World Cultures

Unit III: Southeast Asia, Oceania and Australia

Name: __________________________

SOUTHEAST ASIA [Page 705 – 709]
A Long History of Diversity:
1. In a paragraph, explain how the early history [prior to 1000 AD] was highly
diversified.
China and India influenced Southeast Asia. Hinduism and Buddhism spread from India and
influenced many regions in Southeast Asia. Early Southeast Asian states didn’t have set
borders, they were mandalas which are states organized as rings of power around a central
court. The Khmer Empire was a powerful mandala that lasted from the 9 th to 15th century in
what is now Cambodia.
2. How was the area of Southeast Asia organized and governed during their early
history?
They didn’t have set borders, they were called mandalas which are states organized as rings of
power around a central court.
3. How did this change from 1300-1800?
Five powerful states existed where Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, java, and the Malay
Peninsula are now. Trade within these regions was very important. The Burmese, the
Vietnamese, the Thai and the Javanese began to define their national identities. Growth of
large cities took place.
Colonialism and its aftermath
1. What is “colonialism”?
Colonial rulers set up centralized, bureaucratic governments with set routines and
regulations. Europeans forced the colonies to produce things that would help Europe’s
economy.
2. What was the only country in the region that wasn’t a colony?
Siam
3. Identify and explain the three ways colonialism changed Southeast Asia.
Colonialism changed Southeast Asia by allowing Southeast Asian states to trade with one
another. They also began trading with merchants from Arabia and India who brought Islam to
Southeast Asia. Large numbers of Europeans began arriving in Southeast Asia due to
colonialism.
4. Skill builder: Interpreting Maps [p. 706] -- Answer #1 and #2
Siam’s location was very important due to the fact that it was in the middle and was able
to be reached by sea.
The Dutch were able to access both the Indian and Pacific Ocean through its colonies.
5. What changes came to Southeast Asia during WWII?
Japan occupied Southeast Asia during WWII. Japan was exploiting the region for its own
benefit.

6. How was control of the area in Southeast Asia by Japan different than European
control?
The Japanese put Southeast Asians in leadership roles which gave them experience.
7. After WWII, Southeast Asia gained their independence differently. Briefly explain
this statement with examples.
Many states gained their freedom peacefully. Indonesia had to fight to gain
independence from the Dutch. Indochina suffered greatly, the Vietnamese defeated the
French in control of the colony. This ultimately led to the Vietnam War.
An Uneven Economy
1. “Southeast Asia has a traditional economy.” Explain that statement with specific
examples to back it up.
They depend mostly on agriculture for income. Rice is the major food crop in Southeast
Asia. There is a lack of industry in Southeast Asia due to the Vietnam War destroying
factories and roads.
2. What is ASEAN? How has it helped to create a “region within a region”?
ASEAN is the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Which is an alliance that promotes
economic growth and peace in the region.
A Rich Mosaic of Culture
1. How is this area a “mosaic of religions”? Identify the different religions and where
they are practiced.
There are so many different religions being practiced. Buddhism is widespread in the
region, the Philippines is mostly catholic, Indonesia and Brunei are mostly Muslim and
some Southeast Asians practice Hinduism.
2. Are there more “rural” or “urban” communities in this area?
More rural villages that follow traditional ways than large cities.
3. Interpret the picture of page 709. What does this scene show about diversity in
Malaysia?
In the picture you can clearly see different people wearing different clothing that represents
their religion. Some have their hair covered while others walk around in what looks to be normal
clothes.
OCEANIA [P. 711-715]
1. Identify these terms and explain their importance in the region:
a. Micronesia
b. Melanesia
c. Polynesia
d. Subsistence activities
e. Copra
f. Taro
2. What type of migration is happening within Oceania today?

3. How did contact with Europeans and Americans affect the societies of the Pacific Islands?
4. What is distinctive about Oceania in terms of its languages?
5. How has modern technology both helped and harmed Oceania?

AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALIND & ANTARCTICA [P.717-723]
1. What prevents Australia from benefiting completely from its mining industry?
2. What historic actions demonstrated New Zealanders’ concern for equal rights and social
welfare?
3. What is the major activity conducted in Antarctica?