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Field report of Environmental and socioeconomic study on St. martin, Moheshkhali &
Cox’s bazar sea beach

Department of Environmental Sciences
Jahangirnagar University
Savar, Dhaka-1342

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Field report of Environmental and socioeconomic study on St. martin, Moheshkhali &
Cox’s bazaar
Submitted By
Reajul Islam Reaj
Exam Roll: 121988
Reg. No: 34013
Session:2o11-12
Submitted To
Dr. Mohammad Amir Hossain Bhuiyan
Associate professor
Mohammad Emadul Huda
Assistant Professor
Date:
30-06-2014

Department of Environmental Sciences
Jahangirnagar University
Savar, Dhaka 1342

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content
Chapter one
Page
1.1: Introduction to geological features ………………………………. 5
1.2: Introduction to biological features ………………………………….8
1.3: Introduction to chemical features………………………………….11
1.4: Introduction to economical features………………………………….12
Chapter two
2.1: Objectives……………………………………………………………12
2.2: Methodology……………………………………………………….. 13
2.3: Equipments………………………………………………………….13
Chapter three
3.1: Results of St. Martin island…………………………………………14
3.2: Results of Moheshkhali island………………………………………15
3.3: Results of Cox’s bazaar sea beach…………………………………....16
Chapter four
4.1: Discussion about St.martin island……………………………….…17
4.2: Discussion about Moheshkhali……………………………………..20
4.3: Discussion about Cox’s Bazar……………………………………..20
Chapter five:
5: Causes of result……………………………………………………….21
Chapter six
6.1: Summery……………………………………………………………22
6.2: Conclusion………………………………………………………… 23
Chapter seven
Reference ……………………………………………………………… 24
#map……………………………………………………………………..7

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is our great pleasure that we completed the task assigned by our course teachers to
make a report on basic information on Cox’s Bazar, St. martin, Moheshkhali and
adjoining coastal region’s environmental condition assessment.It is the matter of
satisfaction that this task was completed due to the fact that Dr. Mohammad Amir
Hossain Bhuiyan (Associate professor), Mohammad Emadul Huda (Assistant professor)
Department of Environmental Sciences, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka gave us
their valuable time to guide us and assist environmental impact assessment to complete
the task with care and efficiency.
Many local people of the place helped us to collect secondary data. We are grateful to
them.

Abstract
Bangladesh has a vast coastal area in the south-eastern part.
Environmentally St. martin,cox’s bazaar, Moheskhali

are important

because these areas are rich in enormous natural resources and
biodiversity. Due to its geomorphological feature and climate a lot of
diversify plants and animal make the region unique. Peoples who lived
in

these

areas

are

directly

or

indirectly

depend

on

nature.

Unfortunately due to lack of proper management and over exploitation
of resources these areas become threatened.

The coastal region of

Bangladesh is now vulnerable for several natural and human induced
calamities and environmental disruptions. St. martin,cox’s bazaar,
Moheskhali have both natural and human induced calamities.Salt is the
major

human

induced

activity

causing

severe

environmental

disruption, which is responsible for destruction of top soil layer fertility,
soil quality, seawater intrusion, loss of biodiversity, lack of ground

may

cause

disaster.

5

which

So

public

awareness

and

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water,

recommended proper environmental management is very essential to
mitigate these problems and to check the study area from any kind of
disaster.

Chapter- 01
1.1: Introduction to geological features of the study areas:
St martin island:
Saint martin is an island situated in Bangladesh. It is a small island situated in the
north Bengal. Its a coral island.This small coral island is about 10 KM that means
about 6 mile. Southwest part of the southern tip of the mainland is a tropical niche
cliché, with beaches fringed with coconut palms and bountiful marine life. This
place is so calm and quite that you will lose yourself in the peace of this beautiful
island.
Due to the plate tectonic movement the Naf river was introduced. Which makes
the dividation of Myanmer and Bay of Bengal.
Due to sedimentation when wave comes at that time large granule deposited and
at the same time small granule flow away.

Chera dip:
Although chera dip is a part of saint martin island but it is divided by a tide. It is
also a very nice place to visit. Local small launch called as troller can be the
vehicle to visit this place

Moheshkhali:

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It is situated at the coast of Cox's Bazar. It has an area of 268 square kilometers.
Through the center of the island and along the eastern coastline rises, a range of
low hills, 300 feet high; but the coast to the west and north is a low-lying treat,
fringed by mangrove forest.

