can be found on page 340 of your textbook.
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Analyzing Primary
Sources
Learning the Skill
Primary sources are records of events made by the people who
witnessed them. They include letters, diaries, photographs and
pictures, news articles, and legal documents. To analyze primary
sources, follow these steps:
• Identify when and where the document was written.
• Read the document for its content and try to answer the five “W”
questions: Who is it about? What is it about? When did it
happen? Where did it happen? Why did it happen?
• Identify the author’s opinions.
This feature can be found on page 340 of your textbook. Click the
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Analyzing Primary
Sources
Practicing the Skill
The primary source on page 340 of your textbook comes from
Speckled Snake, an elder of the Creek Nation, in 1829. He was
more than 100 years old at the time he said these words. Read the
quote, then answer the questions on the following slide.

This feature can be found on page 340 of your textbook.

Analyzing Primary
Sources
Practicing the Skill
“Brothers! I have listened to many talks from our Great Father.
When he first came over the wide waters, he was but a little
man…. But when the white man had warmed himself before the
Indians’ fire and filled himself with their hominy, he became
very large. With a step he bestrode the mountains and his feet
covered the plains and the valleys. His hand grasped the eastern
and the western sea, and his head rested on the moon. Then he
became our Great Father. Brothers, I have listened to a great
many talks from our Great Father. But they always began and
ended in this–‘Get a little further; you are too near me.’”
This feature can be found on page 340 of your textbook.

Analyzing Primary
Sources
Practicing the Skill
1. What events are described?
The coming of white people and the forcing of Native
Americans from their land are described.
2. Who was affected by these events?
Native Americans were affected by these events.

This feature can be found on page 340 of your textbook. Click the
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Analyzing Primary
Sources
Practicing the Skill
3. What is the general feeling of the person who stated this
opinion?
The writer feels disgust, anger, distrust, and resentment
because the white settlers have overpowered the Native
Americans and taken their lands, pushing them farther and
farther west.

This feature can be found on page 340 of your textbook. Click the
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Old Hickory
Objectives
After viewing “Old Hickory,” you should:
• Understand why some consider Andrew Jackson to be the first
“real” American president.
• Know why Andrew Jackson’s
presidential terms were
controversial.
• Appreciate why it is said that
anyone can grow up to be
president.
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Old Hickory
Discussion Question
What was the significance of President Jackson’s
reaction to South Carolina’s threat to secede?
His firm stance on South Carolina illustrated
Jackson’s belief that his country was more than a
confederation of states–it was a nation of people–and
that individual states had a national responsibility.

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Old Hickory
Discussion Question
How was Jackson’s use of veto power different from
that of previous presidents?
Previous presidents exercised their veto power
only when they believed proposed legislation was
unconstitutional. Jackson used the veto when he
thought legislation would be harmful or when it
conflicted with his beliefs.

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Osceola could be described as strong, proud, defiant, and selfconfident.
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