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The American Republic To 1877
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Chapter Introduction

Section 1

The Oregon Country

Section 2

Statehood for Florida and Texas

Section 3

War With Mexico

Section 4

California and Utah

Chapter Summary
Chapter Assessment

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Chapter Objectives
Section 1: The Oregon Country
• Explain why large numbers of settlers headed for
the Oregon country.
• Understand how the idea of Manifest Destiny
contributed to the nation’s growth.

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Chapter Objectives
Section 2: Independence for Texas
• Understand why problems arose between
the Mexican government and the American
settlers in Texas.
• Describe how Texas achieved independence from
Mexico and later became a state.

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Chapter Objectives
Section 3: War With Mexico
• Explain why Americans began to settle in the
Southwest.
• Describe how the United States acquired New
Mexico and California.

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Chapter Objectives
Section 4: New Settlers in California
and Utah
• Understand how the hopes of getting rich quick drew
thousands of people to California.
• Describe how the search for religious freedom led to
the settlement of Utah.

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Why It Matters
The United States was made up of people who
had emigrated from many places in
the world. Many Americans remained on the
move as the United States extended
its political borders and grew economically.

The Impact Today
The United States grew in size and wealth,
setting the stage for the nation’s rise to great
economic and political power.

Guide to Reading
Main Idea
Manifest Destiny is the idea that the United States was
meant to extend its borders from the Atlantic Ocean to
the Pacific Ocean.

Key Terms
• joint occupation

• emigrant

• mountain man

• Manifest Destiny

• Prairie schooner

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Doll owned by a
young pioneer

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Rivalry in the Northwest
1. In the early 1800’s four nations claimed the
Oregon Country=U.S., England, Spain and
Russia.
2. By 1818 on the U.S. and England jointly
occupied the Oregon Country.
3. Mountain men opened the road to Oregon.
(Rendezvous/trappers/traders)

(pages 356–358)
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Oregon and Manifest Destiny
1. 1st Americans to move to Oregon came in the
1830’s.
2. The 1st large scale trip took place in 1843.

3. Dr. Marcus and Narcissa Whitman were early
missionaries to Oregon. ( Killed by Native
Americans because of a disease issue. )
4. Oregon Trail=2,000 miles---Great Plains, the
Rocky Mts., the South Pass and along the
Snake and Columbia Rivers. ( Prairie
Schooners/Conestoga Wagon )
(page 358)
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Oregon and Manifest Destiny con’t.
1. The fertile Willamette Valley is where most of
the Americans settled. ( 5,000 Americans/700
British )
2. Manifest Destiny made a call to annex Oregon
to the U.S. and drop British claim to that land.
3. James K. Polk (Democrat) versus Henry Clay
(Whig) in the 1844 presidential race. =“FiftyFour Forty of Fight” slogan. (Polk wins)
4. A compromise between the British and the
Americans leads to a division line between the
United States and Canada at the 49th parallel.
(pages 359–360)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.

__
C 1. a meeting
__
A 2. the possession and settling
of an area shared by two or
more countries
__
E 3. the idea popular in the United
States during the 1800s that
the country must expand its
boundaries to the Pacific

A. joint occupation
B. mountain man
C. rendezvous
D. emigrant
E. Manifest
Destiny

__
B 4. a frontiersman living in the wilderness, as in the Rocky
Mountains
__
D 5. a person who leaves a country or region to live
elsewhere
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Checking for Understanding
Reviewing Facts Name the four countries that
claimed parts of the Oregon Country.

The United States, Great Britain, Spain, and
Russia claimed parts of the Oregon Country.

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Reviewing Themes
Economic Factors How did the fur trade in
Oregon aid Americans who began settling
there?

Fur trappers and traders served as guides
to lead parties of settlers west.

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Critical Thinking
Making Generalizations How did the idea of
Manifest Destiny help Americans justify their
desire to extend the United States to the Pacific
Ocean?

Many Americans believed that it was the destiny
or mission of the United States to spread freedom
by occupying the North American continent.

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Analyzing Visuals
Picturing History Study the painting on page
359 of your textbook. Do you think it provides
a realistic portrayal of the journey west?

Informative Writing Imagine you and your family
are traveling to the Oregon Country in the 1840s. A
friend will be making the same trip soon. Write a letter
telling your friend what to expect on the journey.

Guide to Reading
Main Idea
Texans won their independence from Mexico and asked
to be admitted to the United States.