Coxs bazaar:
Cox’s Bazar is a fishing port town in Bangladesh with the world’s longest natural
unbroken 125 km sandy sea beach with gentle slope. This is the most attractive
tourist spot of the country which is located between the river Bakkhali and the Bay
of Bengal from 150 km south of Chittagong in the South Eastern part of the
Bangladesh.

Sl.
No Type of deposits
.
1
Heavy minerals
(Radio-active
Minerals)
2
3

4
5

6

7

Locality

In the beach deposits of Teknaf, Cox’sbazar sadar,
Sonadia island, Materbari, Kutubdia island,
Nijhumdwip, Bhola island, Kuakata and Kawar
char.
Glass sand
In the valleys of Moheshkhali island, Pekua,
Banskhali, Anowara and Chakaria
White clay
In small lenses of the hilly terrains of Ramu,
Ukhia, Moheshkhali, Pekua, Banshkhali, Anowara
and Chakaria
Tiles clay
In different areas of the Coastal Plain of Satkhira
district
Peat
In the depressions of Gopalganj, Khulna, Bagerhat
and Cox’sbazar districts (Pekua upazila)
and Kutubdia island
Construction sand Teknaf, Cox’sbazar sadar, Moheshkhali, Pekua,
Banshkhali, Anowara, Chakaria, Chittagong, Feni,
Bhola and Barishal
Gravel
and Teknaf, Cox’bazar Sadar, Ukhia, Moheshkhali,
Construction
Banshkhali,
Sands

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Brick clay

In different areas of the Tidal floodplains of coastal
area.
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Map of St.martin island,Moheshkhali,Coxs bazaar

Fig:Cox’s Bazar distric

Fig:St.Martin Island

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Fig:Maheshkhali upazila

1.2: Introduction to biological features of the study areas:
St martin island:There are different types of biological features are found in the Saint Martin
Islands. This is the only island in Bangladesh which has coral colonies in the
shallows. Enormous areas of sand ridge, some mangrove formations, Pandanus
vegetation and scattered boulder/dead corals are the major characteristics of this
island. The surface area of the island is about 8 kilometres depending on tidal level.
The north portion of the island is called 'Cheradia Dwip', because during high tide,
this portion of the island is separated from the other and also considered as the last
southern landmark of Bangladesh (Haider, 2008).
The island is a good example of co-occurrence of corals, algae, sea weeds, grasses
and mangroves.The seaward margin to about 1000m offshore supports a diverse
coral community represented by approximately 66 Scleractinian coral species, of
which 19 are fossil corals, 36 are living corals and the rest are under families of
subclass Octocorallia (11 species of soft corals). Although as many as 240 fish
species were recorded from the catch landed on Narikel Jinjira, (DoZ, 1997), only
86 of them are coral reef associated (Tomascik, 1997; Department of Zoology,
1997). The most abundant coral or reef associated fish are Damsel, Parrot,
Surgeon, Groupers, Snappers, Emperors and Butterfly fish (Haider, 2008).

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The main attraction for any coral island is their different, varieties of multi- colour
ornamental fishes. It has been reported that nearly 25%-40% of the world marine
fish resources came from coral reef area. Reef area is also a major nutrients
supplier for primary production in marine food chain. The mollusc on the St.
Martin's is the largest and most beautiful in Bangladesh. 186 species of mollusc &
oyster, 7 species of crab, 9 species of echinoderms, 4 species of sea urchin, 1
species of sea cucumber & some brittle stars were reported.

Moheshkhali:
The hills are covered with green plants. It can be grass, bushes, planted trees by
human, or natural tree . Most of the dry fish supply comes from this part of the
country. The island has lots of varieties mangrove trees at the shore. The green
shore is a nice view from the boats.

