Biodiversity

Shawn Bolen

Archaebacteria




Single celled; lack cell
nuclei; reproduce by dividing
in half; often found in harsh
environments.
Examples are methanogens
and extreme thermophiles.
Tend to be in different forms
of bacteria.
Feed off of themselves most
of the time.
Although they show similar
traits to Eubacteria, they are
not very closely related.

• Pictures below.

Archaebacteria Cont.
•Methanogens
They are microorganisms that
produce methane as a
metabolic byproduct in
anoxic conditions.
• They have been found buried
under several kilometers of
ice in Greenland, showing
they can live in extreme
conditions.
• They can reproduce anywhere
with a temperature from 15100 degrees Celsius.
• Some scientists believe that
finding methanogens on
Martian planets can be proof
of native methanogens on
that planet.

Extreme
Thermophiles

An organism that can survive in
extremely warm temperatures.
(45-122 degrees Celsius)
Some enzymes that live in the
thermophiles are also used in
washing agents due to there
ability to survive in extreme
climates.
A hot spot for extreme
thermophiles is Yellow Stone
National Park.
The word “Thermophile” comes
from the Greek language, the
word actually means heat.

Eubacteria



Single celled; lack cell
nuclei; reproduce by dividing
in half; incredibly common.
Examples are proteobacteria
and cyanobacteria.
Can be found in soil and also
in animal bodies.
Usually Eubacteria is
referred to as a simple
bacteria.
E. Coli can also be
considered a Eubacteria at
some points.

• Pictures below.

Eubacteria Cont.
Proteobacteria

Include a very wide variety of
pathogens such as Escherichia,
Salmonella, Vibrio,
Helicobacter, and many other
notable genera.
Mostly all types of
Proteobacteria have a outer cell
wall, and use a flagella to
operate.
The group is actually defined by
the amount of RNA (Ribosomal
Nucleic Acid) in the organism.
Previously were considered
subclasses of the Phylum.

Cyanobacteria


A Cyanobacteria is mainly
referred to as a blue-green
algae.
It is also a bacteria that
obtains its energy through
photosynthesis somewhat like
a plant.
Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic
and algae are eukaryotic.
Produces oxygen through
photosynthesis just like a
plant would to get energy.

Fungi

Absorb their food through
their body surface; have
cell walls; most live on land.
Examples are yeasts,
mushrooms, molds,
mildews, and rusts.
Get food by releasing
chemicals to break
something down then
absorb the nutrients.
Fungi cause a lot of
diseases just like some
bacteria.
Reproduce asexually.

• Pictures below.

Fungi Cont.
Mushrooms

Molds


Typically is grown or formed
above the soil or on whatever it
is using for a source of food or
energy.
Not a very difficult type of fungi
to depict in every day life.
A very common type of fungi
compared to maybe a type of
mildew or some kind of rust.
Bruising or breaking reactions,
smell, odor, taste, and
appearance are all things that
can be altered by mushrooms.
Reproduce through itself.

Molds are a very large group of
fungi. Usually is the most obvious
when the object has a
miscorrelation in color or smell,
also can be depicted by a fuzzy
texture or look.
Molds are considered to be
microbes and do not belong to any
specific taxonomic group or
phylum.
Food spoilage is a good way to
describe where mold can go
unwanted and take away a
resource. It normally just breaks it
down until the taste is out of sorts.

Protists

Most single celled but
some have many cells;
most live in water.
Examples are diatoms,
dinoflagellates, amoebas,
trypanosomes, paramecia,
and Euglena.
The most important of the
protists is algae because of
the large role it plays in
many ecosystems.

• Pictures below are
Amoeba.

Protists Cont.
Diatoms

Amoebas

Diatoms are a major group of
algae, and are among the most
common types of phytoplankton.
Frustules show a wide diversity
in form, but are usually almost
bilaterally symmetrical, hence
the group name.
The symmetry is not perfect
since one of the valves is slightly
larger than the other allowing
one valve to fit inside the edge
of the other.
They too reproduce asexually
and get their own food.

The first time a scientist
discovered an Amoeba was in
1757 when August Johann
Rösel von Rosenhof founded it
while expirementing.
The Ameoba is divided into
the outer ectoplasm on the
outside of the organism, and
the endoplasm on the inside.
Ameoba‘s all reproduces
asexually because they really
don‘t have anything except
for cytoplasm to offer.

Plants
• Many cells; make their own
food by photosynthesis;
have cell walls.
• Ferns, mosses, trees, herbs,
and grasses are examples.
• Plants such as flowers and
trees leave little bits and
pieces of it such as seeds
or bulbs, this helps the new
plant grow.
• Self produce there food by
photosynthesis. It helps
them create all the
nutrients they need.

Pictures below are a tree
and moss.

Plants Cont.
Trees

A tree typically has many
secondary branches supported
clear of the ground by the trunk.
This trunk typically contains woody
tissue for strength, and vascular
tissue to carry materials from one
part of the tree to another.
Flowers and fruit may also be
present, but some trees such as
conifers instead have pollen cones
and seed cones, and others such as
tree ferns produce spores instead.
Can be considered either sexual or
asexual reproduction.

Moss

Usually is a very small type of
plant, they normally range
from 1-10 cm but can grow
anywhere up to 50 cm. (World
Record for Moss)
Most plants have two sets of
chromosomes and that is no
different in moss even though
they have a different
appearance and texture than
most other plants.
Moss is considered to have
sexual reproduction because
they grow off of each other.

Animals
• Many cells; no cell walls;
ingest their food; live on land
and in water.
• Animals are really the only
organisms that reproduces
sexually.
• Animals can be vertebrates
or invertebrates. Only
difference is lacking a
backbone or having a
backbone.
• Invertebrates: banana slug;
leaf-footed bug; cuttlefish
• Vertebrates: toucan, stingray,
snow leopard.

• Pictures Below.

Animals Cont.
Leopard

Slug

Felidae family with a wide range
in some parts of Africa and
tropical Asia, from Siberia, South
and West Asia to across most of
sub-Saharan Africa.
They produce sexually just like a
human would, there is not really a
big difference in an animal and a
human.
he species' success in the wild is
in part due to its opportunistic
hunting behavior, its adaptability
to habitats, its ability to run at
speeds approaching 58 km/hour
(36 mph).


Slugs use two pairs of tentacles
to sense their environment.
The larger, upper pair, termed
eyestalks, are used to detect
light or movement.
The second, lower pair are used
to detect chemicals.
The tentacles can retract and
extend themselves to avoid
damage.
A banana slug reproduces
sexually as well, they tend to
reproduce at a very slow rate
though.