Key Terms
• Tejano

• decree

• barricade

• annex

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Davy Crockett

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Florida
1. Florida was transferred
from Spain to the U.S.
in 1821.
The
territory
grew
and
2.
eventually became the
27th state of the Union in
1845.

Texas
1. Empresarios brought American recruits to
northern Mexico. (Texas)
2. Stephen Austin carries out his dad’s dream and
brings 300 Ameican recruits to Texas. (Old
Three Hundred)
3. Settlers needed to learn Spanish, become
Catholic and follow Mexican law. (American
recruits ignored)
4. Santa Anna becomes dictator of Mexico and
doesn’t allow anymore American migration
into Texas. ( Infuriates Texan settlers )
(pages 362–365)
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Texas (con’t.)
1. American/Texan victory at San Antonio
spurred Santa Anna to declare war on the
Texans.
2. “Remember the Alamo”---the defenders of the
Alamo (Davy Crockett, William Travis and
Jim Bowie) held off Santa Anna for 12 days
giving Sam Houston time to recruit and train a
Texan army.
3. With the aide of the Tejano’s the Texan’s
declare themselves a free and independent
republic.
(pages 365–367)
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Texas

(con’t.)

4. The sneak attack by the Texan’s and Tejano’s
at the “Battle of San Jacinto”, (April 21st,
1836) ends the war and gives Texas their
freedom and independence. ( Treaty signed
May 14th, 1836 )-”The Lone Star Republic”
5. Texas becomes the 28th state under the
leadership of President James K. Polk
the “Expansionistic President”----“The Lone Star State”
(pages 365–367)
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The Lone Star Republic
1. In September of 1836 the Texan’s select Sam
Houston as its first and only president on the
new republic.
2. President Jackson refuses to annex Texas as a
state in 1836. ( Slave state issue )
3. Debt and border skirmishes and conflicts with
Mexico marred Texan history.
4. James K. Polk annexed Texas into the union as
the “Lone Star Republic” (state) on December
29th, 1845
(pages 367–368)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.

__
B 1. a person who arranged for the
settlement of land in Texas
during the 1800s
__
A 2. a Mexican who claims Texas
as his home
__
D 3. to add a territory to one’s own
territory
__
C 4. an order given by one in
authority

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A. Tejano
B. empresario
C. decree
D. annex

Checking for Understanding
Reviewing Facts Name the four things that
American settlers agreed to do in exchange for
receiving land in Texas.

American settlers agreed to learn Spanish,
become Mexican citizens, convert to
Catholicism, and obey Mexican law.

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Reviewing Themes
Geography and History Why did Northerners
and Southerners disagree
on the annexation of Texas?

Northerners objected because it would add
another slave state to the Union;
Southerners favored it for the same
reason.

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Critical Thinking
Analyzing Information How did the fall of
the Alamo help the cause of Texas
independence, even though it was a defeat
for the Texans?

It helped the cause of Texas independence by
gaining time to organize and motivating Texas
rebels.

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Analyzing Visuals
Sequencing Study the map on page 367 of
your textbook. Place these battles in order,
starting with the earliest: Gonzales, San
Jacinto, the Alamo, Goliad.

In order from the earliest, the battles were:
Gonzales, Alamo, Goliad, and San Jacinto.

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Descriptive Writing Look at the painting of the
Battle of the Alamo on page 365 of your textbook.
Write one paragraph that describes what is happening
in the picture.

Guide to Reading
Main Idea
American settlement in the Southwest led to conflict with
Mexico.

Key Terms
• rancho
• ranchero

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Wagon wheel

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The New Mexico Territory
1. Area between California and Texas in the
early 1800’s was controlled by the Spanish.
2. When Mexico won its independence from
Spain in 1821 this territory became the
northern part of Mexico.
3. To boost (+) its economy Mexico welcomed
American traders to the territory. ( William
Becknell/Santa Fe Trail ) Led to Manifest
Destiny=an attempt to acquire New Mexico.

(pages 369–370)
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California’s Spanish Culture
1. Spanish explorers and missionaries were the
1st European settlers in California. ( Chain of
missions )
2. Missions were disbanded in 1833 and became
large farms and cattle ranch’s. ( RanchosRancheros )
3. Trading and whaling ships as well as mountain
men opened up California to American
settlers.

4. President Polk offers to buy (twice) California
and New Mexico, but was refused by the
Mexican Government.
(pages 370–371)
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War With Mexico
1. Annexation of Texas in 1845 worsened the
relationship between Mexico and the United
States. ( Border dispute on boundary between
the U.S. and Mexico- Rio Grande/Nueces
River.
2. Mexico refuses American offer ( $30,000,000)
to buy New Mexico and California. It also
announces its intention to retake Texas.
3. The U.S. provokes a Mexican attack by
crossing the Nueces River into disputed
Mexican Territory. A battle takes place which
leads to a declaration on war. ( May 11th,
(pages 371–374)
1846=Mexican-American
War
)
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War With Mexico (cont.)
4. Polk developed a 3 part plan to win the war:
A. Drive Mexican troops out of the disputed territory
and secure the Texan border.

B. Seize New Mexico and California.
C. Capture Mexico City ( demoralize opposition )

5. All three parts were completed by Sept. 1847.
General Zachary Taylor completed part #1,
General Stephen Kearney completed part #2
and General Winfield Scott part #3.
6. During the war California declares it’s
Independence=“Bear Flag Republic”
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(pages 371–374)

War With Mexico (cont.)
7. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the
war in February of 1848:
A. Mexico gave up all claims to New Mexico and

California.
B. United States paid $15,000,000 for the Mexican
Cession.
C. U.S. acquires the Gadsden Purchase ( lower New
Mexico and Arizona ) in 1853 for $10,000,000.

(pages 371–374)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.

__
B 1. Mexican ranch owner

A. rancho

__
A 2. huge properties for raising
livestock set up by Mexican
settlers in California

B. ranchero

__
D 3. to give up by treaty
__
C 4. Mexicans who lived in
California

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C. Californios
D. cede

Checking for Understanding
Reviewing Facts According to the Mexican
government, where did the border between Texas
and Mexico lie?

The border between Texas and Mexico lay
along the Nueces River.

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Reviewing Themes
Culture and Traditions Why did the Spanish
establish missions in the Southwest? What
happened to the mission land after Mexico
gained its independence?

The Spanish established missions in the
Southwest to colonize and convert Native
Americans to Christianity. Some land was given
to Native Americans and the rest was sold.

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Critical Thinking
Analyzing Primary Sources Explain the
meaning of this sentence in your own words:
“If the people [of California] should desire to
unite their destiny with ours, they would be
received as brethren [brothers].”
The United States would welcome California into
the Union.

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Analyzing Visuals
Geography Skills List the battles that appear
on the map on page 372 of your textbook in
order from first to last. Identify whether each
was a Mexican victory or a U.S. victory.

Science Settlers traveling west encountered new
wildlife, vegetation, and landforms. Choose one
region of the west and investigate as a traveling
scientist would. List plants and animals you would see
there. Write a report summarizing what you have
observed.

Guide to Reading
Main Idea
The lure of gold and the promise of religious
freedom drew many settlers westward.

Key Terms
• forty-niners
• boomtown
• vigilante

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Gold miner’s cradle

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California Gold Rush
1. Gold was found along the American River in
California in 1848. ( Gold Rush=49’ers )
2. Boomtowns grew up overnight=vigilantes
developed for protection and merchant
prospered.
3. The Gold Rush expanded trade, shipping,
agriculture and other mining needs in
California.= ( Population soared )
4. California becomes a state in 1850. ( Bear
Flag State ) - Compromise of 1850 (pages 375–377)
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A Religious Refuge in Utah
1. Mormons ( Church of Jesus Christ of LatterDay Saints ) were the 1st non-Native American
settlers in the Utah area.
2. Joseph Smith was their 1st founder---from
New York to Ohio, then Missouri, Illinois and
finally Utah.
3. Brigham Young found a haven for the
Mormons in the Great Salt Lake area ( desert )
4. Utah Territory was part of the Mexican
Cession and became a state in 1896.
(pages 377–378)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.

__
B 1. a community experiencing
a sudden growth in business or
population
__
C 2. person who takes the law into
their own hands
__
A 3. people who went to California
during the gold rush of 1849

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A. forty-niners
B. boomtown
C. vigilante

Checking for Understanding
Reviewing Facts Why was California’s entry
into the Union delayed?

It was a free state, so the Southern states
objected to it becoming a state.

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Reviewing Themes
Groups and Institutions What steps did
Californians take to apply for statehood? When
was California admitted?

Californians wrote and approved a constitution,
elected a governor and state legislators, and then
applied for statehood. California became a state
in September 1850.

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Critical Thinking
Predicting Consequences How might the
history of California have been different if the
Gold Rush had not happened?

Possible answer: Without the surge in
population, California probably would not
have become a state as early as it did. Fewer
people would have settled there, so the
economy might not have developed as
rapidly.

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Analyzing Visuals
Graphic Organizer Skills Study the causeand-effect chart on page 377 of
your textbook. Are each of the effects of the
westward movement positive? Explain.

Possible answer: Westward movement
was not good for Mexico or the Native
Americans.

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Art Boomtowns sprang up almost overnight as gold
seekers flocked to the West. Draw a scene of a
boomtown. Include a written description of the
activities that took place in the town.

Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.

__
E 1. person who went to California
during the gold rush of 1849

A. emigrant

__
C 2. a person who arranged for the
settlement of land in Texas
during the 1800s

C. empresario

__
B 3. a Mexican who claims Texas
as his home

E. forty-niner

__
A 4. a person who leaves a country
or region to live elsewhere
__
D 5. Mexican ranch owner

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B. Tejano
D. ranchero

Reviewing Key Facts
What agreement did the United States and Great
Britain reach about the Oregon Territory?

Both agreed to set the boundary at the 49th
parallel.

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Reviewing Key Facts
Why did President Jackson refuse to annex
Texas?

He did not want to upset the balance of slave
and free states.

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Reviewing Key Facts
Why did some Americans think that making
California part of the United States would
strengthen the security of the nation?

If the United States was bordered by the Pacific
Ocean rather than by a foreign power, the threat
to security would be lessened.

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Reviewing Key Facts
Explain the two main causes of the United
States’s war with Mexico.

The United States and Mexico disagreed over
the location of each country’s borders, and
many Americans felt that it was the United
State’s destiny to expand throughout the North
American continent.

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Reviewing Key Facts
Why did merchants earn such large profits during
the Gold Rush?

Miners coming to California needed food and
supplies. Merchants could sell these goods for
high prices because the miners had nowhere
else to buy them.

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Critical Thinking
Analyzing Themes: Geography and History
How did the war with Mexico change the U.S.
border and its land holdings?

In the peace talks after the war, the United
States gained California, New Mexico, and
Texas, with the Rio Grande as the new border
between Texas and Mexico.

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Critical Thinking
Comparing How did the negotiations
between the United States and Britain over
the Oregon Territory differ from those
between the United States and Mexico over
the Southwest.
The United States compromised with
Britain. They went to war with Mexico and
negotiated terms after defeating them.

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Geography and History Activity
Study the routes of the western trails shown on the map below.
Then answer the questions on the following slides.

Geography and History Activity
Region Which
mountains did
settlers have to cross
to reach Oregon’s
Pacific coast?
California’s Pacific
coast?
Settlers had to cross the
Rockies and Cascades to
reach Oregon’s Pacific
coast. They had to cross
the Rockies and Sierra
Nevada to reach
California’s Pacific coast.

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Geography and History Activity
Location In what
city did the
Oregon Trail
begin? In what
city did it end?
The Oregon Trail
began in
Independence and
ended in Portland.

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Standardized Test Practice
Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question.
The discovery of gold in California led to which of the
following?
A

discovery of gold in the Black Hills of the Dakotas

B

increased western expansion and foreign immigration

C

annexation of California as a slave state

D

war with Mexico over the independence of California

Test-Taking Tip This question is a good example of cause and
effect. Think about other times in history when people have
discovered something of value in an area. What effect did this
discovery have on people’s behavior?
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Which defender of the Alamo designed
a knife that still carries his name?

Jim Bowie designed the bowie knife.

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Explore online information about the topics introduced
in this chapter.
Click on the Connect button to launch your
browser and go to The American Republic to
1877 Web site. At this site, you will find
interactive activities, current events
information, and Web sites correlated with the
chapters and units in the textbook. When you
finish exploring, exit the browser program to
return to this presentation. If you experience
difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually
launch your Web browser and go to
http://tarvol1.glencoe.com

Economics As an additional incentive for American
settlers in Texas, the Mexican government promised
protection from lawsuits filed in the United States for
failure to pay debts. Such a large number of bankrupt
families decided to take the opportunity to start over that
vacated homes with signs reading “Gone to Texas”
became a familiar sight throughout the South.

Civics In 1845 American forces provoked Mexico into
an attack, which allowed President Polk to demand and
obtain from Congress a declaration
of war. A similar event occurred 119 years later when
United States ships may have provoked a North
Vietnamese attack. This event led President Lyndon
Johnson to demand and obtain quickly from Congress a
resolution permitting the United States to fight without
the constitutionally required declaration of war. To
prevent this from ever happening again, Congress passed
the War Powers Act in 1973.

Cattle on Mexican ranches were raised mainly
for their hides and fat, which was used in candle making.

Mountain Men

Oregon

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Mountain Men Fur traders placed ads in newspapers to
recruit men for trapping. One ad called for a hundred men
to work for one, two, or three years under the leadership
of an army major.

Oregon The following quote from a Missouri farmer
gives one man’s reasons to pack up and head to Oregon:
“Out in Oregon I can get me a square mile of land. And a
quarter section for each of you all. Dad burn me, I am
done with this country. Winters it’s frost and snow to
freeze a body; summers the overflow from Old Muddy
drowns half my acres; taxes take the yield of them that
are left. What say, Maw, it’s God’s country.”

Sam Houston Sam Houston aided his country well. He
was elected governor of Tennessee and was a United
States senator from Texas for 14 years. Serving later as
governor of Texas, he is the only man ever elected
governor of two different states of the Union.

Texas

Words from Mexico

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Texas The name Texas comes from a Native American
word, texía, meaning “friends” or “allies.” Spanish
speakers changed it to tejas and English speakers to
Texas.

Words from Mexico Bronco, corral, and rodeo all came
from Mexican vaqueros, or cowhands. The Alamo was
named after cottonwood trees that grew nearby.

Understanding Latitude
and Longitude
Why Learn This Skill?

Your new friend invites you to her house. In giving
directions, she says, “I live on Summit Street at the
southwest corner of Indiana Avenue.” She has pinpointed
her exact location. We use a similar system of lines of
latitude and longitude to pinpoint locations on maps and
globes.

This feature can be found on page 361 of your textbook.
Click the Speaker button to replay the audio.

Understanding Latitude
and Longitude
Learning the Skill
The imaginary horizontal lines that circle the globe from east to
west are called lines of latitude. Because the distance between the
lines of latitude is always the same, they are also called parallels.
The imaginary vertical lines that intersect the parallels are lines of
longitude, also called meridians.
Lines of longitude run from the North Pole to the South Pole. They
are numbered in degrees east or west of a starting line called the
Prime Meridian, which is at 0° longitude. On the opposite side of
the earth from the Prime Meridian is the International Date Line, or
180° longitude.
This feature can be found on page 361 of your textbook. Click the
mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Understanding Latitude
and Longitude
Learning the Skill
The point at which parallels and meridians intersect is
the grid address, or coordinates, of an exact location.
The coordinates for Salt Lake City, for example, are
41°N and 112°W.

This feature can be found on page 361 of your textbook.

Understanding Latitude
and Longitude
Practicing the Skill
Analyze the information on the
map on page 361 of your
textbook, then answer the
questions on the following
slides.

This feature can be found on page 361 of your textbook.

Understanding Latitude
and Longitude
Practicing the Skill
1. What are the approximate coordinates of Fort Victoria?
The approximate coordinates of Fort Victoria are 48°N and
125°W.
2. At what line of latitude was the Oregon Country divided
between the United States and Britain?
It was divided at 49°N.

This feature can be found on page 361 of your textbook. Click the
mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

Understanding Latitude
and Longitude
Practicing the Skill
3. What geographic feature lies at about 42°N and 115°W?
The Great Salt Lake lies at about 42°N and 115°W.

This feature can be found on page 361 of your textbook. Click the
mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Whose Destiny?
Objectives
After viewing “Whose Destiny?,” you should:
• Be familiar with the term “Manifest Destiny.”
• Understand the effect that U.S.
expansion had on neighboring
Mexico.
• Be aware of the ongoing impact
of the war with Mexico
on the relationship between the
United States and Mexico.
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above to view a preview of The American Republic to 1877 video.

Whose Destiny?
Discussion Question
At what point did cordial relations between the
countries start to break down?
After offering land in Texas to mostly American
settlers, the Mexican government in 1830 began
placing restrictions on the number of AngloCeltic people who could move into Texas.

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Whose Destiny?
Discussion Question
What happened at the Alamo?

General Antonio López de Santa Anna surprised
the United States by leading a winter campaign.
Santa Anna’s troops arrived at the mission of
the Alamo in February and defeated Texas
rebels.

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The large, white canvas tops looked like sails; a schooner is a
sailing ship.
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The stables were inside the walls for convenience and protection.
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The Gold Rush attracted people from many nations.
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