Coxs bazaar:Coastal zones from Chittagong to Cox’s Bazar along the Bay of Bengal studied
changes of water-flow and the flora and fauna of the estuaries of the Karnaphuli,
Halda, Sangu and Matamuhuri rivers, which flow down from the adjacent
Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) and Arakan Lusai Hills.
34 plant species of tropical rainforest including Podocarpus nerifolia and Enteda
phaseoloids which face extinction. Animal lives such as cats, bears, porcupine,
wild boars, pythons and anteaters have become rare. Red crabs, jelly fish, sharks,
and dolphins have become rare since 1980. Hilsa ilisha has migrated to Myanmar
coast and further deep sea, but marine Hilsa used to breed in the fresh waters of the
Ganges, Brahmaputa and Meghna’s meeting point Chandpur to Gualanda, about

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100-150 km inside Bangladesh. The Halda freshwater fish breeding zone has move
14 km east due to increased salinity in the Bay of Bengal.

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Fig : Various animals found in St. Martin’s
Island

1.3: Introduction to chemical features of the study areas:St martin island:Soil Condition: PH- {6.8 to 8.2}

But in Chera dip 8 ppm.

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Salinity: 6.8ppm {average}

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CaCO3 - {2.22 to 9.4}%

Moheshkhali:
Water & sanitation of Moheshkhali:
Indicator

Upazila %

Coverage of households having access to safe drinking water (%)

98.00

Coverage of households having access to sanitary latrines (%)

60.00

Coxs bazaar:Gravel and Construction Sands,Glass sands are mainly found in the beach of
Coxs bazaar.

1.4:Introduction to Economical features of the study areas:St martin island:The people of St martin mainly depends on the sea in case of their livelihood
.Besides this there are also some business on boat,troller, and hotel business.They
mainly earn money from tourism business.The childrens used to collect

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snails ,corals from the beach.And sell that to the tourists and earn money,Besides
these some people cultivate different types of crops and vegetables.

Moheshkhali:

Moheshkhali is mainly famous for pan.The peoples of moheshkhali lives on
some business like boat,fishing, and others.There remains different types of people
of different occupations.The maximum portion of dry fishes comes from this
region of Bangladesh.

Coxs bazaar:
There remains different types of people of different occupations. .They mainly
earn money from tourism business.The childrens used to collect snails ,corals
from the beach.And sell that to the tourists and earn money,Besides these some
people cultivate different types of crops and vegetables.Besides these hotel and
resturent business is popular in Coxs bazaar.

Chapter- 02
Objectives and methodology of the field tour:-

2.1: Objectives:
In st. martin island and coxs bazar we have also some objectives . the main
objectives are given below:1.The threats of biodiversity and environment in particular areas identifying.
2. Awareness create among people.
3. The biodiversity survey along the coast and other coastal areas, and marine
systems.
4. The importance of corals and hazards related to the lackings of corals.
5.Observation on coastal erosion, hazards,flash flood, monsoon flood,tidal flood,
salinity and others .

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6. observation of the flora and fauna of the field areas.
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7. To find a suitable way to promote eco-tourism in the field area.
8. To conserve and restore the biodiversity in the project areas.
9. Observation on marine fisheries and dry fish export In Bangladesh.
In Moheshkhali our main objects were on1. to see the marine coastal mangrove forest in the coastal belt
2. salt cultivation process and their impacts on human life and cultivation land.

2.2: Methodology:
We use transect method for this field tour .The transect is simply a line that spans
the gradient of interest, and then we have to locate the sample plots along this line
. The length of transect would be determined by the gradient you are sampling .
Line transects are used when you wish to illustrate a particular gradient or linear
pattern along which communities of plants and, or animals change. They provide a
good way of being able to clearly visualise the changes taking place along the line.

2.3: Eqipments:
1. Base map
2. GPS receiver
3. Sample bag
4. Field note book
5. Haversack
6. Water bottle
7. Camera, marker pen
8. First aid equipments
9. Ph meter
10.TDS meter
11.Turbidity meter

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12.Salinity meter

Chapter 03:
Result:-

3.1: St. martin island: The main threat to future viability of coral communities comes from direct
extraction of corals colonies. Coral collection activities started in 50's but
until recently extraction was at low level. Large-scale removal of coral
boulders and dredging of channels has caused considerable damage to the
reefs, and a barrier wall built on the sea front has caused beach erosion
(Mollah).
 The removal of Pandanus trees for firewood has also caused much beach
and dune erosion (Rajasurya and others, 2000).
 Nesting intensity of turtles may have declined greatly within 15-20 years.
Rashid (1986) recorded 35 green turtles nesting in one night on the same
beach in St Martin. According to local elders, 10-15 years ago, turtle nesting
was very common on most of the beaches. Endless over-exploitation has
brought the nesting turtles to near extinction. The traditional uses of marine
turtle products by local communities are not significant. Major consumers of
the turtle eggs are the ethnic communities of the country and the biggest
business zone are the 3 hill tract districts of Khagrachari, Rangamati and
Bandarban.
It would certainly contribute to the increase of solid wastes with increase of
visitors in St. Martin's Island which makes threat to the island's coral health. The
physical action of waste throwing by tourists either on the beach or in the water
might not be an apparent threat. The marine park islands would have to cope with
the waste problem from the general population of the islands as well as with the

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increased amount of wastes from lodges and resorts. At present, solid wastes
disposal system remains disorganised and unavailable on most islands. Oil
pollution caused by passenger boats and ferries is also an issue that contributes to
the deterioration of water quality. The advent and rising demand of tourism on
these islands had resulted in the increase number of boats and ferries. The
cumulative effect of the oil residue could affect the health of the marine resources.
Snorkelling and scuba diving are the most popular activities that tourists engaged
in during their visit to the marine parks. This activity has been noted to pose
significant threat to corals in shallow water as inexperienced snorkelers and scuba
divers tend to either crush or stand on the reefs. Coral breakage could also be the
result of diving activity as well as anchoring of boats done by irresponsible boat
operators or illegal fishermen. Visitors have also been caught engaging in illegal
activities such as stealing live corals and other marine lives for souvenirs.

3.2: Moheshkhali:IMPACT ON GROUND WATER:
A significant amount of stagnant saline water directly penetrates to the
ground water and contaminating ground water. Chemicals are used in salt
cultivation enters in ground water through soil horizon by leaching process. As a
result, ground water contamination is a major problem in study area.

IMPACT ON SOIL pH AND INFILTRATION:
Because of salt cultivation in agricultural land soil, pH increases and
preparation of saltpan reduce infiltration rate of the soil.

IMPACT ON ECOLOGY AND BIODIVERSITY:
Soil nutrient is reduced because of salt cultivation. This creates an adverse
condition for vegetation and other micro biota. The ecosystem based on this
vegetation is damaged. It may cause the extinction of many species.

IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH:

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Skin diseases are the severe problem of the people who are directly involved
in salt cultivation.

Impacts of tourism:mainly the main attraction of moheshkhali is adinath temple which is 165 years
old.with th increasing history of its discovery , it’s the most attractive spot during
the festive season of falgoon (march-april) ,when sea fishing near the moheshkhali
island is a rewarding experience. There are also situated rakhyan villages and the
betel leaf of moheshkhali is very famous . from the tourism the are some negative
and positive impacts . they are given below:
 mainly from tourism the local people along with the government earn a lot
of currency which can attribute in local and national economy.
 mainly from tourism, there are many negative impacts .mainly tourists are
not sincere about the environment there . they mainly pollute the entire
island by dispose the garbage here and there.

3.3: Cox’s bazar:Cox’s Bazar has socio-economic and environmental impacts mainly caused from
domestic tourism.
mainly the natural landscape of the hill and forest area of the coxs bazaar is ruined
due to environmental and economics reasons.
 mainly due to costal cyclone and coastal flood mainly coastal erosion and
major change in the landscape occur.
 mainly for tourism facilities the landscape has been ruined."Trees are being
cut indiscriminately on the hillside and lands are also cleared to make way
for buildings," Prof Ahmed said.

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 many tourists take coral home as souvenirs. As a result, traders and locals
frequently collect corals and sea shells . it causes many problems in coastal
area.

Chapter 04:
Discussion:
4.1: St. martin island:
St. Martin’s island is endowed with vast marine and land resources
having a global biodiversity significance. The island is a good example
of co-occurrence of corals, algae, sea weeds, grasses and mangroves.
The island contains some of the most unique, but thus far not studied,
benthic community association in Bangladesh, in fact not found any
where else in the south Asia region.
It has been known from a study by Canadian coral biologist Dr. T.
Tomasik in 1997 that notably the rocky sub-tidal habitat from the
seaward margin to about 1000m offshore supports a diverse coral
community represented by approximately 66 Scleractinian coral
species, of which 19 are fossil corals, 36 are living corals and the rest
are under families of subclass Octocorallia (11 species of soft corals).

Flora:
name

Number of species

algae

157

brayophytes

16

10

Gymnosprams

Nearly absent

angiosprams

450

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pteries

Fauna:
name

Number of species

coral

68 species under 10 family and 22 generes

molluscs

151 species under 55 family and 107
generes

Deep sea molluscs

4 species under 4 family and 4 generes

crab

7 species under 1 family and 7 generes

butterfly

6 species under a family and 6 generes

echinodermata

9 species under 1 family and 8 generes

fishes

234 species under 85 family and 159
generes

Coral dependant fishes

Very few

Coral dependent species

89 species under 32 family and 51 generes

amphibia

4 species under 3 family and 4 generes

reptile

29 species under11 family and 24 generes

mammals

25 species under 7 family and 21 generes

birds

77 species under 32 family and 63 generes

Migratory birds

43 species under 14 family and 31 generes

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most of the people here are related with occupation of fishermen . they mainly
collect fish from sea and sells it to the market . During the survey we have found
that there are only 2 primary schools and 1 high school and percentage of
education is medium but most of them probably left school in 9 or 10 th grades .
many people also send their children to study in the madrasa.there are 6 madrasra
and 13 mosques in the island.
Mainly there is one hospital in the island but with no doctor. Mainly the medicine
is taken from the farmacy.
The hotels and restaurants that sprang up in the recent past in Saint Martin's Island,
one of the ecologically critical areas (ECA) in the country, have been operating
without any official approval. According to the law, building of any structure and
carrying out any activity that might pollute the environment or harm the flora and
fauna in an ECA is strictly prohibited. But the different government agencies
turning a blind eye to the violation. Nearly 100 privately owned hotels and
restaurants are currently doing business in the 3.34-square kilometre island with
only 10,000 inhabitants. Use of diesel to generate electricity for the hotels having
800-bed capacity for overnight stay of tourists is also degrading the natural
environment of the island in the southern-most tip of Bangladesh. Permanently
migrated Rohingyas have raised the population of Saint Martin's Island from about
5,700 in 2001 to nearly 10,000 in 2009
.

4.2: Moheshkhali:
Moheshkhali mainly is full of natural resource . mainly here found many types of
agricultural products. During survey we have found that mainly prawn, dried fish ,
salt and betel leaf are exported to other parts of the country. Adinath Temple - It is
located on the north side of maheskhali . it is mainly an attractive tourist spot in the
festive season.
Mainly moheshkhali is a place with natural beauty.due to
cyclone and strom surge many areas are affected heavily. Again salt caltivation
here mainly affected the water quality and soil quality. Again as it is an attractive
tourist spot many tourists come but they are not sincere about the environment here

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. they throw the garbage careleesly and it pollutes the environment.

4.3: Coxs bazar:

Seventy-five miles (120 Kilo miters sandy sea beach with a gentle slop). and it's
the the tourist capital of Bangladesh.visit beach is the main reason which is shark
free and good for bathing, swiming & sun-bathing. Lot's of local tourist & foreign
tourist come Cox's Bazar to spend their leisure in Cox's Bazaar.
Cox's Bazar sea beach is crowded almost through out the year. It is a good place
for sea bathing. Anyone can go there both by air and road from Dhaka and
Chittagong.
Cox's Bazar is a small town. But the natural beauty of the town is very
charming. The climate of this place is very fine. The Bay of Bengal lies on the
south of it. There is a high standard tourist centre at this place. There are good
arrangements for the stay of the tourists of different countries of the world. Many
foreigners come to this place. The people of the place are very gentle. A lot of fish
is available there.

Chapter 05 :
Causes of result:
5.1: St martin island:
For the last few years St. Martin's Island, the only coral-bearing island in
Bangladesh, has been facing an ecological disaster due to excessive tourism. Even
the very existence of this newly born island, which is at most 150 years old, and
small in size, is under threat from unlimited and eco-unfriendly tourism activities.
The fragile eco-system of St. Martin's Island cannot sustain such mass tourism; the
island is suitable only for sustainable and responsible tourism. With the onslaught
of mass tourism, sewage and waste disposal in the island are placing heavy burden

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on the island. The tourist hotel built at the west beach has connected its sewage line
to the seawater, which contaminates the ground water and adversely affect the biodiversity of the island. The collection of corals and shells as souvenirs by the
tourists is posing a threat to coral colonies of the island. The disposal of plastic
materials like poly-bags, plastic bottles etc by tourists on the island are harmful for
the corals. Hotels on the islands are making lighting hazard in the nearby sandy
beach, which was previously used as a nesting ground by the turtles. It is reported
that these days turtles encountering disturbance by light go back without laying
eggs. The tourist season and nesting season of turtle coincide with each other.
Moreover, the tourists make noise and enjoy fire camping for fun at night thus
disturbs the sea turtles.

5.2: Moheshkhali:Maheshkhali is full of natural resources and . Many tourists come here specially In
the festive season. The main causes are>as it is a popular tourist spot many tourists come here .they pollute the entire
island by many ways because there is no permanent regulation.
> moheshkhali is mainly popular for salt cultivation . salt cultivation mainly affects
the soil and water quality heavily.

5.3: Cox’s bazar:
 Cox’s Bazar sea beach, the world’s longest, is now under great threat
from erosion due to unplanned development of resort area by cutting
hills.
 Environmental problems include tropical cyclones and tornados and
floods, erosion, causes great damages to the topography of that area .
 Moreover, scattered disposal of wastes by the tourists and vendors has
been creating pollution problem and damaging the aquatic habitat.

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Chapter 06:
6.1: Summury:
St. martin island is a very attractive tourist spot , mainly every year thousands of
tourists come here to enjoy the beautiful coral island.But the biodiversity of the
island is ruined because of some natural and anthropogenic reasons. In order to
save the island and conserve its biodiversity we have to establish some permanent
laws and regulations.

Moheshkhali is mainly popular for many reasons such as a tourist spot ,salt
cultivation etc. because of salt cultivation and tourism both mainly affects the
biodiversity of the area.

Coxs bazaar is very famous tourist spot because of its longest beach in the world.
But for increasing tourism the hill areas have been cut to make hotels and resorts.
Tourists just throw their wastes here and there which damages the beach
environment.

As these are the most attractive tourist spots of the country , so we have to
conserve the places carefully . mainly because of both environmental and socio
economic reasons these places are now under great threats. We have to conserve
the biodiversity of the places so that we can protect these areas from threats.

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6.2: Conclusion:

The present status of saint martins island is totally have a bad
impact on the flora and fauna living on the island. excessive
growing of people leads the island a great threatening. At the
begging saint martins island is famous for corals. but we have not
found no corals. A few number of corals are found in the behind of the island.
Due to this lacking, the government has stopped the exploitation of corals. but the
people doesn’t work according to the laws. Cox’s bazaar is the largest sea beach
all over the world, having the largest forest which is the important assets of
Bangladesh. Lack of proper management and human activities, the ecosystem and
diversity of Cox’s Bazaar are going to be destroyed. For the protection of these
valuable resources, government should necessary steps and rise awareness among
us. All of us should be conscious with the help of government. In Moheshkhali
many workers involving in dry fish business. The workers involved in dry fishing
and came to learnt that sometimes they stopped their work due to the lackings of
money.If they get loans from different NGO’s or from different governmental and
non- governmental institutes or from different governmental banks at a low cost
then it would be better to them. They can explore their business in cox’s bazar and
chittagong and can play an important role in the economy of the country.The
education rate of moheshkhali is quite low and it is about 40%.so government
should take seriously on the improvement of this area .

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Chapter seven:

References:
1.http://www.sos-arsenic.net/english/environment/coral.html
2.https://www.google.com.bd/search?
q=image+of+fish+of+st+martin+bd&rlz=1C1GIGM_enBD591BD591&espv=
2&biw=1366&bih=628&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=SJOsU7Pq
GcW6uAS96oCoBg&ved=0CBkQsAQ
3. http://nurulafsar.hubpages.com/hub/Saint-martin-chera-dip-island-ofBangladesh
4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Martin's_Island
5. Khan Ali Reza,Fauna of Bangladesh
6.Rashid E. Harun, Survey of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh
7.Shukla R.S. and Chandal C.S., Plant ecology
8.Municipal data; Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics